Grace格雷斯

géléi sī

General Information一般资料

Grace, a central concept in Christian theology, refers to God's granting Salvation not in reward for the moral worth of the human but as a free and undeserved gift of love. This concept stands opposed, therefore, to any notion that salvation can be earned by human effort apart from God's help.格雷斯,一个基督教神学的中心概念,是指上帝的给予救助没有在人体奖励的道德价值,但是作为一个不值得爱的礼物自由。这个概念相对立的,因此,任何概念,即拯救可赚取人的努力除了上帝的帮助。

The Old Testament contains important themes related to God's undeserved love for his people, Israel.旧约包含与上帝对他的人民,以色列不值得爱的重要主题。The chief architect of the early Christian church's theology of grace, however, was Saint Paul; charis, the Greek word for "grace," is infrequent in the non Pauline writings of the New Testament.在早期基督教教会的恩典神学的总设计师,但是,圣保罗哈里斯,为“宽限期”,在希腊语中是罕见的非宝莲的新约圣经的著作。 For Paul, grace means the free gift of salvation by which God liberates humans from Sin and frees them from death "through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus" (Romans 3:24). Paul deliberately sets grace in contrast to all human efforts to achieve favor with God.为保罗,宽限期是指救恩,上帝恩赐人类从罪恶中解放出来,并释放他们从死亡“通过赎回在基督耶稣是”(罗马书3:24)。 保罗故意设置宽限期,以对比人类的一切努力实现与上帝的恩赐。

In the subsequent development of the theology of grace, two conflicting views have predominated. The first, characteristic of medieval Christianity and continued in much Roman Catholic theology, has treated grace as a divine power that enters a person and, in cooperation with the person's own will, transforms him or her into one who loves God and is loved by God. This grace is transmitted especially, perhaps exclusively, through the church's Sacraments (the "means of grace"); and it allows some room for human merit because the one who receives grace must also cooperate with it in the process of transformation.在恩典后续发展神学的,两个相互矛盾的意见为主。 宽限期为进入神圣的权力,一个人,并在合作的人为自己的第一个特点中世纪的神学,治疗了基督教,并继续在许多罗马天主教会转换他或她变成一个谁爱上帝,是神所爱。这个宽限期是传播特别是,也许的完全是通过教会圣礼(即“指的恩典”),它允许有可取之处的空间人,因为一谁接收恩典还必须与它合作,在转变过程。

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The second view, often a reaction against the first, is particularly associated with the Protestant Reformation and Protestant theology.第二种观点,往往是对第一反应,特别是与新教的宗教改革和新教神学。In contrast to the ideas that the sacraments transmit grace and that one must cooperate with grace, Protestant theologians have insisted that grace is given where God wills and is not conditional on a person's receptivity. Thus the sacraments are signs of grace, but do not impart it, and salvation depends entirely on God, not at all on human will - a theme close to the idea of Presestination.与此相反的想法,圣礼传输宽限期,而且必须配合宽限期,而不是传授基督教神学家们坚持认为,宽限期只给予上帝的意志,而不是有条件的对一个人的接受能力。因此,标志圣礼是恩典,但它,拯救完全取决于上帝,而不是人的意志在所有 - 一到Presestination思想主题关闭。This grace, controlled only by God, is not a power that transforms a person; it is a love that receives a person directly into God's favor.这恩典,上帝只控制,是不是一种力量,转化一个人,它是一个爱情,它接收到上帝的青睐一人直接。

These two views are not totally incompatible.这两种观点并不完全不相容的。Both seek to understand the forms of God's unmerited love for people and their undeserved gift of salvation.两国都在设法了解人们和他们的救恩不当的礼物,上帝的过份的爱的形式。

William S Babcock威廉S巴布科克

Bibliography 参考书目
AC Clifford, Atonement and Justification (1990); P Fransen, Divine Grace and Man (1962); C Journet, The Meaning of Grace (1960); D Liederbach, The Theology of Grace and the American Mind (1983); J Moffatt, Grace in the New Testament (1932); P Watson, The Concept of Grace (1959); WT Whitley, ed., The Doctrine of Grace (1932).克利福德交流,赎罪和理由(1990年); P Fransen,神的恩典与人(1962年); ç Journet,恩典意义(1960年); ð Liederbach,恩典神学和美国心灵(1983年); Ĵ莫法特,格雷斯在新约(1932); P沃森,恩典概念(1959年);。野生惠特利,教育署,恩典(1932)学说。


Grace恩典

Advanced Information先进的信息

Like many other familiar terms the word "grace" has a variety of connotations and nuances, which need not be listed here.像其他许多熟悉的术语改为“宽限期”具有内涵和细微差别,不需要在这里列出品种。 For the purposes of this article its meaning is that of undeserved blessing freely bestowed on man by God, a concept which is at the heart not only of Christian theology but also of all genuinely Christian experience.对于本文的目的是,它的意义上自由的不当祝福上帝赋予人,一个概念,它在心脏不仅是基督教神学,但也是所有真正基督徒的经验。 In discussing the subject of grace an important distinction must be maintained between common (general, universal) grace and special (saving, regenerating) grace, if the relationship between divine grace and the human situation is to be rightly understood.在讨论的一个重要的区别宽限期主体之间必须保持共同的(一般情况下,通用)的优雅和特殊(节水,再生)的恩典,如果与神的恩典和人类状况的关系是要正确地理解。

Common Grace共同的恩典

Common grace is so called because it is common to all mankind.共同的恩典是所谓的,因为它是全人类共同的。Its benefits are experienced by the whole human race without discrimination between one person and another.它的好处是经历了整个人类之间没有一个人与另一个的歧视。The order of creation reflects the mind and the care of the Creator who sustains what he has made.创造的顺序反映的思想和对造物主的关心是谁,他取得了什么支撑。The eternal Son, through whom all things were made, "upholds the universe by his word of power" (Heb. 1:2 - 3; John 1:1 - 4).永恒的儿子,通过他们的所有事情发了言,“坚持用他的权力字的宇宙”(希伯来书1点02分 - 3,约翰1:1 - 4)。God's gracious provision for his creatures is seen in the sequence of the seasons, of seedtime and harvest.上帝对他的亲切规定被认为是动物在对播种期和收获季节,序列。Thus Jesus reminded his hearers that God "makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the just and on the unjust" (Matt. 5:45).因此,耶稣提醒他的听众是上帝“,使他在邪恶和良好的太阳升起,并发送的公正和不公正的雨”(太5:45)。The Creator's sustaining care for his creation is what is meant when we speak of divine providence.创作者的持续照顾他的创作是什么意思,当我们是神圣的发言。

Another aspect of common grace is evident in the divine government or control of human society.另一个方面是共同的恩典明显,在神圣的政府或人类社会的控制。It is true that human society is in a state of sinful fallenness.诚然,人类社会的罪恶fallenness状态。Were it not for the restraining hand of God, indeed, our world would long since have degenerated into a self destructive chaos of iniquity, in which social order and community life would have been an impossibility.如果不是神,确实抑制手,我们的世界将早已陷入了自我毁灭的罪恶的混乱,在这种社会秩序和社会生活将是不可能的堕落。 That a measure of domestic, political, and international harmony is enjoyed by the generality of mankind is due to the overruling goodness of God.这对国内,政治,和国际协调的措施是​​由人类所享有的一般性是因为推翻了神的善良。

Paul actually teaches that civil government with its authorities is ordained by God and that to resist these authorities is to resist the ordinance of God.保罗教导我们,其实与政府机关公务员受神命定,要抵制这些机构是抗拒神的条例。He even calls secular rulers and magistrates ministers of God, since their proper concern is the maintenance of order and decency in society.他甚至呼吁世俗统治者和神裁判部长,因为他们的正当关切是在社会秩序和尊严的维护。Insofar as they bear the sword for the punishment of wrongdoers in the interests of justice and peace, theirs is a God - given authority.因为它们承担着在正义与和平的利益违法者处罚的剑,他们是上帝 - 给予的权力。And, significantly, the state of which the apostle was proud to be a citizen was the pagan and at times persecuting state of imperial Rome, at the hands of whose rulers he would be put to death.而且,重要的是,国家的这使徒自豪地成为一个公民,是异教徒,有时甚至迫害罗马帝国国在其手中,他将被处死的统治者。 (See Rom. 13:1ff.) (见光盘。13时01分几段)。

It is due, further, to common grace than man retains within himself a consciousness of the difference between right and wrong, truth and falsehood, justice and injustice, and the awareness that he is answerable or accountable not merely to his fellowmen but also and ultimately to God, his Maker.这是因为,此外,为了人类共同的恩典比内保留了自己的正确与错误,真理与谬误,正义与非正义,并认识到自己是负责任的交代或不​​只是为了他的同胞,而且,最终的差异意识上帝,造他。 Man, in short, has a conscience and is endowed with the dignity of existing as a responsible being.男人,总之,有良心,是与作为一个负责任的被赋予现有的尊严。He is duty bound lovingly to obey God and to serve his fellows.他一定亲切服从上帝和他的伙伴们服务的责任。The conscience is the focus within each person, as a being formed in the image of God, not only of self respect and of respect for others but of respect for God.良心是每个人内的重点,作为一个正在形成中的神的形象不仅是自我尊重和对他人的尊重,但对上帝的尊重。

To common grace, then, we must thankfully attribute God's continuing care for his creation, as he provides for the needs of his creatures, restrains human society from becoming altogether intolerable and ungovernable, and makes it possible for mankind, though fallen, to live together in a generally orderly and cooperative manner, to show mutual forbearance, and to cultivate together the scientific, cultural, and economic pursuits of civilization.为了共同的恩典,那么,我们要谢天谢地属性为他的创作上帝的持续护理,因为他为他的生物的需求,抑制成为完全不能容忍和无法治理的人类社会,并有可能为人类,虽然下降了,住在一起在普遍秩序和合作的方式,以示相互克制,并培养共同的文明的科学,文化和经济的追求。

Special Grace特殊的恩典

Special grace is the grace by which God redeems, sanctifies, and glorifies his people.特别恩典是救赎的恩典,其中神,成圣,和美化他的人民。Unlike common grace, which is universally given, special grace is bestowed only on those whom God elects to eternal life through faith in his Son, our Savior Jesus Christ.不同于常见的恩典,这是普遍给予特别的恩典是谁赐予的,只有对那些选择将永生神​​通过他的儿子,我们的救主耶稣基督的信仰。 It is to this special grace that the whole of the Christian's salvation is owed: "All this is from God, who through Christ reconciled us to himself," Paul writes of the believer's re - creation in Christ (2 Cor. 5:18).正是在这种特殊的恩典,是基督教的救恩全是欠: - 。(2肺心病5:18)“这一切来自上帝,谁通过基督调和我们自己的,”保罗的信徒在基督里写道重新创造。God's regenerating grace is dynamic.神的恩典是动态的再生。It not only saves but also transforms and revitalizes those whose lives were previously broken and meaningless.它不仅节省了,而且转换和振兴以前那些生活破碎和毫无意义的。This is graphically illustrated by the experience of Saul the persecutor who was dramatically changed into Paul the apostle, so that he was able to testify: "By the grace of God I am what I am, and his grace toward me was not in vain. On the contrary, I worked harder than any of them (the other apostles), though it was not I, but the grace of God which is with me" (1 Cor. 15:10).这生动说明了扫罗逼迫谁是体验到显着改变了使徒保罗,使他能够证明:到神的恩典,我就是我“,他对我的恩典是没有白费。相反,我的工作比他们(其他使徒)任何困难,虽然这不是我,而是神的恩典,这与我“(1肺心病。15:10)。

All is thus ascribed to the grace of God, not merely the Christian's conversion but also the whole course of his ministry and pilgrimage.因此,归因于所有的神的恩典,不仅是基督教的转换,但也是他的部和朝圣的全过程。For the sake of convenience, the theme of special grace will now be developed under a number of customary theological heads or aspects, as prevenient, efficacious, irresistible, and sufficient.为方便起见,特别恩典的主题下发展,现在是一个神学元首或习惯方面,如前的,有效的,不可抗拒的,并有足够数量。

Prevenient grace is grace which comes first.优雅的宽限期是最先出现。It precedes all human decision and endeavor.它先于人类所有的决定和努力。Grace always means that it is God who takes the initiative and implies the priority of God's action on behalf of needy sinners.格雷斯总是意味着它是上帝谁采取主动,并暗示有需要的罪人的代表上帝的优先行动。That is the whole point of grace: it does not start with us, it starts with God; it is not earned or merited by us, it is freely and lovingly given to us who have no resources or deservings of our own.这是恩典的整点:它不和我们一起开始,它开始与上帝,它不是由我们赚取或值得,它是自由和慈爱给我们谁没有资源或我们自己的deservings。 "In this is love," John declares, "not that we loved God but that he loved us and sent his Son to be the expiation for our sins"; consequently, "we love, because he first loved us" (1 John 4:10, 19).“这就是爱,”约翰宣称,“不是我们爱上帝,但他爱我们,差他的儿子,为我们的罪赎罪”,因此,“我们爱,因为神先爱我们”(约翰一书4 :10,19)。

God, in fact, showed his prior love for us by graciously providing this redemption precisely when we had no love for him: "God shows his love for us," says Paul, "in that while we were yet sinners Christ died for us," so that "while we were enemies we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son" (Rom. 5:8, 10; cf. 2 Cor. 8:9).神,其实,这显示了慷慨地提供赎回时,正是我们没有对他的爱之前,他对我们的爱:“上帝为我们展示他的爱,”保罗说,因为“虽然我们还作罪人的基督为我们死, “所以,”虽然我们是敌人,我们是不甘心于他的儿子“死亡的神(罗马书5:8,10;比照2肺心病8时09分。。)。God took action, moreover, when we were helpless (Rom. 5:6), without any ability to help ourselves or to make any contribution toward our salvation.神采取了行动,而且,当我们无助(罗马书5:6),没有任何能力帮助自己或作出任何对我们的救恩的贡献。The sinner's state is one of spiritual death, that is to say, of total inability, and his only hope is the miracle of new birth from above (John 3:3).罪人的状态是灵魂的死亡,也就是总不能说,一,他唯一的希望就是从上面的新生(约翰3:3)的奇迹。That is why the apostle reminds the Ephesian believers that salvation came to them when they were "dead" in sins, from which there follows only one conclusion, namely, that it is by grace that they were saved.这就是为什么使徒提醒市民,来拯救他们时,他们是“死”在罪孽中,其中有如下的结论只有一个,即它是本乎恩,它们被保存以弗所的信徒。

Both now and for all eternity the Christian will be indebted to "the immeasurable riches" of God's grace displayed in his kindness toward us in Christ Jesus; for, Paul insists, "by grace you have been saved through faith, and this is not your own doing, it is the gift of God, not because of works, lest any man should boast" (Eph. 2:5 - 9).无论是现在和所有永恒的基督教会感激“的无穷财富”上帝的恩典,他对我们的好意,在基督耶稣显示,因为,保罗坚持“,由恩典你已经通过信仰得救,这是不是你的自己做的,它是上帝的礼物,不是因为作品,免得有人自夸“(以弗所书2:5 - 9)。But for the prevenience, or priority, of divine grace, all would be lost.但对于prevenience,或优先神圣的恩典,一切就都失去了。

Efficacious grace is grace which effects the purpose for which it is given. 有效恩典恩典,这影响的特定目的,这就是它。It is efficacious simply because it is God's grace.它是有效的,只是因为它是神的恩典。What is involved here is the doctrine of God: what God purposes and performs cannot fail or come to nothing; otherwise he is not God.这里所涉及的是上帝的教义:什么是上帝的宗旨和执行失败或不能落空,否则他不是神。The indefectibility of redeeming grace is seen not only in the turning of sinners from darkness to light but also in the bringing of them to the consummation of eternal glory. ,救赎恩典indefectibility是不仅体现在转折的罪人,从黑暗走向光明,但在他们带来荣耀的永恒的圆满也。"All that the Father gives to me will come to me," Jesus declared; "and him who comes to me I will not cast out; and this is the will of him who sent me, that I should lose nothing of all that he has given me, but raise it up at the last day" (John 6:37, 39; cf. 17:2, 6, 9, 12, 24). “所有这一切的父亲给我的,必到我这里来,”耶稣宣称,“和他谁到我,我不会投出去,这是谁送我的旨意,使我失去了什么,他的所有给了我,但在最后一天提出“它(约翰福音6:37,39岁;比照17点02分,6,9,12,24。)。 There is no power in all the universe that can undo or frustrate the work of God's special grace: "My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me," says the Good Shepherd; "and I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish, and no one shall snatch them out of my hand" (John 10:27 - 28).没有在所有的宇宙,可以撤消或阻挠上帝的特殊恩典工作电源:“我的羊听我的声音,我知道他们,他们也跟着我,说:”好牧人“,以及我给他们永生,他们永远不会灭亡,任何人不得抢夺我的手“出来(约翰福音10:27 - 28)。

