(Christian) Fundamentalism(基督教)原教旨主义

General Information一般资料

Fundamentalism is a term popularly used to describe strict adherence to Christian doctrines based on a literal interpretation of the Bible.原教旨主义被普遍用来形容严格遵守关于圣经的字面解释的基础基督教教义的一个术语。This usage derives from a late 19th and early 20th century transdenominational Protestant movement that opposed the accommodation of Christian doctrine to modern scientific theory and philosophy.这种用法源于一个19世纪末和20世纪初transdenominational新教运动,反对基督教的教义,以现代科学理论和哲学的住宿。 With some differences among themselves, fundamentalists insist on belief in the inerrancy of the Bible, the virgin birth and divinity of Jesus Christ, the vicarious and atoning character of his death, his bodily resurrection, and his second coming as the irreducible minimum of authentic Christianity.由于他们之间存在一些分歧,原教旨主义者坚持在圣经,维尔京诞生和耶稣基督,替代他的死亡和赎罪的性格,他的身体复活神,和他的第二作为正宗的基督教信仰束缚无误来最低。 This minimum was reflected in such early declarations as the 14 point creed of the Niagara Bible Conference of 1878 and the 5 point statement of the Presbyterian General Assembly of 1910.此最低反映在作为尼亚加拉圣经会议1878年14点纲领和长老大会1910年5点声明这种早期的声明。

Two immediate doctrinal sources for fundamentalist thought were Millenarianism and biblical inerrancy.两个直接的原教旨主义思想的理论来源是千禧年和圣经无误。Millenarianism, belief in the physical return of Christ to establish a 1,000 year earthly reign of blessedness, was a doctrine prevalent in English speaking Protestantism by the 1870s.千禧年,在基督的身体恢复到1000年建立幸福人间统治的信念,是一个讲英语的学说盛行的19世纪70年代新教。At the same time, powerful conservative forces led by Charles Hodge and Benjamin Warfield opposed the growing use of literary and historical criticism in biblical studies, defending biblical inspiration and the inerrant authority of the Bible.与此同时,由查尔斯霍奇和本杰明沃菲尔德强大的保守势力反对导致在圣经研究文学和历史的批评越来越多地使用,捍卫圣经的启示和权威的圣经无误。

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The name fundamentalist was coined in 1920 to designate those "doing battle royal for the Fundamentals."原教旨主义是杜撰的名字在1920年划定的“做的基础混战。”Also figuring in the name was The Fundamentals, a 12 volume collection of essays written in the period 1910 - 15 by 64 British and American scholars and preachers.另外,在名字搞清楚了基本原理,是在1910年期间写短文12卷集 - 15 64英国和美国的学者和传教士。 Three million copies of these volumes and the founding of the World's Christian Fundamentals Association in 1919 gave sharp identity to fundamentalism as it moved into the 1920s.三百万册,这些世界基督教基本面协会成立于1919年复制了尖锐的原教旨主义,因为它的身份,进入20世纪20年代提出。 Leadership moved across the years from such men as AT Pierson, AJ Gordon, and CI Scofield to AC Dixon and Reuben Torrey, William Jennings Bryan, and J Gresham Machen.领导从横过年的AT皮尔逊,欧塞尔戈登,在交流和CI Scofield的Dixon和鲁本托里,威廉詹宁斯布赖恩,和J格雷沙姆machen这样的人。

As fundamentalism developed, most Protestant denominations in the United States felt the division between liberalism and fundamentalism.至于原教旨主义的发展,在美国大多数新教教派认为自由主义和原教旨主义之间的分裂。The Baptists, Presbyterians, and Disciples of Christ were more affected than others.浸信会,长老,和基督信徒的影响比其他人更。Nevertheless, talk of schism was much more common than schism itself.然而,分裂的交谈比分裂本身普遍。Perhaps the lack of a central organization and a normative creed, certainly the caricature of fundamentalism arising from the Scopes Trial (1925), the popularization of the liberal response by representatives like Harry Emerson Fosdick, well publicized divisions among fundamentalists themselves, and preoccupations with the Depression of the 1930s and World War II curtailed fundamentalism's appeal.也许是缺乏一个中央机构,规范性的信条,肯定漫画从斯科普斯审判(1925年),该由像福斯迪克普及所产生的反应代表自由原教旨主义,原教旨主义者之间的​​分歧以及宣传自己,并与当务之急20世纪30年代大萧条和第二次世界大战削弱原教旨主义的吸引力。 By 1950 it was either isolated and muted or had taken on the more moderate tones of Evangelicalism.到1950年是不是孤立的和柔和的或有对福音派采取较温和的色调。

