God

Shàngdì

General Information一般资料

In Western culture, which for the last 2,000 years has been dominated by the Judeo Christian tradition, the word God generally refers to one supreme holy being, the divine unity of ultimate reality and of ultimate goodness.在西方文化中,这对于过去的2000年来一直在犹太教和基督教传统为主,上帝这个词一般是指一个至高无上的神圣的存在,其最终的现实,最终善良神圣的统一。 God, so conceived, is believed to have created the entire universe, to rule over it, and to bring it to its fulfillment.上帝,这样设想,被认为是创造了整个宇宙,来统治它,并把它带到其履行。

In the Old Testament, God was called YHWH , pronounced Yahweh by most scholars; the exact pronunciation of the name was lost because it was rarely enunciated.在旧约中,神叫耶和华 ,耶和华的宣告学者最多,准确发音的名字,因为它失去的是很少阐述。 In its place was read Adonai ("Lord"). The written combination of the tetragrammaton YHWH with the vowels of Adonai was traditionally rendered as Jehovah in English Bibles. Although the meaning of YHWH is disputed, it is frequently translated as "He who is" and probably designates YHWH as creator.取而代之的是阅读阿多奈(“主”)。 书面的阿多奈结合元音耶和华与tetragrammaton传统上呈现为耶和华在英文圣经。耶和华意义虽然是有争议的,这是经常“翻译为他是谁“,而且可能指定的创造者耶和华。 In Islam, Allah stands for a similar notion.在伊斯兰教中,真主表示了类似的概念。

Thus, as a functioning word, God in the first instance refers to the central and sole object of religious commitment - and so to the center of Worship, Prayer, and religious Meditation.因此,作为一个正常运作的话,神是指在第一时间向中央和宗教的唯一对象的承诺 - 等来的崇拜,祈祷,默想和宗教中心。Secondarily, God has been the object of religious and philosophical reflection, the supreme object of Theology and of most forms of speculative metaphysics.其次,上帝一直是宗教和哲学思考,神学的最高目标和形而上学的大多数形式的投机对象。

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God is a puzzling and elusive notion, by no means easy to define.上帝是一个令人困惑,难以捉摸的概念,不容易界定。As the supreme being, the creator and ruler of all, God transcends all creaturely limits, distinctions, and characteristics.作为至高无上的,所有的创造者和统治者,上帝超越一切creaturely限额,区别和特征。If something is definable only by its distinctions from other things, its limits, and its special characteristics, how is it possible to define the source of all things, which is not limited, distinguished, or peculiar?如果事情是定义只有从其他的东西,它的局限性,它的特点及其区别,怎么可能界定万物之源,这是不限制,尊贵,或奇怪吗? God is in neither time nor space; he / she / it transcends all substances and causes; is neither dependent on nor an effect of other things.上帝是在既没有时间和空间,他/她/它超越了所有的物质和原因;既不是,也不是其他东西的效果而定。Thus, he cannot be spoken of simply as a being among other beings lest he be conceived as a mere creature and thus not God.因此,他不能简单地谈到一个人正在等他,免得被看作是一种单纯的生物,因而不是神。For these reasons, the concept of God inevitably tends toward that of the transcendent absolute of much speculative philosophy: impersonal, unrelated, independent, change - less, eternal.基于上述原因,不可避免地倾向于对神的概念的超越绝对备受投机理念是:客观,无关的,独立的,变化 - 少的,永恒的。 In some theologies, the concept moves into even more distant realms of abstraction.在一些神学的概念移动到更遥远的抽象境界。 God can only be described negatively, as the negation of all that is experienced here and now, for example, as nontemporal, nonphysical, and unchanging.只能说是上帝的消极作为这里的一切,现在是有经验的否定,例如,作为nontemporal,非物质的,不变的。

In Jewish and Christian belief, however, God is also in some way personal, righteous, or moral, concerned with people and their lives and therefore closely related to and active within the world and the course of history.在犹太教和基督教的信仰,但是,上帝在某种程度上也是个人的,正义或道德的,与人的生活密切相关,因此,并在世界历史进程的积极关注。 The reflective problems in this concept of God, the subject of debates throughout Western history, therefore, have a dual source: God, whatever he may be, is unlike ordinary things that can be described, and the notion of God includes certain dialectical tensions or paradoxes (absolute - relative, impersonal - personal, eternal - temporal, changeless - changing) that defy ordinary powers of speech and of definition.在这个神,在整个西方历史上辩论的主题概念的反光问题,因此,具有双重来源:上帝,不管他可能是,不像是普通的东西,可以说是与神的概念包括某些或辩证的紧张关系悖论(绝对 - 相对的,客观的 - 个人,永恒的 - 时空,不变的 - 改变)的言论和藐视的定义一般权力。In approaching the divine, religiously or philosophically, one first of all encounters mystery and, with that, special forms or rules of speech - a characteristic as old as religion itself.在处理这个神圣的,宗教或哲学,首先遇到的一个谜,就这样,特殊形式或语音规则 - 如旧宗教本身的特点。

Variations in the Concept of God变化中的神的概念

Ideas of god vary widely from religion to religion and from culture to culture.上帝的看法不一,从宗教到文化,宗教和文化。

Many Gods许多神

In those cultures that conceive of human life as totally supported and threatened by (and thus subordinate to) strange and uncontrollable natural and social powers, all such powers and forces - in animals, totems, rivers, trees, mountains, kings and queens, tribes, ancestors, holy men and women - participate in and manifest holy power.在这些文化是人类生活的设想是完全支持和威胁(因而服从)陌生和无法控制的自然力量和社会力量,所有这些权力和力量 - 动物,图腾,河流,树木,山,国王和王后,部落,祖先,神圣的男人和女人 - 参与和表现神圣的权力。Here the divine is undifferentiated; it is universally present in important objects and persons.在这里,神圣的,是未分化的,它是普遍的重要对象和在场人员。

In other ancient cultures that conceive of the person as unique and differentiated from natural and social forces and recognize the role of personal power in politics, these varied natural and cultural forces are personified or symbolized by gods and goddesses who control, work through, and manifest themselves in these powers.在其他古代文化中占据独特的设想,并作为区别于自然和社会力量的人,认识到了对政治的个人权力的作用,这些不同的自然和文化力量的人格化的神和女神或谁控制,工作symbolized通过,及舱单自己在这些权力。 For example, Ares was the Greek god of thunder and of war; Aphrodite, the goddess of love and beauty; and Apollo, the god of light and order.例如,战神是打雷和战争希腊神阿芙罗狄蒂,爱与美的女神和阿波罗,光与秩序之神。 The worship of many gods, known as Polytheism, characterized the religions of most of the ancient world.许多神的崇拜,为多神教称,其特点的世界上最古老的宗教。In every case, a deepening sense of unifying order in reality was accompanied by a drive toward a unity of these plural forces, toward Monotheism.在每一种情况下,为了深化在现实意义上的统一是伴随着对这些多元力量的联合向一神教,驱动器。

Impersonal World Order非个人的世界秩序

In many advanced civilizations, the divine appears, not as a person, but as order or harmony; it is thus impersonal, universal, and omnipresent.在许多先进的文明,神圣的出现,而不是作为一个人,而是作为秩序或和谐,因此,客观的,普遍的,无所不在的。 Clear examples of this view are the Tao of Taoism and the notion of the Logos in Stoicism.这种观点明确的例子是道教道和在斯多葛主义的理性观念。Both are ultimately an impersonal and unifying principle of the world.无论最终是世界的一个客观的和统一的原则。Other forms of this view appear in the hymns to Indra in Hinduism and in the worship of Ahura Mazda, the god of light, in Zoroastrianism.有鉴于此其他形式出现在诗是在印度教和因陀罗的胡马自达,光明之神,在祆教崇拜。In each of these religions, there is a dualistic principle: an impersonal order, harmony, or light represents the divine; but disorder, chaos, or matter represents the rest of reality.在这些宗教,每年有一个二元的原则:一个客观的秩序,和谐,代表着神圣的或轻,但无序,混乱,或代表了现实问题的其余部分。 In modern philosophy and theology, the process thought of Alfred North Whitehead also emphasizes the divine as order, against an opposing principle of reality, creativity.在现代哲学和神学,过程思想怀特海还强调,作为神圣的秩序,针对现实,创造性反对的原则。

Undifferentiated Unity未分化的统一

Some religions conceive of the divine as the undifferentiated unity of all, a unity in and beyond all manifestations, powers, and persons.一些宗教想象的神圣作为所有未分化的团结,并超越了所有的表现形式,权力和人的团结。The ultimate becomes not only the whole of reality as its unity and ground, but it is so far beyond finite reality that it becomes relatively unintelligible and relatively unreal.最终成为不仅是作为其整体的团结和当地的实际情况,但它是一个远远超过有限的现实,它变得相对比较难以理解和不真实。 In these cases, of course, the divine is thoroughly beyond ordinary speech and even beyond positive analogies, for language deals with the determinate and the finite.在这种情况下,当然,神圣的,是彻底超越了一般的讲话,甚至超越积极的比喻为确定和有限的语言处理。The clearest expression of this transcendence of all being and all thought is found in Mahayana Buddhism, which describes the ultimate principle in negative assertions and names it a Nothingness, or Voidness.这个一切存在和一切思想是大乘佛教中,描述负断言并将其命名为一个虚无,或原则的最终实施者,发现超越清楚的表述。

In this notion of the divine the originating religious categories of power, person, and order are infinitely transcended as characteristics essentially related to finitude and therefore antithetical to the divine.在这个神圣的概念,权力,人,原为无限超越宗教的类别为基本特征有关的有限性,因此对立的神圣。Correspondingly, the religious practices of meditation and the religious hope of ultimate release also transcend relations to nature, tribe, society, the course of history, and even all religious praxis and symbols.相应地,冥想的宗教习俗和宗教也希望最终释放的关系,超越自然,部落,社会,历史的进程,甚至所有的宗教实践和符号。 Such religions regard the Western notion of God, with its implication of personal being and its emphasis on the life of the self in this world, as an extremely inappropriate and even insulting way of regarding their own ultimate principle.这种宗教方面的神西方的概念,其含义与个人福祉和其强调的是对自我生活在这个世界上的一个关于他们自己的终极原则极不恰当的,甚至是侮辱性的方式。

Paradoxes of the Biblical Concept圣经中的概念的悖论

The paradoxes or dialectical tensions characteristic of the Western understanding of God are derived from the Bible.辩证的矛盾或紧张的神的特点是西方的理解来自于圣经。In the Old Testament, God transcends all the limited and special forces and powers of the human experience.在旧约中,神超越了所有的有限和特殊的力量和人类经验的权力。On the other hand, his central characteristic, or mode of self manifestation, is his concern for and relation to history.另一方面,他的主要特征,或自我的表现方式,是他对历史的关注和关系。Although he manifests his power in nature, the main arena for divine activity is the sequence of historical events related to the calling, the establishment, and the protection of his chosen people.虽然他的本质体现在他的权力,为神圣的活动的主要领域是关系到要求,建立,和他选择的人保护的历史事件的顺序。In this activity, moreover, God reveals himself as moral or righteous, the source of the moral law, and is quick to punish those, even his chosen ones, who defy this law.在此活动中,而且,上帝揭示了作为道德或正义,对自己的道德法源,并迅速惩处,即使他选择的,谁无视这一规律。He is, however, also a God of mercy, patience, faithfulness, and Grace.他是,但是,也有怜悯,忍耐,信实的神,恩典。This God of history, Covenant, judgment, and promised redemption is assumed to be, and often clearly affirmed to be, the ruler of all events.这段历史,圣约,判断,并承诺赎回上帝是假设,而且往往要明确肯定,对所有事件的统治者。

These aspects of the notion of God reappear, with some modification, in the New Testament.神的概念,这些方面出现了,与一些修改,在新约。There the one God is also concerned with history, judgment, and redemption, but his central manifestation is Jesus Christ, through whom God's will for mankind is revealed, his judgments are made known, and his power to save is effected.在那里,上帝也与历史,判断和赎回,但是他的核心体现关心人是耶稣基督,上帝通过对人类将是透露,他的判断是由众所周知的,他的权力,保存是影响。 The New Testament writers generally use the word God to designate the God of the Old Testament.新约圣经的作家,一般用这个词神指定的旧约的上帝。Christ is understood as the fulfillment of the Messianic promise and as the Son, or Logos.基督被理解为救世主的承诺,履行作为儿子,或标识。His relation to God the Father and the Holy Spirit led to the development of the Christian doctrine of the Trinity.他与上帝的父亲和圣灵导致了基督教教义的三位一体的发展。Both Jewish and Christian theology therefore display a dialectical tension between God's transcendence over nature and history as creator and ruler, and his personal, moral participation in history for the sake of humankind.无论是犹太教和基督教神学,因此显示对自然和历史的创造者和统治者之间上帝的超越性的辩证关系紧张,他个人的,历史的道德的参与,为人类的缘故。

Philosophic Approaches哲学方法

As the symbolic center of Western Christendom down to the Enlightenment, and as the fundamental concept in its understanding of nature, society, and human existence, God was the object of endless philosophical and theological speculation.作为西方基督教的启示下,象征性中心和作为其自然,社会和人类生存的基本概念的理解,神是无尽的哲学和神学的投机对象。 During the long period in which Western culture understood itself and the world largely through the framework of Greco Roman philosophy (c. 200 - 1400), the notion of God was shaped with the help first of Platonic and then of Aristotelian categories.在长期间在西部文化的理解自身和世界主要是通过反贪污国家集团框架罗马哲学(公元前200 - 1400),神的概念的形成与帮助首次柏拉图和亚里士多德的类别则。Because of Greek philosophy's bias toward transcendent, changeless, eternal realms of being, this religious tradition greatly emphasized the absolute nature of God: God was understood as pure act, utterly independent, changeless, nontemporal, and unrelated.由于希腊哲学的走向超然,不变的,永恒的境界的偏见,这种宗教传统,十分强调神的绝对性:上帝是纯粹的行为,完全独立的,不变的,nontemporal,与无关的理解。 The active, related, personal aspects of God manifested themselves chiefly in piety and through numerous angelic and saintly representatives.主动,相关,上帝个人方面,主要表现在通过无数虔诚和圣洁的天使,并代表自己。

During the Reformation, which emphasized the primacy of Scripture, the personal, purposive, active side of the biblical God again achieved prominence, and the philosophical side receded: God's judgments and his mercy toward humans were considered his central attributes.在改革,其中强调的经文,个人,有目的的,积极的一面圣经的上帝再次取得了突出和哲学方面的首要地位退去:上帝的判决和他被认为是对人类的怜悯他的中心属性。 The transcendent and eternal aspect of this personal God was expressed in the eternal mystery and changelessness of his all determining will, especially the electing and providential will, rather than in the mystery and changelessness of the divine being.这种超越个人的上帝和永恒的方面是表现在永恒的神秘与changelessness将他的所有决定,尤其是选举和天赐的意志,而不是在神秘和神圣被changelessness。

The subsequent divergence of modern thought from Greco Roman traditions led to the introduction of new philosophical options emphasizing change, process, and relatedness.从希腊罗马传统的现代思想的分歧导致了随后的强调变化,过程,新的哲学和相关性选项的介绍。They give expression to a new dynamic and immanent interpretation of God and can be found in systems such as Process Philosophy.他们体现了新的动力和内在的神的解释,并且可以在诸如过程哲学系统中。While recognizing and affirming in some sense God's absoluteness, eternity, and invulnerability, many modern theologians emphasize his participation in the passing of time, active relatedness to events, and consequent changeableness; they argue that such a view is closer to the biblical notion than is the older Greek view.虽然承认在某种意义上上帝的绝对性,永恒,和刀枪不入的肯定,许多现代神学家强调他在时间的流逝,积极关联参与活动,并由此changeableness,他们认为,这种看法是接近圣经的概念比老希腊的看法。

Knowability of God可知神

Throughout history certain returning questions have been answered in different theological and philosophical terms.在整个历史的某些问题已经返回回答不同的神学和哲学术语。Perhaps the most debated question has been whether God is to be known by reason, by faith, or by experience.也许最争议的问题已被上帝是否是由已知的原因中,信仰,或由经验。Each solution has had powerful and persuasive adherents.每个解决方案都具有了强大的和有说服力的追随者。Those who argue that God can be known by reason offer one version or another of the classical proofs of God's existence: the cosmological proof from the existence of the world; the teleological proof from the order of the finite world; the ontological proof from the implications of the very concept of God as a perfect and necessary being; and the moral proof from the implications of moral experience.那些谁认为上帝可以被已知的原因提供了一个版本,或另一种对上帝的存在的经典证明:从世界存在的宇宙的证明;在从有限的世界秩序的目的论的证明;从意义本体论证明神的作为是非常完美的和必要的概念,并从道德体验的影响,道德的证明。 They argue that any theology intellectually respectable enough to speak to modern, intelligent men and women must be grounded in rational philosophy.他们认为,任何神学智力尊敬足够说话现代化,智能化的男人和女人必须在理性的哲学基础。

Those who believe God can be known only by faith tend to be skeptical of such philosophical proofs and possess a perhaps more transcendent image of God.谁相信那些只能由上帝的信仰往往是已知的哲学证明这种怀疑和拥有神也许更超然的形象。For them, the God of rational theology, proved and tailored by thinking processes, is merely the creature of humanity's own wayward wisdom.对于他们来说,理性神学的上帝,证明和思维过程量身定做,只不过是人类自己任性的智慧生物。 God himself must speak to humankind if he is to be known rightly, or even at all, and therefore faith, as a response to divine Revelation, is the only path to a true knowledge of God.神自己必须发言,如果他是对人类是已知的正确的,甚至根本,因此,信仰作为回应,以神圣的启示,是唯一的途径是上帝真正的知识。 Finally, there are those who assert that God can be known neither by reason nor by faith but only by direct experience.最后,有一些断言,谁可以被称为神的原因也不是信仰,但只有通过直接经验也没有。

Reality of God现实上帝

The secular climate of today's world has led to a reconsideration of the old issue of the reality of God, which has been denied by many humanistic liberals and by most modern Marxists.当今世界的世俗气候导致了对上帝,这已经被许多自由主义者否认现实的人文老问题复议和最现代的马克思主义者。The appearance of the so called death - of - God theologies in the 1960s introduced the issue into the Jewish and the Christian religious traditions themselves where it has been the subject of considerable debate.所谓的死亡外观 - 作者: - 在20世纪60年代引入神神学和基督教的犹太人自己的宗教传统的地方,一直是激烈辩论的主题问题。Although most theologians have not followed the lead of the "God is dead" school, there is little question that today no theology can proceed, either by reason, faith, or experience, without raising and in some measure answering this primary query about the reality of God.虽然大多数神学家都没有沿袭了领导“上帝死了”学校,毫无疑问,今天没有神学可以继续,无论是理性,信仰,或经验,不提高,在一定程度上回答有关事实上,这主要的查询神。 Is the notion of God, which correlates so closely with the self understanding of humankind, merely a projection of humanity's self consciousness onto an unresponding cosmos?是上帝的概念,这如此密切相关的人类自我认识,只是到一个unresponding宇宙人类的自我意识的投射?Many solutions have been proposed to this question, but the answer ultimately rests on faith.许多解决方案已经提出这个问题,但最终的答案就在于信心。

Langdon Gilkey兰登吉尔基

Bibliography 参考书目
PA Angeles, Problem of God: A Short Introduction (1974); J Bowker, The Sense of God (1977) and The Religious Imagination and the Sense of God (1978); JD Collins, God in Modern Philosophy (1959); BJ Cooke, The God of Space and Time (1972); Dewart, Leslie, The Future of Belief (1968); H Dumery, The Problem of God in Philosophy of Religion (1964); AJ Freddoso, ed., The Existence and Nature of God (1984); L Gilkey, Maker of Heaven and Earth (1959); JH Hick, ed., Existence of God (1964); GD Kaufman, God the Problem (1972) and The Theological Imagination (1981); JC Murray, The Problem of God: Yesterday and Today (1964); I Raez, The Unknown God (1970); MS Smith, Early History of God (1990); K Ward, The Concept of God (1975).PA的洛杉矶,神问题:一个简短的介绍(1974年); Ĵ鲍克,神(1977)意识与宗教的想象和神权智(1978年);第纳尔柯林斯,在现代哲学(1959年)神;北京库克,空间和时间(1972年)神德瓦特,张国荣,信仰的未来(1968年); ħ Dumery,对问题在宗教哲学(1964年)的神。欧塞尔Freddoso,海关,神的存在和性质(1984年)的L吉尔基,天地(1959年)的制造者; Jh的希克,教育署,存在的神(1964年);。广东考夫曼,上帝的问题(1972年)和神学的想像(1981年);赛马默里,该神的问题:昨天和今天(1964年);我Raez,未知的神(1970年);史密斯小姐,早期历史的神(1990年); K表病房,神的概念(1975年)。