All, as we have seen, from beginning to end, is owed to the grace of Almighty God (2 Cor. 5:18, 21).,正如我们所看到的,从开始到结束,是欠全能的神的恩典(2肺心病。5:18,21)。The whole of our redemption is already achieved and sealed in Christ: "For those whom (God) foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son; and those whom he predestined he also called; and those whom he called he also justified; and those whom he justified he also glorified" (Rom. 8: 29 - 30).我们的赎回已经实现,全密封在基督:“对于那些人(神)预知他也注定要效法他儿子的形象,以及他的那些人注定他还呼吁,以及他的那些人,他还呼吁理由;和那些人,他的理由,他也荣耀“(罗马书八:29 - 30)。That the grace of God in Christ Jesus is efficacious, that it achieves now and for evermore the redemption it was designed to achieve, should be a source of the utmost confidence, strength, and security to the Christian.这神在基督耶稣的恩典是有效的,它现在和永远的达到它的目的是要实现赎回,应该是最有信心,力量和安全,以基督教的来源。 The fact that "God's firm foundation stands, bearing this seal: 'The Lord knows those who are his'" (2 Tim. 2:19) should fill him with unshakable assurance.事实上,“上帝的坚定立场的基础,承载这印记:'主认识谁是他的'”(2添2时19。)应保证他充满不可动摇的。 Since the grace of redemption is the grace of God, he may be absolutely certain "that he who began a good work in you will bring it to completion at the day of Jesus Christ" (Phil. 1:6).由于赎回的恩典是神的恩典,他可能是绝对肯定“,他谁开始了良好的工作,你就会把它完成于耶稣基督的日子”(腓1:6)。 God's special grace is never in vain (1 Cor. 15:10).神的特别恩典是永远不会白费(1肺心病。15:10)。

Irresistible grace is grace which cannot be rejected. 不可抗拒的恩典恩典,这是不能被拒绝。The conception of the irresistibility of special grace is closely bound up with what has been said above concerning the efficacious nature of that grace.该不可抗拒的特殊恩典概念是息息相关与上述关于什么是该宽限期有效的性质说。As the work of God always achieves the effect toward which it is directed, so also it cannot be resisted or thrust aside.作为上帝的工作始终朝着实现,它是指导作用,因此也无法抗拒或推力一边。No doubt it is true that most persons blindly struggle against the redemptive grace of God at first, just as Saul of Tarsus fought against the goads of his conscience (Acts 26:14); subsequently, however, he understood that God had not only called him through his grace but had set him apart before he was born (Gal. 1:15), indeed that those who are Christ's were chosen in him before the foundation of the world (Eph. 1:4).毫无疑问,这是事实,大多数人盲目地对上帝的救赎恩典奋斗在第一,正如塔尔苏斯对自己的良心(徒26:14)的电击棒而战,但是,后来他明白,上帝不仅要求他通过他的恩典但他与众不同,他出生前(加拉太书1:15),事实上,那些谁是基督的人在他选择了前世界(以弗所书1:4)的基础。

As creation was irresistibly effected through the all powerful word and will of God, so also the new creation in Christ is irresistibly effected through that same all powerful word and will.由于不可抗拒的影响的创造是通过功能强大的Word和所有神的旨意,因此也是在基督里的新创造,是不可抗拒的影响,通过相同的所有功能强大的文字和意志。 The Creator God is one and the same with the Redeemer God.造物主上帝是一个整体,与救赎神一样。This in effect is what Paul is affirming when he writes: "It is the God who said, 'Let light shine out of darkness' (that is, at creation; Gen. 1:3 - 5), who has shone in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ (that is, in the new creation)" (2 Cor. 4:6).这实际上是保罗是肯定时,他写道:“这是上帝谁说:'让光线照出来的黑暗'(即在创造;创1:3 - 5),谁照在我们心中给予的神在耶稣基督的面上荣耀的光(即在新的创造)“(2肺心病。4:6)。The regenerating work of God in the believing heart, precisely again because it is God's work, can no more be resisted than it can come to nothing.神的再生工作在信者的心,正是因为它再次是神的工作,更是不能比它可以抵制落空。

Sufficient grace is grace that is adequate for the saving of the believer here and now and hereafter to all eternity. 充分恩典恩典是足够的信徒这里的节约,现在和今后所有的永恒。As with the other aspects of special grace, its sufficiency flows from the infinite power and goodness of God.由于特殊的恩典与其他方面,它的充分流动的无限权力和善良的上帝。Those who draw near to him through Christ he saves "fully and completely" (Heb. 7:25, Phillips).这些谁亲近他,他借着基督保存“的充分和完全”(希伯来书7:25菲利普斯)。The cross is the only place of forgiveness and reconciliation, and it is fully so; for the blood of Jesus shed there for us cleanses from all sin and from all unrighteousness (1 John 1:7, 9), and he is the propitiation not for our sins only but also "for the sins of the whole world" (1 John 2:2).十字架是宽恕与和解的唯一地方,它是完全如此;为耶稣的鲜血,我们有一切的罪和一切的不义(约翰一书1:7,9)清洁,而且他是不是和解只为我们的罪,而且“为整个世界的罪”(约翰一书2:2)。 Moreover, as we face the trials and afflictions of this present life the Lord's grace continues to be unfailingly sufficient for us (2 Cor. 12:9).此外,由于我们面临的考验和今世的苦难主的恩典继续可靠地对我们来说足够了(2肺心病。12:9)。He has promised, "I will never fail you nor forsake you."他承诺,“我永远不会失败,你,也不丢弃你。”"Hence," as the author of the Letter to the Hebrews points out, "we can confidently say, 'The Lord is my helper, I will not be afraid; what can man do to me?'" (Heb. 13:5 - 6; Ps. 118:6). “因此,”作为此信的作者希伯来人指出,“我们可以自信地说,耶和华是我的助手,我不会害怕,什么人能把我'”(希伯来书十三点05 - 6;诗118:6)。。

The fact that many who hear the call of the gospel fail to respond to it with repentance and faith, and continue in their unbelief, does not imply that there is any insufficiency in Christ's atoning sacrifice of himself on the cross.事实上,许多人听到福音call没有反应与忏悔和信仰它,并继续他们的不信,不意味着有任何基督的赎罪牺牲了自己在十字架上的不足。 The fault rests entirely with them, and they are condemned because of their own unbelief (John 3:18. It is inappropriate to speak of divine grace in terms of quantity, as though it were sufficient only for those whom God justifies, or as though for its sufficiency to exceed these limits would mean a wastage of grace and to that extent an invalidation of Christ's self - offering. God's grace is boundless. How could it be anything else, seeing it is the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, God himself incarnate? That is why it is all - sufficient. No matter how much we draw from it, the river of divine grace is always full of water (Ps. 65:9). Quantitative notions of God's saving grace make the universal offer of the gospel unreal for those who reject it and leave them rejecting something that is not even there for them to reject.故障完全在于他们,他们是因为自己不信(约3时18分。这是不适当的,神圣的恩典在数量上发言,仿佛它只是对那些有足够的人上帝的理由,或虽然谴责它充分超出这些限制将意味着,既优雅又浪费在该范围内的基督的自我失效 - 。祭上帝的恩典是无限的怎么可能是别的什么,看它是我们的主耶稣基督,神自己的恩典。 ?体现这就是为什么它是所有 - 。足够不管我们多么从中吸取,神的恩典河总是充满了水(诗篇65:9)神的救恩的概念作出定量的普遍优惠。福音虚幻为那些谁拒绝它,并给他们拒绝的东西不在那里,即使他们拒绝。

And this in turn leaves no ground for their condemnation as unbelievers (John 3:18 again).而这又为他们的不信叶谴责(约3时18分再次)没有理由。More biblical is the distinction that has been propounded between the sufficiency and the efficiency (or efficaciousness) of special grace (though it would be foolish to imagine that this dissolves the mystery of God's gracious dealings with his creatures), according to which this grace is sufficient for all but efficient (or efficacious) only for those whom God justifies by faith.更多圣经的是,之间已充分性和特殊的恩典效率(或efficaciousness)propounded(虽然这将是愚蠢的设想,这个消解了与他的动物神的恩典交易神秘)的区别,根据本恩典是充分而有效的所有只对那些因信神的人证明(或有效)。

It is important always to remember that the operation of God's grace is a deep mystery that is far beyond our limited human comprehension.重要的是永远要记住,神的恩典操作是一个深刻的神秘,远远超出了我们有限的人力理解。God does not treat men as though they were puppets with no mind or will of their own.上帝不会把男人,好像他们是木偶或没有考虑自己的意愿。Our human dignity as responsible persons under God is never violated or despised.我们作为负责人,以神从来没有违反人的尊严或轻视。How could it be, since this dignity is itself given by God?这怎么可能,因为这本身就是尊严上帝给予?By Christ's command the gospel of divine grace is freely proclaimed throughout the whole world (Acts 1:8; Matt. 28:19).基督的命令神恩惠的福音是可以自由在整个世界宣告(徒1:8;太28:19。)。Those who turn away from it do so of their own choice and stand self condemned as lovers of darkness rather than light (John 3:19, 36).谁把那些远离它这样做他们自己的选择和自我的立场,作为黑暗爱好者而不是光谴责(约翰3:19 36)。Those who thankfully receive it do so in full personal responsibility (John 1:12; 3:16), but then they give all the praise to God because their whole redemption is, in some wonderful way, due entirely to the grace of God and not at all to themselves.幸好那些谁接受它这样做完全的个人责任(约翰1:12; 3:16),但后来他们把所有的赞美上帝,因为他们的整个赎回,一些优秀的方式,由于完全是上帝的恩典和不是所有的自己。

Confronted with this marvelous but mysterious reality, we can do no more than exclaim, with Paul: "O the depth of the riches and wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments and how inscrutable his ways! For from him and through him and to him are all things. To him be glory for ever. Amen" (Rom. 11:33, 36).这个奇妙而神秘的现实面前,我们可以做的比惊呼没有更多的,与保罗:!“澳的财富,智慧和知识的深度如何无法测度上帝是他的判断,以及如何从高深莫测的他的方式对他并通过他!和他的一切。给他的荣耀。阿门“(罗马书11时33分,36)。

PE Hughes体育休斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
CR Smith, The Biblical Doctrine of Grace; J Moffatt, Grace in the NT; NP Williams, The Grace of God; HH Esser, NIDNTT, II; H Conzelmann and W Zimmerli, TDNT,IX; E Jauncey, The Doctrine of Grace; TF Torrance, The Doctrine of Grace in the Apostolic Fathers.铬史密斯,恩典圣经教义; Ĵ莫法特,在NT的恩典;镎威廉姆斯,神的恩典; HH埃塞尔,NIDNTT,二; ħ Conzelmann和W Zimmerli,TDNT,第九,电子商务Jauncey,理论的宽限期; tF的托兰斯,恩典在使徒教父学说。


Means of Grace格雷斯手段

Advanced Information先进的信息

"Means of Grace" is an expression not used in Scripture, but employed (1) to denote those institutions ordained by God to be the ordinary channels of grace to the souls of men.“手段的恩典”不是圣经中使用的表达,但就业(1)来表示上帝的恩典受戒是对人的灵魂正常渠道的机构。These are the Word, Sacraments, and Prayer.这些字,圣礼,祈祷。(2.) But in popular language the expression is used in a wider sense to denote those exercises in which we engage for the purpose of obtaining spiritual blessing; as hearing the gospel, reading the Word, meditation, self-examination, Christian conversation, etc. 。(2),但以通俗的语言表达是用在更广泛的意义来表示这些演习中,我们为取得祈福的目的,从事;作为听证会的福音,读字,冥想,自我反省,基督教的对话,等

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Means of Grace格雷斯手段

Advanced Information先进的信息

The means of grace, or media through which grace may be received, are various.优雅的手段,通过它的宽限期或媒体可能收到的,是多方面的。The primary means of grace is that of Holy Scripture, from which our whole knowledge of the Christian faith is derived and the chief purpose of which is to communicate to us the saving grace of the gospel of Jesus Christ (2 Tim. 3:15; John 20:31).恩典的主要手段是,圣经,从我们对整个基督教信仰的知识推导和行政目的是要传达给我们的耶稣基督的福音(2添可取3:15。;约翰20:31)。 Preaching, which is the proclamation of the dynamic truth of the gospel, is, as the teaching and practice of Christ himself and his apostles show, a means of grace of the utmost importance (Luke 24:47; Acts 1:8; Rom. 1:16; 10:11 - 15; 1 Cor. 1:17 - 18, 23).说教,它是动态的福音真理宣讲,是为教学和实践基督本人和他的使徒表明,一个极其重要的宽限期手段(路加福音24:47,徒1:8;光盘。 1点16; 10时11分 - 15,1肺心病1时17分 - 18,23)。。Similarly, personal witness and evangelism are means for bringing the grace of the gospel to others.同样,个人见证和传福音是使福音的宽限期,以其他手段。

If the above are essentially means of saving grace, there are also means of continuing or strengthening grace.如果上述本质上是可取的手段,也有继续或加强宽限期手段。The exposition of Holy Scripture for the instruction and edification of Christian believers is one such means, as also is the private study of the Bible.的圣经的基督教信徒指导和启迪的论述,是这样一个手段,也是个人学习的圣经。Another is prayer, in which the Christian communes with God, experiences his presence, and opens himself to his purpose and his power.另一个是祈祷,与神在其中,基督教公社经验他的存在,并打开自己他的目的和他的权力。 Another is fellowship with other Christians in worship and witness.另一个原因是,在崇拜和其他基督徒团契见证。And yet another is participation in the sacrament of the breaking of bread which Christ instituted and commanded his followers to observe (Acts 2:42).而另一个是在基督破面包和指挥提起他的追随者观察(徒2:42)圣餐参与。

It is of particular importance that the means of grace should be rightly received, and to be rightly received they must be received with faith and gratitude; otherwise, instead of being means of grace they become means of condemnation.这是特别重要的是手段的宽限期应该正确地接收,并要正确地收到他们必须用信心和感激收到,否则,不是意味着他们的恩典而成为谴责的手段。 Thus the purpose of Christ's coming was not to judge but to save the world.因此,基督的到来的目的不是法官,但要拯救世界。The person, however, who in unbelief rejects Christ and his teaching is not saved but judged by Christ (John 12:47 - 48).这个人,但是,谁不信拒绝基督和他的教学是不保存,但由基督审判(约翰12时47分 - 48)。The gospel must not only be heard; it must also be believed (John 5:24; I John 5:13; Rom. 10:9 - 14).福音不仅要被听到,它也必须相信(约翰5:24;约翰5点13分,罗马书10点09 - 14。)。

Similarly, the sacrament of the breaking of bread (known also as the Lord's Supper, Holy Communion, or the Eucharist) was instituted by Christ as a means of grace, and it is indeed such to all who thankfully receive it with faith in the Savior who died for sinners on the cross.同样,在破面包(称为主的晚餐,圣餐或圣体也)圣事是由基督作为一种优雅手段,它确实是这样所有谁幸好收到的救主的信念谁死在十字架上为罪人。 Such persons truly eat Christ's flesh and drink his blood (John 6:35, 52 - 58).这些人真正吃基督的肉,喝他的血(约6点35分,52 - 58)。But those who receive in an unworthy manner are "guilty of profaning the body and blood of the Lord," and to them the sacrament becomes a means of condemnation, so that, in receiving it, they eat and drink judgment upon themselves (1 Cor. 11:27 - 29).但是,这些谁在一个卑微的方式接收是“亵渎的身体和血的主有罪”,并给他们的圣餐变成了谴责手段,使接受它,他们吃的,喝给自己判断(1肺心病。11时27 - 29)。Accordingly, it is erroneous to imagine that this sacrament, or for that matter, baptism, or the hearing of the gospel, or attendance at church, is automatically a means of grace to any who partake of it, without regard to their disposition of faith or unbelief, as though the mere reception sufficed to guarantee the imparting of grace.因此,这是错误的想像,这圣餐,或为此事,洗礼,或福音的听证会,或参加教堂活动,是自动成为任何手段的宽限期谁参与其中,而不管他们的信仰处置或不信,好像只是接待足以保证传授的宽限期。

That is why Paul speaks of the ministers of the gospel as being, in their witness and in their suffering, those who spread the fragrance of the knowledge of Christ, fragrance, however, which to those who are perishing through unbelief is "fragrance from death to death," while to those who are being saved through faith it is "fragrance from life to life" (2 Cor. 2:14 - 16).这就是为什么保罗讲的福音的部长,而在他们的见证,并在他们的痛苦,那些谁传播的基督,香水,然而,知识,对那些通过不信谁灭亡香味是“从死亡香味死亡“,而对那些谁正在通过信仰得救的是”从生活到生活的芬芳“(2肺心病2点14 - 16。)。

PE Hughes体育休斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)


Grace恩典

Advanced Information先进的信息

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Sanctifying Gracesanctifying宽限期

Catholic Information天主教新闻

Grace (gratia, Charis), in general, is a supernatural gift of God to intellectual creatures (men, angels) for their eternal salvation, whether the latter be furthered and attained through salutary acts or a state of holiness.宽限期(特惠,哈里斯),一般来讲,​​是一个超自然的神的礼物,为他们永恒的智慧生物得救(男,天使),后者是否有益的办法,并通过行为或圣洁的国家实现。 Eternal salvation itself consists in heavenly bliss resulting from the intuitive knowledge of the Triune God, who to the one not endowed with grace "inhabiteth light inaccessible" (1 Timothy 6:16).永恒的救恩本身包含在天上从三一神良知,谁赋予的,因而造成一个不幸福的恩典“inhabiteth不可接近的光”(提摩太6:16)。 Christian grace is a fundamental idea of the Christian religion, the pillar on which, by a special ordination of God, the majestic edifice of Christianity rests in its entirety.基督教恩典是一个基督教的基本思想,支柱上,由神的特别协调,基督教的雄伟大厦在于它的全部内容。Among the three fundamental ideas -- sin, redemption, and grace -- grace plays the part of the means, indispensable and Divinely ordained, to effect the redemption from sin through Christ and to lead men to their eternal destiny in heaven.在这三个基本理念 - 罪,赎回,和优雅 - 优雅扮演的手段的一部分,不可缺少的神灵保佑,以便作出赎回透过基督从罪,引导他们在天堂的人永恒的命运。