In the 1970s and 1980s, however, fundamentalism again became an influential force in the United States.在20世纪70年代和80年代,然而,再次成为一个原教旨主义在美国影响力。Promoted by popular television evangelists and represented by such groups as the Moral Majority, the new politically oriented "religious right" opposes the influence of liberalism and secularism in American life.促进了福音和流行的电视为代表的这类群体道德多数派,新的政治导向的“宗教右翼”反对自由主义和世俗主义在美国生活的影响。 The term fundamentalist has also been used to describe members of militant Islamic groups.原教旨主义一词也被用来形容激进伊斯兰组织的成员。

Paul Merritt Bassett保罗巴塞特梅里特

Bibliography 参考书目
LJ Averill, Religious Right, Religious Wrong (1989); SG Cole, History of Fundamentalism (1931); N Furniss, The Fundamentalist Controversy, 1918 - 1931 (1954); B Lawrence, Defenders of God (1989); G Marsden, Fundamentalism and American Culture (1980); ER Sandeen, The Roots of Fundamentalism (1970).凖基埃夫里尔,宗教权利,宗教错误的(1989年);神光科尔,对原教旨主义的历史(1931年); ñ弗尼斯,原教旨主义的争论,1918 - 1931(1954),B期劳伦斯,上帝的捍卫者(1989)100马斯登,原教旨主义与美国文化(1980);雌桑德恩,对原教旨主义的根(1970年)。


Fundamentalism原教旨主义

Editor's Note编者的话

Christian Fundamentalism is an extremely different concept from the Islamic Fundamentalism that motivates some Islamic terrorists.基督教原教旨主义是一个来自伊斯兰原教旨主义的一些伊斯兰恐怖分子的动机非常不同的概念。They each carry a great intensity about the specific beliefs, but are otherwise quite different.他们每人携带了一个关于特定信念强度大,但在其他方面完全不同。


Fundamentalism原教旨主义

Advanced Information先进的信息

Fundamentalism is a movement that arose in the United States during and immediately after the First World War in order to reaffirm orthodox Protestant Christianity and to defend it militantly against the challenges of liberal theology, German higher criticism, Darwinism, and other isms regarded as harmful to American Christianity.原教旨主义是一种运动,在美国出现,并立即在第一次世界大战后,以重申正统基督教新教和抵御自由派神学,德国更高的批评,达尔文主义的挑战好战,并作为其他主义视为有害美国基督教。 Since then, the focus of the movement, the meaning of the term, and the ranks of those who willingly use the term to identify themselves have changed several times.自那时以来,该运动,一词的含义,和那些谁愿意用这个词的行列,以确定自己的重点已经改变了好几次。Fundamentalism has so far gone through four phases of expression while maintaining an essential continuity of spirit, belief, and method.原教旨主义至今已经历了四个阶段的表达,同时保持精神,信仰和方法基本的连续性。

Phase I - Through the 1920s第一阶段 - 通过1920

The earliest phase involved articulating what was fundamental to Christianity and initiating an urgent battle to expel the enemies of orthodox Protestantism from the ranks of the churches最早的一个阶段涉及的阐明什么是根本,以基督教和启动紧急战斗开除队伍的教会正统基督教的敌人