God

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(AS and Dutch God; Dan. Gud; Ger. Gott), the name of the Divine Being. (AS和荷兰的神。丹Gud。德国戈特)的神圣的名称。It is the rendering (1) of the Hebrew 'El, from a word meaning to be strong; (2) of 'Eloah, plural 'Elohim.这是渲染(1)希伯来语'厄尔尼诺从字的含义是强大的;(2)'Eloah,复数'耶洛因。The singular form, Eloah, is used only in poetry.单数形式,Eloah,只用在诗歌。The plural form is more commonly used in all parts of the Bible, The Hebrew word Jehovah (qv), the only other word generally employed to denote the Supreme Being, is uniformly rendered in the Authorized Version by "Lord," printed in small capitals.复数形式更常用的各部分的圣经使用,希伯来文耶和华(请参阅),唯一的词来表示,一般采用最高的存在,是一致呈现在授权版的“上帝”,在小资本印刷。 The existence of God is taken for granted in the Bible.神的存在是采取在圣经批准。There is nowhere any argument to prove it.无处任何论据来证明这一点。He who disbelieves this truth is spoken of as one devoid of understanding (Ps. 14:1).这个真理,他是谁disbelieves谈到作为一个缺乏理解(诗篇14:1)。

The arguments generally adduced by theologians in proof of the being of God are:,一般由神学家的论点举出在神被证明有:,

  1. The a priori argument, which is the testimony afforded by reason.的先验的说法,这是理性所提供的证词。
  2. The a posteriori argument, by which we proceed logically from the facts of experience to causes.在事后的说法,其中,我们从经验出发的因素造成的事实逻辑。

These arguments are,这些论点,

Conscience and human history testify that "verily there is a God that judgeth in the earth."良知和人类历史上作证说,“真的有一个上帝在地上的审判者。”The attributes of God are set forth in order by Moses in Ex.上帝的属性设置,以便在提出前摩西。34:6,7.34:6,7。(see also Deut. 6:4; 10:17; Num. 16:22; Ex. 15:11; 33:19; Isa. 44:6; Hab. 3:6; Ps. 102:26; Job 34:12.) They are also systematically classified in Rev. 5:12 and 7:12.(另见申命记6:4; 10:17;序号16:22;前15:11,33:19;赛44:6;哈3:6;诗102:26;工作34。。。。。。: 12。)他们还系统地分类在牧师5点12分和7时12分。God's attributes are spoken of by some as absolute, ie, such as belong to his essence as Jehovah, Jah, etc.; and relative, ie, such as are ascribed to him with relation to his creatures.神的属性是口语的一些作为绝对的,即如属于他作为耶和华,扎哈等本质,相对的,即如被归因于他与动物的关系给他。 Others distinguish them into communicable, ie, those which can be imparted in degree to his creatures: goodness, holiness, wisdom, etc.; and incommunicable, which cannot be so imparted: independence, immutability, immensity, and eternity.其他区分为传染病,即它们,那些可以传授给他的动物程度:善良,圣洁,智慧等;和incommunicable,这是不能如此传授:独立,不变性,巨大的,与永恒。 They are by some also divided into natural attributes, eternity, immensity, etc.; and moral, holiness, goodness, etc.他们也将是由自然属性,永恒的,巨大的等一些分歧和道德,纯洁,善良等

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Attributes of God神的属性

Advanced Information - II先进的信息-二

God is an invisible, personal, and living Spirit, distinguished from all other spirits by several kinds of attributes: metaphysically God is self-existent, eternal, and unchanging; intellectually God is omniscient, faithful, and wise; ethically God is just, merciful, and loving; emotionally God detests evil, is long-suffering, and is compassionate; existentially God is free, authentic, and omnipotent; relationally God is transcendent in being immanent universally in providential activity, and immanent with his people in redemptive activity.神是一种无形的,个人,生活的精神,与所有其他烈酒区别在于属性几种:形而上学的上帝是独立存在的,永恒的,不变的;智力神是无所不知,忠诚,聪明;道德上帝是公正,仁慈和爱人;神厌恶情绪恶,是长期的痛苦,是慈悲的神存在上是自由的,真实的,万能的,在被内在相关法上帝是超越普遍在天赐活动,并与他的人民内在的救赎的活动。

The essence of anything, simply put, equals its being (substance) plus its attributes.任何事物的本质,简单地说,等于它的存在(物质),加上它的属性。Since Kant's skepticism of knowing anything in itself or in its essence, many philosophers and theologians have limited their general ways of speaking to the phenomena of Jewish or Christian religious experience.由于康德的认识本身或在其本质东西的怀疑,许多哲学家和神学家有限发言的犹太人或基督教的宗教体验现象的一般方法。 Abandoning categories of essence, substance, and attribute, they have thought exclusively in terms of Person-to-person encounters, mighty acts of God, divine functions, or divine processes in history.本质,物质的类别和属性放弃,他们想到的条款只在人对人的遭遇,大能的作为神的,神圣的职责,或在神圣的历史进程。 God is indeed active in all these and other ways, but is not silent.上帝确实是在所有这些和其他方式活跃,但不是沉默。Inscripturated revelation discloses some truth about God's essence in itself. Inscripturated启示披露一些关于上帝的真理的本质。Conceptual truth reveals not only what God does, but who God is.真理概念不仅揭示上帝所做的,但神是谁。

Biblical revelation teaches the reality not only of physical entities, but also of spiritual beings: angels, demons, Satan, and the triune God.圣经启示的现实,不仅教物理的实体,而是人类的精神也:天使,恶​​魔,撒旦和三位一体的神。The Bible also reveals information concerning attributes or characteristics of both material and spiritual realities.圣经也揭示有关信息的属性或物质和精神的现实特点。In speaking of the attributes of an entity, we refer to essential qualtities that belong to or inhere in it.在一个实体的属性而言,我们指的是属于它固有或基本qualtities。The being or substance is what stands under and unities the varied and multiple attributes in one unified entity.正在或物质是什么根据和统一体在一个统一的实体的多样化和多属性的立场。The attributes are essential to distinguish the divine Spirit from all other spirits.这些属性是必不可少的,以区别于其他精神的神圣精神。The divine Spirit is necessary to unite all the attributes in one being.神圣的精神是要团结在一个被所有的属性。The attributes of God, then, are essential characteristics of the divine being.神的属性,那么,被神圣的本质特征。 Without these qualities God would not be what he is, God.如果没有这些素质将不会有什么上帝,他是神。

Some have imagined that by defining the essence of God human thinkers confine God to their concepts.有些人以为,靠神的定义只限于人类的思想家的本质上帝的观念。That reasoning, however, confuses words conveying concepts with their referents.这种推理,但是,混淆词的概念传达他们的参照物。 Does a definition of water limit the power of Niagara Falls?一水的定义是否限制了尼亚加拉大瀑布的力量?The word "God" has been used in so many diverse ways that it is incumbent upon a writer or speaker to indicate which of those uses is in mind.这个“神”已被用于很多,这是一个作家义不容辞的责任或喇叭表明其中哪些用途记住的是不同的方式。

God Is an Invisible, Personal, Living, and Active Spirit神是一种无形的,个人,生活,主动精神

Jesus explained to the Samaritian woman why she should worship God in spirit and in truth.耶稣解释,Samaritian女人她为什么要拜上帝会在精神上和真理。God is spirit (John 4:24).神是灵(约翰福音4:24)。The noun pneuma occurs first in the sentence for emphasis.灵魂的名词出现在句首以示强调。Although some theologies consider "spirit" an attribute, grammatically in Jesus' statement it is a substantive.虽然有些神学认为,“精神”的属性,在耶稣的声明语法是实质性的。In the pre-Kantian, first century world of the biblical authors, spirits were not dismissed with an a priori, skeptical assumption.在预康德,圣经的作者们一世纪的世界,精神被驳回,没有一个先验的,怀疑的假设。

As spirit, God is invisible.作为精神,上帝是不可见的。No one has ever seen God or ever will (1 Tim. 6:16).从来没有人见过神或将(1添。6:16)。A spirit does not have flesh and bones (Luke 24:39).阿灵没有肉和骨头(路加福音24:39)。

As spirit, furthermore, God is personal.作为精神,此外,上帝是个人的。Although some thinkers use "spirit" to designate impersonal principles or an impersonal absolute, in the biblical context the divine Spirit has personal capacities of intelligence, emotion, and volition.虽然有些思想家用“精神”,以客观的原则,或指定一个客观的绝对的,在圣经中的神圣精神具有智力,情感,意志和个人能力。 It is important to deny of the personal in God any vestiges of the physical and moral evil associated with fallen human persons.重要的是要否定个人在上帝与人类堕落的人相关联的身体和道德上的邪恶任何痕迹。

In transcending the physical aspects of human personhood God thus trancends the physical aspects of both maleness and femaleness.在超越人的人格神的物理方面从而trancends雄性和雌性的两个物理方面。However, since both male and female are created in God's image, we may think of both as like God in their distinctively nonphysical, personal male and female qualities.然而,由于男性和女性在上帝的形象创造,我们可能会认为其作为独特的非物质一样,个人的男性和女性特质上帝都。 In this context the Bible's use of masculine personal pronouns for God conveys primarily the connotation of God's vital personal qualities and secondarily any distinctive functional responsibilities males may have.在这方面,圣经的上帝阳性人称代词的使用主要是传达神的重要的个人素质的内涵和鲜明的男性功能为辅任何责任可能。

Christ's unique emphasisupon God as Father in the Lord's Prayer and elsewhere becomes meaningless if God is not indeed personal.基督的唯一重点,如主祷文天父上帝和其他地方后,变得毫无意义,如果上帝是不确实的个人。Similarly, the great doctrines of mercy, grace, forgiveness, imputation, and justification can only be meaningful if God is genuinely personal.同样,怜悯​​,恩典,宽恕,归集和理由的伟大学说只能是有意义的,如果上帝是真正的个人。God must be able to hear the sinner's cry for salvation, be moved by it, decide and act to recover the lost.神必须能够听到罪人的救赎哭泣,为之所动,决定和采取行动,恢复丢失。In fact, God is superpersonal, tripersonal.事实上,上帝是superpersonal,tripersonal。The classical doctrine of the Trinity coherently synthesizes the Bible's teaching about God.三位一体的古典主义连贯综合圣经的教导关于上帝。To place the name of God upon a baptismal candidate is to place upon the candidate the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit (Matt. 28:19).为了把它放在一个洗礼的候选人以上帝的名义,是把对候选人的父亲和儿子和圣灵(太28:19)的名称。

The unity of the one divine essence and being emphasized in the NT concept of a personal spirit implies simplicity or indivisibility.在一个神圣的本质和存在的统一在一个概念,强调个人精神新台币意味着简单或不可分割性。Neither the Trinitarian personal distinctions nor the multiple attributes divide the essential unity of the divine being.无论是个人的区别,也不是三位一体的多属性划分的被神圣的基本统一。And that essential, ontological oneness is not torn apart by the incarnation or even the death of Jesus.而这至关重要的,本体论是一体的没有破的化身,甚至死亡的耶稣分开。Relationally or functionally (but not essentially) Jesus on the cross was separated from the Father who imputed to him the guilt and punishment of our sin.相关法或功能(但没有本质)耶稣在十字架上,是从父亲分开谁归功于他的罪孽和我们的罪处罚。

In view of the indivisibility of the divine Spirit, how than are the attributes related to the divine being?在神圣的精神,不可分割看法如何比相关的属性是神圣的幸福?The divine attributes are not mere names for human use with no referent in the divine Spirit (nominalism).神圣的属性不是为没有指涉人类使用的神圣精神(唯名)仅仅名称。Nor are the attributes separate from each other within the divine being so that they could conflict with each other (realism).也不是相互独立的属性,在神圣的正,使他们能与对方(现实主义)的冲突。The attributes all equally qualify the entirety of the divine being and each other (a modified realism).所有的属性同样被限定的神圣和对方全部(修改后的现实主义)。Preserving the divine simplicity or indivisibility, God's love is always holy love, and God's holiness is always loving holiness.维护神圣的简单或不可分割性,神的爱是永远神圣的爱,神的圣洁是永远爱的圣洁。Hence it is futile to argue for the superiority of one divine attribute over another.因此,它是徒劳无益的争论为一个神圣的属性在另一优势。Every attribute is essential; one cannot be more essential than another in a simple, nonextended being.每个属性是必不可少的;不能在一个简单的比另一个更重要,nonextended福祉。

God as spirit, furthermore, is living and active.上帝作为精神,而且,是生活和活动。In contrast to the passive ultimates of Greek philosophies the God of the Bible actively creates, sustains, covenants with his people, preserves Israel and the Messiah's line of descent, calls prophet after prophet, send his Son into the world, provides the atoning sacrifice to satisfy his own righteousness, raises Christ from the dead, builds the church, and judges all justly.相反,对上帝的圣经,积极创造与他的人民,维持,契约,保存以色列和弥赛亚的血统,来电先知后先知,发送到世界,他的儿子古希腊哲学的被动终局,提供了赎罪祭满足他自己的正义,提高基督从死里,建立教会,所有法官公正。 Far from a passive entity like a warm house, the God of the Bible is an active architect, builder, freedom fighter, advocate of the poor and oppressed, just judge, empathetic counselor suffering servant, and triumphant deliverer.远离温暖的家像一个被动的实体,上帝的圣经是一个积极的建筑师,建筑工人,自由战士,提倡对穷人和被压迫者,公正的法官,善解人意辅导员痛苦的仆人,和胜利的提供者。

As an invisible, personal, living spirit, God is no mere passive object of human investigation.作为一种无形的,个人的,生活的精神,神是不只是被动的人的调查对象。Such writers as Pascal, Kierkegaard, Barth, and Brunner have helpfully reminded Christians that knowing God is like studying soils.如帕斯卡尔,克尔凯郭尔,巴特和布伦纳等作家都有益提醒基督徒,知道上帝喜欢研究土壤的。However, these writers go too far in claiming that God is merely a revealing subject in ineffable personal encounters and that no objective, propositional truth can be known of God.但是,这些作家走得太远,声称上帝只不​​过是无法形容的个人经历揭示的主体,没有客观的,命题的真理能够被神知道。Members of a creative artist's family may know him not only with passionate, personal subjectivity, but also objectively through examination of his works, careful reading of his writings, and assessment of his resume.一个创造性的艺术家的家庭成员可能也知道他不仅与热情,个人的主体性,但客观上也通过他的作品,仔细阅读他的著作,他的恢复考试。 Similarly God may be known not only in passionate subjective commitment, but also by thought about his creative works (general revelation), his inspired Scripture (part of special revelation), and theological resumes of his nature and activity.同样可以被称为上帝不仅在主观激情的承诺,而且还对他的创作(一般的启示),他的灵感经文(特殊启示的一部分),他的恢复性质和活动神学思想。 Knowledge of God involves both objective, conceptual validity and subjective, personal fellowship.上帝的知识涉及既有客观的,概念的有效性和主观的,个人的奖学金。

We have considered the meaning of asserting that God is spirit: the divine being is one, invisible, personal, and thus capable of thinking, feeling, and willing, a living and active being.我们曾考虑断言上帝是精神的含义:神圣的存在是一,无形的,个人化,从而思维能力,感情和意愿,积极的生活和福祉。There are, however, many spirits.有,然而,许多精神。The subsequent discussion of the divine attributes is necessary to distinguish the divine Spirit from other spirit-beings.的神圣属性,随后进行的讨论是必要的,以区别于其他的精神,人类神圣的精神。

While considering the meaning of each attribute it is well to be aware of the relation of the attributes to the being of God.同时考虑到每个属性的含义大家都成为该属性就被上帝知道。In the Scriptures the divine attributes are not above God, beside God, or beneath God; they are predicted of God.在圣经的神圣属性不高于神,除了神,或者神之下,他们是神的预测。God is holy; God is love.神是圣洁的,神是爱。These characteristics do not simply describe what God does, they define what God is.这些特点,不要简单地形容上帝所做的,他们定义了什么是上帝。To claim that recipients of revelation can know the attributes of God but not the being of God leaves the attributes un-unified and belonging to nothing.声称启示收件人可以知道神的属性,但不是被上帝的属性叶联合国的统一和归属感落空。The Scriptures do not endorse worship of an unknown God but make God known.圣经不认同一个未知的神崇拜,但让上帝知道。The attributes are inseparable from the being of God, and the divine spirit does not relate or act apart from the essential divine characteristics.该属性是从被神,神的精神,不涉及或行为从本质特征,除了神圣不可分割。In knowing the attributes, then, we know God as he has revealed himself to be in himself.在认识的属性,那么,我们知道,上帝,因为他发现自己是在自己身上。

This is not to say that through revelation we can know God fully as God knows himself.这并不是说,通过神的启示,我们完全可以知道自己作为上帝知道。But it is to deny that all our knowledge of God is equivocal, something totally other than we understand by scripturally revealed concepts of holy love.但它否认了所有我们的上帝的知识是模棱两可的事,完全由其他比我们神圣的爱根据圣经揭示概念的理解。Much of our knowledge of God's attributes is analogical or figurative, where Scripture uses figures of speech.我们对神的属性知识大部分是类比或比喻,在圣经使用的修辞格。Even then, however, the point illustrated can be stated in nonfigurative language.即使是这样,不过,这一点可以说明中予以说明抽象的语言。So all our understanding of God is not exclusively analogical.因此我们所有的神的认识是不完全类比。The revealed, nonfigurative knowledge has at least one point of meaning the same for God's thought and revelationally informed human thought.该透露,抽象的知识至少有一层的意思是相同的上帝的思想和revelationally知情人类思想点。Some knowledge of God, then, is called univocal, because when we assert that God is holy love, we assert what the Bible (which originated, not with the will of man, but God) asserts.有些知识的上帝,那么,被称为单义的,因为当我们断言,上帝是圣洁的爱,我们断言什么圣经(起源不与人的意志,而是上帝)断言。 We may be far from fully comprehending divine holiness and divine love, but insofar as our assertions about God coherently convey relevant conceptually revealed meanings they are true of God and conform in part to God's understanding.我们可能远未得到充分理解神的圣洁和神圣的爱,但只要我们对神断言连贯传达透露有关概念的含义,他们是真正的上帝,符合部分是上帝的理解。

The divine attributes have been differently classified to help in relating and remembering them.神圣的属性已在不同的分类,以帮助有关并记住他们。Each classification has its strengths and weaknesses.每个分类都有其长处和弱点。We may distinguish those attributes that are absolute and immanent (Strong), incommunicable or communicable (Berkhof), metaphysical or moral (Gill), absolute, relative, and moral (Wiley), or personal and consitutional (Chafer).我们可以区分这些属性是绝对的,内在的(强),静默或传染病(伯克霍夫),形而上学的或道德(吉尔),绝对的,相对的,道德的(威利),或个人和宪法(金龟子)。 Advantages and disadvantages of these groupings can be seen in those respective theologies.这些集团的优势和劣势可以看出,在这些各自的神学。It is perhaps clearer and more meaningful to distinguish God's characteristics metaphysically, intellectually, ethically, emotionally, existentially, and relationally.这也许是更清晰和有意义的区分神的形而上学特征,智力,道德,情感,其生存和相关法。

Metaphysically, God Is Self-existent, Eternal, and Unchanging形而上学,神是自我存在的,永恒的,不变的

Other spirits are invisible, personal, one, living, and active.其他的精神,是无形的,个人,一,生活,和积极的。How does the divine spirit differ?如何神圣的精神有什么不同?Significant differences appear in several respects, but we first focus upon the metaphysically distinctive characteristics of God.显着性差异出现在几个方面,但是我们首先侧重于神的形而上学特色。

First, God is self-existent第一,神是自我存在

All other spirits are created and so have a beginning.所有其他的精神,是建立等都有一个开始。They owe their existence to another.他们的存在归功于另一个。God does not depend upon the world or anyone in it for his existence.上帝并不取决于他的存在对世界或在它的人。The world depends on God for its existence.世界取决于其存在的神。Contrary to those theologians who say we cannot know anything about God in himself, Jesus revealed that God has life in himself (John 5:26).相反,那些神学家说,我们谁不知道任何事情在自己的神,耶稣透露,神在自己有生命(约翰5:26)。The ground of God's being is not in others, for there is nothing more ultimate than himself.上帝的理由是不被别人,因为没有什么比自己更极致。God is uncaused, the one who always is (Exod. 3:14).上帝是uncaused,谁一直是(出15:14)。To ask who caused God is to ask a self-contradictory question in terms of Jesus' view of God.要问,是谁造成的上帝问耶稣的神的看法认为一个自相矛盾的问题。Another term conveying the concept of God's self-existence is "aseity."另一个长期输送的上帝的自我存在的概念是“aseity。” It comes from the Latin a, meaning from, and se, meaning oneself.它来自拉丁文,意思是从,和SE,意思自己。God is underived, necessary, nondependent existence.上帝是underived,必要的,nondependent存在。Understanding that God is noncontingent helps to understand how God is unlimited by anything, or infinite, free, self-determined, and not determined by anything other than himself contrary to his own sovereign purposes.非一致性的理解,神是神,有助于了解什么是无限的,或无限的,自由,自我决定,而不是其他任何东西比自己违背了自己的主权的目的决定的。