Before the Council of Trent, the Schoolmen seldom used the term gratia actualis, preferring auxilium speciale, motio divina, and similar designations; nor did they formally distinguish actual grace from sanctifying grace.安理会的遄达之前,很少使用的schoolmen特惠actualis一词,宁愿auxilium speciale,motio迪维纳及类似名称,也没有正式区分sanctifying恩典实际的宽限期。But, in consequence of modern controversies regarding grace, it has become usual and necessary in theology to draw a sharper distinction between the transient help to act (actual grace) and the permanent state of grace (sanctifying grace).但是,在现代的争论就恩典的结果,它已成为常见的,神学必须提请之间的短暂的帮助更清晰的区分法(实际的宽限期)和宽限期(圣洁恩典)永久状态。 For this reason we adopt this distinction as our principle of division in our exposition of the Catholic doctrine.为此,我们采取这个作为我们的分工原则,我们对天主教教义博览会的区别。In this article, we shall treat only of sanctifying grace.在这篇文章中,我们将只把圣洁的宽限期。(See also ACTUAL GRACE.) (亦见实际的宽限期)。

Santifying graceSantifying宽限期

Since the end and aim of all efficacious grace is directed to the production of sanctifying grace where it does not already exist, or to retain and increase it where it is already present, its excellence, dignity, and importance become immediately apparent; for holiness and the sonship of God depend solely upon the possession of sanctifying grace, wherefore it is frequently called simply grace without any qualifying word to accompany it as, for instance, in the phrases "to live in grace" or "to fall from grace".由于年底,所有有效的宽限期的目的是针对生产的sanctifying宽限期,在它尚不存在,或保持和增加它在那里已经存在,其卓越,尊严和重要性变得一目了然;的圣洁,神的sonship完全依赖于拥有的sanctifying宽限期,因此它经常简称为宽限期,没有任何修饰词来陪伴它,例如,在词组:“住在恩典”或“失宠”。

All pertinent questions group themselves around three points of view from which the subject may be considered:所有相关的问题围绕三个群体自身的角度,从该科目可考虑几点:

I. The preparation for sanctifying grace, or the process of justification.一,为圣洁的宽限期准备,或理由的过程。

II.二。The nature of sanctifying grace.大自然的sanctifying恩典。

III.三。The characteristics of sanctifying grace.圣洁优雅的特点。

I. JUSTIFICATION: THE PREPARATION FOR SANCTIFYING GRACE一,理由:对sanctifying宽限期制备

(For an exhaustive treatment of justification, see the article JUSTIFICATION). (对于一个详尽的治疗的理由,请参阅文章理由)。The word justification (justificatio, from justum facere) derives its name from justice (justitia), by which is not merely meant the cardinal virtue in the sense of a contant purpose to respect the rights of others (suum cuique), nor is the term taken in the concept of all those virtues which go to make up the moral law, but connotes, especially, the whole inner relation of man to God as to his supernatural end.这个词的理由(justificatio,从justum facere)源于它的名字来自司法(justitia),其中不只是意味着在一个孔唐使命感枢机美德,尊重他人(猪蛔虫cuique)的权利,也不是长期采取在所有这些美德是去弥补的道德法,但蕴含的概念,特别是在整个人类对上帝的内在关系,以他的超自然结束。 Every adult soul stained either with original sin or with actual mortal sin (children are of course excepted) must, in order to arrive at the state of justification, pass through a short or long process of justification, which may be likened to the gradual development of the child in its mother's womb.无论是每个成年人的灵魂染原罪或有实际弥天大罪(当然是儿童的除外),必须以达成国家的理由,经过一个或长或短的理由的过程,这可能被比作是逐步发展,在其母亲的子宫里的孩子。 This development attains its fullness in the birth of the child, accompanied by the anguish and suffering with which this birth is invariably attended; our rebirth in God is likewise preceded by great spiritual sufferings of fear and contrition.达到这一发展在孩子出生的痛苦和苦难,这本诞生总是伴随着出席,其丰满;我们在神重生同样由恐惧和巨大的精神痛苦悔悟之前。

In the process of justification we must distinguish two periods: first, the preparatory acts or dispositions (faith, fear, hope, etc.); then the last, decisive moment of the transformation of the sinner from the state of sin to that of justification or sanctifying grace, which may be called the active justification (actus justificationis) with this the real process comes to an end, and the state of habitual holiness and sonship of God begins.在过程中,我们的理由,必须区分两个时期:第一,预备行为或处置(信仰,恐惧,希望等),然后在最后的罪人从罪恶的状态转移的决定性时刻,认为理由或sanctifying恩典,这可能是所谓的积极的理由(行为致justificationis)这个实际过程即将结束,而习惯性圣洁和神的sonship状态开始。 Touching both of these periods there has existed, and still exists, in part, a great conflict of opinion between Catholicism and Protestantism.谈到这些时期都出现了存在,并且仍然存在,部分,一个天主教和新教之间的巨大冲突的意见。

This conflict may be reduced to four differences of teaching.这种冲突可能会减少到四个教学的差异。 By a justifying faith the Church understands qualitatively the theoretical faith in the truths of Revelation, and demands over and above this faith other acts of preparation for justification.通过正当的信仰,教会在理解定性理论的真理启示的信仰,超过这个信念为理由,要求准备的其他行为。Protestantism, on the other hand, reduces the process of justification to merely a fiduciary faith; and maintains that this faith, exclusive even of good works, is all-sufficient for justification, laying great stress upon the scriptural statement sola fides justificat.基督教,另一方面,降低过程的理由仅仅是受托信念,认为这个信念,甚至独家的优秀作品,是所有为理由,自给自足,奠定在圣经的声明唯独惹人justificat很大压力。 The Church teaches that justification consists of an actual obliteration of sin and an interior sanctification.教会教导我们,一个罪恶的理由实际闭塞和内部成圣组成。Protestantism, on the other hand, makes of the forgiveness of sin merely a concealment of it, so to speak; and of the sanctification a forensic declaration of justification, or an external imputation of the justice of Christ.基督教,另一方面,使罪恶的宽恕只是它的一个隐蔽,可以这么说;及成圣法医宣言的理由,或者一个正义的基督外部转嫁。 In the presentation of the process of justification, we will everywhere note this fourfold confessional conflict.在演示过程中的理由,我们将无处不在注意此教派冲突的四倍。

A. The Fiduciary Faith of the Protestants答:受托信仰的新教徒

The Council of Trent (Sess. VI, cap. vi, and can. xii) decrees that not the fiduciary faith, but a real mental act of faith, consisting of a firm belief in all revealed truths makes up the faith of justification and the "beginning, foundation, and source" (loc. cit., cap. viii) of justification.安理会的遄达(sess.六,帽。六,并且可以。十二)信托法令,不是信仰,而是一种真正的精神病行为的信仰,坚定信念,在所有发现的真理组成弥补了信仰和理由“开始的,基础,和源”(如上。章。八)的理由。 What did the Reformers with Luther understand by fiduciary faith?什么与路德宗教改革了解受托信心吗?They understood thereby not the first or fundamental deposition or preparation for the (active) justification, but merely the spiritual grasp (instrumentum) with which we seize and lay hold of the external justice of Christ and with it, as with a mantle of grace, cover our sins (which still continue to exist interiorly) in the infallible, certain belief (fiducia) that God, for the sake of Christ, will no longer hold our sin against us.他们明白,从而根本不是第一次或沉积的(活动)的理由或准备,而仅仅是精神上的把握(instrumentum),使我们抓住机遇,抓住的基督的外部司法和它与地幔的宽限期,包括我们的罪(仍继续存在区委)在犯错,某种信仰(德鑫),神,为基督的缘故,我们将不再举行反对我们的罪。 Hereby the seat of justifying faith is transferred from the intellect to the will; and faith itself, in as far as it still abides in the intellect, is converted into a certain belief in one's own justification.特此座位的正当信仰转移到智力的意志和信念本身,就因为它仍然在遵守智慧,是某种信仰转化成在自己的理由。 The main question is: "Is this conception Biblical?"主要的问题是:“这是观念圣经?”Murray (De gratia, disp. x, n. 18, Dublin, 1877) states in his statistics that the word fides (pistis) occurs eighty times in the Epistle to the Romans and in the synoptic Gospels, and in only six of these can it be construed to mean fiducia.默里(德特惠,DISP键。十,北18,都柏林,1877年)在他的统计数字指出,这个词惹人(pistis)发生在80倍的书信向罗马和在天气福音,并在其中只有六个CAN它被解释为鑫。 But neither here nor anywhere else does it ever mean the conviction of, or belief in, one's own justification, or the Lutheran fiduciary faith.但无论是在这里或者其他任何地方它永远意味着,信念在,自己的理由或信仰或路德受托信心。Even in the leading text (Romans 4:5) the justifying faith of St. Paul is identical with the mental act of faith or belief in Divine truth; for Abraham was justified not by faith in his own justification, but by faith in the truth of the Divine promise that he would be the "father of many nations" (cf. Romans 4:9 sqq.).即使在领先的文本(罗马书4:5)的圣保禄辩护信仰与信仰或信仰的神圣真理的精神行为相同;为亚伯拉罕是不​​是由他自己的理由信称义,而是对真理的信仰神圣的承诺,他将成为“多国之父”(参见罗马书四点09分sqq。)。 In strict accord with this is the Pauline teaching that the faith of justification, which we must profess "with heart and mouth", is identical with the mental act of faith in the Resurrection of Christ, the central dogma of Christianity (Romans 10:9 sq.) and that the minimum expressly necessary for justification is contained in the two dogmas: the existence of God, and the doctrine of eternal reward (Hebrews 11:6).在严格符合这是宝莲教学,信仰的理由,我们必须信奉“患有心脏病和嘴巴”,是与信仰的基督,基督教的中心法则(罗马书10:9复活心理行为相同平方米),而最低为理由,明确必要的是在这两个教条载:上帝的存在和永恒的奖赏学说(希伯来书11:6)。

The Redeemer Himself made belief in the teaching of the gospel a necessary condition for salvation, when he solemnly commanded the Apostles to preach the Gospel to the whole world (Mark 16:15).救世主在自己的一个救赎的福音,当他郑重地吩咐到使徒的必要条件教学信念传福音给整个世界(马克16:15)。St. John the Evangelist declares his Gospel has been written for the purpose of exciting belief in the Divine Sonship of Christ, and links to this faith the possession of eternal life (John 20:31).圣约翰福音的传播者宣布他已为激动人心的信念,在基督的神圣sonship和链接目的这个信念永恒的生命(约20:31)有书面。 Such was the mind of the Chritian Church from the beginning.这就是教会的Chritian从心开始。To say nothing of the testimony of the Fathers (cf. Bellarmine, De justific., I, 9), Saint Fulgentius, a disciple of St. Augustine, in his precious booklet, "De vera fide ad Petrum", does not understand by true faith a fiduciary faith, but the firm belief in all the truths contained in the Apostles' Creed, and he calls this faith the "Foundation of all good things", and the "Beginning of human salvation" (loc. cit., Prolog.).如果说,父亲的证词没有什么(参见贝拉明,德justific。,我,9),圣傅箴修,圣奥古斯丁的弟子,在他的珍贵的小册子“德维拉真正的广告Petrum”,不明白受信人的信仰真正的信仰,但在所有的使徒们的信条中包含真理的坚定信念,这个信念,他呼吁“所有好东西基金会”,以及“拯救人类的开端”(如上。,序言。)。 The practice of the Church in the earliest ages, as shown by the ancient custom, going back to Apostolic times, of giving the catechumens (katechoumenoi from katechein, viva voce instruere) a verbal instruction in the articles of faith and of directing them, shortly before baptism, to make a public recitation of the Apostles' Creed, strengthens this view.该教会在最早的年龄做法,因为所表现出的古老的习俗,可以追溯到使徒时代赋予(从katechein katechoumenoi,口头instruere)慕道一个在信仰的文章口头指令,指挥他们,不久前洗礼,使一对使徒们的信条公开朗诵,加强了这一观点。 After this they were called not fiduciales but fideles, in contra-distinction to infidels and haeretici (from aireisthai, to select, to proceed eclectically) who rejected Revelation as a whole or in part.这之后,他们被称为不fiduciales但在禁忌的区别fideles,以异教徒和haeretici(从aireisthai,选择,进行折衷)谁拒绝启示作为一个整体或部分。 In answer to the theological question: How many truths of faith must one expressly (fide explicita) believe under command (necessitate praecepti)?在回答有关神学问题:如何信仰了许多道理,必须明确一个(真正explicita)根据命令相信(需要praecepti)? theologians say that an ordinary Catholic must expressly know and believe the most important dogmas and the truths of the moral law, for instance, the Apostles' Creed, the Decalogue, the six precepts of the Church, the Seven Sacraments, the Our Father.神学家说,一个普通天主教必须明确知道并相信最重要的教条和道德法则的真理,例如,使徒们的信条,十诫,教会,七个圣礼,我们的父亲的六个戒律。 Greater things are, of course, expected from the educated, especially from catechists, confessors, preachers wherefore upon these the study of theology rests as an obligation.更大的事,当然,期望从教育,特别是从传道,师,因此在这些传教士的神学研究,有义务承担。If the question be put: In how many truths as a means (necessitate medii) must one believe to be saved?如果这个问题被提出:有多少真理的一种手段(需要medii)必须让人相信才可以得救?many catechists answer Six things: God's existence; an eternal reward; the Trinity; the Incarnation; the immortality of the soul; the necessity of Grace.许多教员回答六件事:上帝的存在,一个永恒的奖励;三位一体,化身,灵魂不死,必须恩典。But according to St. Paul (Hebrews 11:6) we can only be certain of the necessity of the first two dogmas, while the belief in the Trinity and the Incarnation could not of course be exacted from ante-Christian Judaism or from Paganism.但据圣保罗(希伯来书11:6),我们只能是对前两个教条一定的必要性,而在三一和化身信仰当然是不能从休息室犹太教或基督教的异教付出。 Then, too, belief in the Trinity may be implicitly included in the dogma of God's existence, and belief in the Incarnation in the dogma of the Divine providence, just as the immortality of the soul is implicitly included in the dogma of an eternal reward.然后,也是在三位一体的信仰可能是隐式包含在神的存在教条,并在在神圣的普罗维登斯教条的化身的信仰,就如同不朽的灵魂,是隐含在一个永恒的reward教条包括在内。 However, there arises for any one baptized in the name of the Holy Trinity, and entering thus the Church of Christ, the necessity of making an act of explicit faith (fides explicita).但是,也存在着在圣三位一体的名受洗任何人,从而进入了基督的教会,作出了明确的信仰行为(惹人explicita)的必要性。 This necessity (necessitas medii) arises per accidens, and is suspended only by a Divine dispention in cases of extreme necessity, where such an act of faith is either physically or morally impossible, as in the case of pagans or those dying in a state of unconsciousness.这种必要性(necessitas medii)所产生,每accidens,并暂停只有在极端必要的,如果这种信心的行动要么是肉体上还是精神上不可能的情况下神圣dispention如在异教徒案件或那些在一个国家,怕死失去知觉。 For further matter on this point see Pohle, "Lehrbuch der Dogmatik", 4th ed., II, 488 sqq.对于这一点看Pohle另一个问题,“Lehrbuch明镜Dogmatik”,第四版。第一,二,488 sqq。(Paderborn, 1909). (帕德博恩,1909年)。