The series of twelve volumes called The Fundamentals (1910 - 15) provided a wide listing of the enemies, Romanism, socialism, modern philosophy, atheism, Eddyism, Mormonism, spiritualism, and the like, but above all liberal theology, which rested on a naturalistic interpretation of the doctrines of the faith, and German higher criticism and Darwinism, which appeared to undermine the Bible's authority.一连串的十二卷称为基本原理(1910 - 15)的敌人提供了广泛的上市,浪漫主义,社会主义,现代哲学,无神论,Eddyism,摩门教,唯心论,等等,但最重要的自由神学,它在休息自然主义的解释信仰的教义,和德国更高的批评和达尔文主义,这似乎破坏了圣经的权威。 The writers of the articles were a broad group from English speaking North America and the United Kingdom and from many denominations.的文章的作者是来自讲英语的北美和英国及许多教派广泛的群体。The doctrines they defined and defended covered the whole range of traditional Christian teachings.他们的教义规定,捍卫涵盖了传统的基督教教义的整个范围。They presented their criticisms fairly, with careful argument, and in appreciation of much that their opponents said.他们提出的批评相当,通过仔细论证,并在他们的对手非常赞赏地说。

Almost immediately, however, the list of enemies became narrower and the fundamentals less comprehensive.几乎马上,不过,敌人名单越来越窄,不够全面的基础。Defenders of the fundamentals of the faith began to organize outside the churches and within the denominations.对信仰的基本原则的捍卫者开始组织并在教堂外的教派。The General Assembly of the northern Presbyterian Church in 1910 affirmed five essential doctrines regarded as under attack in the church: the inerrancy of Scripture, the virgin birth of Christ, the substitutionary atonement of Christ, Christ's bodily resurrection, and the historicity of the miracles.如北方在1910年长老教会大会确认为根据,在教会的攻击视为五个基本学说:圣经,基督,基督,基督的身体复活替代赎罪维尔京诞生,无误和奇迹的历史性。 These were reaffirmed in 1916 and 1923, by which time they had come to be regarded as the fundamental doctrines of Christianity itself.这些都是在1916年和1923年重申,届时他们已经到了被作为基督教本身的基本教义认为。 On a parallel track, and in the tradition of Bible prophecy conferences since 1878, premillenarian Baptists and independents founded the World's Christian Fundamentals Association in 1919, with William B Riley as the prime mover.在一个平行的轨道,并在圣经预言1878年会议以来的传统,premillenarian浸信会和无党派人士成立于1919年世界基督教协会威廉B基础莱利作为原动机。 The premillennialists tended to replace the miracles with the resurrection and the second coming of Christ, or even premillenarian doctrine as the fifth fundamental.该premillennialists倾向于取代的复活和基督第二次来,或者作为第五个基本原则,甚至premillenarian的奇迹。 Another version put the deity of Christ in place of the virgin birth.摆在另一个版本的处女出生地基督的神性。

The term "fundamentalist" was perhaps first used in 1920 by Curtis Lee Laws in the Baptist Watchman - Examiner, but it seemed to pop up everywhere in the early 1920s as an obvious way to identify someone who believed and actively defended the fundamentals of the faith.所谓“原教旨主义”,也许是在1920年首次使用由Curtis李法律在浸会的守望者 - 考官,但它似乎突然出现明显的方式为世界各地20世纪20年代初,以确定谁的人相信并积极地捍卫了信仰的基础。The Baptist John Roach Straton called his newspaper The Fundamentalist in the 1920s.浸会约翰罗奇斯特拉顿称他的报纸在20世纪20年代的原教旨主义。The Presbyterian scholar J Gresham Machen disliked the word, and only hesitantingly accepted it to described himself, because, he said, it sounded like a new religion and not the same historic Christianity that the church had always believed.长老会的学者Ĵ格雷沙姆machen不喜欢这个词,只有hesitantingly接受它形容自己,因为,他说,这听起来像一个新的宗教和不一样的历史的基督教,教会一直相信。

Through the 1920s the fundamentalists waged the battle in the large northern church denominations as nothing less than a struggle for true Christianity against a new non Christian religion that had crept into the churches themselves.通过对20世纪20年代发动的原教旨主义者在大,只不过是一个真正的基督教对一个新的非基督教宗教已经悄悄进入教堂本身不太北部教会教派斗争的战斗。 In his book Christianity and Liberalism (1923), Machen called the new naturalistic religion "liberalism," but later followed the more popular fashion of calling it "modernism."在他的书中基督教和自由主义(1923年),玛沁称为新自然主义宗教“自由主义”,但后来称这是沿袭了比较流行的时尚“的现代主义。”