God is eternal and omnipresent (ubiquitous)上帝是永恒的,无所不在的(无所不在)

God's life is from within himself, not anything that had a beginning in the space-time world.神的生命是从内心,而不是任何曾在时空世界的开始。God has no beginning, period of growth, old age, or end.上帝没有开始,生育期,老年期,或结束。The Lord is enthroned as King forever (Ps. 29:10).主是登基为王永远(诗篇29:10)。This God is our God forever and forever (Ps. 48:14).这是我们的上帝上帝永远永远(诗篇48:14)。Although God is not limited by space or time, or the succession of events in time, he created the world with space and time.虽然上帝不受空间或时间,或者是在继承时事件有限,他还创造了空间和时间的世界。God sustains the changing realm of succeeding events and is conscious of every movement in history.神维系着成功的事件不断变化的领域,是历史的每一个动作意识。The observable, changing world is not unimportant or unreal (maya in Hinduism) to the omnipresent Lord of all.可观察的,不断变化的世界是不是不重要或不真实(玛雅印度教),以无处不在的所有主。No tribe, nation, city, family, or personal life is valueless, however brief or apparently insignificant.没有部落,国家,城市,家庭或个人生活是毫无价值,但短暂的或显然微不足道。God's eternal nature is not totally other than time or totally removed from everything in time and space.上帝的永恒性是不完全或完全以外的时间,从时间和空间的一切删除。The space-time world is not foreign or unknown to God.时空的世界并不陌生或未知的上帝。History is the product of God's eternally wise planning, creative purpose, providential preservation, and common grace.历史是上帝的永恒明智的策划,创意的目的,天赐保本产品,共同恩典。God fills space and time with his presence, sustains it, and gives it purpose and value.上帝充满了他的存在空间和时间,维持它,给它的目的和价值。The omnipresent and ubiquitous One is Lord of time and history, not vice versa.无所不在,无处不在的一个是主的时间和历史的,而不是相反。God does not negate time but fulfills it.上帝不否定时间,但满足它。In it his purposes are accomplished.他的目的是在它完成。

In Christianity, then, eternity is not an abstract timelessness, but the eternal is a characteristic of the living God who is present at all times and in all places, creating and sustaining the space-time world and accomplishing his redemptive purposes in the fullness of time.在基督教里,然后,永远不是一个抽象的永恒,但永恒的是活着的上帝谁是目前在任何时候和任何地方的特点,创造和维持的时空世界,完成了他救赎的目的丰满时间。

God is unchanging in nature, desire, and purpose上帝是不变的性质,愿望和目的

To say that God is immutable is not to contradict the previous truth that God is living and active.如果说,上帝是不变的,是不是违背了先前的真理,上帝是生活和活动。It is to say that all the uses of divine power and vitality are consistent with his attributes such as wisdom, justice, and love.这就是说,所有的神圣权力和活力用途,如智慧,正义和爱他的属性是一致的。God's acts are never merely arbitrary, although some may be for reasons wholly within himself rather than conditioned upon human response.神的行为绝不只是任意的,尽管有些可能是自己的原因完全在对人的反应,而不是条件。Underlying each judgement of the wicked and each pardon of the repentant is his changeless purpose concerning sin and conversion.基本每个邪恶的判断和各种赦免的忏悔是他不变的宗旨为罪和转换。Unlike the Stoic's concept of divine immutability, God is not indifferent to human activity and need.不同的是斯多葛的神圣不可改变的概念,上帝不是漠不关心,人类活动和需要。Rather, we can always count upon God's concern for human righteousness.相反,我们总是可以指望在神对人类正义的关注。

God changelessly answers prayer in accord with his desires and purposes of holy love.神changelessly答案与他的愿望和神圣的爱的目的一致的祈祷。Hence, although speaking in terms of human experience God is sometimes said in Scripture to repent, it is in fact the unrepentant who have changed and become repentant or the faithful who have become unfaithful.因此,虽然从人类的经验来说的,是神在圣经中有时会说要悔改,它实际上是谁改变了,成为悔过或谁已成为不忠忠实顽固不化。

God is the same, though everything else in creation becomes old like a garment (Ps. 102:25-27).上帝是相同的,其他的东西都在创造一个服装变得像(诗篇102:25-27)岁。Jesus shared that same unchanging nature (Heb. 1:10-12) and vividly exhibited it consistently throughout his active ministry in a variety of situations.耶稣共享同一不变的性质(希伯来书1:10-12),生动地展示在他的在各种情况下积极部保持一致。

The immutability of God's character means that God never loses his own integrity or lets others down.神的性格不变性意味着上帝从来没有失去自己的完整性或让别人失望。With God is no variableness or shadow of turning (James 1:17).与神并没有改变或转动的影儿(雅1:17)。God's unshakable nature and word provide the strongest ground of faith and bring strong consolation (Heb. 6: 17-18).神的不可动摇的性质和Word提供了强大的信心带来强大的地面和安慰(希伯来书6:17-18)。God is not a man that he should lie (Num. 23:19) or repent (I Sam. 15:29).上帝不是一个男人,他应该谎言(民数记23时19分)或忏悔(我心。15:29)。The counsel of the Lord stands forever (Ps. 33:11).主的律师代表永远(诗篇33:11)。Though heaven and earth pass away, God's words will not fail (Matt. 5:18; 24:35).虽然天地废去,神的话会不会失败(太5:18; 24:35)。

Intellectually, God Is Omniscient, Faithful, and Wise在理智上,上帝是无所不知,忠诚,智慧

God differs from other spirits not only in being but also in knowledge.神不同于其他烈酒不仅是,而且在知识。God's intellectual capabilities are unlimited, and God uses them fully and perfectly.神的智慧能力是无限的,神使用他们充分和完全。

God is Omniscient神是无所不知的

God knows all things (I John 3:20).上帝知道一切事物(约翰3:20)。Jesus has this attribute of deity also, for Peter says, "Lord, you know all things; you know that I love you" (John 21:17).耶稣有这样的神的属性也对彼得说:“主啊,你知道所有的事情,你知道我爱你”(约翰21时17分)。God knows all inward thoughts and outward acts of humanity (Ps. 139).上帝知道一切外来的思想和人类向外行为(诗篇139)。 Nothing in all creation is hidden from God's sight.在所有的创作没有什么隐藏的神的视线中。Everything is uncovered and laid bare before the one to whom we must give account (Heb. 4:13).一切都发现奠定一个人之前,我们必须给予帐户(希伯来书4:13)光秃秃的。Isaiah distinguished the Lord of all from idols by the Lord's ability to predict the future (Isa. 44:7-8, 25-28).以赛亚杰出的一切由上帝的能力来预测未来(以赛亚书44:7-8,25-28)偶像的主。Clearly the Lord's knowledge of the future was communicable in human concepts and words.显然,上帝对未来的知识是在人的概念和词句传染病。In the context Isaiah made predictions concerning Jerusalem, Judah, Cyrus, and the temple.在以赛亚的预言中关于耶路撒冷,犹太,居鲁士,寺。These concepts were inspired in the original language and are translatable in the languages of the world.这些概念的灵感在原来的语言,在世界上的语言翻译。

How can God know the end from the beginning?上帝知道怎样才能从一开始就结束了吗?In a way greater than illustrated in a person's knowledge of a memorized psalm, Augustine suggested.在某种程度上大于一个人的一个记忆诗篇知识图版,奥古斯丁建议。Before quoting Psalm 23 we have it all in mind.之前引用诗篇23便拥有了一切在心。Then we quote the first half of it and we know the part that is past and the part that remains to be quoted.然后,我们引用了前半部分,我们知道这是过去的部分仍然被引用。God knows the whole of history at once, simultaneously because not limited by time and succession, but God also knows what part of history is past today and what is future, for time is not unreal or umimportant to God (Confessions XI, 31).上帝知道,一旦在整个历史,同时由于不受时间和继承有限,但上帝也知道什么样的历史的一部分,是过去现在和未来是什么,因为时间是不是不真实或umimportant上帝(忏悔录十一,31)。

The belief that God knows everything--past, present, and future, is of little significance, however, if God's knowledge is removed from human knowledge by an infinite, qualitative distinction.相信上帝知道一切 - 过去,现在和未来,是没有多大意义,但是,如果上帝的知识是人类知识的去除一个无限的,质的区别。The frequent claim that God's knowledge is totally other than ours implies that God's truth may be contradictory of our truth.经常声称,上帝的知识是完全比我们其他意味着上帝的真理可能是我们的真理矛盾。That is, what may be true for us is false for God or what is false for us may be true for God.这是什么,可能是我们真正的上帝是虚假的或什么是假的,我们可能是真正的上帝。Defenders of this position argue that because God is omniscient, God does not think discursively line upon line, or use distinct concepts connected by the verb "to be" in logical propositions.这一立场辩护说,因为上帝是无所不知的,上帝不认为discursively行线时,或使用连接的动词“是”符合逻辑的命题不同的概念。 This view of divine transcendence provided an effective corrective in the hands of Barth and Bultmann against the continuity modernism alleged between the highest human thought and God's thought.这种观点提供了超越神圣的巴特和布特曼手中的有效的纠正对人类思维之间的最高神的思想所指称的连续性现代主义。And that influence finds additional support from the Eastern mystics who deny any validity to conceptual thinking in reference to the eternal.而这影响来自东部的神秘主义者认为谁否认在参考了永恒的任何概念思维的有效性更多的支持。Relativists from many fields also deny that any human assertions, including the Bible's, are capable of expressing the truth concerning God.许多领域也从相对论断言否认,任何人,包括圣经的,是关于上帝的真理表达能力。

From a biblical perspective, however, the human mind has been created in the divine image to think God's thoughts after him, or to receive through both general and special revelation truth from God.从圣经的角度来看,人的心中一直建立在神圣的形象后,他认为上帝的思想,通过两个或接收从神一般和特殊启示的真理。Although the fall has affected the human mind, this has not been eradicated.虽然下降已经影响到人的心灵,这并没有被根除。 The new birth involves the Holy Spirit's renewal of the person in knowledge after the image of the Creator (Col. 3:10).新诞生后,涉及的造物主(歌3:10)图像圣灵的人的知识更新。Contextually, the knowledge possible to the regenerate includes the present position and nature of the exalted Christ (Col. 1:15-20) and knowledge of God's will (Col. 1:9).内容相关的知识可能对再生包括目前的崇高地位和基督(西1:15-20)自然神的旨意(西1:9)和知识。With this knowledge Christians can avoid being deceived by mere fine-sounding arguments (Col. 2:4).有了这些知识的基督徒,可避免受骗,由单纯美其名参数(西2:4)。They are to strengthen the faith they were taught in concepts and words (Col. 2:7).他们要加强他们在观念和文字(西2:7)教的信念。And the content of the word of Christ can inform their teaching and worship (Col. 3:16).和基督的话可以告知他们的教学内容和崇拜(歌3:16)。

In these and many other ways the Scriptures presuppose an informative revelation from God, verbally inspired and Spirit illumined, to minds created and renewed in the divine image for the reception of this divine truth.在这些和许多其他方式从上帝的圣经前提翔实的启示,鼓舞和口头精神照亮,以头脑创建并为这个神圣的真理神圣的形象重新接待。 Insofar as we have grasped the contextual meaning given by the original writers of Scripture, our scripturally based assertions that God is spirit, God is holy, or God is love are true.因为我们有把握上下文意思原来的经文给作家,我们根据圣经的说法,上帝是个灵,神是圣洁的,或上帝是爱是真实的。They are true for God as he is in himself.他们是真正的上帝,因为他是在自己。They are true for the faith and life of Christians and churches.他们是为信仰和基督徒和教会生活的真实。

The propositional truth that the Bible conveys in indicative sentences that affirm, deny, contend, maintain, assume, and infer is fully true for God and for mankind.命题真理,圣经中的句子传达指示的肯定,否定,抗衡,维护,假设,并推断是完全真实的上帝和人类。Of course God's omniscience is not limited to the distinctions between subjects and predicates, logical sequence, exegetical research, or discursive reasoning.当然,上帝的无所不知不仅限于主体之间和谓词,逻辑顺序,训诂研究,或话语推理的区别。But God knows the difference between a subject and a predicate, relates to logical sequence as much as to temporal sequence, encourages exegetical research and revelationally based discursive reasoning.但上帝知道之间的主语和谓语的区别,涉及尽可能多的时间序列,以逻辑顺序,鼓励训诂的基础研究和revelationally话语推理。 Although God's mind is unlimited and knows everything, it is not totally different in every respect from human minds made in his image.虽然上帝的心是无限的,什么都知道,这不是完全在每一个从他的形象使人​​类心灵方面有所不同。 As omniscient then, God's judgments are formed in the awareness of all the relevant data.由于无所不知然后,上帝的判决形成的所有相关数据的认识。God knows everything that bears upon the truth concerning any person or event.上帝知道一切,对有关的任何人或事件的真相熊。 Our judgements are true insofar as they conform to God's by being coherent or faithful to all the relevant evidence.我们的判断是正确的,只要它们符合被一致或忠实于所有相关的证据,上帝的。

God is Faithful and True神是信实的,真

Because God is faithful and true (Rev. 19:11), his judgements (Rev. 19:2) and his words in human language are faithful and true (Rev. 21:5; 22:6).因为上帝是真实可信的(启示录19:11),他的判断(启示录19:2),并在人类的语言他的话是真实可信的(启示录21:5,22:6)。 There is no lack of fidelity in God's person, thought, or promise.没有上帝的人缺乏忠诚,思想或承诺。God is not hypocritical and inconsistent.上帝是不是虚伪和不一致的。

We may hold unsweringly to our hope because he who promised is faithful (Heb. 10:23), He is faithful to forgive our sins (1 John 1:9), sanctify believers until the return of Christ (1 Thess. 5:23-24), strengthen and protect from the evil one (II Thess. 3:3), and not let us be tempted beyond what we can bear (1 Cor. 10:13).我们可以认为unsweringly我们希望,因为他所承诺的忠实谁(希伯来书10:23),他是忠实于赦免我们的罪(约翰一书1:9),直到基督的圣回报(一帖信徒。5:23 -24),加强和保护脱离那恶者(第二帖。3:3),而不是让我们超出我们所能承受的诱惑(1肺心病。10:13)。Even if we are faithless, he remains faithful, for he cannot disown himself (II Tim. 2:13).即使我们纵然失信,他仍是可信的,因为他无法不认自己(二添。2:13)。

Not one word of all the good promises God gave through Moses failed (1 Kings 8:56).没有一个所有上帝通过摩西给了良好的诺言字失败(1国王8:56)。Isaiah praises the name of God, for in perfect faithfulness God did marvelous things planned long ago (Isa. 25:1).在完美的以赛亚赞扬神也奇妙的事忠诚计划的上帝,名字很久以前(以赛亚书25:1)。Passages like these convey a basic divine integrity in both life and thought.像这些通道都传达了神圣的生活和思想的基本完整。 No contrast can be drawn between what God is in himself and what God is in relation to those who trust him.没有对比,可以区分什么是上帝对自己和上帝有关这些信任他是谁。God does not contradict his promises in his works or in other teaching by dialectic, paradox, or mere complementarity.神并不矛盾,在他的作品或以辩证法,矛盾,或仅仅补充其他教学他的诺言。God knows everything, and nothing can come up that was not already taken into account before God revealed his purposes.上帝知道一切,没有什么能想出这不是已经考虑到上帝面前显示他的目的。

Because God is faithful and consistent, we ought to be faithful and consistent.因为上帝是信实的,一贯的,我们应当互相忠实,一贯的。Jesus said, "Simply let your Yes be Yes and your No, No" (Matt. 5:37).耶稣说:“只要是会是让你和你的不,不”(太5:37)。Paul exhibited this logical authenticity in his teaching about God.保罗表现在他的关于上帝的教学逻辑的真实性。As surely as God is faithful, he said, our message to you is not Yes and No (II Cor. 1:18).毫无疑问,神是信实的,他说,我们向你是不是是和否(二肺心病。1:18)。Those who imagine that talk about God in human language must affirm and deny the same thing at the same time and in the same respect (in dialectic or paradox) have a different view of the relation between the divine mind and the godly person's mind than did Paul.那些谁想到,大约上帝在人类的语言交谈,必须肯定和否定在同一时间和同样的尊重(在辩证或悖论)同样的事情之间有一个神圣的心灵和虔诚的人的比没有记的关系不同的看法保罗。 Because God is faithful, we must be faithful in our message about him.因为上帝是信实的,我们必须在我们对他的信息忠实。Since God cannot deny himself, we ought not to deny ourselves in speaking to God.既然上帝不能否定自己,我们不应该否认在神面前说话。

Knowing the connection between personal and conceptual faithfulness in God we know that the idea that faithful persons ought not to contradict themselves did not originate with Aristotle.在上帝的认识和概念之间的个人诚信方面,我们知道,人的思想,忠实不应互相矛盾并非源于亚里士多德。 He may have formulated the law of non-contradiction in a way that has been quoted ever since, but the ultimate source of the challenge to human fidelity in person and word is rooted in God himself.他可能已经制定了非矛盾的方式被引用的法律,从那时起,但最终来源的挑战人类保真度的人,字是上帝自己扎根。The universal demand for intellectual honesty reflects in the human heart the ultimate integrity of the Creator's heart.对学术诚实的普遍要求,反映了人类内心的造物主的心最终的完整性。

God is not only omniscient and consistent in person and word, but also perfectly wise上帝不仅是无所不知,在人与词一致,但也绝对明智

In addition to knowing all the relevant data on any subject, God selects ends with discernment and acts in harmony with his purposes of holy love.除了了解任何主题的所有相关数据,上帝选择的神圣的爱与和谐,他的目的与洞察力目的和行为。We may not always be able to see that events in our lives work together for a wise purpose, but we know that God chooses from among all the possible alternatives the best ends and means for achieving them.我们可能并不总是能够看到,在我们生活中的事件一个聪明的工作目标而努力,但我们知道,上帝选择从所有可能的最佳替代品和两端实现这些目标的手段。 God not only chooses the right ends but also for the right reasons, the good of his creatures and thus his glory.上帝不仅选择也为正确的理由正确的结束,对他的动物好,因此他的荣耀。

Although we may not fully understand divine wisdom, we have good reason to trust it.虽然我们可能不完全明白神的智慧,我们有充分的理由相信它。After writing on the great gift of the righteousness that comes from God, Paul exclaims, "To the only wise God be glory forever through Jesus Christ! Amen."经过对义,从神来的伟大的礼物写作,保罗感叹,“上帝的唯一明智的是通过耶稣基督的荣耀永远!阿门。”(Rom. 16:27).(罗16:27)。 He had earlier alluded to the incomprehensible depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God (Rom. 11:33).他曾间接提到的智慧和知识的神(罗11:33)的财富难以理解的深度。

The interrelation of the attributes is already evident as the divine omniscience is aware not only of what is but also of what ought to be (morally); divine faithfulness and consistency involve moral integrity and no hypocrisy; and wisdom makes decisions for action toward certain ends and means in terms of the highest values.的属性的相互关系已经很明显,是因为神无所不知不仅知道什么是什么,而且应该是(道德);神的信实和一致性涉及道德操守,并没有虚伪和智慧,使得对某些目的的行动的决定和手段方面的最高值。 It is not so strange then when we read that the fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge (Prov. 1:7).这不是很奇怪那么当我们读到,敬畏耶和华是知识的开端(箴1:7)。

Ethically, God Is Holy, Righteous, and Loving在伦理上,上帝是神圣的,正义,热爱

God is distinct from and transcendent to all his creatures, not only metaphysically and epistemologically, but also morally.上帝是有别于和超越他的所有生物,形而上学和认识论不仅,而且在道义上。God is morally spotless in character and action, upright, pure, and untainted with evil desires, motives, thought, words, or acts.上帝是不道德的性质和行动一尘不染,一身正气,纯洁,与邪恶的欲望,动机,思想,言论,或行为玷污。

God is Holy神是圣洁的

God is holy, and as such is the source and standard of what is right.神是圣洁的,因此是源,什么是正确的标准。God is free from all evil, loves all truth and goodness.上帝是摆脱一切邪恶,热爱真理和善良。He values purity and detests impurity and inauthenticity.他看重的纯度和杂质和不真实厌恶。God cannot approve of any evil, has no pleasure in evil (Ps. 5:4), and cannot tolerate evil (Hab. 1:13).上帝不能批准任何邪恶,没有在邪恶(诗篇5:4)的乐趣,也不能容忍邪恶(Hab. 1:13)。God abhors evil and cannot encourage sin in any way (James 1:13-14).神憎恶邪恶,不能以任何方式鼓励罪(雅各1:13-14)。Christians do not stand in awe of the holy as an abstraction, but of the Holy One (Isa. 40:25).基督徒不站在神圣的敬畏作为一个抽象的概念,但圣地之一(以赛亚书40:25)。The Holy One is not merely an object of emotional fascination, but of intellectual hearing and volitional obedience.圣地之一,不只是一种情感迷恋的对象,但听证会的智力和意志的服从。