B. The "Sola Fides" Doctrine of the ProtestantsB的“索拉信仰通讯社”说的新教徒

The Council of Trent (Sess. VI, can. ix) decrees that over and above the faith which formally dwells in the intellect, other acts of predisposition, arising from the will, such as fear, hope, love, contrition, and good resolution (loc. cit., cap. vi), are necessary for the reception of the grace of justification.安理会的遄达(sess.六,可以的。九)法令,超出的信心,正式住在智力,行为倾向等,从会产生,如恐惧,希望,爱,忏悔,以及良好的决议(如上。,帽。六),是在宽限期的理由接收必要的。 This definition was made by the council as against the second fundamental error of Protestantism, namely that "faith alone justifies" (sola fides justificat).这个定义是由作为对第二基本错误的新教议会,即“信仰单证明”(索拉惹人justificat)。Martin Luther stands as the originator of the doctrine of justification by faith alone, for he hoped that in this way he might be able to calm his own conscience, which was in a state of great perturbation, and consequently he took refuge behind the assertion that the necessity of good works over and above mere faith was altogether a pharisaical supposition.马丁路德站作为单独的理由的信仰学说的创始人,他希望这样他可以平静自己的良心,这在一个伟大的摄动的状态,因此他把后面的说法,即避难对超出单纯的信仰好作品的必要性,完全是形式主义的假设。 Manifestly this did not bring him the peace and comfort for which he had hoped, and at least it brought no conviction to his mind; for many times, in a spirit of honesty and sheer good nature, he applauded good works, but recognized them only as necessary concomitants, not as efficient dispositions, for justification.显然这并没有带来他的安宁与舒适,为此他曾希望,至少它带来了不定罪,他的头脑,多次在一个纯粹的善良和诚实的精神,他称赞的优秀作品,但他们只承认必要时伴随的,而不是有效处置的理由。 This was also the tenor of Calvin's interpretation (Institute, III, 11, 19).这也是Calvin的解释(研究所,三,11,19)男高音。Luther was surprised to find himself by his unprecedented doctrine in direct contradiction to the Bible, therefore he rejected the Epistle of St. James as "one of straw" and into the text of St. Paul to the Romans (3:28) he boldly inserted the word alone.路德是惊讶地发现他的直接违背圣经教义前所未有的自己,因此他拒绝为“稻草一”和进入圣保罗文字向罗马(3:28)的书信,他大胆地圣雅各福群插入字孤单。 This falsification of the Bible was certainly not done in the spirit of the Apostle's teaching, for nowhere does St. Paul teach that faith alone (without charity) will bring justification, even though we should accept as also Pauline the text given in a different context, that supernatural faith alone justifies but the fruitless works of the Jewish Law do not.这是伪造的圣经肯定没有做的使徒的教学精神,为无处没有圣保禄教导信仰单(不含慈善机构)将带来的理由,尽管我们也应该接受宝莲在不同的上下文给定的文本,超自然的信仰,仅证明,但无果而终的犹太教法的作品没有。

In this statement St. Paul emphasizes the fact that grace is purely gratuitous; that no merely natural good works can merit grace; but he does not state that no other acts in their nature and purport predisposing are necessary for justification over and above the requisite faith.在该声明中强调圣保罗恩典的事实,纯粹是无偿的,这仅仅是自然没有好的作品可以值得宽限期,但他没有说明,在没有其他行为,其性质与旨趣易感理由是必要超出必要的信仰。 Any other construction of the above passage would be violent and incorrect.上述任何其他建筑将通过暴力和不正确的。If Luther's interpretation were allowed to stand, then St. Paul would come into direct contradiction not only with St. James (ii, 24 sqq.), but also with himself; for, except St. John, the favourite Apostle, he is the most outspoken of all Apostles in proclaiming the necessity and excellence of charity over faith in the matter of justification (cf. 1 Corinthians 13:1 sqq.).如果路德的解释被允许站立,然后将来到圣保罗的矛盾,不仅直接与圣雅各福群(二,24 sqq。),而且还与自己,因为,除了圣约翰,最喜欢的使徒,他是最直言不讳的所有使徒在宣布对信仰的理由问题的必要性和慈善卓越(见哥林多前书13:1 sqq。)。Whenever faith justifies it is not faith alone, but faith made operative and replenished by charity (cf. Galatians 5:6, "fides, quae per caritatem operatur").每当信心证明它不是唯独信心,但信心和慈善事业作出补充执行(参见加拉太5:6,“惹人,每caritatem operatur quae”)。In the painest language the Apostle St. James says this: "ex operibus justificatur homo, et non ex fide tantum" (James 2:2); and here, by works, he does not understand the pagan good works to which St. Paul refers in the Epistle to the Romans, or the works done in fulfilment of the Jewish Law, but the-works of salvation made possible by the operation of supernatural grace, which was recognized by St. Augustine (lib. LXXXIII, Q. lxxvi n. 2).在painest语言的使徒圣雅各这样说:“当然operibus justificatur同源,等非当然真正tantum”(雅各书2:2),以及在这里,通过作品,他不明白异教好作品其中圣保禄是指在书信向罗马,或工程做的犹太律法,但救恩的,工程由超自然的恩典操作,这是由圣奥古斯丁承认(lib.捌拾叁,问:lxxvi n个可能。2)。In conformity with this interpretation and with this only is the tenor of the Scriptural doctrine, namely, that over and above faith other acts are necessary for justification, such as fear (Ecclus., i, 28), and hope (Romans 8:24), charity (Luke 7:47), penance with contrition (Luke 13:3; Acts 2:38; 3:19), almsgiving (Dan., iv, 24; Tob., xii, 9).根据这一解释,与本不仅是符合圣经教义的要旨,即超出给他人的行为是必要的理由,如恐惧(Ecclus.,我,28岁),希望(罗马书8:24 ),慈善(路加福音7:47),与忏悔的忏悔(路加福音13:3,徒2:38,3:19),救济(Dan.,四,24岁;。陀,十二,9)。Without charity and the works of charity faith is dead.没有信仰的慈善和公益的作品已经死了。Faith receives life only from and through charity (James 2:2).从信仰只接收,并通过慈善机构(詹姆斯2:2)的生活。Only to dead faith (fides informis) is the doctrine applied: "Faith alone does not justify".只有到死的信仰(惹人informis)是理论应用于:“信仰本身并不能证明”。On the other hand, faith informed by charity (fides formata) has the power of justification.另一方面,信仰通知,由慈善机构(惹人formata)有权力的理由。St. Augustine (De Trinit., XV, 18) expresses it pithily thus: "Sine caritate quippe fides potest quidem esse, sed non et prodesse."圣奥古斯丁(。德Trinit,十五,18)简洁地表示它是这样的:“正弦caritate quippe惹人potest quidem Esse品牌,桑达非等prodesse。”Hence we see that from the very beginning the Church has taught that not only faith but that a sincere conversion of heart effected by charity and contrition is also requisite for justification--witness the regular method of administering baptism and the discipline of penance in the early Church.因此,我们看到,从一开始就告诉我,教会唯一的信念,但没有一个真诚的心转换由慈善机构和悔悟effected也是必要的理由 - 管理的洗礼,见证了常规方法中的忏悔,and the早期的训练教会。

The Council of Trent (Sess. VI, cap. viii) has, in the light of Revelation, assigned to faith the only correct status in the process of justification, inasmuch as the council, by declaring it to be the "beginning, the foundation, and the root", has placed faith at the very front in the whole process.安理会的遄达(sess.六,帽。八)已在光的启示,分配到信仰,宣布它是“开端,该基金会的唯一正确的地位进程的理由因为安理会, ,根“,已放置在整个过程非常正面的信心。Faith is the beginning of salvation, because no one can be converted to God unless he recognize Him as his supernatural end and aim, just as a mariner without an objective and without a compass wanders aimlessly over the sea at the mercy of wind and wave.信心是得救的开始,因为没有人可以被转换成神,除非他承认他的超自然的最终目的,正如他没有一个客观的水手,在没有指南针在海上风浪摆布漫无目的地飘荡。 Faith is not only the initiatory act of justification, but the foundation as well, because upon it all the other predisposing acts rest securely, not in geometric regularity or inert as the stones of a building rest upon a foundation, but organically and imbued with life as the branches and blossoms spring from a root or stem.信仰不仅是启蒙行为的理由,还有所有的基础,因为它在所有其他易感行为休息安全,而不是在几何规律性或作为基础建设的休息后,一石头惰性,但对生活充满有机结合,随着春天的树枝和花朵从根或茎。 Thus there is preserved to faith in the Catholic system its fundamental and co-ordinating significance in the matter of justification.因此,有保存在信仰天主教的制度,其在物质的基本理由和协调的重要性。A masterly, psychological description of the whole process of justification, which even Ad.一个熟练,心理描写的理由,其中甚至广告的全过程。Harnack styles "a magnificent work of art", will be found in the famous cap.哈纳克风格“宏伟的艺术作品”,会发现在著名的上限。 vi, "Disponuntur" (Denzinger, n. 798).六,“Disponuntur”(登青格,注798)。According to this the process of justification follows a regular order of progression in four stages: from faith to fear, from fear to hope, from hope to incipient charity, from incipient charity to contrition with purpose of amendment.根据这一过程的理由如下四个阶段,在发展的正常秩序:从信仰到恐惧,从恐惧到希望,从希望到早期的慈善机构,慈善机构从初期的修正案的目的与忏悔。 If the contrition be perfect (contritio caritate perfecta), then active justification results, that is, the soul is immediately placed in the state of grace even before the reception of the sacrament of baptism or penance, though not without the desire for the sacrament (votum sacramenti).如果是完美的悔悟(contritio caritate perfecta),然后积极的理由结果,就是灵魂,是立即置于国家的宽限期,甚至前的忏悔圣事的洗礼,或接收,但并非没有欲望的圣餐(, votum sacramenti)。If, on the other hand, the contrition be only an imperfect one (attritio), then the sanctifying grace can only be imparted by the actual reception of the sacrament (cf. Trent, Sess. VI, cc. iv and xiv).如果,另一方面,只有一个不完美的悔悟一(attritio),那么圣洁的宽限期只能由实际接待的圣餐传授(参见遄达,sess。六,西西。第四和十四)。 The Council of Trent had no intention, however, of making the sequence of the various stages in the process of justification, given above, inflexible; nor of making any one of the stages indispensable.安理会的遄达无意,然而,使得在的理由过程的各个阶段的顺序,鉴于上述情况,灵活;也没有作出任何阶段不可缺少的。 Since a real conversion is inconceivable without faith and contrition, we naturally place faith at the beginning and contrition at the end of the process.由于实际转换是不可想象的信仰和忏悔,我们自然地在进程结束的信心在开始和悔悟。In exceptional cases, however, for example in sudden conversions, it is quite possible for the sinner to overlap the intervening stages between faith and charity, in which case fear, hope, and contrition are virtually included in charity.在特殊情况下,但是,在突发性转换的例子,很可能为对罪人之间的重叠信心和爱心的中间阶段,在这种情况下,恐惧,希望和慈善悔悟中几乎都包括在内。

The "justification by faith alone" theory was by Luther styled the article of the standing and falling church (articulus stantis et cadentis ecclesiae), and by his followers was regarded as the material principle of Protestantism, just as the sufficiency of the Bible without tradition was considered its formal principle.在“因信称义单”理论是由路德风格的,对常委会和属于教会的文章(articulus stantis等cadentis,该书),以及他的追随者被视为新教材料的原则,正如圣经没有传统的自给自足被认为是正式的原则。Both of these principles are un-Biblical and are not accepted anywhere today in their original severity, save only in the very small circle of orthodox Lutherans.这些原则都是联合国不接受圣经,并在原来的地方严重的今天,保存在正统路德会非常小的圆圈而已。

The Lutheran Church of Scandinavia has, according to the Swedish theologian Krogh-Tonningh, experienced a silent reformation which in the lapse of the several centuries has gradually brought it back to the Catholic view of justification, which view alone can be supported by Revelation and Christian experience (cf. Dorner, "Geschichte der protestantischen Theologie", 361 sqq., Munich, 1867; Möhler, "Symbolik", 16, Mainz, 1890; "Realencyk. fur prot. Theol.", sv "Rechtfertigung").斯堪的纳维亚路德教会,根据瑞典神学家克罗- Tonningh,它经历了一个无声的改革在几个世纪已逐渐把它移回理由的,而独特的看法天主教会认为可以通过支持和基督教的启示经验(参见多纳,“历史馆明镜protestantischen神学”,361 sqq,慕尼黑,1867年。莫赫勒,“Symbolik”,16,美因茨,1890年;“。。Realencyk皮毛普罗特Theol。”希沃特“Rechtfertigung”)。

C. The Protestant Theory of Non-ImputationC的非归责新教理论

Embarrassed by the fatal notion that original sin wrought in man an utter destruction extending even to the annihilation of all moral freedom of election, and that it continues its existence even in the just man as sin in the shade of an ineradicable concupiscence, Martin Luther and Calvin taught very logically that a sinner is justified by fiduciary faith, in such a way, however, that sin is not absolutely removed or wiped out, but merely covered up or not held against the sinner.由致命的原罪观念造成尴尬,在彻底摧毁一个人,甚至延伸到所有道德自由的选举湮没,甚至,它继续在罪中,作为一个根深蒂固的concupiscence,马丁路德和阴影正义的人的存在卡尔文教授在逻辑上是很有道理的,是一个罪人受托的信念,这样的方式,然而,并非绝对罪恶拆除或摧毁,而只是掩盖或不反对罪人举行。 According to the teaching of the Catholic Church, however, in active justification an actual and real forgiveness of sins takes place so that the sin is really removed from the soul, not only original sin by baptism but also mortal sin by the sacrament of penance (Trent, Sess. V, can. v; Sess. VI, cap. xiv; Sess. XIV, cap. ii).根据天主教的教学,但是,在活跃的理由一罪的实际和需要真正的宽恕地方,使罪被真正地被从灵魂,由忏悔圣事不仅原罪的洗礼,也弥天大罪(遄达,sess V,可以五;。。阶段作业第六章十四。。阶段作业第十四章二)。。。This view is entirely consonant with the teaching of Holy Scripture, for the Biblical expressions: "blotting out" as applied to sin (Psalm 1:3; Isaiah 43:25; 44:22; Acts 3:19), "exhausting" (Hebrews 9:28), "taking away" [2 Samuel 12:13; 1 Chronicles 21:8; Mich., vii, 18; Ps.这种观点是完全符合圣经的圣经教学表现,辅音:“总结出”适用于罪(诗篇1:3;以赛亚书43:25,44:22,徒3:19),“累死”(希伯来书9:28),“拿走”[2塞缪尔12:13; 1方志21时08分,密歇根州,七,18;诗。x (Heb.), 15; cii, 12], cannot be reconciled with the idea of a mere covering up of sin which is supposed to continue its existence in a covert manner. ×(希伯来书),15人;印度工业联合会,12],不可调和的想法仅仅覆盖罪,这是为了在一个隐蔽的方式继续它的存在了。Other Biblical expressions are just as irreconcilable with this Lutheran idea, for instance, the expression of "cleansing" and "washing away" the mire of sin (Psalm 1:4, 9; Isaiah 1:18; Ezekiel 36:25; 1 Corinthians 6:11; Revelation 1:5), that of coming "from death to life" (Col. ii., 13; 1 John 3:14); the removal from darkness to light (Ephesians 5:9).其他圣经表达式是一样的想法与此信义不可调和的,例如,在“清洗”和表达“冲走”的罪恶泥潭(诗篇1:4,9;以赛亚书1:18;以西结书36:25;哥林多前书6:11,启示录1:5),即来了“从死亡的生命”(歌二,13人;。约翰一书3:14),而从黑暗走向光明(以弗所书5:9)的去除。 Especially these latter expressions are significant, because they characterize the justification as a movement from one thing to another which is directly contrary or opposed to the thing from which the movement is made.尤其是后者表现是重要的,因为他们从一个事物的特点作为一个运动的另一个理由是直接违反或反对从该运动是由东西。The opposites, black and white, night and day, darkness and light, life and death, have this peculiarity, that the presence of one means the extinction of its opposite.的对立面,黑,白,白天和黑夜,黑暗与光明,生命和死亡,有这个特点,即存在一种手段,其对面的灭绝。Just as the sun dispels all darkness, so does the advent of justifying grace drive away sin, which ceases from that on to have an existence at least in the ethical order of things, though in the knowledge of God it may have a shadowy kind of existence as something which once was, but has ceased to be.正如太阳驱散一切黑暗,我们所面临的宽限期赶走罪辩护,这从该停止对有一个存在,至少在伦理秩序的事情,但在上帝的知识,它可能有一个影子种问世由于存在一些东西,曾经是,但已不再。 It becomes intelligible, therefore, that in him who is justified, though concupiscence remain, there is "no condemnation" (Romans 8:50); and why, according to James (i, 14 sqq.), concupiscence as such is really no sin; and it is apparent that St. Paul (Romans 7:17) is speaking only figuratively when he calls concupiscence sin, because it springs from sin and brings sin in its train.它变得理解,因此,在他谁是有道理的,尽管concupiscence继续存在,是“没有谴责”(罗马书8:50);(。一,14 sqq),为什么,根据詹姆斯,因为这种concupiscence真的没有罪,这是明显的,圣保罗(罗马书7:17)发言时,只象征性地当他呼吁concupiscence罪,因为它是从罪弹簧和火车带来的罪恶。 Where in the Bible the expressions "covering up" and "not imputing" sin occur, as for instance in Ps.凡在圣经中,“掩盖”,“不归咎于”罪恶发生在PS作为实例。xxxi, 1 sq., they must be interpreted in accordance with the Divine perfections, for it is repugnant that God should declare any one free from sin to whom sin is still actually cleaving.三十一,一平,他们必须在与神波罗蜜根据解释,因为这是令人厌恶的,神应宣布从罪过罪过的人实际上仍然是任何一个自由切割。 It is one of God's attributes always to substantiate His declarations; if He covers sin and does not impute it, this can only be effected by an utter extinction or blotting out of the sin.这是上帝的属性总是以证实他的宣言之一,如果他涵盖罪,不推诿的,这只能是由一个完全灭绝影响或印迹的罪了。Tradition also has always taught this view of the forgiveness of sins.传统也一​​直教这个赦罪的看法。(See Denifle, "Die abendländischen Schriftausleger bis Luther uber justitia Dei and justificatio", Mainz, 1905)(见德尼夫勒,“模具abendländischen Schriftausleger二路德尤伯杯justitia棣和justificatio”,美因茨,1905年)