Even though people like Harry Emerson Fosdick professed to be Christian, fundamentalists felt they could not be regarded as such because they denied the traditional formulations of the doctrines of Christianity and created modern, naturalistic statements of the doctrines.即使像福斯迪克人自称是基督徒,原教旨主义者认为,他们不能这样认为,因为他们剥夺了基督教的教义传统配方,创造现代的,自然的教义声明。 The issue was as much a struggle over a view of the identity of Christianity as it was over a method of doing theology and a view of history.这个问题是一样多比一,基督教身份观点的斗争,因为它做了一个神学的方法和历史观点。 Fundamentalists believed that the ways the doctrines were formulated in an earlier era were true and that modern attempts to reformulate them were bound to be false.原教旨主义的理论认为,在较早的时代制定的办法是真实的,而现代试图改写他们注定是错误的。In other words, the fundamentals were unchanging.换句话说,基本面是不变的。

Church struggles occurred in the Methodist Episcopal Church, the Protestant Episcopal Church, and even in the southern Presbyterian Church, but the grand battles were fought in the northern Presbyterian and northern Baptist denominations.教会的斗争发生在​​卫理公会,基督教圣公会,甚至在南部长老教会,但盛大的战斗是在北部长老及北部浸信教派斗争。 Machen was the undisputed leader among Presbyterians, joined by Clarence E Macartney.梅琴是无可争议的领袖之间的长老会,加入由克拉伦斯é马戛尔尼。Baptists created the National Federation of the Fundamentalists of the Northern Baptists (1921), the Fundamentalist Fellowship (1921), and the Baptist Bible Union (1923) to lead the fight.浸信会创造了原教旨主义的北浸信会(1921),原教旨主义团契(1921),和浸会圣经联盟(1923年)的全国工商联领导的斗争。 The battles focused upon the seminaries, the mission boards, and the ordination of clergy.在神学院的重点是战斗,特派团板,以及神职人员协调。In many ways, however, the real strongholds of the fundamentalists were the Southern Baptists and the countless new independent churches spread across the south and midwest, as well as the east and west.在许多方面,不过,真正的民族主义势力的据点,是美南浸信会和无数新的跨越南部和中西部蔓延独立教会,以及东部和西部。

In politics fundamentalists opposed the teaching of Darwinian evolution in public schools, leading up to the famous Scopes trial (1925) in Dayton, Tennessee.原教旨主义者在政治上反对达尔文进化在公立学校的教学,导致著名的斯科普斯审判在代顿,田纳西州(1925)。 William Jennings Bryan, a Presbyterian layman and three times candidate for the American presidency, was acknowledged leader of the antievolution battle.威廉詹宁斯布赖恩,一个长老会门外汉的三倍,为美国总统候选人,是公认的antievolution战役的领导者。

Phase II - Late 1920s to the Early 1940s第二阶段 - 20世纪40年代后期到20世纪20年代初

By 1926 or so, those who were militant for the fundamentals had failed to expel the modernists from any denomination.到1926年左右,那些谁是好战的基本面没有驱逐过任何面额的现代主义。Moreover, they also lost the battle against evolutionism.此外,他们还失去了对进化论的战斗。Orthodox Protestants, who still numerically dominated all the denominations, now began to struggle among themselves.东正教的新教徒,谁仍然占主导地位的所有面额数字,现在开始奋斗,在自己。During the Depression of the 1930s the term "fundamentalist" gradually shifted meaning as it came to apply to only one party among those who believed the traditional fundamentals of the faith.在20世纪30年代的所谓“原教旨主义”逐渐转向萧条的意义,因为它来到一间只适用于那些谁相信信仰党的传统基础。Meanwhile, neo orthodoxy associated with Karl Barth's critique of liberalism found adherents in America.与此同时,新的正统与卡尔巴特的批判自由主义在美国找到相关的信徒。