Holiness is not solely the product of God's will, but a changeless characteristic of his eternal nature.圣洁是不完全的神的意志的产物,而是他的永恒不变的本质特征。The question Plato asked therefore needs to be reworded to apply to the Christian God: "Is the good good because God wills it? Or does God will it because it is good?"柏拉图问的问题,因此需要进行改写,以适用于基督教的上帝说:“好好好,因为是上帝的意志,或上帝会,是因为它是好的?” The question relates not to God's will or to some principle of goodness above God, but to God's essence.这个问题不涉及神的旨意或某些以上善良的上帝的原则,但上帝的本质。The good, the just, the pure, the holy is holy, not by reason of an arbitrary act of the divine will, nor of a principle independent of God, but because it is an outflow of his nature.好的,公正,纯洁,神圣的是圣洁的,而不是由一个意志,也不是独立的神圣原则,神任意行为的原因,而是因为它是他的天性流出。 God always wills in accord with his nature consistenly.神总是与他的本性consistenly符合遗嘱。He wills the good because he is good.他的意志的好,因为他是好的。And because God is holy, he consistently hates sin and is repulsed by all evil without respect of persons.而且因为上帝是圣洁的,他始终痛恨罪恶,是所有邪恶的人不尊重击退。The Holy Spirit is called holy not only because as a member of the divine Trinity he shares the holiness of the divine nature, but because the Spirit's distinctive function is to produce holy love in God's redeemed people.圣灵被称为神圣的,不仅因为作为一种神圣的三位一体,他赞同圣洁的神性的成员,但因为圣灵的独特功能是产生在神的救赎的人神圣的爱。 We are to seek to be morally spotless in character and action, upright, and righteous like the God we worship.我们寻求在道义上和行动的性质一尘不染​​,一身正气,像我们崇拜的神义。

God is Just or Righteous上帝是公正或正义

God's justice or righteousness is revealed in his moral law expressing his moral nature and in his judgment, granting to all, in matters of merit, exactly what they deserve.神的公义或正义,揭示他的道德法律表达他的道德性质,并在他的判断,给予所有在优异的事项,正是他们应得的。His judgment is not arbitrary or capricious, but principled and without respect of persons.他的判断是不是任意或反复无常,但有原则和不尊重的人。OT writers frequently protest the injustice experienced by the poor, widows, orphans, strangers, and the godly.加时赛作家经常抗议穷人,寡妇,孤儿,陌生人,并经历了不公正的虔诚。God, in contrast, has pity on the poor and needy (Ps. 72:12-14).上帝,相反,有怜悯穷人和有需要的(诗篇72:12-14)。He answers, delivers, revives, acquits, and grants them the justice that is their due.他的回答,交付,复苏,acquits,并授予他们的正义,这是他们到期。In righteousness God delivers the needy from injustice and persecution.在义神提供从不公正和迫害穷人。Eventually God will create a new heaven and a new earth in which righteousness will dwell (Isa. 65:17).最终,神将创建一个新的天堂和新的地球将住在其中的义(以赛亚书65:17)。

God's wrath is revealed as sinners suppress his truth and hold it down in unrighteousness (Rom. 1:18-32), both Jews and Gentiles (Rom. 2:1-3:20).上帝的愤怒被揭示为罪人抑制他的真理和持有不正下来(罗马书1:18-32),无论是犹太人和外邦人(罗马书2:1-3:20)。 In the gospel a righteousness from God is revealed, a righteousness that is by faith from first to last (Rom. 1:17; 3:21).在福音神的义,是一个发现,一个正义的信仰是由从第一个到最后一个(罗马书17分; 3:21)。Believers are justified freely by God's grace that came by Jesus Christ, who provided the sacrifice of atonement (Rom. 3:24).信徒都是合理的自由神的恩典,耶稣基督,谁提供了赎罪祭(罗马书3:24)来了。Hence like Abraham, those who are fully persuaded that God can do what he has promised (Rom. 4:21) find their faith credited to them for righteousness (Rom. 4:3, 24).因此像亚伯拉罕,那些谁是完全相信,上帝可以做什么,他答应(罗马书4:21)找到自己的信仰计入他们为义(罗4:3,24)。 God in his justice graciously provides for the just status of believers in Christ.上帝在他的正义慷慨提供,在基督信徒刚刚地位。 Righteousness in God is not unrelated to mercy, grace, and love.在神的义,便与怜悯,恩典和爱。

In mercy God withholds or modifies deserved judgment, and in grace God freely gives undeserved benefits to whom he chooses.神的怜悯截留或修改当之无愧的判断,并在上帝的恩典自如地给不当利益的人,他选择。All of these moral characteristics flow from God's great love.所有这些特点,从道德神的大爱流。In contrast to his transcendent self-existence is his gracious self-giving, agape love.相反,他的超越自我的存在是他的亲切自我奉献,神的爱。He who lives forever as holy, high, and lofty also lives with him who is contrite and lowly in spirit (Isa. 57:15).他谁的生命永远是圣洁的,高和崇高也住谁是他的忏悔和精神低(以赛亚书57:15)。

It is not that God is lacking something in himself (Acts 17:25), but that God desires to give of himself for the well-being of those loved, in spite of the fact that they are unlovely and undeserving.这并不是说上帝是缺乏自己(徒17:25)的东西,但上帝的欲望把自己给予的福祉所爱的人,尽管在事实上,他们是不讨人喜欢和不值得。 God not only loves but is in himself love (1 John 4:8).神不仅爱,而是在自己的爱(约翰一书4:8)。

His love is like that of a husband toward his wife, a father toward his son, and a mother toward her unweaned baby.他的爱就像是一个对他的妻子,父亲对他的儿子和一个未断奶的婴儿的母亲对她的丈夫。In love God chose Israel (Deut. 7:7) and predestined believeing members of the church to be adopted as sons through Jesus Christ (Eph. 1:4-5).在爱上帝选择了以色列(申命记7:7)和命中注定believeing​​教会的成员能够透过耶稣基督(弗1:4-5)的儿子通过。 God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life (John 3:16).神爱世人,他给了他唯一的儿子,谁信他的不至灭亡,反得永生(约翰福音3:16)。

Love cares for the aged, the oppressed, the poor, the orphans, and others in need.爱关心老人,被压迫,穷人,孤儿,和其他有需要的。The loving God of the Bible is not unmoved by people with real needs (or impassible).圣经的爱上帝不是通过与(或无动于衷)真正需要的人无动于衷。The God of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Job, Jeremiah, Jesus, Judas, Peter, and Paul suffered, indeed was long-suffering.亚伯拉罕,以撒,雅各,工作,耶利米,耶稣,犹大,彼得神,保罗痛苦,确实是长期的痛苦。In empathy God enters through imagination into the feelings of his creatures.移情神进入到他的动物的感情通过想象。 Beyond that, God incarnate entered through participation into our temptations and sufferings.除此之外,道成肉身的方式进入到我们的诱惑和痛苦的参与。As HW Robinson has said, "The only way in which moral evil can enter into the consciousness of the morally good is as suffering."由于硬件罗宾逊说,“唯一的方式,道德上的邪恶就可进入良好的道德意识是痛苦。”In all Israel's afflictions God was afflicted (Isa. 63:9).在所有以色列的折磨苦难是神(以赛亚书63:9)。What meaning can there be, Robinson asks, in a love that is not costly to the lover?能有什么意义,罗宾逊要求,在爱情这不是昂贵的情人?The God of the Bible is far from apathetic in regard to the vast suffering of people in the world.圣经的神是从冷漠远远关于在世界广大人民的苦难。In love God sent his Son to die that ultimately suffering might be done away and righteousness restored throughout the earth as the waters cover the seas.在爱上帝派他的儿子死的痛苦,最终可能被取缔和正义恢复整个地球的水充满海洋。

Since love involves commitment for the well-being of others, a responsible commitment, a faithful commitment, it is not classed as primarily emotional.因为爱涉及对幸福的人是承诺,作为一个负责任的承诺,忠实的承诺,它不是归类为主要情绪。Love is settled purpose of will involving the whole person in seeking the well-being of others.爱是解决涉及在寻求幸福的人将被整个人的目的。

Emotionally, God Detests Evil, Is Long-suffering, Compassionate在情感上,神憎恶邪恶,是长期的痛苦,体恤

AH Strong says God is devoid of passion and caprice.阿强说,上帝是缺乏激情和任性。Indeed God is devoid of caprice, injustice, or emotions out of control.事实上,神是反复无常,不公正,或缺乏情绪失控。 We have earlier sought to negate any passions unworthy of God.我们早前试图否定任何天灾激情不配。Strong rightly adds, there is in God no selfish anger.当然又强,但在神是不自私的愤怒。However, God is personal and ethical, and both senses call for healthy emotions or passions.然而,上帝是个人道德,都感觉健康的情绪或激情的呼吁。One who delights in justice, righteousness, and holiness for the well-being of his creatures can only be repulsed by the injustice, unrighteousness, and corruption that destroys their bodies, minds, and spirits.谁在一个公正,公义,和圣洁欢乐的幸福的他的动物暂时只能由不公,不义排斥,腐败,破坏了他们的身体,思想和精神。 Hence the Bible frequently speaks of God's righteous indignation at evil.因此,圣经中经常讲的上帝的在邪恶的义愤。Righteous indignation is anger aroused, not by being overcome by emotions selfishly but by injustice and all the works of fallen "flesh."义愤是愤怒引起不受到不公正和自私,而是由所有倒下的作品感情克服“肉”。God detests evil.上帝憎恨邪恶。

Jesus and the Scriptures in general speak more often of God's wrath at injustices such as persistent mistreatment of the poor and needy than of love and heaven.耶稣和圣经一般讲更多的时候,上帝的愤怒在持续的虐待,例如贫穷和不公正现象比天上的爱和有需要的。Although the Lord is slow to anger, he will in no way leave the guilty unpunished, but will pour out his fury upon them (Nah. 1:3).虽然耶和华不轻易发怒,他将离开丝毫没有有罪的为无罪,但在他们身上倾注了他的愤怒(Nah. 1:3)。 None can withstand his indignation, which is poured out like fire and shatters rocks before him (Nah. 1:6).没有人能抵挡他的愤慨,这是如火倾倒,碎在他面前(Nah. 1:6)的岩石。Apart from understanding God's wrath against evil, it is impossible to understand the extent of divine love in the incarnation, the extent of Christ's suffering on the cross, the propitiatory nature of his sacrifice, the prophetic Scriptures speaking of the great day of God's wrath, the great tribulation, or the book of Revelation.除了了解反对邪恶之神的愤怒,这是不可能了解的化身,神圣的爱的程度上,基督在十字架上的痛苦程度,他的牺牲和解的性质,神的忿怒的大日说prophetic圣经,伟大的磨难,或者启示录。

God is patient and long-suffering.上帝是耐心和长期的痛苦。Properly jealous for the well-being of the objects of his love, God is angry at injustice done to them but suffers without losing heart.正确的福祉,对他的爱被嫉妒的对象,上帝是不公平行为感到愤怒,但他们没有丧失信心受到影响。 Long-suffering with evildoers God, without condoning their sin, graciously provides them with undeserved temporal and spiritual benefits.长期遭受苦难的恶神,不纵容他们的罪,慷慨地提供了不当的时间和精神福利。God promised the land to Abraham, but the iniquity of the Amorites was not yet full (Gen. 15:16).神应许亚伯拉罕的土地,但在亚摩利人的罪孽还没有满(创15:16)。After over four hundred years of long-suffering restraint God in the fullness of time allowed the armies of Israel to bring just judgment upon the Amorites' wickedness.经过四百年的长期遭受苦难的克制神岁丰满的时间允许以色列军队将只在亚摩利人的'恶的判断。Later Israel worshipped the golden calf and deserved divine judgment like other idolators.后来,以色列崇拜金牛犊,值得像其他偶像崇拜者神圣的判断。But God revealed himself at the second giving of the law as "the Lord, the Lord, a God merciful and gracious, slow to anger, and abounding in steadfast love and faithfulness" (Exod. 34:6).但上帝透露,在第二次给作为法律“主,主,上帝仁慈大方,不轻易发怒,并有丰盛的慈爱和诚实”(出34:6)他自己。 The Psalmist could write, "But Thou, O Lord, art a God merciful and gracious, slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love and faithfulness" (Ps. 86:15).诗人可以写的,“但是你,主啊,艺术是上帝仁慈大方,缓慢发怒,有丰盛的慈爱和诚实”(诗篇86:15)。However, the day of God's grace has an end.然而,神的恩典的日子也有结束。Eventually, without respect of persons, God's just judgment fell upon Israel for its pervasive evils.最后,没有人尊重,上帝的公正判决落在以色列的普遍弊端。God's long-suffering is a remarkable virtue, but it does not exclude or contradict God's justice.上帝的长期苦难是一个了不起的美德,但它并不排斥或矛盾上帝的正义。

Although theologians in the Thomistic tradition have taught the impassibility of God, the Scriptures do not hesitate to call God compassionate.虽然在thomistic传统神学家曾经教神impassibility,圣经不要犹豫,请神慈悲。 Because of his great love we are not consumed, for his compassions never fail (Lam. 3:22).由于他的伟大的爱,我们都没有消耗,因他的怜悯永远不会失败(Lam. 3:22)。Even after Israel's captivity God will again have compassion on her (Mic. 7:19).即使在以色列的被掳的神将再次有同情她(Mic. 7:19)。The God of the Bible is not an apathetic God, but one who deeply cares when the sparrow falls.圣经的上帝不是一个冷漠的上帝,而是一个谁深深关心时,麻雀落地。Jesus beautifully displayed this divine-human compassion for the hungry (Matt. 15:32), the blind (Matt. 20:34), the sorrowing (Luke 7:13).耶稣精美显示此为饥饿(太15:32),盲人(太20:34),在悲伤(路加福音7:13)神,人的同情。And Jesus taught the importance of compassion in the account of the good Samaritan (Luke 10:33) and that of the father's concern for his lost son (Luke 15:20).耶稣教导的好撒玛利亚人(路10:33)账户,同情的重要性,父亲对他失去的儿子(路加福音15:20)关注。

The incarnate Christ felt what humans feel in all respects but did not yield to the temptations involved.肉身的基督觉得什么人在各方面的感觉,但没有涉及的诱惑屈服。As God in literal human experience, Jesus wept with those who wept and rejoiced with those who rejoiced.就像神在人文科学的经验,耶稣哭了那些谁哭了,与那些谁高兴高兴。He remembered the joyful glory he had with the Father before the foundation of the world (John 17:5, 13).他想起了欢乐的荣耀,他与父亲收到了世界的基础(约翰17:5,13)。The divine-human author of our salvation, however, was made perfect or complete through suffering in this life (Heb. 2:10).拯救我们的神圣的,人类作者,但是,取得了完美或完全通过在此生活(希伯来书2:10)的痛苦。Because he himself suffered, he can help those who suffer and are tempted (Heb. 2:18).因为他自己受苦,他可以帮助那些谁受苦,被引诱(希伯来书2:18)。The God revealed in Jesus Christ is no apathetic, uninvolved, impersonal first cause.上帝在耶稣基督里发现没有精神萎靡,健侧,客观的首要原因。The Father who Jesus disclosed is deeply moved by everything that hurts his children.谁透露耶稣的父亲是深受感动的一切,伤害了他的孩子。

Existentially, God Is Free, Authentic, and Omnipotent.其生存,上帝是免费的,真实的,无所不能。The modern concerns for freedom, authenticity, fulfilment should not be limited to mankind.为自由,真实性现代的关注,履行不应局限于人类。Biblical writers seem even more concerned that God be understood to be free, authentic, and fulfilled.圣经的作家似乎更关注的是上帝被理解为是自由的,真实的,和满足。

God is Free上帝是免费的

From all eternity God is not conditioned by anything other than himself contrary to his purposes.从所有永恒上帝是不是比自己条件的其他任何违背他的目的。Good things, as we have seen, are purposed with divine pleasure and enduement.好东西,正如我们所看到的,是与神的旨意高兴和enduement。Evil things are permitted with divine displeasure.邪恶的东西被允许与神的不满。But God is self-determined, either way.但神是自我决定的,无论哪种方式。Self-determination is that concept of freedom which emphasizes that personal thought, feeling, and volition are not determined by external factors but by one's self.自决是自由的概念,强调个人思想,感情和意志不是由外部因素决定的,而是由一个人的自我。

God is not free to approve sin, to be unloving, to be unwise, to ignore the hard facts of reality, to be unfaithful to what is or ought to be, to be uncompassionate or unmerciful.上帝是不能自由罪批准,将没有爱心,是不明智的,无视现实的确凿的事实,是不忠什么是或应该是,以慈悲或无情。 God cannot deny himself.上帝不能否定自己。God is free to be himself, his personal, eternal, living, intellectual, ethical, emotional, volitional self.上帝是免费为他自己,他个人的,永恒的,生活,思想,道德,情感,意志的自我。

God is authentic, authentically himself神是真实的,真正自己

The God who in Christ so unalterably opposed hyprocrisy is himself no hypocrite.所以在基督里的谁坚持反对立场hyprocrisy上帝是自己没有的伪君子。We have emphasized his intellectual integrity or faithfulness above.我们强调他的智慧完整或忠诚以上。Here we emphasize his integrity ethically, emotionally, and existentially.在这里,我们强调他的诚信道德,情感和其生存。 God is self-conscious, knows who he is and what his purposes are (1 Cor. 2:11).神是自我意识,知道他是谁,他的目的是:(1肺心病。2:11)。He has a keen sense of identity, meaning, and purpose.他有敏锐的身份,意义和目的。

God knows that he is the ultimate being, that there are in reality none to compare with him.上帝知道,他是最终的存在,在现实中有没有一个是与他进行比较。In calling upon people to turn from idols, therefore, God in no way is asking something of us not in accord with reality.在呼吁人们把从偶像,所以,上帝绝不是要求不符合实际的,我们的东西。In steadfastly opposing idolatry he seeks to protect people from ultimate concerns destined to disillusion and disappoint.在坚决反对偶像崇拜他的目的是保护注定要幻灭,从终极关怀的人失望。God desires our worship for our sakes, that we not succumb eventually to despair as one after another of our finite gods lets us down.神渴望我们的敬拜是为了我们好,我们不会屈从最终绝望的一神后,我们有限的另一个让我们失望。

In the next place, God is omnipotent (Mark 14:36; Luke 1:37).在未来的地方,上帝是万能的(马克14时36路加福音1:37)。God is able to do whatever he wills in the way in which he wills it.神能够做什么,他的遗嘱,在遗嘱中,他的方式了。God does not choose to do anything contrary to his nature of wisdom and holy love.上帝不会选择做任何违背他的智慧和圣洁的爱的本质。God cannot deny himself, and God does not choose to do everything by his own immediate agency without intermediate angelic and human agents.上帝不能否定自己,上帝不会选择做他自己的直接代理,没有中间代理商天使和人类的一切。 Although God determines some things to come to pass unconditionally (Isa. 14:24-27), most events in history are planned conditionally, through the obedience of people or their permitted disobedience to divine precepts (II Chr. 7:14; Luke 7:30; Rom. 1:24).虽然上帝决定一些事情,来通过无条件(以赛亚书14:24-27),在历史上最有条件的活动计划,通过对人的准许或不服从服从神的戒律(二染色体7:14。卢克7 :30;罗1:24)。。In any case, God's eternal purposes for history are not frustrated, but fulfilled in the way he chose to accomplish them (Eph. 1:11).在任何情况下,对历史上帝的永恒的宗旨是不感到沮丧,但在他选择的方式履行完成这些(弗1:11)。

God has not only the strength to effect all his purposes in the way in which he purposes them, but also the authority in the entire realm of his kingdom to do what he will.神不仅有力量影响的方式,他的用途,而且在整个领域,他的王国的权力做什么,他都将他的目的。God is not a subject of another's dominion, but is King or Lord of all.上帝不是别人的统治问题,但它是所有国王或主。By virtue of all his other attributes, his wisdom, justice, and love, for example, God is fit for the ruling of all that he created and sustains.通过对他的所有其他属性的美德,他的智慧,正义和爱,例如,上帝是为他创造一切统治和维持健康。God is a wise, holy, and gracious sovereign.上帝是一个明智的,圣洁的,亲切的主权。As just, the power of God itself cannot punish sinners more than they deserve.正如刚才,神本身的力量不能惩罚罪人超过他们应得的。 To whom much is given, of him much shall be required; to whom little is given, of him little shall be required.为了你的能力越大,他的许多均须;向谁小,给出了他的小应是必需的。But in the bestowing of undeserved benefits and gifts God is free to dispense them as he pleases (Ps. 135:6).但在不当利益和上帝赐予的礼物是免费的,免除他们为所欲为,因为他(诗篇135:6)。Having permitted sin, God is great enough to limit its furious passions and to overrule it for greater good, as at Calvary (Acts 4:24-28).经允许的罪,神是伟大的,足以限制其疯狂热情和更大的利益为推翻它在各各(徒4:24-28)。God can defeat the nations and demonic hosts that rage against him.神能打败东道主国家和恶魔,对他的愤怒。No one can exist independent of divine sovereignty.没有人能独立存在的神圣主权。The attempt to go one's own way independent of God is sinful insolence on the part of creatures who in him live and move and have their being.企图走自己的路神的独立是建立在生物谁在他的生活,动作,并把他们的生命的一部分罪恶的傲慢。Only a fool could say that there is no God, when God sustains the breath the atheist uses to deny divine dominion over him.只有傻瓜才说,有没有上帝,当上帝维持呼吸的无神论者用来否认对他的神圣的统治。