D. The Protestant Theory of Imputation四,归责新教理论

Calvin rested his theory with the negative moment, holding that justification ends with the mere forgiveness of sin, in the sense of not imputing the sin; but other Reformers (Luther and Melanchthon) demanded a positive moment as well, concerning the nature of which there was a very pronounced disagreement.卡尔文与阴性休息片刻他的理论,认为理由与宽恕的罪过只是在不归咎于赎罪感,结束,但其他改革者(路德和梅兰希)要求积极的时刻,以及,有关性质,其中有是一个非常明显的分歧。 At the time of Osiander (d. 1552) there were from fourteen to twenty opinions on the matter, each differing from every other; but they had this in common that they all denied the interior holiness and the inherent justification of the Catholic idea of the process.截至Osiander(草1552)时,有来自十四至二十对此事的意见,分别从每一个其他不同,但他们有一个共同点,他们都否认了圣洁和内部的天主教思想的内在理由过程。 Among the adherents of the Augsburg Confession the following view was rather generally accepted: The person to be justified seizes by means of the fiduciary faith the exterior justice of Christ, and therewith covers his sins; this exterior justice is imputed to him as if it were his own, and he stands before God as having an outward justification, but in his inner self he remains the same sinner as of old.奥格斯堡供认之间的信徒了以下看法相当普遍接受的:人是由受托信仰基督的外部司法正当手段夺取,又用舌头覆盖了他的罪过,这是归罪于外部正义对他来说,它是他自己,他站在上帝面前有一个外向的理由,但在他内心,他仍是老样子,作为罪人。 This exterior, forensic declaration of justification was received with great acclaim by the frenzied, fanatical masses of that time, and was given wide and vociferous expression in the cry: "Justitia Christi extra nos".这种外部,法医宣言的理由是收到大获好评的疯狂,那时狂热群众,并给予广泛和响亮的叫声表达:“Justitia基督额外不”。

The Catholic idea maintains that the formal cause of justification does not consist in an exterior imputation of the justice of Christ, but in a real, interior sanctification effected by grace, which abounds in the soul and makes it permanently holy before God (cf. Trent, Sess. VI, cap. vii; can. xi).天主教观念认为,造成正式的理由并不在于对正义的基督外部插补,但在一个真正的,神圣的宽限期内生效,而盛产的灵魂,使之永远圣洁的上帝面前(参见特伦特。,阶段作业第六章第七。能十一)。。 Although the sinner is justified by the justice of Christ, inasmuch as the Redeemer has merited for him the grace of justification (causa meritoria), nevertheless he is formally justified and made holy by his own personal justice and holiness (causa formalis), just as a philosopher by his own inherent learning becomes a scholar, not, however, by any exterior imputation of the wisdom of God (Trent, Sess. VI, can. x).虽然罪人是由司法基督合理的,因为救世主已经值得为他的理由的恩典(病因meritoria),不过他是合理的,正式成为圣洁由他自己个人正义与圣洁(病因formalis),就像一个由他自己固有的学习哲学家成为一个学者,但是,不以任何神的智慧外归责(遄达,sess。六,可以的。十)。 To this idea of inherent holiness which theologians call sanctifying grace are we safely conducted by the words of Holy Writ.这种内在的圣洁的构想,神学家呼吁sanctifying恩典我们安全的神圣令状进行的话。

To prove this we may remark that the word justificare (Gr. dikaioun) in the Bible may have a fourfold meaning:为了证明这一点,我们可以justificare说法,这个词在圣经(Gr. dikaioun)可能有四倍的含义:

The forensic declaration of justice by a tribunal or court (cf. Isaiah 5:23; Proverbs 17:15).正义的法医宣言,一庭或法庭(参见以赛亚书5点23分;箴言17:15)。

The interior growth in holiness (Revelation 22:11).在圣洁的内部增长(启示录22:11)。

As a substantive, justificatio, the external law (Psalm 108:8, and elsewhere).作为一个实质性的,justificatio,外部法律(诗篇108:8,和其他地方)。

The inner, immanent sanctification of the sinner.内在的,内在的圣洁的罪人。

Only this last meaning can be intended where there is mention of passing to a new life (Ephesians 2:5; Colossians 2:13; 1 John 3:14); renovation in spirit (Ephesians 4:23 sq.); supernatural likeness to God (Romans 8:29; 2 Corinthians 3:18; 2 Peter 1:4) a new creation (2 Corinthians 5:17; Galatians 6:15); rebirth in God (John 3:5; Titus 3:5; James 1:18), etc., all of which designations not only imply a setting aside of sin, but express as well a permanent state of holiness.只有这最后的意义可以在那里是旨在通过新的生活提到(以弗所书2:5;歌罗西时13分;约翰一书3:14),在精神翻新(以弗所书4点23平方米);超自然酷似神(罗马书8:29;哥林多后书3:18; 2彼得1:4)一个新的创造(哥林多后书5:17;加拉太书6:15),在神重生(约翰3:5;提多书3:5;詹姆斯1:18),等等,所有这些称号不仅意味着撇开罪,但表达以及圣洁的永久状态。 All of these terms express not an aid to action, but rather a form of being; and this appears also from the fact that the grace of justification is described as being "poured forth in our hearts" (Romans 5:5); as "the spirit of adoption of sons" of God (Romans 8:15); as the "spirit, born of the spirit" (John 3:6); making us "conformable to the image of the Son" (Romans 8:28); as a participation in the Divine nature (2 Peter 1:4); the abiding seed in us (1 John 3:9), and so on.这些条件都没有一个明确的援助行动,而是一种形式存在;这似乎也从一个事实,即宽限期的理由是被称为“倒出来在我们心中”(罗5:5);为“通过对儿子的精神“的神(罗马书8:15),正如”的精神,从灵生的“(约翰3:6);使我们”整合到儿子的模样“(罗马书8:28) ;作为神圣的性质(2彼得1:4)的参与;守法的种子在我们(约翰一书3:9),等等。As regards the tradition of the Church, even Harnack admits that St. Augustine faithfully reproduces the teaching of St. Paul.至于传统的教会,甚至哈纳克承认,圣奥古斯丁忠实地再现了圣保罗教学。Hence the Council of Trent need not go back to St. Paul, but only to St. Augustine, for the purpose of demonstrating that the Protestant theory of imputation is at once against St. Paul and St. Augustine.因此,安理会的遄达不必回到圣保罗,但只有圣奥古斯丁,为证明该理论的归责新教一次是针对圣保罗和圣奥古斯丁的目的。

Moreover, this theory must be rejected as not being in accordance with reason.此外,这个理论必须被拒绝的理由不符合规定的福利。For in a man who is at once sinful and just, half holy and half unholy, we cannot possibly recognize a masterpiece of God's omnipotence, but only a wretched caricature, the deformity of which is exaggerated all the more by the violent introduction of the justice of Christ.对于一个男人谁是一次罪恶的和公正的,一半是圣洁的,一半邪恶,我们不可能承认一个上帝的无所不能的杰作,但只有可怜的漫画,其畸形是夸张,更由司法暴力简介基督。 The logical consequences which follow from this system, and which have been deduced by the Reformers themselves, are indeed appalling to Catholics.哪些遵循这个系统,并已得出合乎逻辑的后果由改革者本身,确实令人震惊的天主教徒。It would follow that, since the justice of Christ is always and ever the same, every person justified, from the ordinary everyday person to the Blessed Virgin, the Mother of God, would possess precisely the same justification and would have, in degree and kind, the same holiness and justice.它会跟随,因为基督的正义是始终都一样,每个人从普通的日常的人有理,向圣母玛利亚,天主之母,将拥有完全相同的理由,并且会在程度和种类,同样的圣洁和公义。 This deduction was expressly made by Luther.这一推论是明确由路德。Can any man of sound mind accept it?不能有任何心智健全的人接受呢?If this be so, then the justification of children by baptism is impossible, for, not having come to the age of reason, they cannot have the fiduciary faith wherewith they must seize the justice of Christ to cover up their original sin.如果这是这样,那么儿童的洗礼理由是不可能的,因为,没有到年龄的原因,他们不能有诚信的信心,他们一定要抓住所受的司法基督掩饰自己的原罪。 Very logically, therefore, the Anabaptists, Mennonites, and Baptists reject the validity of infant baptism.非常逻辑,因此,再洗礼派,门诺教派,浸信会拒绝婴儿的洗礼的有效性。It would likewise follow that the justification acquired by faith alone could be forfeited only by infidelity, a most awful consequence which Luther (De Wette, II, 37) clothed in the following words, though he could hardly have meant them seriously: "Pecca fortiter et crede fortius et nihil nocebunt centum homicidia et mille stupra."这将遵循同样的理由收购了信仰,仅只能由不忠,最可怕的后果是路德(德wette,二,37)以下的话衣服没收,但他几乎就意味着他们认真:“Pecca fortiter等克雷德等nihil nocebunt更强签定的homicidia等千层stupra。“Luckily this inexorable logic falls powerless against the decency and good morals of the Lutherans of our time, and is, therefore, harmless now, though it was not so at the time of the Peasants' War in the Reformation.幸运的是这必然逻辑比下跌的善良与我们这个时代的lutherans良好的道德无能为力,因此,无害现在,虽然它没有在农民战争时间的改革如此。

The Council of Trent (Sess. VI, cap. vii) defined that the inherent justice is not only the formal cause of justification, but as well the only formal cause (unica formalis causa); this was done as against the heretical teaching of the Reformer Bucer (d. 1551), who held that the inherent justice must be supplemented by the imputed justice of Christ.安理会的遄达(。sess.六,第七)明确了固有的正义不仅是形式因的理由,而且还是唯一的形式因(总联合会formalis学位),这是得罪了教学的邪教改革者布策尔(草1551),谁认为固有司法必须由基督归咎于司法的补充。 A further object of this decree was to check the Catholic theologian Albert Pighius and others, who seemed to doubt that the inner justice could be ample for justification without being supplemented by another favour of God (favor Dei externus) (cf. Pallavacini, Hist. Conc. Trident., VIII, 11, 12).这项法令的目的是进一步检查的天主教神学家伟业Pighius和其他人,谁似乎怀疑,可以不经内义正由另一个神(赞成棣externus)(参见Pallavacini,历史赞成补充充足的理由。浓。三叉戟。,八,十一,十二)。 This decree was well-founded, for the nature and operation of justification are determined by the infusion of sanctifying grace.这项法令是有根有据,为的性质和理由的运作是由输液的sanctifying宽限期决定的。 In other words without the aid of other factors, sanctifying grace in itself possesses the power to effect the destruction of sin and the interior sanctification of the soul to be justified.换句话说如果没有其他因素的援助sanctifying宽限期,在本身具有的权力,影响和破坏的罪恶的灵魂内部成圣是合理的。 For since sin and grace are diametrically opposed to each other, the mere advent of grace is sufficient to drive sin away; and thus grace, in its positive operations, immediately brings about holiness, kinship of God, and a renovation of spirit, etc. From this it follows that in the present process of justification, the remission of sin, both original and mortal, is linked to the infusion of sanctifying grace as a conditio sine qua non, and therefore a remission of sin without a simultaneous interior sanctification is theologically impossible.对于自罪和恩典是针锋相对对方,只是出现的宽限期足以驱动罪了;,从而宽限期,在其积极的行动,立即带来了圣洁,亲属关系的神,一种精神,装修等由此推论,在本工艺的理由,罪恶的缓解,正本与凡人,都与没有一个圣洁的同时内部的sanctifying作为必要条件,因此,宽限期一罪缓解输液神学不可能的。 As to the interesting controversy whether the incompatibility of grace and sin rests on merely moral, or physical, or metaphysical contrariety, refer to Pohle ("Lehrbuch der Dogmatik", II 511 sqq., Paderborn, 1909); Scheeben ("Die Myst. des Christentums", 543 sqq., Freiburg, 1898).至于有趣的争议是否与罪恶的宽限期只是道义上的不相容,或身体,或形而上学的对立在于,是指Pohle(“Lehrbuch明镜Dogmatik”,二511 sqq,帕德博恩,1909年。)Scheeben(“死神秘岛。万christentums“,543 sqq。,弗赖堡,1898年)。

II.二。THE NATURE OF SANCTIFYING GRACE恩,自然的sanctifying

The real nature of sanctifying grace is, by reason of its direct invisibility, veiled in mystery, so that we can learn its nature better by a study of its formal operations in the soul than by a study of the grace itself.真正的sanctifying恩典性质,由于其直接隐蔽在神秘面纱,原因,以便我们能够更好地了解它的本质,灵魂由一个正式运作的研究比一的宽限期本身的研究。 Indissolubly linked to the nature of this grace and to its formal operations are other manifestations of grace which are referable not to any intrinsic necessity but to the goodness of God; accordingly three questions present themselves for consideration:不可分割地联系在一起的这恩典的性质和它的正式运营是其它表现形式的宽限期是可归因没有任何内在的必然性,而是神的善良,因此三个问题需要加以考虑:

(a) The inner nature of sanctifying grace.(一)圣洁优雅的内在本质。

(b) Its formal operations.(b)其正式运营。

(c) Its supernatural retinue.(三)它的超自然的随从。

A. The Inner Nature答:内在的本质

1. 1。As we have seen that sanctifying grace designates a grace producing a permanent condition, it follows that it must not be confounded with a particular actual grace nor with a series of actual graces, as some ante-Tridentine theologians seem to have held.正如我们已经看到,指定一个宽限期sanctifying恩典产生永久性状态,因此,它不能混淆了一个特殊的恩典,也不符合实际的一系列实际的青睐,一些前厅律但丁的神学家似乎已经举行。 This view is confirmed by the fact that the grace imparted to children in baptism does not differ essentially from the sanctifying grace imparted to adults, an opinion which was not considered as altogether certain under Pope Innocent III (1201), was regarded as having a high degree of probability by Pope Clement V (1311), and was defined as certain by the Council of Trent (Sess. V, can. iii-v).这一观点也证实了一个事实,即宽限期传授给孩子们的洗礼没有什么不同本质的sanctifying恩典传授给成年人,这是一个完全没有根据诺森三世(1201)的某些审议意见,被视为具有高度的概率教皇克莱门特五(1311),以及某些定义为安理会的遄达(sess.五,可以的。III - V族)。Baptized infants cannot be justified by the use of actual grace, but only by a grace which effects or produces a certain condition in the recipient.受洗的婴儿是没有道理的使用实际的宽限期,但只有一个宽限期,其中产生的影响或在一定条件下的收件人。Is this grace of condition or state, as Peter Lombard (Sent., I, dist. xvii, 18) held, identical with the Holy Spirit, whom we may call the permanent, uncreated grace (gratia increata)?这是条件或状态的恩典彼得隆巴德(Sent.,我区。十七,十八日)举行,与圣灵,就是我们可以称之为永久性的,非受造的恩典(特惠increata)相同? It is quite impossible.这是很不可能的。For the person of the Holy Ghost cannot be poured out into our hearts (Romans 5:5), nor does it cleave to the soul as inherent justice (Trent, sess. VI, can. xi), nor can it be increased by good works (loc. cit., can. xxiv), and all this is apart from the fact that the justifying grace in Holy Writ is expressly termed a "gift [or grace] of the Holy Ghost" (Acts 2:38; 10:45), and as the abiding seed of God (1 John 3:9).对于圣灵的人不能被倒入我们的心(罗马书5:5),也不忠于正义为内在灵魂(遄达,sess。六,可以的。十一),也无法通过良好的上升作品(如上,可以二十四。。),而这一切距,在正当的恩典圣经明确称为“礼物[或恩典]的圣灵”(使徒行传2:38的事实; 10: 45),并作为神的守法种子(约翰一书3:9)。From this it follows that the grace must be as distinct from the Holy Ghost as the gift from the giver and the seed from the sower; consequently the Holy Spirit is our holiness, not by the holiness by which He Himself is holy, but by that holiness by which He makes us holy.由此可以得出宽限期,必须从为从送礼者的礼物,从圣灵撒种的种子明显;因此圣灵是我们的圣洁圣洁的不是由他自己是神圣的,而是由该其中他的圣洁,使我们圣洁。 He is not, therefore, the causa formalis, but merely the causa efficiens, of our holiness.他不是,因此,病因formalis,而仅仅是病因efficiens我们的圣洁。

Moreover, sanctifying grace as an active reality, and not a merely external relation, must be philosophically either substance or accident.此外,作为一个积极的现实圣洁的宽限期,而不是​​仅仅是外部关系,必须是哲学上的物质或任何事故。Now, it is certainty not a substance which exists by itself, or apart from the soul, therefore it is a physical accident inhering in the soul, so that the soul becomes the subject in which grace inheres; but such an accident is in metaphysics called quality (qualitas, poiotes) therefore sanctifying grace may be philosophically termed a "permanent, supernatural quality of the soul", or, as the Roman Catechism (P. II, cap. ii, de bap., n. 50) says "divina qualitas in anima inhaerens".现在,它肯定不是物质本身的存在,或者除了灵魂,因此它是一种物理意外的继承的灵魂,让灵魂成为主体,其中宽限期inheres,但这样的意外,被称为形而上学质量(qualitas,poiotes),因此可能是圣洁的宽限期哲学称为“永久的,超自然的灵魂质量”,或如罗马问答(页二,帽。二,德BAP的。,注50)说:“神曲在阿尼玛inhaerens qualitas“。