In several cases in the north fundamentalists created new denominations in order to carry on the true faith in purity apart from the larger bodies they regarded as apostate.在一些情况下创造了新的教派在北原教旨主义,把有关的纯度进行真正的信仰,除了规模较大的机构,他们为叛教者认为。 They formed the General Association of Regular Baptist Churches (1932), the Presbyterian Church of America (1936), renamed the Orthodox Presbyterian Church, the Bible Presbyterian Church (1938), the Conservative Baptist Association of America (1947), the Independent Fundamental Churches of America (1930), and many others.他们成立了总商会定期浸信会教堂(1932年),美国长老教会(1936年),改名为东正教长老教会圣经长老教会(1938),保守党的美国浸信会(1947年),独立基础教会美国(1930年),等等。 In the south fundamentalists dominated the huge Southern Baptist Convention, the southern Presbyterian Church, and the expanding independent Bible church and Baptist church movements, including the American Baptist Association.在南部原教旨主义统治的巨大南浸信会,南部长老教会,并不断扩大的独立的教会和圣经浸信会教堂的动作,其中包括美国浸信会。 Across the United States fundamentalists founded new revival ministries, mission agencies, seminaries, Bible schools, Bible conferences, and newspapers.美国各地的原教旨主义创立新的复兴部委,宣教机构,神学院,圣经学校,圣经会议,和报纸。

During this period the distinctive theological point that the fundamentalists made was that they represented true Christianity based on a literal interpretation of the Bible, and that de facto this truth ought to be expressed organizationally separate from any association with liberals and modernists.在此期间,鲜明的神学观点的原教旨主义者提出的是,他们所代表的真正基督教的基础上的字面解释圣经,而事实上这个真理应该是从组织上表达任何协会与自由派和现代派的独立。 They came to connect a separatist practice with the maintenance of the fundamentals of the faith.他们来了,就可以与对信仰的基本维修分裂的做法。They also identified themselves with what they believed was pure in personal morality and American culture.他们还确定了他们认为是个人道德和美国文化的纯洁自己。Thus, the term "fundamentalist" came to refer largely to orthodox Protestants outside the large northern denominations, whether in the newly established denominations, in the southern churches, or in the many independent churches across the land.因此,术语“原教旨主义”来指主要是正统的新教徒教派以外的大型北方无论是在新成立的面额,在南部的教堂,还是在这片土地上许多独立的教会。

Phase III - Early 1940s to the 1970s第三阶段 - 20世纪40年代到70年代初

Beginning in the early 1940s the fundamentalists, thus becoming redefined, divided gradually into two camps.在40年代初开始的原教旨主义者,从而成为重新定义,分为两大阵营逐渐。There were those who voluntarily continued to use the term to refer to themselves and to equate it with true Bible believing Christianity.有那些谁自愿继续使用这个词来指自己和等同于真正的圣经信仰基督教的。 There were others who came to regard the term as undesirable, having connotations of divisive, intolerant, anti intellectual, unconcerned with social problems, even foolish.另一些谁来到视为不受欢迎的术语,具有分裂,不容忍,反智,与社会问题漠不关心,甚至愚蠢的内涵。This second group wished to regain fellowship with the orthodox Protestants who still constituted the vast majority of the clergy and people in the large northern denominations, Presbyterian, Baptist, Methodist, Episcopalian.这第二个集团希望恢复与正统的新教徒谁仍然构成了北部大面额的神职人员和广大人民群众的奖学金,长老会,浸信会,循道,圣公会。 They began during the 1940s to call themselves "evangelicals" and to equate that term with true Christianity.他们开始于20世纪40年代把自己称为“福音派”,并等同于真正的基督教这个词。Beginning in 1948 a few called themselves neoevangelical.1948年开始在一些自称neoevangelical。

Organizationally this spilt among largely northern fundamentalists was expressed on one hand by the American Council of Christian Churches (1941), which was ecclesiastically separatist in principle, and on the other by the National Association of Evangelicals (1942), which sought to embrace orthodox Protestants as individuals in all denominations.在组织上主要是北部的原教旨主义者之间的​​这种溢出有人一方面由美国基督教教会理事会(1941年),这是教规原则的分裂,并在由全国福音派协会(1942年),该公司要求接受正统的新教徒其他在所有面额的个人。 The term "fundamentalist" was carried into the 1950s by the ACCC as well as by a vast number of southern churches and independent churches not included in either body.所谓“原教旨主义”进行了ACCC的以及由教会和南部广大独立教会在两个机构没有列入20世纪50年代。It was proudly used by such schools as Bob Jones University, Moody Bible Institute, and Dallas Theological Seminary, and by hundreds of evangelists and radio preachers.这是自豪地使用作为鲍勃琼斯大学,穆迪圣经学院和达拉斯神学院等学校和传教士的福音和数百个电台。The International Council of Christian Churches (1948) sought to give the term worldwide currency in opposition to the World Council of Churches.基督教教会的国际理事会(1948年)旨在让全世界的反对,短期货币与世界基督教协进会。