Relationally, God Is Transcendent in Being, Immanent Universally in Providential Activity, and Immanent with His People in Redemptive Activity相关法,上帝是在救赎的活动作为自己的人民,普遍在保佑内在活力和内在超越

As transcendent, God is uniquely other than everything in creation.作为超越的,上帝是唯一比其他一切创作。God's distinctness from the being of the world has been implied in previous discussions of God's attributes metaphysically, intellectually, ethically, emotionally, and existentially.神从世界正在明显暗示了在神的属性形而上学的,理智,道德,情感和存在上以前的讨论。God is "hidden" relationally because so great in all these other ways.上帝是“隐藏”的相关法因为如此,在所有这些其他方面的伟大。God's being is eternal, the world's temporal.神的存在是永恒的,世界的时空。God's knowledge is total, human knowledge incomplete.上帝的知识是全面,人类的知识不完整的。God's character is holy, humanity's character fallen and sinful.神的性格是神圣的,人类的堕落和罪恶性质。God's desires are consistently against evil yet long-suffering and compassionate; human desires fluctuate inconsistently and often intermingle evil with the good.神的欲望却是一贯反对邪恶而长期遭受苦难和同情,人的欲望波动不一致,往往交融与善胜恶。God's energy is untiring and inexhaustible; the world's energy is subject to depletion through entropy.神的能量是取之不尽,用之不竭的不懈和,世界的能源是受通过熵枯竭。Hence God is over and above persons in the world in all these respects.因此,上帝已经过去,在世界上的人,在所有这些方面。

The incomparable divine transcendence involves a radical dualism between God and the world that ought not be blurred by a resurgent monism and pantheism.无可比拟的神圣超越涉及之间的上帝和世界,不应该由一元论和泛神论复兴的模糊激进的二元论。Although made like God and in the divine image, mankind is not (like Christ) begotten of God or an emanation from God of the same divine nature.尽管像上帝和神圣的形像造的,人类是不是(像基督)造物主上帝或神的同神性的化身。The ultimate goal of salvation is not reabsorption into the being of God but unbroken fellowship with God.救恩的最终目标是不进是与上帝的上帝,但从未间断金重吸收。The unity Christians seek is not a metaphysical unity with God but a relational unity, a oneness of mind, desire, and will.基督徒追求的团结,是不是一个形而上学的团结与上帝的关系,但一个团结,一种思想,欲望一体,和意志。To seek to be as God in a biblical perspective is not deeper spirituality but rebellious idolatry or blasphemy.为寻求神在圣经观点不深的灵性,但叛逆偶像崇拜或亵渎。Christians may respect nature as a divine creation but not worship nature as divine.基督徒可能会创造一个神圣的尊重而不是作为神的崇拜性质。Christians may respect the founders of the world's religions but cannot bow to any guru as the divine manifest in human form.基督徒可能会尊重世界的宗教的创始人,但不能屈服于任何作为人类神圣的形式表现大师。Only Jesus Christ is from above; all others are from below (John 8:23).只有耶稣基督是从上面,所有的人都是来自下面(约翰8:23)中。 Because God is separate from the world, Christians cannot bow to any earthly power as God, whether that power be economic, political, religious, scientific, educational, or cultural.因为上帝是来自世界不同的,基督徒不能屈服于任何世俗力量为上帝,无论是电力是经济,政治,宗教,科学,教育,或文化。 The inestimable benefit of bowing to a transcendent Lord of all is that it frees one from every finite, fallen tyranny.作者:屈从于一个超越万物的主不可估量的好处是,它使从每个有限,倒下的暴政之一。

A biblical theist not only believes that the one, living God is separate from the world, as against pantheism and panentheism, but also that God is continuously active throughout the world providentially, in contrast to deism.圣经有神论者不仅认为,一,生命之神从世界分别对泛神论和panentheism,而且上帝是不断活跃在世界各地providentially,而相比之下,自然神论。 God is not so exalted that he cannot know, love, or relate to natural law in the world of everyday experience.上帝是不那么崇高,他可以不知道,爱情,或涉及在日常经验世界的自然法则。A study of divine providence as taught in Scripture shows that God sustains, guides, and governs all that he created.作者:天意研究,教经文表明神支撑,引导和管理所有,他创建的。The nature psalms reflect upon God's activity in relation to every aspect of the earth, the atmosphere, vegetation, and animal (eg, Ps. 104).诗篇反省的性质上帝的有关活动的每一个地球,大气,植被和动物(例如,聚苯乙烯。104)方面。God also preserves and governs human history, judging corrupt societies and blessing the just and the unjust with temporal benefits like the sunshine, rain, food and drink.上帝也保存和人类历史上执政,判断腐败的社会和祝福公正和与像阳光,雨水,食品和饮料的时空好处是不公正的。Through God's universal providential activity the cosmos holds together and his wise purposes of common grace are achieved.通过神的普遍天赐一起活动的宇宙拥有共同的恩典和他的明智的目的得以实现。

But God is immanent in the lives of his people who repent of their sin and live by faith to accomplish the goals of his redemptive grace.但上帝是内在的人谁在他的忏悔自己的罪过和信心活到完成他的救赎恩典目标的生活。"For this is what the high and lofty One says, he who lives forever, whose name is holy; I live in a high and holy place, but also with him who is contrite and lowly in spirit, to revive the spirit of the lowly and to revive the heart of the contrite" (Isa. 57:15). “因为这才是至高至上,一个说,他永远住谁,他的名字是神圣的,我生活在一个高和神圣的地方,但他还谁是痛悔和精神低,要重振卑微的精神并恢复了懊悔的心“(以赛亚书57:15)。 Just as persons may be present to one another in varying degrees, God may be present to the unjust in one sense and to the just in a richer way.正如人可能在不同程度上呈现给对方,上帝可能会在某种意义上和本这种不公平的只是一个更丰富的方式。A person may simply be present as another rider on a bus, or much more significantly as a godly mother who has prayed daily for you all of your life.一个人可能只是被当作另一车手目前在公共汽车上,或作为一个虔诚得多母亲谁也祈求你的生活每天都显着。God is graciously present in forgiving love with the converted, who by faith have been propitiated, reconciled, and redeemed by Christ's precious blood.上帝是宽容和慷慨​​的转​​换,谁的信心已被propitiated,和解,以及基督的宝血赎回的爱存在。They become his people, he becomes their God.他们成为他的人,他成为他们的神。God dwells in them as his holy place or temple.上帝居住的地方或作为他的圣寺在其中。The relational oneness of thoughts, desires, and purposes grows through the years.的思想,愿望和目的的关系经过多年的成长统一性。That unity is shared by other members of Christ's body who are gifted to build each other up to become progressively more like the God they worship, not metaphysically, but intellectually, ethically, emotionally, and existentially.团结就是共享的其他成员基督的身体谁是天生的互相建立逐步成为他们崇拜的神一样多,而不是形而上学的,而是理智,道德,情感和其生存。

Summary综述

In summary, God is a living, personal Spirit worthy of whole-soul adoration and trust (because of his many perfect attributes), separate from the world, and yet continously active in the world.总之,上帝是活的,个人精神的全灵魂崇拜和信任(因为他的许多完美的属性),独立于世界,但在世界上值得持续活跃。

Unlimited by space, God nevertheless created and sustains the cosmos, scientific laws, geographical and political boundaries.无限的空间,但上帝创造和维系着宇宙,科学规律,地理和政治的界限。

Beyond time, God nevertheless actively relates to time, to each human life, home, city, nation, and to human history in general.超越时间,但积极关乎神的时候,每个人的生命,家庭,城市,民族,和一般人类历史。

Transcendent to discursive knowledge and conceptual truth, God nevertheless intelligently relates to propositional thought and verbal communication, objective validity, logical consistency, factual reliability, coherence and clarity, as well as subjective authenticity and existential integrity.超越于知识和概念话语真理,上帝不过智能涉及命题思想和语言的沟通,客观有效性,逻辑一致性,事实的可靠性,一致性和清晰度,以及存在的主观真实性和完整性。

Unlimited by a body, God is nevertheless providentially related to physical power in nature and society, industrially, agriculturally, socially, and politically.由一个机构无限,但上帝是与物理电源providentially在自然和社会,工业,农业上,社会上和政治上。 God knows and judges human stewardship in the use of all the earth's energy resources.天晓得和法官在地球上所有的能源资源的使用人的管理。

God transcends every attempt to achieve justice in the world, but righteously relates to every good endeavor of his creatures personally, economically, socially, academically, religiously, and politically.上帝超越一切努力实现世界正义,而是理直气壮地涉及到他的每一个生灵好个人的努力,经济,社会,学术,宗教,政治建设。

Although free from unworthy and uncontrolled emotions, God is caringly related to the poor, the unfortunate, the lonely, the sorrowing, the sick, the victims of prejudice, injustice, anxiety, and despair.虽然免费从卑微的和不受控制的情感,充满关爱与上帝是穷人,不幸,孤独,忧伤,患病者,偏见,不公平,焦虑和绝望的受害者。

Beyond all the apparent meaninglessness and purposelessness of human existence, God personally gives significance to the most insignificant life.除了这些明显的无意义和人类生存的无目的,上帝亲自赋予的意义,最微不足道的生活。

GR Lewis遗传资源刘易斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
H. Bavinck, The Doctrine of God; D. Bloesch, Essentials of Evangelical Theology; JM Boice, The Sovereign God; E. Brunner, The Christian Doctrine of God; JO Buswell, Jr., A Systematic Theology of the Christian Religion; LS Chafer, Systematic Theology; S. Charnock, The Existence and Attributes of God; CFH Henry, God, Revelation and Authority, 4 vols.; J. Lawson, Comprehensive Handbook of Christian Doctrine; GR Lewis, "Categories in Collision?"阁下巴文克,神的教义;四Bloesch,基督教神学的基础教程; JM博伊斯,主权神大肠杆菌布伦纳,上帝的基督教教义;联办巴斯韦尔,小,一个系统的基督教神学;最小二乘金龟子,有系统的神学;学查诺克的存在和属性的神,中信国亨利,上帝,启示和权威,4卷。j的劳森,综合手册基督教教义; GR的刘易斯,“分类中的碰撞?”in Perspectives on Evangelical Theology, ed.在基督教神学的观点,编辑。K. Kantzer and S. Gundry; GR Lewis, Decide for Yourself: A Theological Workbook and Testing Christianity's Truth Claims; JI Packer, Knowing God; WW Stevens, Doctrines of the Christian Religion; AH Strong, Systematic Theology; H. Thielicke, The Evangelical Faith, 2 vols.; OC Thomas, Introduction to Theology; AW Tozer, Knowledge of the Holy; HO Wiley, Christian Theology, I.光Kantzer和S.冈德里; GR的刘易斯,自己决定:一个工作簿和测试基督教神学的真理宣称,巴刻,认识神;第一次世界大战史蒂文斯,基督教宗教教义;啊强的,有系统的神学;阁下•悌理柯时,福音派信仰,第2卷。奥委会托马斯,介绍神学;胡托泽,知识的圣地;何威利,基督教神学,一


Doctrine of God上帝的学说

Advanced Information - III先进的信息-三

The most fundamental teaching of the Bible and Christian theology is that God exists and is ultimately in control of the universe.圣经和基督教神学最根本的教学是上帝存在,并在最终控制的宇宙。This is the foundation on which all Christian theologizing is built.这是在其所有的基督教神学是建立基础。

The Biblical Concept of God上帝的圣经中的概念

Existence存在

Questions concerning the reality of God are not discussed in the Scriptures; his existence is everywhere assumed.关于上帝的问题并不现实,讨论了圣经,他的存在是无处不在假定。The opening passage which reveals God as Creator and Sovereign of heaven and earth sets the pattern for the remainder of the Bible in which God is viewed as foundational for a view of life and the world.开幕式通道,其中揭示的创造者和天上的上帝和地球主权设置为剩余的圣经中,上帝是浏览了一个基本的生活和世界观格局。 The biblical question is therefore not does God exist, but who is God?圣经中的问题是,上帝不存在,但谁是上帝?

The Scriptures do recognize the existence of a professed atheism.圣经的确认识了一个自称无神论的存在。 But such atheism is considered primarily a moral rather than an intellectual problem.但是,这种无神论是认为主要是道德,而不是一个智力问题。The fool who denies God (Ps. 14:1) does so not from philosophical reasons (which are, in any case, incapable of disproving the absolute except by affirming such), but from the practical supposition that he can live without considering God (Ps. 10:4).傻瓜谁否认神(诗篇14:1)这样做是不是从哲学上的原因(这是在任何情况下,除非驳斥这种绝对不能肯定),但是从实际的假设,他可以生活在没有考虑神(诗。10:4)。 The Scriptures also recognize the possibility of a willful and therfore culpable "suppressing" of the knowledge of God (Rom. 1:18).圣经也承认故意的可能性,并具有强烈​​有罪的“打压”的神(罗马书1:18)的知识。

Knowledge of God知识的上帝

According to the Scriptures, God is known only through his self-revelation.根据圣经,上帝是众所周知只有通过他的自我启示。 Apart from his initiative in disclosing himself God could not be known by man.除了他自己主动在披露上帝不能被称为男人。Human attempts to reason to God by various means, including the so-called proofs of God, while they can provide evidence for the need fo a god, do not yet attain to the knowledge of the true God (cf. I Cor. 1:21 a).人类试图通过各种手段的原因,包括神的所谓证据上帝,而他们可以为一个上帝需要证据,还没有达到到真正的上帝的知识(参见林前1。: 21)。Limited to the realm of creation, whether external nature or human subjective experience, man is incapable of reasoning to a valid knowledge of the transcendent Creator.限于创作领域,无论是外部自然或人为的主观体验,人的推理能力的超越一个有效的知识创造者。God alone knows himself and discloses himself to whom he wills by his spirit (I Cor. 2:10-11).只有上帝知道自己和他的精神所披露自己的人,他的遗嘱(我肺心病。2:10-11)。As the subject of his revelation God at the same time makes himself the object of human knowledge so that man can know him truly.作为他的启示,同时使自己受到神的人类知识对象,以便人类能真正了解他。

God has also revealed something of himself in his creation and preservation of the universe (Rom. 1:20), and to the extent that human reason yields a concept of a god it is undoubtedly related to this general or natural revelation.上帝也暴露出一些对自己在他的创作对宇宙和保存(罗马书1:20),以及人类理性的范围内,产生了一个上帝,那无疑是与此相关的一般或自然流露的概念。 But the entrance of sin and its alienating effect blinds man from truly seeing God through this means (Rom. 1:18; Eph. 4:18).但是,其罪恶的入口和疏远百叶窗从真正看到效果,这意味着通过神人(罗马书1:18;弗4:18)。。 Moreover, the Bible indicates that even prior to the fall man's knowledge of God was derived not solely from the creation surrounding him, but from a direct personal communication with God.此外,圣经表明,即使今年秋天之前人对神的知识推导出不单单从他周围的创作,而是由个人直接与上帝沟通。

While God communicates himself to man through a variety of means, including actions and words, human knowledge is fundamentally a conceptual matter and therefore the Word is the primary means of God's revelation.虽然上帝传达通过各种手段,包括各种行动和自己的男人的话​​,人类的知识基本上是一个概念问题,因此这个词是上帝的启示主要手段。 Even his actions are not left as mute works but are accompanied by the interpretive Word to give their true meaning.即使没有离开他的行动是无声的作品,但因为是由陪同解说字给他们的真正含义。The revelation of God climaxed in the person of Jesus Christ, who was not simply the bearer of the revelatory Word of God as were all who spoke God's Word prior to his coming, but the personal divine Word.上帝的启示高潮中耶稣基督的,谁是不是简单的神的启示词承载的都是谁讲神的话语之前,他来的人,但个人神圣的字眼。 In him "all the fullness of deity" dwelt in bodily form (Col. 2:9).在他“所有的丰满的神”的身体形态(西2:9)居住。Thus in his work as Creator and Redeemer and through his words, God makes himself known to man.因此,在他的创造者和救赎的工作,并通过他的话,神使自己知道的人。

The revelation of God does not totally exhaust his being and activity.神的启示并没有完全耗尽他的存在和活动。He remains the incomprehensible one that man cannot totally fathom, both in his essence and ways (Job 36:26; Isa. 40:13, 28; cf. Deut. 29:29).他仍然是不可理解的一个人不能完全捉摸,在他的本质和方法(就业36:26;赛40:13,28;。比照申命记29:29。。)都。 Finitude cannot comprehend infinity, nor can human thought patterns, which are associated with the created environment, completely grasp the transcendent realm of God.有限性无法理解无穷大,也不能人类的思维模式,这是与创​​造的环境有关​​,完全掌握在上帝的超然境界。

On the basis of this limitation of human reason modern rationalism has at times argued for the unknowability of God.基于这个原因,现代人类理性的局限性的基础上,有时也为神的不可知性论证。Man's knowledge is said to be limited to the world of human experience, thus excluding the knowledge of a transcedent God.人的知识被认为是仅限于人类经验的世界,从而排除了一transcedent上帝的知识。Such an equation of the incomprehensibility of God with unknowability is valid only on the premise that man's knowledge of God is derived through human reason.这种对神与不可知不可理解的方程只适用于该人对神的认识是通过人​​的理性推导的前提。But the incomprehensible God of the Scriptures is the God who reaches out to man with the revelation of himself.但令人费解的圣经神是谁伸出的神与他自己启示给人。The knowledge thus derived, although limited according to his good pleasure, is nevertheless a true knowledge of his being and work.由此衍生的知识,尽管有限的,据他好高兴,但仍然对他的幸福和工作​​的真正的知识。

In giving us a knowledge of himself God gives his Word a finite form compatible with human creatureliness.在给我们一个对自己知识的上帝给他的字一个有限的形式与人类creatureliness兼容。Despite this necessary accommodation to the limitations of human understanding, the revealed knowledge of God is nevertheless an authentic knowledge of God.尽管有此需要住宿,人类认识的局限性,上帝发现知识仍然是一个神的真实的知识。Theories which use the difference between God and man to deny the possibility of a genuine communication of true knowledge do not do justice to at least two biblical facts: (1) the truth that God created man in his own image, which certainly includes a likeness sufficient for communication; (2) the omnipotence of God, which implies that he can make a creature to whom he can truthfully reveal himself if he so wills.它使用的理论之间的区别神和人否认一个真正的知识真正的沟通的可能性不公平对待圣经至少有两个事实:(1)上帝创造的真理,在他自己的形象,这当然包括肖像人沟通不够;(2)神的万能,这意味着他可以使一个生物人,他可以如实地揭示自己,如果他这样的遗嘱。 To be sure, there remains a hiddenness in relation to the total comprehension of God.可以肯定的是,仍然存在着一个有关神的总理解hiddenness。But God himself does not remain hidden, for he has given true though partial knowledge of himself through self-revelation understandable to man.但是神自己不留隐患,因为他给了部分知识,但通过自我启示,对自己理解的人真的。

The nature of our knowledge of God has been the subject of much discussion in Christian theology.我们对神的知识的性质一直是在基督教神学议论纷纭。Some have emphasized the negative character of our knowledge, eg, God is infinite, nontemporal, incorporeal.有些人强调了我们的知识否定的性质,例如,上帝是无限的,nontemporal,无形的。Others, notably Aquinas, have advocated an analogical knowledge that is similar to God's knowledge and yet dissimilar because of his infinite greatness.其他人,尤其是阿奎那,都主张一个类比知识是类似于神的知识,但因为他的无限伟大不一样的。Suffice it to say that even the negative (such as infinite) conveys a positive concept of greatness, and, while the position of analogy may be used to acknowledge a distinction in depth and breadth of understanding, there is finally a sense in which man's knowledge of divine things is the same as God's.我只想说,即使是负面的(例如无限)传达了一个伟大的积极的概念,而且,而比喻的位置可能被用来确认在深度和认识广度的区别,那也有一个感觉,即人的知识神圣的东西,这是作为上帝的相同。 For if man does not know God's meaning, he does not know the true meaning.因为如果人不知道上帝的意思,他不知道的真正含义。Interestingly, the Scriptures view the problem of a true knowledge of God as moral rather than noetic.有趣的是,经查看是上帝,而不是纯粹理性作为道德的真正的知识的问题。