2. 2。Sanctifying grace cannot be termed a habit (habitus) with the same precision as it is called a quality.sanctifying的宽限期,不能被称为具有相同精度的一种习惯(习性),因为它是所谓的素质。Metaphysicians enumerate four kinds of quality:玄学家列举四种质量种:

habit and disposition;习惯和处置;

power and want of power;权力和希望的力量;

passion and passible quality, for example, to blush, pale with wrath;激情和passible质量,例如,脸红,忿怒苍白;

form and figure (cf. Aristotle, Categ. VI).表格及图(参见亚里士多德,Categ。六)。

Manifestly sanctifying grace must be placed in the first of these four classes, namely habit or disposition; but as dispositions are fleeting things, and habit has a permanency theologians agree that sanctifying grace is undoubtedly a habit, hence the name: Habitual Grace (gratia habitualis).显然sanctifying宽限期,必须放置在这四个类别,即习惯或处置第一,但由于处分权是稍纵即逝的东西,习惯了一个永久性的神学家同意sanctifying宽限期,无疑是一种习惯,因此而得名:习惯性格雷斯(特惠habitualis )。Habitus is subdivided into habitus entitativus and habitus operativus.习性又分为体质entitativus和习性operativus。A habitus entitativus is a quality or condition added to a substance by which condition or quality the substance is found permanently good or bad, for instance: sickness or health, beauty, deformity, etc. Habitus operativus is a disposition to produce certain operations or acts, for instance, moderation or extravagance; this habitus is called either virtue or vice just as the soul is inclined thereby to a moral good or to a moral evil.一个习性entitativus是一个质量或条件添加到其中的物质条件或发现质量好坏永久例如,物质:疾病或健康,美容,畸形等惯习operativus是一个性情产生一定的行动或行为例如,适度或奢华,这就是所谓的习性要么美德或副正如灵魂倾向,从而也有道德的好或道德的沦丧。 Now, since sanctifying grace does not of itself impart any such readiness, celerity, or facility in action, we must consider it primarily as a habitus entitativus, not as a habitus operativus.现在,既然sanctifying宽限期本身并没有任何此类行动传授准备,快速性,或设施,我们必须考虑它主要作为一种习性entitativus不是作为一个习性operativus。 Therefore, since the popular concept of habitus, which usually designates a readiness, does not accurately express the idea of sanctifying grace, another term is employed, ie a quality after the manner of a habit (qualitas per modum habitus), and this term is applied with Bellarmine (De grat. et lib. arbit., I, iii).因此,自习性,通常指定一个准备流行的概念,并没有准确地表达思想的sanctifying宽限期,另一个词是就业,即后一种习惯方式的质量(qualitas每modum体质),这词是应用与贝拉明(德大。库等。arbit。,Ⅰ,Ⅲ)。 Grace, however, preserves an inner relation to a supernatural activity, because it does not impart to the soul the act but rather the disposition to perform supernatural and meritorious acts therefore grace is remotely and mediately a disposition to act (habitus remote operativus).格雷斯,然而,保留一到一个超自然活动的内在关系,因为它不传授给灵魂的行为,而是该处分行为和立功表现,因此超自然的恩典是远程和治疗中的倾向,行为(习性远程operativus)。 On account of this and other metaphysical subtleties the Council of Trent has refrained from applying the term habitus to sanctifying grace.关于这个问题和其他安理会的遄达形而上学的奥妙帐户也没有采取长期习性应用到圣洁的宽限期。

In the order of nature a distinction is made between natural and acquired habits (habitus innatus, and habitus acquisitus), to distinguish between natural instincts, such, for instance, as are common to the brute creation, and acquired habits such as we develop by practice, for instance skill in playing a musical instrument etc. But grace is supernatural, and cannot, therefore, be classed either as a natural or an acquired habit; it can only be received, accordingly, by infusion from above, therefore it is a supernatural infused habit (habitus infusus).在自然秩序之间是有区别的自然和后天习惯(体质innatus,惯习acquisitus),以区分自然的本能,例如,举例来说,因为是共同的野蛮创作,并取得了习惯,比如我们开发的的做法,例如在弹奏乐器等,但超自然的恩典技能,并不能因此被归类为一天然或后天的习惯之一,它只能接收,因此藉由注入,从上面,因此它是一超自然注入习惯(习性infusus)。

3. 3。If theologians could succeed in establishing the identity sometimes maintained between the nature of grace and charity, a great step forward would be taken in the examination of the nature of grace, for we are more familiar with the infused virtue of charity than with the hidden mysterious nature of sanctifying grace.如果能够成功地建立神学家的身份,有时与慈善性质的恩典和维护,一个巨大的进步将采取在考试性质的宽限期,因为我们都更熟悉的慈善美德注入比隐藏的神秘大自然的圣洁的宽限期。 For the identity of grace and charity some of the older theologians have contended--Peter Lombard, Scotus, Bellarmine, Lessius, and others--declaring that, according to the Bible and the teaching of the Fathers, the process of justification may be at times attributable to sanctifying grace and at other times to the virtue of charity.对于慈善事业的恩典和一些上了年纪的神学家的身份有争辩 - 彼得隆巴德,司各脱,贝拉明,Lessius,和其他人 - 宣布,根据圣经和的父亲教学,理由进程可能会在由于时代的优雅和圣洁在其他时间到慈善美德。Similar effects demand a similar cause; therefore there exists, in this view, merely a virtual distinction between the two, inasmuch as one and the same reality appears under one aspect as grace, and under another as charity.类似的效果需要一个类似的原因,因此存在,在这种观点,只是一个虚拟的区别两者之间,因为同一个现实的恩典下出现一个方面,而且在为慈善另一个。 This similarity is confirmed by the further fact that the life or death of the soul is occasioned respectively by the presence in, or absence from, the soul of charity.这种相似性进一步证实了这一事实的生命或灵魂的死亡是由引起的存在,或从慈善的灵魂没有分别。Nevertheless, all these arguments may tend to establish a similarity, but do not prove a case of identity.不过,所有这些论点可能倾向于建立一个相似性,但并不证明的身份情况。Probably the correct view is that which sees a real distinction between grace and charity, and this view is held by most theologians, including St. Thomas Aquinas and Francisco Suárez.可能是正确的看法是,它看到了优雅和慈善事业之间真正的区别,这种观点被大多数神学家,其中包括圣托马斯阿奎那和弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯举行。 Many passages in Scripture and patrology and in the enactments of synods confirm this view.在经文和patrology并在许多段落的成文法主教会议确认这一观点。Often, indeed, grace and charity are placed side by side, which could not be done without a pleonasm if they were identical.通常情况下,的确,优雅和慈善并排放置,这不能做,如果没有赘言他们是相同的。Lastly, sanctifying grace is a habitus entitativus, and theological charity a habitus operativus: the former, namely sanctifying grace, being a habitus entitativus, informs and transforms the substance of the soul; the latter, namely charity, being a habitus operativus, supernaturally informs and influences the will (cf. Ripalda, "De ente sup.", disp. cxxiii; Billuart, "De gratia", disp. iv, 4).最后,是圣洁的宽限期entitativus习性,习性和神学慈善机构operativus:前者,即sanctifying恩典,作为一个习性entitativus,通知和改造物质的灵魂,后者,即慈善机构,作为一个习性operativus,超自然的通知和影响意志(参见里帕尔达,“德缓和燮。”DISP键cxxiii。Billuart,“德特惠”,DISP键四,4。)。

4. 4。The climax of the presentation of the nature of sanctifying grace is found in its character as a participation in the Divine nature, which in a measure indicates its specific difference.作者对大自然的sanctifying宽限期介绍的高潮是在发现其在神性的参与,这表明其在具体的措施不同性质。 To this undeniable fact of the supernatural participation in the Divine nature is our attention directed not only by the express words of Holy Writ: ut efficiamini divinae consortes naturae (2 Peter 1:4), but also by the Biblical concept of "the issue and birth from God", since the begotten must receive of the nature of the progenitor, though in this case it only holds in an accidental and analogical sense.在这种超自然的神性参与不可否认的事实是,只有我们的注意力导向明确的圣经的话不是:UT斯达康efficiamini divinae consortes naturae(2彼得1:4),而且还以“圣经中的概念和问题从神“,出生以来造物主必须收到的祖的性质,尽管在这种情况下,它只能在一个偶然的类比感成立。 Since this same idea has been found in the writings of the Fathers, and is incorporated in the liturgy of the Mass, to dispute or reject it would be nothing short of temerity.由于这同样的想法已发现的父亲的著作,并在礼仪中的群众,纳入争议或拒绝就什么都不是短期的鲁莽。It is difficult to excogitate a manner (modus) in which this participation of the Divine nature is effected.这是很难excogitate方式(手法),其中这个神圣的性质参与实施。Two extremes must be avoided, so that the truth will be found.必须避免两个极端,这样会被发现的真理。

An exaggerated theory was taught by certain mystics and quietists, a theory not free from pantheiotic taint.一个夸张的理论是由某些神秘主义者和教导quietists,理论无不是从pantheiotic污点。In this view the soul is formally changed into God, an altogether untenable and impossible hypothesis, since concupiscence remains even after justification, and the presence of concupiscence is, of course, absolutely repugnant to the Divine nature.在这一观点的灵魂,是正式变成神,一个完全站不住脚的,也不可能的假设,因为concupiscence即使理由依然存在,和concupiscence的存在,当然,绝对令人厌恶的神性。

Another theory, held by the Scotists, teaches that the participation is merely of a moral-juridical nature, and not in the least a physical participation.另一种理论,由Scotists举行,教导我们的参与仅仅是一个道德的法律性质,而不是在至少一个物理的参与。 But since sanctifying grace is a physical accident in the soul, one cannot help referring such participation in the Divine nature to a physical and interior assimilation with God, by virtue of which we are permitted to share those goods of the Divine order to which God alone by His own nature can lay claim.但是,由于sanctifying恩典是在灵魂物理意外,不禁指在神圣的性质,例如参与,与神的身体和室内同化并凭借我们被允许共享的神圣秩序的货物,只有上帝由他自己的性质,可以宣称。 In any event the "participatio divinae naturae" is not in any sense to be considered a deification, but only a making of the soul "like unto God".无论如何,“参与为divinae naturae”并非被认为是神化任何意义,但只有在“像你们的神”灵魂决策。To the difficult question: Of which special attribute of God does this participation partake?这个艰难的问题:从神的特殊属性这是否参与分享?Theologians can answer only by conjectures.神学家可以只回答了猜测。Manifestly only the communicable attributes can at all be considered in the matter, wherefore Gonet (Clyp. thomist., IV, ii, x) was clearly wrong when he said that the attribute of participation was the aseitas, absolutely the most incommunicable of all the Divine attributes.显然只有在所有传染病属性可以在这个问题考虑,因此戈内特(Clyp.托马斯主义。,四,二,x)的显然是错误的,他说,参与的属性是aseitas,绝对是最所有的静默神圣的属性。 Ripalda (loc. cit., disp. xx; sect. 14) is probably nearer the truth when he suggests Divine sanctity as the attribute, for the very idea of sanctifying grace brings the sanctity of God into the foreground.里帕尔达(如上,DISP键二十。。。14节)可能更接近真相时,他建议作为属性为神圣的神圣的sanctifying恩典这个想法,它使前台神的圣洁。

The theory of Francisco Suárez (De grat., VII, i, xxx), which is also favoured by Scripture and the Fathers, is perhaps the most plausible.弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯的理论(德大。,七,我,XXX)号,也是由经文和父亲的青睐,也许是最合理的。In this theory sanctifying grace imparts to the soul a participation in the Divine spirituality, which no rational creature can by its own unaided powers penetrate or comprehend.在这一理论sanctifying恩典传授给灵魂在神圣的精神参与,这是任何理性的人可以通过自己的独立的权力渗透或理解。 It is, therefore, the office of grace to impart to the soul, in a supernatural way, that degree of spirituality which is absolutely necessary to give us an idea of God and His spirit, either here below in the shadows of earthly existence, or there above in the unveiled splendour of Heaven.这是,因此,办公室的宽限期传授的灵魂在一个超自然的方式,认为灵性的程度是完全必要的,上帝给我们一个想法,他的精神,无论是在这里下面的尘世存在的阴影,或上面有在天坛揭幕的辉煌。 If we were asked to condense all that we have thus far been considering into a definition, we would formulate the following: Sanctifying grace is "a quality strictly supernatural, inherent in the soul as a habitus, by which we are made to participate in the divine nature".如果我们被要求凝聚所有我们迄今已考虑到一个定义,我们会制订如下:sanctifying的宽限期是“质量严格超自然的,其作为习性的灵魂,其中,我们是在固有的参与神圣性“。

B. Formal OperationsB.正式运营

Sanctifying Grace has its formal operations, which are fundamentally nothing else than the formal cause considered in its various moments. sanctifying宽限期已正式运作,这是根本没有什么比它在不同时刻考虑正式因为其他人。These operations are made known by Revelation; therefore to children and to the faithful can the splendour of grace best be presented by a vivid description of its operations.这些行动是由著名的启示,因此对儿童和忠实的最好是能由一个生动的描述其业务提出宽限期的辉煌。

These are: sanctity, beauty, friendship, and sonship of God.它们是:圣洁,美丽,友谊,和神的sonship。

1. 1。Sanctity尊严

The sanctity of the soul, as its first formal operation, is contained in the idea itself of sanctifying grace, inasmuch as the infusion of it makes the subject holy and inaugurates the state or condition of sanctity.灵魂的神圣,因为它的第一次正式运行,是包含在圣洁的宽限期想法本身,因为它的注入使主题举行落成典礼的神圣和尊严的条件或状态。 So far it is, as to its nature, a physical adornment of the soul; it is also a moral form of sanctification, which of itself makes baptized children just and holy in the sight of God.到目前为止,这是,就其性质,物理装饰的灵魂,它也是一种神圣的道德形式,这本身就是洗礼,在神面前,孩子刚和神圣。This first operation is thrown into relief by the fact that the "new man", created injustice and holiness (Ephesians 4:24), was preceded by the "old man" of sin, and that grace changed the sinner into a saint (Trent, Sess. VI, cap. vii: ex injusto fit justus).这第一次手术是投入救灾的事实,“新男人”,创造了不公平和圣洁(弗4:24),是由“旧人”之前的罪过,而变成了圣人的恩典(遄达罪人。,阶段作业第六章第七章:。前injusto适合贾斯特斯)。 The two moments of actual justification, namely the remission of sin and the sanctification, are at the same time moments of habitual justification, and become the formal operations of grace.实际的理由,即罪和成圣缓解,两个时刻都在同一时间的惯常理由的时刻,并成为正式运营的恩典。The mere infusion of the grace effects at once the remission of original and mortal sin, and inaugurates the condition or state of holiness.在宽限期影响的只是一次性输液的原件和弥天大罪缓解,落成典礼的状况或圣洁的状态。(See Pohle, Lehrb. der Dogm., 527 sq.)(见Pohle,Lehrb。明镜Dogm。,527平方米)

2. 2。Beauty美容

Although the beauty of the soul is not mentioned by the teaching office of the Church as one of the operations of grace, nevertheless the Roman Catechism refers to it (P. II, cap. ii, de bap., n. 50).虽然,心灵美是不是由教会教学办公室提到的恩典行动之一,但罗马问答是指它(第二,帽。二,德BAP的。,注50)。If it be permissible to understand by the spouse in the Canticle of Canticles a symbol of the soul decked in grace, then all the passages touching the ravishing beauty of the spouse may find a fitting application to the soul.如果它被允许的理解配偶在颂歌的颂歌在恩典挂满了灵魂的象征,那么所有的通道感人的配偶肆虐美可能会发现一个合适的应用程序的灵魂。 Hence it is that the Fathers express the supernatural beauty of a soul in grace by the most splendid comparisons and figures of speech, for instance: "a divine picture" (Ambrose); "a golden statue" (Chrysostom); "a streaming light" (Basil), etc. Assuming that, apart from the material beauty expressed in the fine arts, there exists a purely spiritual beauty, we can safely state that grace as the participation in the Divine nature, calls forth in the soul a physical reflection of the uncreated beauty of God, which is not to be compared with the soul's natural likeness to God.因此,它是在恩典的父亲表达了最灿烂的比较和修辞格,例如,一个灵魂,超自然的美:“一神画”(刘汉铨),“金色的雕像”(金口),“流灯“(罗勒)等假设,除了在艺术表达的材质美,存在一个纯粹的精神之美,我们可以有把握地指出,作为神圣的性质参与的宽限期,要求在灵魂提出了物理反射神的,毁灭的美这是不以与灵魂的自然相似上帝。 We can attain to a more intimate idea of the Divine likeness in the soul adorned with grace, if we refer the picture not merely to the absolute Divine nature, as the prototype of all beauty, but more especially to the Trinity whose glorious nature is so charmingly mirrored in the soul by the Divine adoption and the inhabitation of the Holy Ghost (cf. H. Krug, De pulchritudine divina, Freiburg, 1902).我们可以达到一个神圣的肖像更亲密的想法与优雅装饰的灵魂,如果我们参考的图片不仅以绝对的神圣性作为所有美丽的原型,但更多的尤其是三位一体的,其本质是如此辉煌迷人反映在通过了神圣的灵魂,是圣灵居住(参见阁下克鲁格,德pulchritudine迪维纳,弗赖堡,1902年)。