The term "fundamentalist" took on special meaning in contrast with evangelical or neoevangelical, rather than merely in contrast with liberalism, modernism, or neo orthodoxy.所谓“原教旨主义”采取特殊意义的对比与福音派或neoevangelical,而不是与自由主义,现代主义,或新的正统的对比而已。 Fundamentalists and evangelicals in the 1950s and 1960s shared much; both adhered to the traditional doctrines of Scripture and Christ; both promoted evangelism, revivals, missions, and a personal morality against smoking, drinking, theater, movies, and card playing; both identified American values with Christian values; both believed in creating organizational networks that separated themselves from the rest of society.原教旨主义者和在50年代和60年代许多共同的福音派;坚持的经文和基督的传统教义都;既促进了福音,复兴,任务和一个反对吸烟,饮酒,戏剧,电影和游戏卡的个人道德,都认定美国与基督教的价值观价值观;都认为在创造出脱离社会其他自己的组织网络。

However, fundamentalists believed they differed from evangelicals and neoevangelicals by being more faithful to Bible believing Christianity, more militant against church apostasy, communism, and personal evils, less ready to cater to social and intellectual respectability.不过,原教旨主义者认为他们从福音派和neoevangelicals相差更加忠实于圣经信仰基督教,更反对教会变节,共产主义和个人弊病,少准备,以满足社会和知识尊严战斗。 They tended to oppose evangelist Billy Graham, not to read Christianity Today, and not to support Wheaton College or Fuller Theological Seminary.他们往往布道家葛培理反对,不要读基督教今天,不支持威敦学院或富勒神学院。 Instead they favored their own evangelists, radio preachers, newspapers, and schools.相反,他们赞成自己的福音使者,传教士电台,报纸和学校。Fundamentalists tended to differ greatly among themselves and found it difficult to achieve widespread fundamentalist cooperation.原教旨主义者之间的​​差别往往很大,发现自己难以实现广泛的原教旨主义的合作。

Meanwhile people in North America and Great Britain who were neither fundamentalist nor evangelical tended to regard both as fundamentalist, noting their underlying similarities.在北美和英国同时既不是原教旨主义的人谁也不是福音派倾向于原教旨主义者都认为,并指出其基本的相似之处。

Phase IV - Late 1970s and the 1980s第四阶段 - 70年代末和80年代

By the late 1970s and in particular by the 1980 campaign of Ronald Reagan for the American presidency, fundamentalists entered a new phase.到了1970年代后期和罗纳德里根在1980年的美国总统竞选,特别是原教旨主义者进入了一个新的阶段。They became nationally prominent as offering an answer for what many regarded as a supreme social, economic, moral, and religious crisis in America.他们成为一个全国性的提供了许多在美国最高法院的社会,经济,道德和宗教危机视为答案突出。They identified a new and more pervasive enemy, secular humanism, which they believed was responsible for eroding churches, schools, universities, the government, and above all families.他们确定了新的,更普遍的敌人,世俗主义,他们认为是为削弱教会,学校,大学,政府,最重要的家人负责。They fought all enemies which they considered to be offspring of secular humanism, evolutionism, political and theological liberalism, loose personal morality, sexual perversion, socialism, communism, and any lessening of the absolute, inerrant authority of the Bible.他们所有的敌人战斗,他们认为是世俗主义,进化论,政治和神学自由主义,松散的个人道德,性变态,社会主义,共产主义,以及任何绝对的,权威的圣经无误减少后代。 They called Americans to return to the fundamentals of the faith and the fundamental moral values of America.他们呼吁美国人要回归到信仰和美利坚基本道德价值观的基础。