Definition of God神的定义

From the biblical viewpoint it is generally agreed that it is impossible to give a strict definition of the idea of God.从圣经的角度人们普遍认为,这是不可能给一个神的概念的严格定义。Defining, which means limiting, involves the inclusion of the object within a certain class or known universal and the indication of its distinguishing features from other objects in that same class.定义,这意味着限制,涉及在一定阶级的对象纳入或已知普及,其显着特征,在该同一类的其他对象的迹象。Since the biblical God is unique and incomparable (Isa. 40:25), there is no universal abstract category of the divine.由于圣经的上帝是独一无二的,无与伦比的(以赛亚书40:25),不存在普遍的神圣抽象类。Studies in comparative religions reveal that "god" is, in fact, conceived in the most different ways.在比较宗教学的研究显示,“神”,实际上,在最不同的方式怀孕。Attempts to provide a general definition that encompasses all concepts of the divine, such as Anselm's "that than which nothing greater is conceivable," or "the supreme Being," do not convey much of the specific characteristics of the God of Scripture.试图提供一个一般的定义,它包括所有的神圣概念,如安瑟伦的,“这没有什么比这更大的想像,”或“帝”,不传达的神的经文的具体特点了。 Instead of a general definition of God, therefore, the Bible presents descriptions of God as he has revealed himself.取而代之的是神一般的定义,因此,圣经描述,介绍了神,他透露自己。These are conveyed through express statements as well as through the many names by which God identifies himself.这些都是通过明示声明,以及通过,其中神确定自己的许多名字传达。Fundamental to the nature of God, according to the biblical description, are the truths that he is personal, spiritual, and holy.根本性质的上帝,根据圣经的描述,是真理,他是个人的,精神的,神圣的。

God Is Personal上帝是个人

Over against any abstract neutral metaphysical concept, the God of Scripture is first and foremost a personal being.在针对任何抽象的形而上学的中性概念,圣经的上帝是首先是一个个人的福祉。He reveals himself by names, especially the great personal name Yahweh (cf. Exod. 3:13-15; 6:3; Isa. 42:8).他透露自己的名字,尤其是伟大的个人名称雅威(参见Exod 3:13-15。6:3;赛42:8)。。He knows and wills self-consciously in accord with our concept of personality (I Cor. 2:10-11; Eph. 1:11).他知道和意志的自我意识在符合我们的理念与人格(林前2:10-11。弗1:11。)。The centrality of God's personality is seen in the fact that while he is the Creator and Preserver of all nature, he is encountered in Scripture not primarily as the God of nature, as in pagan religions, but rather as the God of history, controlling and directing the affairs of man.上帝的人格中心是看到了这一事实,而他是造物主和保护者的所有的性质,他是在圣经中遇到主要不是由于自然神事实上,在异教徒的宗教,而是历史的神,控制和引导人的事务。 The central place of the covenant by which he links himself in a personal relationship to men is further indication of the scriptural emphasis on the personal nature of God.该公约由他个人关系联系,对男人自己的中心位置,是对上帝的圣经强调个人性质的进一步指示。Nowhere is the personhood of God more evident than in his biblical description as Father.没有任何一个地方神人格比他作为父亲的圣经描述明显。Jesus constantly spoke of God as "my Father," "your Father," and "the heavenly Father."耶稣不断地说话了:“我的父亲”,“你爸爸”和“天堂的父亲。神”Beyond the unique Trinitarian relationship of the divine Son with the Father, which certainly involves personal traits, the fatherhood of God speaks of him as the source and sustainer of his creatures who personally cares for them (Matt. 5:45; 6: 26-32) and the one to whom man can turn in believing trust.除了独特的与父亲,圣子三位一体的关系,这当然涉及个人特质,是神的父亲谈到他作为源和自持的他的动物谁亲自关心他们(马太福音5时45分,6:26 - 32)和一个可以转动的人相信人的信任。

The personhood of God has been called into question on the basis of our use of the word "person" with respect to human beings.神的人格已受到质疑对我们使用这个词的“人”与人有关的基础。Human personhood involves limitation that allows relationship with another person or the world.人的人格涉及的限制,允许与其他人或世界的关系。To be a person means to be an individual among individuals.成为一个人的手段是个人之间的个人。All of this cautions us against an erroneous anthropomorphizing of God.所有这一切对神的一个警告错误anthropomorphizing我们。Biblically it is more proper to see the personhood of God as having priority over that of man and therefore to understand human personhood theomorphously, ie, a finite replica of the infinite divine person.圣经是比较恰当的,视有优先权的人,因此,理解人的人格theomorphously,即一个人的无限神圣的有限复制品神的人格。 Despite the final incomprehensibility of God's suprahuman personhood, the Scriptures portray him as a real person who gives himself in reciprocal relationship to us as a genuine Thou.尽管神的suprahuman人格最终不可理解,圣经描绘成一个真正的人谁给的互惠关系你自己是一个真正给我们了。

The biblical concept of the personhood of God refutes all abstract philosophical ideas of God as merely First Cause or Prime Mover as well as all naturalistic and pantheistic concepts.在神的人格驳斥圣经中的概念都是神的抽象只是第一个原因,或原动机,以及所有自然和pantheistic观的哲学思想。 Modern equations of God with immanent personal relations (eg, love) are also rejected.神现代方程的内在(如爱)的个人关系,也被拒绝。

God Is Spiritual神是精神

The Scriptures preclude the reduction of the personhood of God to a human level by the description of God as spirit (John 4:24).圣经排除神的人格降低到由上帝作为精神描述(约翰福音4:24)人的水平。As the word "spirit" has the basic idea of power and activity, the spiritual nature of God refers to the infinite superiority of his nature over all created life.因为这个词“精神”具有的权力和活动的基本理念,是神的精神本质,是指他的本性创造生命无限的所有优势。The weakness of the forces of this world, including men and beasts which are but flesh, are contrasted to God who is spirit (cf. Isa. 31:3; 40:6-7).对这个世界的力量,包括男人和野兽的只是肉体,无力进行了对比谁是上帝的精神(见赛31:3。40:6-7)。

As spirit, God is the living God.作为精神,上帝是活着的上帝。He is the possessor of an infinite life in himself (Ps. 36:9; John 5:26).他是在自己的拥有无限的生命(诗篇36:9,约翰福音5:26)。 Matter is activated by spirit, but God is pure spirit.物质被激活的精神,但上帝是纯粹的精神。He is fully life.他完全生活。 As such he is the source of all other life (Job 33:4; Ps. 104:30).因此,他是所有其他生命之源(求职33:4;诗104:30)。。The spiritual nature also prohibits any limitations of God derived from a materialistic conception.精神性也禁止任何一个物欲横流的上帝概念衍生的限制。For this reason images of God are prohibited (Exod. 20:4; Deut. 4:12, 15-18).为上帝这个原因图像禁止(出20:4;申命记4:12,15-18。)。He cannot be restricted to any particular place or in any sense be brought under man's control as a physical object.他不能限制在任何特定的地方或在任何意义上被听命于人的作为实物控制。He is the invisible transcedent living power from whom all derive existence (Acts 17:28).他是无形的transcedent居住谁所有派生的存在(徒17:28)的权力。

God Is Holy神是圣洁的

One of the most fundamental features of God's being is expressed by the word "holy."对上帝的存在是由词表达了最根本的特点之一是“神圣的。”He is the incomparable God, "the Holy One" (Isa. 40:25, cf. Hab. 3:3).他是无与伦比的上帝,“圣者”(以赛亚书40:25,比照。民政事务局。3:3)。The word "holy," which in both Hebrew and Greek has the root meaning of separateness, is used predominantly in Scripture for a separateness from sin.这个“神圣”,在希伯来文和希腊都具有根本意义的独立性,主要是用在经文为从罪的独立性。But this is only a secondary meaning derived from the primary application to God's separateness from all creation, ie, his transcendence.不过,这只是一个次要的意义从主应用程序派生上帝从所有的创造,即,他超越的独立性。 "He is exalted above all the peoples."“他是高于一切的崇高的人民。”Therefore, "holy is he" (Ps. 99:2-3).因此,“神圣的是他”(诗篇99:2-3)。He is "the high and exalted One... whose name is Holy," and he lives "on a high and holy place" (Isa. 57:15).他是“高,世尊...他的名字是神圣的,”他生活“在一个高和神圣的地方”(以赛亚书57:15)。In his holiness God is the transcendent Deity.在他的圣洁的神是超越神。

The transcendence of God expresses the truth that God in himself is infinitely exalted above all creation.神的超越表示希望在自己的神是最重要的是创造无限崇高的真理。The concept of revelation presupposes a transcendent God who must unveil himself to be known.启示录的概念的前提是必须超越的上帝谁知道自己揭开。Transcendence is further seen in God's position as Creator and Sovereign Lord of the universe.超越是进一步看到上帝作为造物主和主权的宇宙主地位。As the former he distinguishes himself from all creation (Rom. 1:25), and in his sovereignty he evidences his transcendent supremacy.由于前他区别于所有的创造(罗马书1:25)本人,并在他的主权,他依据他的超然优势。

The transcendence of God is frequently expressed biblically in terms of time and space.上帝的超越是圣经经常表示在时间上和空间上。He exists before all creation (Ps. 90:2), and neither the earth nor the highest heavens can contain him (I Kings 8:27).他的存在之前,所有的创造(诗篇90:2),既不地球也不是最高的天空可以包含他(我国王8:27)。A certain anthropomorphic sense must be recognized in such expressions lest God's transcendence be conceived in terms of our time and space, as though he lives in a time and space like ours only beyond that of creation.某拟人化的意识,必须认识到,免得神的超越这些在我们的时间和空间上设想表情,仿佛他在我们这样一个时间和创造,只有超越了空间的生活。 On the other hand, it is biblically incorrect to conceive of God in his transcendence as existing in a realm of timeless nowhereness outside of creation.另一方面,它是圣经不正确的设想在他的超越的神,如在境外的永恒nowhereness现有的创作境界。In a manner that exceeds our finite understanding God exists in his own infinite realm as transcendent Lord over all creaturely time and space.超出的方式对所有creaturely我们有限的时间和空间的认识上帝在他自己的上帝无限的超越境界存在。

God's transcendent holiness is biblically balanced with the teaching of his immanence, which signifies that he is wholly present in his being and power in every part and moment of the created universe.上帝的圣洁是圣经超越平衡与他的内在性,这意味着,他完全是在他目前正在和每一个部分和教学力量创造宇宙的时刻。 He is "over all and through all and in all" (Eph. 4:6).他是“对所有并通过一切,在所有”(弗4:6)。Not only does everything exist in him (Acts 17:28), but there is no place where his presence is absent (Ps. 139:1-10).不仅存在于他的一切(徒17:28),但没有地方,他的存在是不存在(诗篇139:1-10)。His immanence is seen especially in relation to man.他的内在关系,特别是在被认为是人类。The Holy One who lives in a high and holy place also dwells with the "contrite and lowly of spirit" (Isa. 57:15).圣地之一,谁在神圣的地方高,还常与生活的“忏悔和精神卑微”(以赛亚书57:15)。This dual dimension of God is seen clearly in the description "the Holy One of Israel" as well as in the name Yahweh, which describes both his transcendent power and his personal presence with and for his people.这是神的双重维度的描述中清楚地看到“以色列的圣者”,以及在名称雅威,其中描述了在他的超然权力,他与他的人民和个人的存在。

The biblical teaching of both God's transcendence and immanence counters the human tendency throughout history to emphasize one or the other.这两个神的超越性与内在性柜台人类整个历史圣经教学的倾向,强调一方或另一方。A one-sided transcendence is seen in the Greek philosophers' concept of the ultimate ground of being as well as the later deists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.片面超越被认为是在'希腊哲学家的价值理念存在的终极地面以及在第十七和十八世纪后期自然神论者。The various forms of pantheism throughout history give evidence of the opposite emphasis on immanence.在整个历史的泛神论各种形式给予了重视内在相反的证据。The attractiveness of these exaggerations to sinful man is in the fact that in both man no longer stands before God in any practical sense as a responsible creature.对这些罪恶的人夸张的吸引力是事实,即在上帝面前都不再代表任何实际意义上的生物作为一个负责任的人。

The Trinity三位一体

Crucial to the biblical doctrine of God is his Trinitarian nature.至关重要的是他的上帝的圣经教义三位一体的性质。Although the term "trinity" is not a biblical word as such, Christian theology has used it to designate the threefold manifestation of the one God as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.虽然“三位一体”是不是因为这样,基督教神学圣经字用它来指定作为父亲,儿子,和圣灵的神三倍的表现。The formulated doctrine of the Trinity asserts the truth that God is one in being or essence who exists eternally in three distinct coequal "persons."三位一体的教义主张制定的真理,上帝是谁正在或本质永远存在三种截然不同的同等之一“的人。”While the term "person" in relation to the Trinity does not signify the limited individuality of human persons, it does affirm the I-thou of personal relationship, particularly of love, within the triune Godhead.虽然“人”的三位一体关系并不意味着人类个体的人有限,但它肯定了我的个人关系,你,尤其是爱,在三位一体的神性。

The doctrine of the Trinity flows from the self-revelation of God in biblical salvation history.三位一体的教义流量的自我启示上帝在圣经救恩历史。As the one God successively reveals himself in his saving action in the Son and the Holy Spirit, each is recognized as God himself in personal manifestation.由于先后发现一个上帝在他的儿子和圣灵拯救自己的行动,每个被确认为上帝在个人表现。It is thus in the fullness of NT revelation that the doctrine of the Trinity is seen most clearly.它是在启示丰满新台币因而这种三位一体的教义被视为最清楚。God is one (Gal. 3:20; James 2:19), but the Son (John 1:1; 14:9; Col. 2:9) and the Spirit (Acts 5:3-4; I Cor. 3:16) are also fully God.上帝是一个(加拉太书3:20雅各书2:19),但儿子(约翰1:1; 14点09;上校2:9)和圣灵(使徒5:3-4。我肺心病3 :16)也完全的神。Yet they are distinct from the Father and each other.然而,他们是来自父亲和相互区别。The Father sends the Son and the Spirit, while the Son also sends the Spirit (Gal. 4:4; John 15:26).父送儿子和精神,而儿子也将这些精神(加四时04;约翰15:26)。This unified equality and yet distinctness is seen in the triadic references to the three persons.这个统一的平等,但明显是出现在对三人的三元引用。Christian baptism is in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit (Matt. 28:19).基督教的洗礼是在父,子,圣灵(太28:19)的名称。Likewise, all three are joined in the Pauline benediction in a different order suggesting the total equality of persons (II Cor. 13:14; cf. Eph. 4:4-6; I Pet. 1:2).同样,所有三个加入宝莲祝福暗示在不同的人完全平等的顺序(二肺心病13:14。比照弗4:4-6。。我的宠物1:2。)。 Although the Trinity finds its clearest evidence in the NT, suggestions of a fullness of plurality are already found in the OT revelation of God.虽然在NT三位一体发现其最明显的证据,一个丰满的多元性建议已经发现在上帝的旧约的启示。The plural form of the name of God (Elohim) as well as the use of plural pronouns (Gen. 1:26; 11:7) and verbs (Gen. 11:7; 35:7) point in this direction.作者:神(罗欣)名称的复数形式以及复数代词的使用(创1:26; 11:7)和动词(创11点07; 35:7)在此方向。So also do the identity of the angel of the Lord as God (Exod. 3:2-6; Judg. 13:21-22) and the hypostatization of the Word (Ps. 33:6; 107:20) and Spirit (Gen. 1:2; Isa. 63:10).所以也做了作为上帝耶和华的使者的身份(出3:2-6;。Judg 13:21-22)和实体化的字(诗篇33:6; 107:20)和精神(创1:2;赛63:10)。。The Word is not simply communication about God nor is the Spirit divine power.单词不是简单地沟通关于神,也不是精神的神圣权力。 They are rather the acting God himself.他们是上帝,而他自己的行动。

As the product of the self-revelation of God, the Trinitarian formulation is not intended to exhaust his incomprehensible nature.作为自我启示的上帝的产物,三位一体的表述是不打算用尽他难以理解的性质。Objections to the doctrine come from a rationalism that insists on dissolving this mystery into human understanding, ie, by thinking of the oneness and threeness in mathematical terms and human personality.这项原则的异议来自理性主义关于解散由统一性及在数学方面的思维和人的个性threeness此人的理解,即坚持谜。 Attempts have been made to draw analogies of the Trinity from nature and the constitution of man.已作出尝试绘制从自然和人三位一体宪法类比。The most notable of these is Augustine's trinity of lover, the object of love, and the love which binds the two together.其中最引人注目的是奥古斯丁的三位一体的情人,爱的对象,而爱情将两者结合。While this argues strongly for a plurality within God if he is eternally a God of love apart from creation, it along with all other suggestions from the creaturely realm proves finally inadequate to explain the divine being.虽然这证明我们在上帝的多元化,如果他永远是上帝的爱从创建外,它和来自creaturely领域中的所有其他建议最终证明不足以解释神的福祉。

The doctrine of the Trinity developed out of the church's desire to safeguard the biblical truths of the God who is the transcendent Lord over all history and yet who gives himself in person to act within history.三位一体的教义,教会发展的愿望,保障了谁是上帝对所有的历史超越主,但谁给了自己的姓名史上内采取行动圣经的真理。 The natural human tendencies toward either a nonhistorical divine transcendence or the absorption of the divine into the historical process are checked by the orthodox concept of the Trinity.非历史的走向无论是神圣的超越或神圣的历史进程中吸收到人类自然的倾向被选中三位一体的正统观念。The first is the ultimate error of the primary distortions of the Trinity.首先是三位一体的主要扭曲最终错误。Subordinationism, which made Christ less than God, and adoptionism, which understood Christ only as a human endowed with God's Spirit for a time, both denied that God truly entered history to confront man in person. Subordinationism,这使得比上帝基督少,adoptionism,这只能理解基督为上帝的精神赋予一个人,一时间,两人都否认上帝真正进入历史,正视人的人。 Modalism or Sabellianism makes the persons of Christ and the Holy Spirit to be only historical roles or modifications of the one God.模态论或Sabellianism使得基督和圣灵的人是只具有历史角色或一个上帝的修改。This error likewise tends to separate man from God; he is encountered not directly as he is in person, but as a role player who remains hidden behind a mask.这个错误也往往脱离神人,他是因为他遇到不直接在人,但作为一个角色球员,谁仍然面具背后隐藏的。

The Trinitarian doctrine is thus central to the salvation kerygma of Scripture, according to which the transcendent God acts personally in history to redeem and share himself with his creatures.三位一体的教义因此中央对圣经救恩kerygma,根据该行为在历史上超越的上帝亲自赎回并分享他的动物自己。 Origen rightly drew the conclusion that the believer "will not attain salvation if the Trinity is not complete."奥利正确地得出结论,信徒“将无法实现救赎,如果是不完整的三位一体。”

The Doctrine in History在历史主义

The history of Christian thought reveals persistent problems concerning the nature of God and his relation to the world.基督教思想史的揭示关于上帝的性质和他的关系到世界的长期问题。These involve the related issues of transcendence/immanence, personal/nonpersonal perspectives, and the knowability of God.这些涉及超越/内在性,个人/非个人观点,与神的可知性的相关问题。The earliest Christian theologians, who attempted to interpret the Christian faith in terms of Greek philosophical categories, tended toward an emphasis on the abstract transcendence of God.最早的基督教神学家,谁试图解释在希腊哲学范畴上的基督教信仰,走向对上帝的抽象的重点往往超越。He was the timeless, changeless Absolute who was the final and adequate cause of the universe.他是永恒的,不变的绝对谁是宇宙的最终和充分的原因。Little could be predicted of him, and his attributes were defined primarily in the negative.小可以预见他,他的属性的定义,主要是否定的。He was the uncaused (possessing aseity), absolutely simple, infinite, immutable, omnipotent Being, unlimited by time (eternal) and space (omnipresent).他是独立自存的(具有aseity),绝对简单,无限的,一成不变的,万能的存在,按时间(永恒)和空间(无所不在)无限。

Although Augustine's view was more balanced with a view of the personal immanent, condescending God in the revelation of Christ, this philosophical understanding of God dominated until the Reformation, reaching its climax in Thomas Aquinas and the medieval scholastics.虽然奥古斯丁的观点是一个更加平衡的个人内在观点,居高临下在基督,这个神哲学理解的启示上帝主宰直到改革,达到了在托马斯阿奎那与中世纪经院高潮。 Aquinas held that philosophical human reason could attain to the knowledge of the existence of God.阿奎那哲学的人认为,原因可能达到的神的存在的知识。His stress, however, was on the transcendence of God and how little he could be known.他的压力,然而,对上帝的超越和他几乎可以被称为。

With an emphasis on biblical rather than philosophical categories, the Reformers brought more recognition of the immanence of God within human history but maintained a strong emphasis on his transcendence, as evidenced in the definition of the Westminister Confession of Faith.随着对圣经的哲学范畴,而不是强调,改革者带来了更多的神在人类历史的内在认同,但维持对他的超越的高度重视,如在西敏寺招供的信仰的定义就是明证。