3. 3。Friendship友谊

The friendship of God is consequently, one of the most excellent of the effects of grace; Aristotle denied the possibility of such a friendship by reason of the great disparity between God and man.上帝的友谊因此,在优雅的效果最优秀之一;亚里士多德拒绝了神与人之间的巨大差距原因,这种友谊的可能性。As a matter of fact man is, inasmuch as he is God's creature, His servant, and by reason of sin (original and mortal) he is God's enemy.其实无论是男人,因为他是上帝的造物,他的仆人,和罪恶(原件和致命)的原因,他是神的敌人。This relation of service and enmity is transformed by sanctifying grace into one of friendship (Trent, Sess. VI, cap. vii: ex inimico amicus).这种服务和敌对关系转变成由sanctifying宽限期友谊一(遄,sess第六章第七章:。。当然inimico法庭之友)。 According to the Scriptural concept (Wisdom 7:14; John 15:15) this friendship resembles a mystical matrimonial union between the soul and its Divine spouse (Matthew 9:15; Revelation 19:7).根据圣经的概念(智慧7点14,约翰15:15)这之间的友谊就像一个神秘的灵魂和神圣的婚姻配偶联盟(马太9:15;启示19点07分)。 Friendship consists in the mutual love and esteem of two persons based upon an exchange of service or good office (Aristot., "Eth. Nicom.", VIII sq.).友谊组成,在互爱和后一的服务或商品交换的两个人的办公室自尊(Aristot.,“乙烯利。Nicom。”八平方米)。 True friendship resting only on virtue (amicitia honesta) demands undeniably a love of benevolence, which seeks only the happiness and well-being of the friend, whereas the friendly exchange of benefits rests upon a utilitarian basis (amicitia utilis) or one of pleasure (amicitia delectabilis), which presupposes a selfish love; still the benevolent love of friendship must be mutual, because an unrequited love becomes merely one of silent admiration, which is not friendship by any means.真正的友谊只休息的美德(amicitia honesta)的要求无疑是一种仁的爱,这要求只有快乐和幸福的朋友的福利,而福利友好交流后,一个功利的基础上(amicitia刺)休息的乐趣之一( amicitia delectabilis),这预示着一个自私的爱,仍然是友谊仁者爱人必须是相互的,因为一个不求回报的爱只是成为无声的赞叹,这是不以任何方式友谊之一。 But the strong bond of union lies undeniably in the fact of a mutual benefit, by reason of which friend regards friend as his other self (alter ego).但不可否认的强强联合,债券在于在一个互惠互利的事实原因,哪个朋友的问候朋友,因为他的其他自我(分身)。Finally, between friends an equality of position or station is demanded, and where this does not exit an elevation of the inferior's status (amicitia excellentie), as, for example, in the case of a friendship between a king and noble subject.最后,朋友之间的地位是平等的要求或站,并在此不退出的一个劣势的地位抬高(amicitia excellentie),因为,例如,在一个国王和贵族之间的友谊受到如此。It is easy to perceive that all these conditions are fulfilled in the friendship between God and man effected by grace.人们很容易想到,所有这些条件都在和上帝之间的友谊,实现人的恩典影响。For, just as God regards the just man with the pure love of benevolence, He likewise prepares him by the infusion of theological charity for the reception of a correspondingly pure and unselfish affection.因为,正如上帝对于与纯洁的爱仁刚的人,他也准备由神学慈善为一个相对纯洁和无私的感情接待他输液。Again, although man's knowledge of the love of God is very limited, while God's knowledge of love in man is perfect, this conjecture is sufficient--indeed in human friendships it alone is possible--to form the basis of a friendly relation.再次,尽管人类对上帝的爱的知识是非常有限的,而神的爱在人的知识是完美的,这个猜想是不够的 - 确实是在人类的友谊它仅是可能的 - 形成一个友好关系的基础。The exchange of gifts consists, on the part of God, in the bestowal of supernatural benefits, on the part of man, in the promotion of God's glory, and partly in the performance of works of fraternal charity.交换礼物组成,对上帝的一部分,在超自然的好处赠与,对部分人在上帝的荣耀推广,和部分慈善机构的兄弟作品的表演。 There is, indeed, in the first instance, a vast difference in the respective positions of God and man; but by the infusion of grace man receives a patent of nobility, and thus a friendship of excellency (amicitia excellentiae) is established between God and the just.还有就是,事实上,在一审,在神和人的各自立场的巨大差异,而是由人的宽限期输液收到贵族的专利,从而产生了一个大人的友谊(amicitia excellentiae)是建立与上帝刚刚。(See Schiffini, "De gratia divina", 305 sqq., Freiburg, 1901.)(见Schiffini,“德特惠神曲”,305 sqq。,弗赖堡,1901年。)

4. 4。Sonship的sonship

In the Divine filiation of the soul the formal workings of sanctifying grace reach their culminating point; by it man is entitled to a share in the paternal inheritance, which consists in the beatific vision.在神圣的灵魂圣洁优雅的亲子关系达到顶点的正式运作,由这名男子就是有权分享父亲的遗产,这在幸福的远景组成。This excellence of grace is not only mentioned countless times in Holy Writ (Romans 8:15 sq.; 1 John 3:1 sq., etc.), but is included in the Scriptural idea of a re-birth in God (cf. John 1:12 sq.; 3:5; Titus 3:5; James 1:18, etc.).这恩宠的优点是不仅无数次地提到在圣经(罗马书8:15平方米; 1约翰3:1平,等),但正在重新在神的诞生(包括参照圣经的想法约翰1:12平方米; 3:5;提多3:5;詹姆斯1:18,等等)。Since the re-birth in God is not effected by a substantial issuance from the substance of God, as in the case of the Son of God or Logos (Christus), but is merely an analogical or accidental coming forth from God, our sonship of God is only of an adoptive kind, as we find it expressed in Scripture (Romans 8:15; Galatians 4:5).由于重新在神的诞生不是影响由来自神的物质大量发行,如神或标识(基督)的儿子的情况,但只是一个类比的或意外的涌现,从神,对我们的sonship上帝是唯一的一个收养的一种,因为我们觉得它在圣经表达(罗马书8:15;加拉太书4:5)。 This adoption was defined by St. Thomas (III:23:1): personae extraneae in filium et heredem gratuita assumptio.这是通过定义圣托马斯(三:23时01):在filium等heredem gratuita assumptio人物extraneae。To the nature of this adoption there are four requisites;通过对这一性质有四个必要条件;

the original unrelatedness of the adopted person;被收养人原来unrelatedness;

fatherly love on the part of the adopting parent for the person adopted;父爱对领养人的领养父母的一部分;

the absolute gratuity of the choice to sonship and heirship;在对的sonship和继承权不是绝对的酬金;

the consent of the adopted child to the act of adoption.被收养儿童的同意的收养行为。

Applying these conditions to the adoption of man by God, we find that God's adoption exceeds man's in every point, for the sinner is not merely a stranger to God but is as one who has cast off His friendship and become an enemy.应用这些条件的人被神的通过,我们发现,上帝的收养超过人类在每一个点,为罪人不仅是一个陌生人,但上帝作为一个谁也断绝了与他的友谊,成为敌人。 In the case of human adoption the mutual love is presumed as existing, in the case of God's adoption the love of God effects the requisite deposition in the soul to be adopted.在人类通过互爱的情况下,推定为存在,在上帝的通过神的效果爱在灵魂应采取必要的沉积情况。The great and unfathomable love of God at once bestows the adoption and the consequent heirship to the kingdom of heaven, and the value of this inheritance is not diminished by the number of coheirs, as in the case of worldly inheritance.神的伟大和深不可测的爱一次赋予的通过和随之而来的继承权给天上的王国,这个传承价值是不是由coheirs数量减少,如在世俗的继承案件。

God does not impose His favours upon any one, therefore a consent is expected from adult adopted sons of God (Trent, Sess. VI, cap. vii, per voluntariam susceptionem gratiae et donorum).上帝不强加给任何一个他的主张,因此同意由成年养神的儿子预期(遄达,sess。第六章。七,每voluntariam susceptionem gratiae等donorum)。It is quite in keeping with the excellence of the heavenly Father that He should supply for His children during the pilgrimage a fitting sustenance which will sustain the dignity of their position, and be to them a pledge of resurrection and eternal life; and this is the Bread of the Holy Eucharist (see EUCHARIST).这是很在与天上的父亲,他应该提供朝圣期间为他的孩子一个合适的寄托,将维持其职位的尊严,是他们的复活和永生的承诺保持卓越的人,这是面包圣体圣事(见圣体圣事)。

The Supernatural Retinue超自然的随从

This expression is derived from the Roman Catechism (P. II., c. i, n. 51), which teaches: "Huic (gratiae sanctificanti) additur nobilissimus omnium virtutum comitatus".这个表达式是来自罗马问答(页二,长一,注51。),教导:“Huic(gratiae sanctificanti)additur nobilissimus Omnium公司virtutum comitatus”。As the concomitants of sanctifying grace, these infused virtues are not formal operations, but gifts really distinct from this grace, connected nevertheless with it by a physical, or rather a moral, indissoluble link--relationship.作为圣洁恩典伴随的,这些美德是不注入正式运营,但真正的礼物从这个宽限期不同,但与它相连的身体,或者说一个道德,不可分割的联系 - 关系。Therefore the Council of Vienne (1311) speaks of informans gratia et virtutes, and the Council of Trent, in a more general way, of gratia et dona.因此,维埃纳省议会(1311)谈到informans特惠等virtutes,以及安理会的遄达,在一个更​​普遍的方式,特惠等多纳。 The three theological virtues, the moral virtues, the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost, and the personal indwelling of the Holy Spirit in the soul are all considered.这三个神学美德,道德的美德,在圣灵的七个礼物,和圣灵中的灵魂都被认为是个人留置。The Council of Trent (Sess. VI, c. vii) teaches that the theological virtues of faith, hope, and charity are in the process of justification infused into the soul as supernatural habits.安理会的遄达(sess.六,长七)教导我们,信仰,希望,美德和慈善事业中的神学的理由把习惯作为超自然的灵魂注入过程中。 Concerning the time of infusion, it is an article of faith (Sess. VI, can. xi) that the virtue of charity is infused immediately with sanctifying grace, so that throughout the whole term of existence sanctifying grace and charity are found as inseparable companions.关于输液时间,这是一篇文章的信仰(sess.六,可以的。十一)认为,慈善美德是立即注入圣洁优雅,在整个存在sanctifying恩典和慈善为不可分割的整体长远的同伴发现这么。 Concerning the habitus of faith and hope, Francisco Suárez is of the opinion (as against St. Thomas and St. Bonaventure) that, assuming a favourable disposition in the recipient, they are infused earlier in the process of justification.关于体质的信念和希望,弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯是认为(与圣托马斯和圣文德),假设在收件人有利的性格,他们在注入过程的较早的理由。 Universally known is the expression of St. Paul (1 Corinthians 13:13), "And now there remain faith, hope, and charity, these three: but the greatest of these is charity."举世皆知是圣保罗(哥林多前书13:13)的表达,“现在仍然有信心,希望和爱,这三:但是,其中最大的是爱。” Since, here, faith and hope are placed on a par with charity, but charity is considered as diffused in the soul (Romans 5:5), conveying thus the idea of an infused habit, it will be seen that the doctrine of the Church so consonant with the teaching of the Fathers is also supported by Scripture.因为,在这里,信念和希望都放在一个等同于慈善事业,但慈善事业被认为是在灵魂(罗马书5:5)传达这样一个习惯的想法注入,扩散,它可以看出,教会的教义所以与教学相一致的父亲也支持圣经。 The theological virtues have God directly as their formal object, but the moral virtues are directed in their exercise to created things in their moral relations.美德有上帝的神学直接作为其正式反对,但在他们的道德品质是定向运动在其道德关系创造的东西。All the special moral virtues can be reduced to the four cardinal virtues: prudence (prudentia), justice (justitia), fortitude (fortitudo), temperance (temperantia).所有特殊美德可以归结为四个基本美德:谨慎(prudentia),司法(justitia),毅力(惠黎刚毅),节制(temperantia)。 The Church favours the opinion that along with grace and charity the four cardinal virtues (and, according to many theologians, their subsidiary virtues also) are communicated to the souls of the just as supernatural habitus, whose office it is to give to the intellect and the will, in their moral relations with created things, a supernatural direction and inclination.教会主张认为,随着优雅和慈善四项基本原则美德(而且,根据许多神学家,其附属的美德也)是传达给刚刚作为超自然的习性,其办公室是为了给智力和灵魂该会与创造的东西,一种超自然的方向和倾角的道德关系。 By reason of the opposition of the Scotists this view enjoys only a degree of probability, which, however, is supported by passages in Scripture (Proverbs 8:7; Ezekiel 11:19; 2 Peter 1:3 sqq.) as well as the teaching of the Fathers (Augustine, Gregory the Great, and others).通过对Scotists反对的理由享受这种观点只是概率,其中,然而,在圣经中的段落是支持的程度(箴言8点07分,以西结书11点19; 2彼得上1:3 sqq。)以及教学的父亲(奥古斯丁,高利大,和其他人)。Some theologians add to the infusion of the theological and moral virtues also that of the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost, though this view cannot be called anything more than a mere opinion.一些神学家增加了神学和道德输液还对圣灵的七个礼物,但这种观点不能被称作什么比一个单纯的意见更多。There are difficulties in the way of the acceptance of this opinion which cannot be here discussed.有在这不能接受的方式在这里讨论意见的困难。

The article of faith goes only to this extent, that Christ as man possessed the seven gifts (cf. Isaiah 11:1 sqq.; 61:1; Luke 4:18).信仰的文章只能进入这个意义上,基督作为人所拥有的七个礼物(参见以赛亚书11时01分sqq。61:1,路加福音4:18)。 Remembering, however, that St. Paul (Romans 8:9 sqq.) considers Christ, as man, the mystical head of mankind, and the August exemplar of our own justification, we may possibly assume that God gives in the process of justification also the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost.记忆,然而,圣保罗(罗马书8:9 sqq。)认为基督,作为人,人类神秘的头,和我们自己的理由八月的典范,我们可能认为上帝在过程中也给出了理由圣灵的七个礼物。

The crowning point of justification is found in the personal indwelling of the Holy Spirit.加冕点的理由是发现,在圣灵的个人留置。It is the perfection and the supreme adornment of the justified soul.这是完善和合理的灵魂最高的装饰。Adequately considered, the personal indwelling of the Holy Spirit consists of a twofold grace, the created accidental grace (gratia creata accidentalis) and the uncreated substantial grace (gratia increata substantialis).充分考虑,对个人留置圣灵包括两方面的恩典,创造意外的恩典(特惠creata accidentalis)和毁灭大量的恩典(特惠increata substantialis)。The former is the basis and the indispensable assumption for the latter; for where God Himself erects His throne, there must be found a fitting and becoming adornment.前者是基础,后者的不可缺少的假设,对于那些神自己架设了宝座,就必须找到一个合适的,成为装饰。The indwelling of the Holy Spirit in the soul must not be confounded with God's presence in all created things, by virtue of the Divine attribute of Omnipresence.作者:圣灵内住在灵魂不能混淆与神的存在在所有创造的东西,由神圣属性的无所不在的美德。The personal indwelling of the Holy Ghost in the soul rests so securely upon the teaching of Holy Writ and of the Fathers that to deny it would constitute a grave error.作者在圣灵的灵魂在于稳固的个人留置后的神圣令状教学和列祖否认将构成一个严重的错误。In fact, St. Paul (Romans 5:5) says: "The charity of God is poured forth in our hearts, by the Holy Ghost, who is given to us".事实上,圣保罗(罗马书5:5)说:“慈善的上帝是倾注了我们心中的圣灵,谁是给我们”。In this passage the Apostle distinguishes clearly between the accidental grace of theological charity and the Person of the Giver.在这段使徒分清神学之间的慈善意外恩典和人的赐予。From this it follows that the Holy Spirit has been given to us, and dwells within us (Romans 8:11), so that we really become temples of the Holy Ghost (1 Corinthians 3:16 sq.; 6:19).由此可以得出圣灵给了我们,住在我们(罗马书8:11),使我们真正成为了圣灵(1哥林多前书3:16平方米; 6:19)寺庙。Among all the Fathers of the Church (excepting, perhaps, St. Augustine) it is the Greeks who are more especially noteworthy for their rapturous uttertances touching the infusion of the Holy Ghost.在所有教会的父亲(除外,也许,圣奥古斯丁)是希腊人,特别是对谁更感人的圣灵输液的狂喜uttertances值得注意。 Note the expressions: "The replenishing of the soul with balsamic odours", "a glow permeating the soul", "a gilding and refining of the soul".注意表达方式:“辉光渗魂”,“一镀金和灵魂的炼油”的“灵魂与香油气味补充”。Against the Pneumatomachians they strive to prove the real Divinity of the Holy Spirit from His indwelling, maintaining that only God can establish Himself in the soul; surely no creature can inhabit any other creatures.对Pneumatomachians他们努力证明了,从他的留置圣灵真正的神,认为只有上帝可以建立自己的灵魂,肯定没有任何生物可以栖息的其他生物。 But clear and undeniable as the fact of the indwelling is, equally difficult and perplexing is it in degree to explain the method and manner (modus) of this indwelling.但明确和不可否认作为留置的事实是,同样是在困难和困惑的程度来解释的方法和方式本留置(作案)它。