Leading this phase was a new generation of television and print fundamentalists, notably Jerry Falwell, Tim La Haye, Hal Lindsey, and Pat Robertson.领导这一阶段是一个电视和印刷原教旨主义者,特别是杰里福尔韦尔,添海牙,哈尔赛,和帕特罗伯逊一代新人。Their base was Baptist and southern, but they reached into all denominations.他们的基地被浸会和南部,但他们把所有教派达成协议。 They benefited from three decades of post World War II fundamentalist and evangelical expansion through evangelism, publishing, church extension, and radio ministry.他们得益于三个二战后几十年的原教旨主义和福音扩张,通过布道,出版,教堂扩建,广播部。They tended to blur the distinction between fundamentalist and evangelical.他们往往混淆了原教旨主义和福音派之间的区别。 Statistically, they could claim that perhaps one fourth of the American population was fundamentalist - evangelical.据统计,他们可以声称也许有美国人口的四分之一是原教旨主义 - 福音。However, not all fundamentalists accepted these new leaders, considering them to be neofundamentalists.然而,并非所有的原教旨主义者接受了这些新的领导人,认为他们是neofundamentalists。

The fundamentalists of the early 1980s were in many ways very different people from their predecessors, and they faced many different issues. 80年代初的原教旨主义者在许多方面非常不同的人从他们的前辈,他们遇到了许多不同的问题。But they continued important traits common to fundamentalists from the 1920s through the early 1980s.但他们继续通过共同从20世纪20年代80年代初的原教旨主义的重要特征。They were certain that they possessed true knowledge of the fundamentals of the faith and that they therefore represented true Christianity based on the authority of a literally interpreted Bible.他们确信他们拥有了真正的信仰的基本知识,因此,他们所代表的真正基督教的基础上,字面解释圣经的权威。They believed it was their duty to carry on the great battle of history, the battle of God against Satan, of light against darkness, and to fight against all enemies who undermined Christianity and America.他们认为这是他们的职责进行了历史,上帝对撒旦的战斗对黑暗中的光芒,伟大的战斗,并打击一切敌人,谁破坏了基督教和美国。 Faced with this titanic struggle they were inclined to consider other Christians who were not fundamentalists as either unfaithful to Christ or not genuinely Christian.面对这样的大搏斗,他们倾向于认为无论谁不为不忠原教旨主义者不是真正的基督徒基督或其他基督徒。They called for a return to an inerrant and infallible Bible, to the traditional statement of the doctrines, and to a traditional morality which they believed once prevailed in America.他们呼吁建立一个以圣经一个inerrant和犯错的回报,到传统的教义声明,并在传统的道德,他们认为一旦在美国盛行。 To do all this, they created a vast number of separate organizations and ministries to propagate the fundamentalist faith and practice.要做到这一切,他们建立了一个独立的组织和广大部委宣传原教旨主义的信仰和实践。

CT McIntire电脑断层麦金太尔
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
GW Dollar, A History of Fundamentalism in America; R Lightner, Neo Evangelicalism; L Gasper, The Fundamentalist Movement, 1930 - 1956; J Falwell, E Dobson, and E Hindson, eds., The Fundamentalist Phenomenon; GM Marsden, Fundamentalism and American Culture; CA Russell, Voices of American Fundamentalism; NF Furniss, The Fundamentalist Controversy, 1918 - 1931; ER Sandeen, The Roots of Fundamentalism; JI Packer, "Fundamentalism" and the Word of God; James Barr, Fundamentalism.毛重美元,在美国一个原教旨主义的历史; ř莱特纳,新福音派的L加斯珀,原教旨主义运动,1930 - 1956年。Ĵ福尔韦尔,电子多布森和E Hindson合编,原教旨主义的现象,通用汽车马斯登,原教旨主义和美国文化; CA的罗素,美国原教旨主义的声音;因子弗尼斯,原教旨主义的争论,1918 - 1931年急诊桑德恩,原教旨主义的根源;姬封隔器,“原教旨主义”与神的话语;詹姆斯巴尔,原教旨主义。


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