Reaction to the traditional Protestant and Catholic understanding of God with its stress on the transcendence of God came with the rise of liberal theology in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.反应在传统的新教和天主教的理解上帝凭借其超越上帝的压力想出了自由神学,在十八和十九世纪上升。The combination of new philosophies (eg, Kant, Hegel) making the mind of man supreme for true knowledge, scientific advances that seemed to substantiate human abilities, and a new historical perspective that tended to relativize all tradition, including the Scriptures, led to a new understanding of ultimate reality.新理念的组合(例如,康德,黑格尔),使人类对真正的知识,这似乎证实人类能力科学的进步,一个新的历史角度出发,倾向于相对化所有的传统,包括圣经的最高头脑,导致了新的认识最终的现实。 Because, as Kant argued, human reason could no longer establish the existence of a transcendent God, God became increasingly identified with the ideals of human experience.因为,康德认为,人类理性可以不再建立一个超越神的存在,神成为越来越多地与人类经验的理想鉴定。Talk of religious dependency (Schleiermacher) or ethical values (Kant, Ritschl) became talk of God.宗教属地(施莱尔马赫)或(康德,里奇尔)伦理价值论成为上帝交谈。There was an almost exclusive emphasis on the immanence of God, with a tendency to see an essential kinship between the human and divine spirit.有一对上帝的内在性几乎完全侧重,有倾向地看到两国的人力和神圣精神的重要亲属关系。

World events including two world wars and the rise of totalitarian regimes brought the collapse of old liberalism with its immanentistic understanding of God and the reassertion of divine transcendence.世界的事件,包括两次世界大战和极权主义政权兴起带来了旧的自由主义与immanentistic了解上帝和神圣的超越重新抬头的崩溃。 Led by Karl Barth, theology sought to return not to the earlier philosophical concepts of God but to the categories of the Judeo-Christian Scriptures.由卡尔巴特的带领下,寻求回到神学不是神的哲学概念,而是早在犹太教和基督教圣经的类别。Based upon a radical separation between eternity and time, the transcendence of God was exaggerated to the point that a direct revelation of God in human history was denied.在永恒的时间之间的激进分离的基础上,超越上帝被夸大到如此地步,是神在人类历史上直接显示被拒绝。According to this neoorthodox theology God did not speak directly in Scripture.根据这一neoorthodox神学上帝在圣经中没有直接发言。As a result of this denial of a direct cognitive communication, with the consequent skepticism of any knowledge of God in himself, the accent on transcendence was gradually lost.由于这种认知的直接沟通拒绝与任何对自己认识上帝的结果持怀疑态度,因此,对超越口音逐渐丢失。The religious experience of man, usually interpreted according to existential philosophy, became increasingly viewed as the key to theological knowledge.人类的宗教经验,按照通常的解释存在的理念,越来越被视为是神学知识的钥匙。God was understood primarily as the meaning he holds for the "existential experiences" of man.上帝的理解主要是因为他的意思为“生存体验”的人持有。

This movement can be traced from Barth, whose theology maintained a strong divine transcendence, to Bultmann, who, while not denying God's transcendence, nevertheless focused almost entirely on God in the human existential experience, and finally to Tillich, who denied entirely the traditional God "out there" in favor of an immanent God as the "ground" of all being.这一运动可以从巴特,他的神学保持了强劲的神圣的超越,追踪到布特曼,谁不否认神的超越,但重点几乎完全依靠上帝在人类生存的经验,并最终蒂利希,谁否认完全是传统的神“那里”的一种内在的神青睐的“地面”的所有福利。 Thus the transcendence of God has been lost in much of contemporary thought which seeks to do theology in the existential philosophical framework.因此,神已经失去了超越当代思想,旨在做的生存哲学框架神学了。 Divine transcendence is simply equated with the hidden self-transcendence of human existence.神圣的超越是简单地等同于隐藏的自我超越人类的存在。

Other contemporary theologians seek to reconstruct theology in terms of the modern scientific evolutionary understanding of the universe.其他当代神学家寻求重建在现代科学的宇宙进化的理解方面神学。Such process theology, based on the philosophy of AN Whitehead, sees the fundamental nature of all reality as process or becoming rather than being or unchanging substance.这样的过程神学,哲学的一个白石的基础上,认为作为过程或成为或不变的,而不是物质的所有现实的基本性质。Although there is an abstract eternal dimension of God which provides the potential for the process, he also is understood to encompass all changing entities in his own life and therefore to be in the process of change himself.虽然是一个抽象的层面,上帝的永恒的过程提供了可能,他也被理解为包括在改变自己生活的各个实体,因此必须在变革的历程。 As the universe is dynamic and changing, actualizing its potentialities, so also is God.随着宇宙是动态和不断变化的,actualizing其潜力,因此也就是上帝。

The wide variety of contemporary formulations of God that tend to define God in ways in which he is no longer the personal Creator and sovereign Lord of human history are the direct result of denying a knowledge of God through his cognitive self-revelation in the Scriptures and the sinful human propensity to autonomy.对上帝当代配方倾向于定义的方式,他不再是个人的创造者和主权,是人类历史上主通过他的认知否定自我启示在圣经和上帝的知识直接导致各种神有罪的人的倾向自主权。

RL Saucy RL索西

Bibliography 参考书目
K. Barth, Church Dogmatics, II/1 and 2; H. Bavinck, The Doctrine of God; E. Brunner, The Christian Doctrine of God; JS Candlish, The Christian Doctrine of God; W. Eichrodt, Theology of the OT,I; CFH Henry, God, Revelation and Authority, II; C. Hodge, Systematic Theology, I; Kleinknecht, Quell, Stauffer, Kuhn, TDNT, III, 65-123; GL Prestige, God in Patristic Thought; H. Thielicke, The Evangelical Faith, II; O. Weber, Foundations of Dogmatics, I.k.巴特,教会教义学,二/ 1和2;阁下巴文克,上帝的教义;大肠杆菌布伦纳,上帝的基督教教义; js的Candlish,上帝的基督教教义;瓦特艾希罗特,神学的催产素,我;中信国亨利,上帝,启示和权威,二;三霍吉,系统神学,我; Kleinknecht,平息,斯托弗,库恩,TDNT,三,65-123;化验威望,思想神教父阁下;•悌理柯,福音派信仰,二;澳韦伯,教义学,一基金会


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Names of God神的名称

The Divine Names as Vehicles of Revelation作为车辆的启示神圣的名字

Advanced Information - IV先进的信息-四

Efforts to find the origins and significance of the Hebrew divine names in other ancient Near Eastern cultures have yielded generally disappointing results.努力寻找在其他古代希伯来神的名字的起源和意义近东方文化产生了普遍令人失望的结果。One of the major reasons for this is that the ancient Hebrew theology invested these names with a uniqueness that renders investigation outside the narratives of the OT incapable of exploring fully their historical and religious significance.造成这种情况的主要原因之一是古代希伯来神学与唯一性投资呈现这些名字以外的催产素探索充分的历史和宗教意义的叙述无法进行调查。

Basic to ancient Hebrew religion is the concept of divine revelation.古代希伯来宗教的基本是神的启示的概念。While God is conceived of as revealing his attributes and will in a number of ways in the OT, one of the most theologically significant modes of the divine self-disclosure is the revelation inherent in the names of God.而上帝是因为暴露了他的设想和属性将是在神的启示固有的名字在加时赛中,神圣的自我揭露的最重要的模式之一神学多种方式。

This aspect of divine revelation is established in the words of Exod.这一方面是神的启示成立于Exod的话。6:3, "I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob, as God Almighty, but by my name the Lord [Yahweh] I did not make myself known to them." 6:3,“我似乎亚伯拉罕,以撒和雅各,因为全能的上帝,但我的名字主[耶和华]我没有让自己知道他们。”According to classical literary criticism, the verse teaches that the name Yahweh was unknown to the patriarchs.根据古典文学批评,诗教这一名称雅威是未知向先祖。Thus, an ideological conflict exists between the Priestly author and the earlier Yahwist, who frequently put the name Yahweh on the lips of the patriarchs.因此,意识形态的冲突之间存在的祭司作者和早期Yahwist,谁经常把嘴唇的patriarchs名称雅威。

However, the words "by my name Yahweh I did not make myself known to them" have a somewhat hollow ring if the name Yahweh is understood only as an appellative.然而,在“我的名字雅威我没有让自己知道他们”有一个有点空洞如果名称雅威被理解为一种称谓而已。The reason for this is that Moses asks in Exod.这样做的原因是,摩西在exod问。3:13, "What is his name?" 3:13,“他叫什么名字?”(mah-semo).(麻将semo)。 M. Buber has demonstrated that the syntax of this question does not connote an inquiry as to the name of God but an inquiry into the character revealed by the name.米布伯已经证明,这个问题的语法不意味着一个以上帝的名义,但一到由名称查询查询显示的字符。He says, "Where the word 'what' is associated with the word 'name' the question asked is what finds expression in or lies concealed behind that name" (The Revelation and the Covenant, p. 48).他说,“凡字'什么'这个词是'名字'的问题有关问的是什么表达或发现这个名字的背后隐藏”(启示和盟约,第48页)。J. Motyer also concludes, "In every case where ma is used with a personal association it suggests enquiry into sort or quality or character, whereas mi expects an answer instacing individuals, or, as in the case of rhetorical questions, calling attention to some external feature" (The Revelation of the Divine Name, 19). j的Motyer还得出结论,“在每一个马与个人使用的情况下,协会将建议查询排序或品质或特性,而宓期待一个答案instacing个人,或在修辞问题的情况下,提请注意一些外部性“(即神的名字,19启示录)。

Exod. Exod。14:4 also supports the view that the name Yahweh embodies aspects of God's character.14:4也支持这一观点,体现了耶和华的名神的性格方面。It says, "and the Egyptians will know that I am Yahweh."它说,“埃及人就知道我是耶和华。”It is hardly likely that the intent of this assertion is that they would learn only the name of the Hebrew God.这是绝不可能,这一主张的目的是,他们将只学了希伯来上帝之名。

In the light of these observations, the use of the concepts of the name of God in the early narratives of the book of Exodus is far broader than simply the name by which the Hebrew God was known.在这些意见的光,神在出埃及记早期的叙事名称使用的概念,远远不是简单的其中希伯来上帝是众所周知的名字更广泛。It has a strong element of divine self-disclosure within it.它有一个神圣的自我披露强烈的元素在其中。

The corpus of divine names compounded with el and a descriptive adjunct also support this concept.神圣的名字与厄尔尼诺和描述附属物也支持复合主体这一概念。The very fact that the adjunctive element is descriptive is an indication of its value as a source of theological content.这一事实本身的辅助元素是描述性是其作为一个神学内容源价值的指标。

Typical of this type of name is el rot ("God who sees"; Gen. 16:13) and el olam ("God eternal"; Gen. 21:33).这种名称的典型是厄尔尼诺腐(“上帝谁看到”;创16:13)和El奥兰(“上帝永恒”;创21时33分)。 These el names sometimes emerge from a specific historical situation that illuminates their significance.这些报名有时出现从一个特定的历史情况照亮他们的意义。

The Meaning of the Divine Names有关神名的意义

Yahweh, Jehovah (LORD)耶和华,耶和华(主)

Efforts to determine the meaning of the tetragrammaton (YHWH) through historical investigation have been rendered difficult by the paucity of informative data relative to the various forms of the name ya in historical sources outside the OT.努力确定,通过历史考察tetragrammaton(耶和华)的意义已变得由缺乏翔实的数据相对于在外面的催产素史料名雅的各种形式的困难。 For this reason the investigation has generally followed philological lines.出于这个原因,调查已普遍遵循的语言学系。GR Driver suggested that the form ya was originally an ejaculatory cry, "shouted in moments of excitement or ecstasy," that was "prologued to ya(h)wa(h), ya(h)wa(h)y, or the like." GR的驱动程序建议的形式雅原本是射精管哭“,在瞬间的兴奋或摇头丸喊道:”这是“prologued以雅(八)佤族(八),雅(八)佤族(八)y或类似“。 He suggested further that the name Yahweh arose from the consonance of an extended form of ya with the "imperfect tense of a defective verb."他还建议,这一名称雅威从一个雅与扩展的形式出现灵犀“不完善的一个有缺陷的动词时态。”Thus, he saw the origin of the name in a popular etymology and asserted that its original form was forgotten (ZAW 46:24).因此,他看到了一个受欢迎的词源的名字的由来,并声称其原来的形式被遗忘(梭46:24)。

Mowinckel proposed the theory that the tetragrammaton should be understood as consisting of the ejaculatory element and the third person pronoun hu,' meaning "O He!"莫温克尔提出的理论,即tetragrammaton应组成的射精管元素和第三人称胡'的含义理解“啊,他!”

Another approach to the problem is to understand the tetragrammaton as a form of paronomasia.另一种方法是将问题理解为一种文字游戏的形式tetragrammaton。This view takes account of the broad representation of the name ya in extrabiblical cultures of the second millennium BC The name Yahweh is thus understood as a quadriliteral form, and the relationship of the name of haya ("to be") in Exod.这种观点注意到了广泛的代表性帐户名雅在第二个千年extrabiblical文化公元前雅威是这样理解的形式作为quadriliteral的名称,该名称在exod的哈雅(“是”)的关系。 3:14-15 is not intended to be one of etymology but paronomasia.3:14-15不打算成为词源,但文字游戏之一。

The most common view is that the name is a form of a triliteral verb, hwy.最普遍的看法是,这个名字是一个triliteral动词形式,高速公路。It is generally regarded as a 3 p.它被普遍认为是一个3页Qal stem imperfect or a 3 p.萨利赫干不完善或3页imperfect verb in a causative stem.在使役动词不完善干。Another suggestion is that it is a causative participle with ay preformative that should be translated "Sustainer, Maintainer, Establisher."另一个建议是,它是一个具有唉preformative使役词应该翻译成“维持者,维护者,的确立。”

With regard to the view thatthe tetragrammaton is an elongated form of an ejaculatory cry, it may be pointed out that Semitic proper names tend to shorten; they are not normally prolonged.至于认为tetragrammaton是射精管哭的一细长的形式,它可能需要指出的是犹太人的专有名词往往会缩短,他们一般都不会延长。 The theory that the name is paronomastic is attractive, but when appeal is made to the occurrences of forms of ya or yw in ancient cultures, several problems arise.该理论认为,名字是paronomastic是有吸引力的,但在提出上诉的雅或在古老的文化yw形式的发生,一些问题出现。 It is difficult to explain how the original form could have lengthened into the familiar quadriliteral structure.这是很难解释如何原来的形式可以到熟悉quadriliteral结构延长。Mowinckel's suggestion is attractive, but speculative.莫温克尔的建议是有吸引力的,但投机性。It is also difficult to understand how the name Yahweh could have such strong connotations of uniqueness in the OT if it is a form of a divine name that found representation in various cultures in the second millennium BC人们还很难了解的名字雅威可以要在加时赛的独特性如此强烈的内涵,如果它是一个神圣的名字的形式出现在第二个千年的代表性,在各种文化公元前

The derivation of the tetragrammaton from a verbal root is also beset with certain difficulties.该tetragrammaton从口头根推导也困扰着一些困难。The root hwy on which the tetragrammaton would be based in this view is unattested in West Semitic languages before the time of Moses, and the form of the name is not consonant with the rules that govern the formation of lamed he verbs as we know them.根高速公路上该tetragrammaton将在此基础是unattested西闪族语言的时候,摩西之前,以及名称的形式是不符合规则的支配形成残废,他动词,因为我们知道他们是一致的。

It is evident that the problem is a difficult one.很明显,这个问题是个难题。It is best to conclude that the use of etymology to determine the theological content of the name Yahweh is tenuous.这是最好的结论是,词源来确定名称雅威是脆弱的神学内容。If one is to understand the theological significance of the divine name, it can be only be determining the theological content with which the name was invested in Hebrew religion.如果一个人了解神圣的名字神学意义,它只能是确定的神学内容与该名称是在希伯来宗教投资。

Jah, Yah扎哈,对阿

This shorter form of Yahweh occurs twice in Exodus (15:2 and 17:15).这种较短的形式雅威两度出现在出埃及记(15时02分和17时15分)。The former passage is echoed in Isa.前者是通过回荡在伊萨。12:2 and Ps.12:2和Ps。 118:14.118:14。It also occurs numerous times in the formula haleluya ("praise yah").它也发生在公式haleluya(“赞美呀”)无数次。Its use in early and late poetic passages and its formulaic function in the Hallel psalms suggest that this form of Yahweh is a poetic stylistic device.它的使用在早期和晚期诗歌通道和其在Hallel诗篇公式化的功能表明,这种形式的雅威是一个诗的文体设备。

The compounding of yah with Yahweh in Isa.在伊萨的雅威呀复利。12:2 (yah yhwh) indicates a separate function for the form yah, but at the same time an identification of the form with Yahweh.12:2(呀耶和华)表示的形式呀单独的函数,但在同一时间上的形式与雅威鉴定。

Yahweh Seba'ot ("Lord of Hosts")雅威Seba'ot(“万军之主”)

The translation "He creates the heavenly hosts" has been suggested for this appellative.翻译“他创造了天军”已为这个称谓建议。It is based on the assumption that Yahweh functions as a verbal form in a causative stem.它是基于这样的假设作为一个致病干口头形式雅威功能。This conclusion is rendered difficult by the fact that the formula occurs in the expanded form yhwh elohe sebaot ("Yahweh God of hosts"), which attributes the function of a proper name to Yahweh.这个结论是难以呈现的事实,该公式中的展开形式耶和华elohe sebaot(“耶和华万军之神”),这归因于一个适当的名称功能雅威发生。The word seba'ot means "armies" or "hosts."这个词seba'ot的意思是“军队”或“主机”。It is best to understand Yahweh as a proper name in association with the word "armies."这是最好的了解作为一个与关联词正确的名称雅威“的军队。”

Elohim罗欣

The root of Elohim is El (el).作者:罗欣的根源是厄尔尼诺(EL)的。The form elohim is a plural form commonly understood as a plural of majesty.该表格​​耶洛因是复数形式通常被理解复数的威严。While the word occurs in Canaanite ('l) and Akkadian (ilu[m]), its etymology is uncertain.话在迦南('l)和阿卡(ilu [米])时,其词源是不确定的。In the OT the word is always construed in the singular when it denotes the true God.在加时赛这个词是永远解释在奇异时,它指的真神。In the Pentateuch the name elohim connotes a general concept of God; that is, it portrays God as the transcendent being, the creator of the universe.在pentateuch名称耶洛因蕴含了上帝的一般概念,也就是说,它描绘的是超越的,宇宙的创造者上帝。It does not connote the more personal and palpable concepts inherent in the name Yahweh.它并不意味着更多的个人和明显的概念,在名称雅威所固有的。It can also be used to apply to false gods as well as to judges and kings.它也可以被用来申请假神,以及法官和国王。

El埃尔

El has the same general range of meaning as Elohim.埃尔具有相同的一般含义为耶洛范围。It is apparently the root on which the plural form has been constructed.这显然​​是在其上的复数形式已建成的根源。It differs in usage from Elohim only in its use in theophoric names and to serve to contrast the human and the divine.它不同于只在其名称中使用theophoric,服务对比的人力和神圣从罗欣使用。Sometimes it is combined with yah to become Elyah.有时它是结合呀成为Elyah。

El Elyon ("God Most High")萨尔瓦多Elyon(“上帝至高”)

The word 'elyon, an adjective meaning "high," is derived from the root 'lh ("to go up" or "ascend").这个字elyon,形容词,意思是“高”,是来自根'激素(“去”或“升”)。It is used to describe the height of objects (II Kings 15:35; 18:17; Ezek. 41:7) as well as the prominence of persons (Ps. 89:27) and the prominence of Israel as a nation (Deut. 26:19; 28:1).它是用来描述对象的高度(二国王15:35,18:17,以西结书41:7。)以及有关的人(诗篇89:27)突出和以色列作为一个国家突出(申。26:19; 28:1)。When used of God it connotes the concept of "highest."当上帝用它蕴含的概念,“最高”。

The name El Elyon occurs only in Gen. 14: 18-22 and Ps.这个名字厄尔尼诺Elyon只发生在将军14:18-22和Ps。78:35, although God is known by the shorter title Elyon in a significant number of passages. 78:35,虽然上帝是由著名的短标题Elyon大量的段落。

There is a superlative connotation in the word 'elyon.有一个字'elyon最高级的内涵。In each case in which the adjective occurs it denotes that which is highest or uppermost.在每一个案件中出现的形容词是指认为这是最高或最上部。In Deut.在申命记。26:19 and 28:1 the superlative idea is apparent in the fact that Israel is to be exalted above the nations. 26:19和28:1最高级的想法是明显的事实是,以色列将高于各国尊崇。The use of the word in I Kings 9:8 and II Chr.在我的国王9:8二染色体词的用法。7:21 may not seem to reflect a superlative idea, but there is, as CF Keil suggests, an allusion to Deut. 7:21似乎并不反映最高级的想法,但有,作为CF卡凯尔建议,一到申典故。26:19 and 28:1, where the superlative idea exists.26:19和28:1,其中最高级的想法存在。The superlative is also evident in the use of the word in Ps.最高级的也很明显,在使用这个词的诗。97:9, where it connotes Yahweh's supremacy over the other gods.97:9,它蕴含了其他神耶和华的霸主地位。

El Shaddai萨尔瓦多代

The etymology of sadday is obscure.该sadday词源是含糊不清的。It has been connected with the Akkadian sadu ("mountain") by some.它已与该阿卡sadu一些(“山”)。Others have suggested a connection with the word "breast," and still others have seen a connection with the verb sadad ("to devastate").也有人提出了这个词连接“乳房”,还有很多人看到了与动词sadad(“蹂躏”)连接。The theological significance of the name, if it can be understood fully, must be derived from a study of the various contexts in which the name occurs.该名称的神学意义,如果能够充分了解,必须来自一个的名字出现在其中的各种情境的研究。

The name Shaddai frequently appears apart from El as a divine title.经常出现的名字萨代,除了萨尔瓦多作为一个神圣的称号。

El-Eloe-Yisrael厄尔尼诺- Eloe - Yisrael

This appellation occurs only in Gen. 33:20 as the name of the altar that marked the place of Jacob's encounter with God.这个称谓只发生在将军33:20作为祭坛,标志着雅各与神相遇的地方的名称。 It denotes the unique significance of El as the God of Jacob.它是指为雅各的神厄尔尼诺独特的意义。

Adonai阿多奈

The root 'dn occurs in Ugaritic with the meanings "lord and father."根的DN发生与义“上帝和父亲。”在乌加里特If the word originally connoted "father," it is not difficult to understand how the connotation "lord" developed from that.如果这个词最初connoted“父亲,”这是不难理解的内涵“上帝”从这一发展。The basic meaning of the word in the OT is "lord."在加时赛中的单词的基本含义是“主”。

Critical to the understanding of the meaning of the word is the suffix ay.至关重要的词的意义的理解是后缀嗯。It is commonly suggested that the ending is the first person possessive suffix on a plural form of 'adon ("my lord").人们普遍认为,截至上的第一个人是一个'ADON的复数形式的所有格后缀(“我的上帝”)。This is plausible for the form adonay, but the heightened form adonay, which also appears in the Massoretic text, is more difficult to explain, unless it represents an effort on the part of the Massoretes "to mark the word as sacred by a small external sign."这是似是而非的形式adonay,但高涨的形式adonay,也出现在massoretic文本,更难以解释,除非它代表了一种对的Massoretes“的一部分努力,由一个小的外部标志,作为神圣的字眼迹象。“

Attention has been drawn to the Ugaritic ending -ai, which is used in that language "as a reinforcement of a basic word," However, it is doubtful that this explanation should be applied in all cases.注意力都被吸引到乌加里特结束仁爱,用于该语言“作为一个基本词加固,”不过,这是令人怀疑这个解释,应适用于所有情况。 The plural construction of the name is evident when the word occurs in the construct as it does in the appellation "Lord of lords" ('adone ha adonim) in Deut.该名称的复数建设是显而易见的,当这个词出现在兴建,因为它在称谓的“主之主”并在申('adone公顷adonim)。 10:17.10:17。And the translation "my Lord" seems to be required in such vocative addresses as "my Lord Yahweh, what will you give me?"与翻译“我的上帝”似乎是这样的呼地址作为所需的“我的主耶和华,你能给我什么?”(Gen. 15:2; see also Exod. 4:10).(创15时02分,还见Exod 4:10。)。

It appears, then, that it is best to understand the word as a plural of majesty with a first person suffixual ending that was altered by the Massoretes to mark the sacred character of the name.看来,那么,它是最好的了解作为一个威严与第一人称suffixual结局的Massoretes被修改,以纪念这个名字的神圣性复数词。

Other Divine Names其他神的名字

The name Baali occurs only once, in Hos.这个名字巴利只发生一次,在居屋计划。2:16 (AV; "My Baal," RSV) in a play on words.2:16(视听,“我的巴力,”呼吸道合胞病毒)在文字游戏。The word means "my husband," as does isi, the word with which it is paired.这个词的意思是“我的丈夫,”三军情报局一样,与它配对的话。

Ancient of Days is an appellation applied to God in Dan. 亘古的是丹神称谓的应用。7.7。It occurs with other depictions of great age (vs. 9) to create the impression of noble venerability.它与其他描写的伟大时代发生(主场迎战9),创造出高贵venerability印象。

Abba is an alternate Aramaic term for "father."阿爸是一个长期的候补阿拉姆“爸爸”。 It is the word that Jesus used to address God in Mark 14:36.这是耶稣用于解决马克14:36​​神的道。Paul pairs the word with the Greek word for "father" in Rom.保罗对同为“父亲”在希腊罗一字。8:15 and Gal.8:15和半乳糖。 4:6.4:6。

The 'alep that terminates the form 'abba' functions as both a demonstrative and a vocative particle in Aramaic.在'alep即终止形式'既是一种示范和呼粒子在阿拉姆阿爸'功能。In the time of Jesus the word connoted both the emphatic concept, "the father," and the more intimate "my father, our father."在耶稣的时代这个词connoted都有力的概念,“父亲”,以及更亲密的“我的父亲,我们的父亲。”

While the word was the common form of address for children, there is much evidence that in the time of Jesus the practice was not limited only to children.虽然这个词是为儿童解决常见的形式,有许多证据表明,在耶稣时代的做法并不只限于儿童。The childish character of the word ("daddy") thus receded, and 'abba' acquired the warm, familiar ring which we may feel in such an expression as "dear father."这个词的幼稚字符(“爸爸”),从而减退,和'阿爸'获得了温暖,熟悉的环,我们可能会觉得在这样一个表达“亲爱的父亲。”

The Theological Significance of the Divine Names作者:神圣的名字神学意义

Yahweh雅威

The parallel structure in Exod.该并行结构在exod。3:14-15 supports the association of the name Yahweh with the concept of being or existence. 3:14-15支持雅威的名称与概念正在或存在关联。It says, "I AM has sent me to you" (vs. 14; "The LORD has sent me to you" (vs. 15). The name "I AM" is based on the clause "I AM WHO I AM" found in 3:14 which, on the basis of the etymology implied here, suggests that Yahweh is the 3.p. form of the verb 'ehyeh (I am).它说,“那自有的打发我到你们这里”(比14;。“耶和华差遣我到你”(比15)命名为“我”是基于对该条“我是我是谁”其中发现在三点14,在这里暗示词源,依据表明,雅威是动词'ehyeh(我)3.p.形式。

The clause 'ehyeh'aser 'ehyeh has been translated in several ways, "I am that I am" (AV), "I am who I am" (RSV, NIV), and "I will be what I will be" (RSV margin).该条款'ehyeh'aser'ehyeh已被翻译成多种方式,“我就是我”(影音),“我是我是谁”(呼吸道合胞病毒,为证),“我将是什么,我会”(呼吸道合胞病毒保证金)。 Recently the translation "I am (the) One who is" has been suggested.最近翻译“我(的)一个谁是”有人建议。The latter translation has much in its favor grammatically and fits the context well.后者的翻译有很多有利于自己的语法和上下文符合很好。

The main concern of the context is to demonstrate that a continuity exists in the divine activity from the time of the patriarchs to the events recorded in Exod.上下文主要关注的是表明一个连贯性,从始祖时间记录的事件在exod神圣的活动存在。3.3。The Lord is referred to as the God of the fathers (vss. 13, 15, 16).主是被称为神的父亲(vss. 13,15,16)。The God who made the gracious promises regarding Abraham's offspring is the God who is and who continues to be.上帝谁作出的承诺,就亲切亚伯拉罕的后代是上帝谁和谁继续。The affirmation of vs. 17 is but a reaffirmation of the promise made to Abraham.在对17的肯定,只不过是重申的承诺,向亚伯拉罕。The name Yahweh may thus affirm the continuing activity of God on behalf of his people in fealty to his promise.这个名字雅威可能因此申明效忠他的诺言对他的人民代表上帝继续活动。

Jesus' application of the words "I am" to himself in John 8:58 not only denoted his preexistence but associated him with Yahweh.耶稣的话申请“我”对自己在约翰8时58不但表示他的前世,但他与雅威。Jesus was the fulfillment of the promise given to Abraham, the fulfillment of which Abraham anticipated (John 8:56).耶稣是给亚伯拉罕,亚伯拉罕履行预期(约翰8:56)履行的承诺。

In the Pentateuch, Yahweh denotes that aspect of God's character that is personal rather than transcendent.在五,雅威表示,上帝的性格方面是个人,而不是超越。It occurs in contexts in which the covenantal and redemptive aspects of God predominate.它发生在上下文中神的盟约和救赎方面占优势。Cassuto says, "The name YHWH is employed when God is presented to us in His personal character and in direct relationship to people or nature; and 'Elohim, when the Deity is alluded to as a Transcendental Being who exists completely outside and above the physical universe" (The Documentary Hypothesis, p. 31). Cassuto说:“耶和华是受雇当上帝向我们介绍他的个人品格和在直接关系的人或性质的名称;和'耶洛因,当神是暗示存在一个先验存在谁完全不在以上物理到宇宙“(纪录片假说,第31页)。 This precise distinction does not always obtain outside the Pentateuch, but Yahweh never loses its distinct function as the designation of the God of Israel.这种精确的区分并不总是取得外界的五,但雅威从来没有失去作为以色列的神指定其独特的功能。

The name Yahweh Sabaoth appears for the first time in Israel's history in connection with the cult center at Shiloh (1 Sam. 1:3).雅威千万军马的名字出现在希洛与邪教中心(1萨姆。1:3)连接在以色列的历史上尚属首次。It is there that the tent of meeting was set up when the land of Canaan had been subdued by the Israelites (Josh. 18:1).正是在那里会幕成立了迦南地的时候,已被以色列人(Josh. 18:1)制服。The name apparently had its origin in the period of the conquest or the postconquest period.这个名字显然已经在征服或postconquest工期内其原产地。It does not occur in the Pentateuch.它不会发生在五。

It is possible that the name was attributed to Yahweh as a result of the dramatic appearance to Joshua of an angelic being called the "commander of the host of Yahweh" at the commencement of the conquest (Josh. 5:13-15).这是有可能的名称是由于作为一个戏剧性的结果出现,到约书亚向耶和华的天使被称为在征服(Josh. 5:13-15)生效的“耶和华的主机司令”。The name would thus depict the vast power at Yahweh's disposal in the angelic hosts.这个名字将因此描绘在雅威的天使般的主机中掌握的巨大力量。

The association of this name with the ark of the covenant in I Sam.同在我心的约柜协会这个名字。 4:4 is significant in that Yahweh is enthroned above the angelic figures known as the cherubim (II Sam. 6:2). 4时04分的意​​义,雅威是以上的基路伯(二山姆。6:2)天使般的人物称为坐床。Because the name was associated with the ark of the covenant, David addressed the people in that name when the ark was recovered from the Philistines (II Sam. 6:18).因为这个名字是与相关的约柜,大卫涉及了该名称的人当方舟被收回从非利士人(二山姆。6:18)。The name is often associated with the military activities of Israel (I Sam. 15:2-3; II Sam. 5:10).该名称通常与以色列的军事活动(我心15:2-3;。二山姆5:20。)。

The almighty power of Yahweh displayed in this name is manifested in the sphere of history (Pss. 46:6-7; 59:5).耶和华的两大势力在这个名称显示的是表现在历史领域(Pss. 46:6-7; 59:5)。 His power may be displayed in the life of the individual (Ps. 69:6) as well as the nation (Ps. 80:7).他的权力,可能会显示在个人(诗篇69:6),以及国家(诗篇80:7)的生活。Sometimes he is simply referred to as "the Almighty."有时候,他简直是被称为“万能”。

The military connotation of the name was not lost, even in the eighth century, for Isaiah appeals to that name to depict the hosts of heaven that accompany Yahweh in his intervention in history (Isa. 13:4).该名称的军事内涵并没有失去,即使是在第八世纪,以赛亚上诉,以该名称来描绘天堂的主机陪同他在历史上的干预(以赛亚书13:4)耶和华。

Elohim罗欣

This is the more general name for God.这是上帝更多的总称。In the Pentateuch, when used as a proper name, it most commonly denotes the more transcendental aspects of God's character.在五,当作为一个适当的名称中使用,它最常见的是指神的性格更超越方面。When God is presented in relation to his creation and to the peoples of the earth in the Pentateuch, the name Elohim is the name most often used.当上帝是与他的创作和对地球在pentateuch人民主办的名称耶洛因是最常使用的名称。It is for this reason that Elohim occurs consistently in the creation account of Gen. 1:1-2:42 and in the genealogies of Genesis.正是由于这个原因,耶洛因始终在建立帐户的将军1:1-2:42,在族谱发生的成因。 Where the context takes on a moral tone, as in Gen. 2:4bff., the name Yahweh is used.如文义发生在一个道德基调,在将军2:4 BFF的。,名称雅威使用。

Throughout Genesis and the early chapters of Exodus elohim is used most often as a proper name.纵观成因及出埃及记耶洛早期章节是最常用的一个适当的名称。After Exod.经过Exod。3 the name begins to occur with increasing frequency as an appellative, that is, "the God of," or "your God."3名字开始出现越来越作为一个称谓,即频率“神”或“你的上帝。”This function is by far the most frequent mode of reference to God in the book of Deuteronomy.这个功能是目前的参考,以上帝最频繁的书申命记模式。When used in this fashion the name denotes God as the supreme deity of a person or people.当以这种方式使用的名称表示为一个人或人的最高神神。Thus, in the frequent expression, "Yahweh your God," Yahweh functions as a proper name, while "God" functions as the denominative of deity.因此,在频繁的表达,“耶和华你的神,”耶和华职能作为一个适当的名称,而“上帝”作为神名词的功能。

The appellative elohim connotes all that God is.耶洛因蕴含的称谓所有的上帝。As God he is sovereign, and that sovereignty extends beyond Israel into the arena of the nations (Deut. 2:30, 33; 3:22; Isa. 52:10).作为上帝,他是一个主权和主权延伸到以色列以外的国家舞台(申命记2:30,33; 3:22;赛52:10)。。As God to his people he is loving and merciful (Deut. 1:31; 2:7; 23:5; Isa. 41:10, 13, 17; 49:5; Jer. 3:23).作为上帝以他的人,他是爱和慈悲(申命记1:31; 2:7; 23:5;赛41:10,13,17;。49:5。耶3:23)。He establishes standards of obedience (Deut. 4:2; Jer. 11:3) and sovereignly punishes disobedience (Deut. 23:21).他确立服从标准(申命记4:2;耶11:3)。惩罚和sovereignly抗命(申命记23:21)。As God, there is no one like him (Isa. 44:7; 45:5-21).作为上帝,没有人喜欢他(以赛亚书44:7; 45:5-21)。

The same connotations obtain in the use of the shorter form el.同样的内涵,获得在较短的形式使用EL。He is the God who sees (el ro i; Gen. 16:13) and he is el the God of Israel (Gen. 33:20).他是上帝谁看到(萨尔瓦多滚装我;创16:13),他是埃尔以色列的神(创33:20)。

As El Elyon, God is described in his exaltation over all things.由于厄尔尼诺Elyon,上帝是描述了他对一切事物的提高。There are two definitive passages for this name.有两个通道,最终这个名字。In Ps.在PS。83:18 Yahweh is described as "Most High over the earth," and Isa.83:18耶和华说成是“在地球最高级”和伊萨。14:14 states, "I will ascend above the heights of the clouds, I will make myself like the Most High." 14:14指出,“我要升到云层以上的高峰,我会自己最喜欢的高。”

However, in the majority of cases the attributes of this name are indistinguishable from other usages of El or Elohim.然而,在大多数情况下这个名字的属性是由厄尔尼诺或耶洛因其他用途区分。He fixed the boundaries of the nations (Deut. 32:8).他固定的国家(申命记32:8)的界限。He effects changes in the creation (Ps. 18:13).他在创作的影响(诗篇18:13)的变化。El Shaddai occurs most frequently in the Book of Job, where it functions as a general name for the deity.萨尔瓦多代发生最频繁的作业,簿,作为神的总称它的功能。As El Shaddai, God disciplines (Job 5:17); he is to be feared (Job 6:14); he is just (Job 8:3); he hears prayer (Job 8:5); and he creates (Job 33:4).由于萨尔瓦多代,神学科(工作5:17),他是什么可怕的(约伯记6:14),他是在(求职8:3),他听到祈祷(求职8:5)和他创建(求职33:4)。

This name occurs six times in the patriarchal narratives.这个名字出现在重男轻女的叙述六倍。In most of those instances it is associated with the promise given by God to the patriarchs.在那些它是与上帝给予的承诺始祖最关联的实例。Yet the name is often paired with Yahweh in the poetic material, and thus shares the personal warmth of that name.然而,这个名字经常搭配雅威在诗意的材料,从而在该股票名称个人的温暖。He is known for his steadfast love (Ps. 21:7) and his protection (Ps. 91:9-10).他称,他坚定的爱(诗篇21:7)和他的保护(诗篇91:9-10)。

The root of Adonai means "lord" and, in its secular usage, always refers to a superior in the OT.对阿多奈根的意思是“上帝”在其世俗的使用和,总是指的是在加时赛的优势。The word retains the sense of "lord" when applied to God.这个词保留了“上帝”的感觉时,适用于神。The present pointing of the word in the Massoretic text is late; early manuscripts were written without vowel pointing.目前的在massoretic文本字指向晚;早期的手稿是没有元音指着写的。

In Ps.在PS。110:1 the word is pointed in the singular, as it usually is when it applies to humans rather than God.110:1这个词是指在单数,因为它通常是当它适用于人类,而不是神。Yet Jesus used this verse to argue for his deity.然而,耶稣用这个诗句来争取他的神。The pointing is Massoretic, and no distinction would be made in the consonantal texts.指向是Massoretic,并没有区别将在辅音文字制成。Since the word denotes a superior, the word must refer to one who is superior to David and who bears the messianic roles of king and priest (vs. 4).由于这个词是指上级,这个词必须是指一个谁优于大卫和谁承担国王和祭司的救世主的角色(比4)。

The name Abba connotes the fatherhood of God.阿爸的名字蕴含了父亲的上帝。This is affirmed by the accompanying translation ho pater ("father") which occurs in each usage of the name in the NT (Mark 14:36; Rom. 8:15; Gal. 4:6).这是由随行翻译浩佩特(“父亲”),其中每所使用的名称在新台币发生肯定(马克14:36​​;罗8:15;。加拉太4:6)。。

The use of this name as Jesus' mode of address to God in Mark 14:36 is a unique expression of Jesus' relationship to the Father.这个名称的使用为耶稣'模式的地址在马克14:36​​上帝是耶稣的独特表达的关系,进而父。Jeremias says, "He spoke to God like a child to its father, simply, inwardly, confidently. Jesus' use of abba in addressing God reveals the heart of his relationship with God" (The Prayers of Jesus, p. 62).赫雷米亚斯说,“他说话就像一个孩子的父亲的神,简单地说,内心,自信。耶稣的阿爸用在解决上帝揭示了他的心与上帝的关系”(耶稣祈祷,第62页)。

The same relationship is sustained by the believer with God.相同的关系是持续的与上帝的信徒。It is only because of the believer's relationship with God, established by the Holy Spirit, that he can address God with this name that depicts a relationship of warmth and filial love.它不仅是因为信徒与上帝的关系由圣灵成立,他才能解决这个名称,描绘了一个孝顺的温暖和爱的关系的神。

In a sense the relationship designated by this name is the fulfillment of the ancient promise given to Abraham's offspring that the Lord will be their God, and they his people (Exod. 6:7; Lev. 26:12; Jer. 24:7; 30:22).从某种意义上说,这个名字指定的关系是给亚伯拉罕的后代的古老诺言,上帝将他们的神,他们自己的人民(出6:7;列弗26:12。耶24:7。 ; 30:22)。

TE McComiskeyTE的McComiskey
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
WF Albright, From Stone Age to Christianity; W. Eichrodt, Theology of the OT,I, 178ff.; L. Koehler, OT Theology; J. Schneider et al., NIDNTT, II, 66ff.; G. Oehler, Theology of the OT; M. Reisel, The Mysterious Name of YHWH; HH Rowley, The Faith of Israel; H. Schultz, OT Theology, II, 116ff.; T. Vriezen, An Outline of OT Theology; H. Kleinknecht et al., TDNT, III, 65ff.永丰奥尔布赖特,从石器时代到基督教;瓦特艾希罗特,神学的催产素,我,178ff。属克勒,催产素神学的J.施耐德等人,NIDNTT,二,66ff。。克奥勒尔,神学加时赛的M. Reisel,在耶和华神秘的名称;个HH rowley,以色列的信仰;阁下舒尔茨,催产素神学,二,116ff。吨Vriezen,一个神学纲要加时赛阁下; Kleinknecht等。 TDNT,三,65ff。


Also, see:此外,见:
Arguments for the Existence of God论据为上帝存在
Also, see:此外,见:
Jesus 耶稣
Christ 基督
Bible 圣经
Christianity 基督教

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