Theologians offer two explanations.神学家们提供了两种解释。The greater number hold that the indweling must not be considered a substantial information, nor a hypostatic union, but that it really means an indwelling of the Trinity (John 14:23), but is more specifically appropriated to the Holy Ghost by reason of His notional character as the Hypostatic Holiness and Personal Love.数字越大认为indweling不能被认为是大量信息,也没有本质的联盟,但它确实意味着一个三位一体(约14:23)留置,但更多的原因是专门拨给他的圣灵名义上的字符作为本质的圣洁和个人爱好。

Another small group of theologians (Petavius, Scheeben, Hurter, etc.), basing their opinion upon the teaching of the Fathers, especially the Greek, distinguish between the inhabitatio totius Trinitatis, and the inhabitatio Spiritus Sancti, and decide that this latter must be regarded as a union (unio, enosis) pertaining to the Holy Ghost alone, from which the other two Persons are excluded.另一个神学家(Petavius​​,Scheeben,Hurter等)小组,立足于的父亲,尤其是希腊教他们的意见,区分inhabitatio托蒂厄斯Trinitatis和inhabitatio Spiritus的Sancti,并决定这后者必须被视为联盟(unio,希塞统一)有关圣灵单独,从其他两个人除外。It would be difficult, if not impossible to reconcile this theory, in spite of its deep mystical significance, with the recognized principles of the doctrine of the Trinity, namely the law of appropriation and Divine mission.这将是困难的,如果不是不可能调和这一理论,在其深层意义,尽管与神秘的三位一体,即拨款和神圣使命的法律学说的公认原则。 Hence this theory is almost universally rejected (see Franzelin, "De Deo trino", thes. xliii-xlviii, Rome, 1881).因此,这种理论几乎普遍拒绝(见Franzelin,“德迪奥特里诺”帖。四十三,四十八,罗马,1881年)。

III.三。THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SANCTIFYING GRACE特征的sanctifying恩典

The Protestant conception of justification boasts of three characteristics: absolute certainty (certitudo), complete uniformity in all the justified (aequalitas), unforfeitableness (inamissibilitas).新教观念的理由拥有三大特点:在所有的正当(aequalitas)绝对的确定性(certitudo),完整均匀,unforfeitableness(inamissibilitas)。 According to the teaching of the Church, sanctifying grace has the opposite characteristics: uncertainty (incertitudo), inequality (inaequalitas), and amissibility (amissibilitas).根据教学的教会,圣洁恩典相反的特点:不确定性(incertitudo),不等式(inaequalitas)和amissibility(amissibilitas)。

A. Uncertainty答:不确定性

The heretical doctrine of the Reformers, that man by a fiduciary faith knows with absolute certainty that he is justified, received the attention of the Council of Trent (Sess. VI, cap. ix), in one entire chapter (De inani fiducia haereticorum), three canons (loc. cit., can. xiii-xv) condemning the necessity, the alleged power, and the function of fiduciary faith.改革者的邪教教义,即由受托信仰的人都知道绝对肯定他是有道理的,收到了一整章(德inani鑫haereticorum)在安理会的遄达(sess.六,帽。九),注意三大炮(如上。,可以的。十三,十五),谴责的必要性,声称力量,受托信心的作用。 The object of the Church in defining the dogma was not to shatter the trust in God (certitudo spei) in the matter of personal salvation, but to repel the misleading assumptions of an unwarranted certainty of salvation (certitudo fidei).教会的教条对象界定不打破在神信托(certitudo spei)在个人得救的问题,而是要击退了不必要的救赎确定性(certitudo信)误导的假设。In doing this the Church is altogether obedient to the instruction of Holy Writ, for, since Scripture declares that we must work out our salvation "with fear and trembling" (Phil., ii, 12), it is impossible to regard our individual salvation as something fixed antd certain.在这一过程中,教会是完全服从的神圣令状,指令,因为圣经宣称,我们必须努力去“与恐惧和颤抖:”我们的救赎(腓,二,12),这是不可能把我们个人的得救作为固定antd某些东西。 Why did St. Paul (1 Corinthians 9:27) chastise his body if not afraid lest, having preached to others, he might himself "become a castaway"?为什么圣保罗(哥林多前书9:27)斥责他的身体,如果怕不怕,有传福音给别人,他可能自己“成为弃儿”?He says expressly (1 Corinthians 4:4): "For I am not conscious to myself of any thing, yet am I not hereby justified; but he that judgeth me, is the Lord."他说,明确地(哥林多前书4:4):“因为我没有意识到自己的任何东西,但我不能在此理由,但他是我的审判者,是主。” Tradition also rejects the Lutheran idea of certainty of justification.传统还拒绝的理由肯定路德的想法。Pope Gregory the Great (lib. VII, ep. xxv) was asked by a pious lady of the court, named Gregoria, to say what was the state of her soul.教皇格里高利大(lib.七,环保。二十五)被要求由法院指定Gregoria虔诚的夫人,说什么是她的灵魂状态。He replied that she was putting to him a difficult and useless question, which he could not answer, because God had not vouchsafed to him any revelation concerning the state of her soul, and only after her death could she have any certain knowledge as to the forgiveness of her sins.他回答说,她要把给他的困难和无用的问题,他不能回答,因为上帝没有赐予他的任何启示了她的灵魂状态,只有在她死后,她有可能在任何特定的知识宽恕她的罪过。 No one can be absolutely certain of his or her salvation unless--as to Magdalen, to the man with the palsy, or to the penitent thief--a special revelation be given (Trent, Sess. VI, can. xvi).没有人可以绝对拯救他或她的某些除非 - 以​​莫德林,到具有麻痹的人,或向忏悔小偷 - 一种特殊的启示是给定(遄,sess六,可以十六。。)。Nor can a theological certainty, any more than an absolute certainty of belief, be claimed regarding the matter of salvation, for the spirit of the Gospel is strongly opposed to anything like an unwarranted certainty of salvation.也不能一神学确定性,任何不是一个绝对的确定性的信仰更是声称关于救恩的问题,为福音的精神,坚决反对不必要像一个拯救做出任何肯定。 Therefore the rather hostile attitude to the Gospel spirit advanced by Ambrosius Catherinus (d. 1553), in his little work: "De certitudine gratiae", received such general opposition from other theologians.因此,相当敌视的态度,以先进的安布罗福音精神Catherinus(草1553),在他的小作品:“德certitudine gratiae”,收到的其他与神学家这样的普遍反对。Since no metaphysical certainty can be cherished in the matter of justification in any particular case, we must content ourselves with a moral certainty, which, of course, is but warranted in the case of baptized children, and which, in the case of adults diminishes more or less, just as all the conditions of, salvation are complied with--not an easy matter to determine.由于没有形而上的确定性可以在珍惜的理由问题在特定情况下,我们必须满足于一种道德肯定,其中,当然,只是在必要的情况下受洗儿童,并在自己的成年人的情况下,会减少或多或少,正如所有的,与符合条件的救赎 - 不是一件容易的事情来决定。Nevertheless any excessive anxiety and disturbance may be allayed (Romans 8:16, 38 sq.) by the subjective conviction that we are probably in the state of grace.但任何过度焦虑和干扰可能是扫除(罗马书8时16分,38平方米)的主观信念,即我们是在国家的宽限期可能。

B. Inequality二不等式

If man, as the Protestant theory of justification teaches, is justified by faith alone, by the external justice of Christ, or God, the conclusion which Martin Luther (Sermo de nat. Maria) drew must follow, namely that "we are all equal to Mary the Mother of God and just as holy as she".如果人,由于新教理论的理由教导,信仰,仅是有道理的,由基督的,或上帝,结论是马丁路德(Sermo德的NAT。玛丽亚)提请外部必须遵循公正,即“我们都是平等的玛丽的母亲和上帝一样,她“圣洁。 But if on the other hand, according to the teaching of the Church, we are justifed by the justice and merits of Christ in such fashion that this becomes formally our own justice and holiness, then there must result an inequality of grace in individuals, and for two reasons: first, because according to the generosity of God or the receptive condition of the soul an unequal amount of grace is infused; then, also, because the grace originally received can be increased by the performance of good works (Trent, Sess. VI, cap. vii, can. xxiv).但是,如果在另一方面,根据教学的教会,我们justifed由司法和基督的优点,在这样的口吻这就变成了正式的自家公正和圣洁,那么就必须产生一在个人不平等的宽限期,并有两个原因:首先,因为根据上帝的慷慨或一个优雅的灵魂接受不平等的条件,注入量,然后,又由于宽限期可以由最初收到的优秀作品的表现(遄达,sess增加。第六章。七,可以的。二十四)。 This possibility of increase in grace by good works, whence would follow its inequality in individuals, find its warrant in those Scriptural texts in which an increase of grace is either expressed or implied (Proverbs 4:18; Sirach 18:22; 2 Corinthians 9:10; Ephesians 4:7; 2 Peter 3:18; Revelation 22:11).这种宽限期的优秀作品中增加的可能性,在那里会按照个人的不平等,找到自己需要在那些增加的恩典任何明示或暗示(箴言4:18圣经文本;西拉奇18:22;哥林多后书9 :10,以弗所书4:7; 2彼得3:18,启示录22:11)。Tradition had occasion, as early as the close of the fourth century, to defend the old Faith of the Church against the heretic Jovinian, who strove to introduce into the Church the Stoic doctrine of the equality of all virtue and all vice.传统的有机会,只要密切的第四个世纪初,以抵御邪教Jovinian,谁力图进入教会介绍了所有的美德和所有副平等斯多葛主义教会的旧信仰。 St. Jerome (Con. Jovin., II, xxiii) was the chief defender of orthodoxy in this instance.圣杰罗姆(Con. Jovin。第一,二,二十三)是在这种情况下正统的首席辩护人。The Church never recognized any other teaching than that laid down by St. Augustine (Tract. in Jo., vi, 8): "Ipsi sancti in ecclesia sunt alii aliis sanctiores, alii aliis meliores."教会从来不承认任何其他教学比所规定的圣奥古斯丁下来(乔Tract.,六,八。):“。同侧sa​​ncti在教会必须遵守阿利aliis sanctiores,阿利aliis meliores”

Indeed, this view should commend itself to every thinking man.事实上,这种观点应该赞扬自己的每一个有思想的人。

The increase of grace is by theologians justly called a second justification (justificatio secunda), as distinct from the first justification (justificatio prima), which is coupled with a remission of sin; for, though there be in the second justification no transit from sin to grace, there is an advance from grace to a more perfect sharing therein.恩典的增加是由神学家称为第二个理由正当(justificatio塞康达),以区别于第一个理由(justificatio表面),这是一个罪恶的缓解耦合,因为,尽管那里的第二个理由是没有罪的过境以恩典,有一个从恩典推进到一个更完美的共享其中。 If inquiry be made as to the mode of this increase, it can only be explained by the philosophical maxim: "Qualities are susceptible of increase and decrease"; for instance, light and heat by the varying degree of intensity increase or diminish.如果调查,以这种增长方式制成,它只能被解释为哲学的格言:“素质是增加和减少敏感”,例如,光的强度和增加或减少不同程度的热量。 The question is not a theological but a philosophical one to decide whether the increase be effected by an addition of grade to grade (additio gradus ad gradum), as most theologians believe; or whether it be by a deeper and firmer taking of root in the soul (major radicatio in subjecto), as many Thomists claim.现在的问题是不是神学而是一个哲学一,以决定是否增加是由一年级的影响除了年级(additio gradus广告gradum),因为大多数神学家认为,还是由一个更深入和更坚实的根在接受灵魂(在subjecto主要radicatio),因为许多Thomists索赔。 This question has a special connection with that concerning the multiplication of the habitual act.这个问题已经与该有关的习惯法乘法特殊的关系。But the last question that arises has decidedly a theological phase, namely, can the infusion of sanctifying grace be increased infinitely?但最后的问题,产生了决定性的一神学阶段,即可以输液的sanctifying恩典无限增加? Or is there a limit, a point at which it must be arrested?或者是有一定限度的,它必须在被逮捕呢?To maintain that the increase can go on to infinity, ie that man by successive advances in holiness can finally enter into the possession of an infinite endowment involves a manifest contradiction, for such a grade is as impossible as an infinite temperature in physics.为了保持这一增加可以去到无穷大,即,通过连续的进步在圣洁的人终于可以进入一个拥有无限的养老涉及明显的矛盾,对于这样一个成绩是在物理学中的一个无限温度不可能的。

Theoretically, therefore, we can consider only an increase without any real limit (in indefinitum).理论上,因此,我们可以只考虑没有任何真正的限制(在indefinitum)增加。Practically however, two ideals of unattained and unattainable holiness have been determined, which nevertheless, are finite.但实际上,两个没有实现的理想和高不可攀的圣洁已经确定了,但,是有限的。The one is the inconceivably great holiness of the human soul of Christ, the other the fullness of grace which dwelt in the soul of the Virgin Mary.一个是基督的,不可思议的人类灵魂的伟大圣洁的其他丰满的恩典了住在圣母玛利亚的灵魂。

C. Amissibility三Amissibility

In consonance with his doctrine of justification by faith alone, Luther made the loss or forfeiture of justification depend solely upon infidelity, while Calvin maintained that the predestined could not possibly lose their justification; as to those not predestined, he said, God merely aroused in them a deceitful show of faith and justification.按照他的理由学说信仰,仅灵犀,路德提出的损失或没收的理由仅仅取决于不忠,而卡尔文认为,注定不可能失去其理由,至于那些没有命中注定,他说,上帝只是引起他们的信念和理由骗人的表演。 On account of the grave moral dangers which lurked in the assertion that outside of unbelief there can be no serious sin destructive of Divine grace in the soul, the Council of Trent was obliged to condemn (Sess. VI, can. xxiii, xxvii) both these views.论坟墓在断言潜藏着外面的不信就没有严重的罪,神的恩典在灵魂破坏性道德危机的帐户,安理会的遄达不得不谴责(sess.六,可以的。二十三,二十七)都这些意见。 The lax principles of "evangelical liberty", the favourite catchword of the budding Reformation, were simply repudiated (Trent Sess. VI, can. xix-xxi).对“福音派自由”时,最喜欢的萌芽改革口号,简单的宽松原则,否定(遄阶段作业。六,可以的。十九- 21)。 But the synod (Sess. VI cap. xi) added that not venial but only mortal sin involved the loss of grace.但是,主教(sess.六帽。十一)补充说,没有可原谅的,但只有弥天大罪涉及的宽限期损失。In this declaration there was a perfect accord with Scripture and Tradition.在这项宣言是一个有经文和传统完全吻合。Even in the Old Testament the prophet Ezechiel (Ezekiel 18:24) says of the godless: "All his justices which he hath done, shall not be remembered: in the prevarication, by which he hath prevaricated, and in his sin, which he hath committed, in them he shall die."即使在旧约先知Ezechiel(结18:24)说的无神论者:“他所有,他所行的法官,不应忘记:在搪塞,其中他所,并在他的罪过,他prevaricated所犯,在他们,他就要去死。“ Not in vain does St. Paul (1 Corinthians 10:12) warn the just: "Wherefore he that thinketh himself to stand, let him take heed lest he fall"; and state uncompromisingly: "The unjust shall not possess the kingdom of God neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers nor covetouss, nor drunkards shall possess the kingdom of God" (1 Corinthians 6:9 sq.).并没有白费圣保罗(哥林多前书10:12)刚刚警告:“所以他认为有志自己的立场,让他谨慎,免得跌倒”;和国家毫不妥协:“不公正不得拥有神的国 无论是淫乱的,拜偶像的,奸淫的 也不covetouss,醉酒 必得神的国“(林前6:9平)。 Hence it is not by infidelity alone that the Kingdom of Heaven will be lost.因此,它不是由单独的不忠天国将会丢失。Tradition shows that the discipline of confessors in the early Church proclaims the belief that grace and justification are lost by mortal sin.传统表明,在早期教会的师纪律宣告的优雅和理由是弥天大罪,失去了信念。The principle of justification by faith alone is unknown to the Fathers.因信称义的原则,仅是未知的父亲。The fact that mortal sin takes the soul out of the state of grace is due to the very nature of mortal sin.弥天大罪的事实,利用国家的宽限期的灵魂,是由于弥天大罪的本质。Mortal sin is an absolute turning away from God, the supernatural end of the soul, and is an absolute turning to creatures; therefore, habitual mortal sin cannot exist with habitual grace any more than fire and water can co-exist in the same subject.弥天大罪是一个绝对的转折来自上帝,灵魂的超自然的目的了,而且是一个绝对的关于动物,因此,习惯性的弥天大罪不能习惯性的宽限期任何比水火更存在可以共存于同一主题的存在。 But as venial sin does not constitute such an open rupture with God, and does not destroy the friendship of God, therefore venial sin does not expel sanctifying grace from the soul.但随着venial单并不构成这种开放与神破裂,不破坏神的友谊,因此不驱逐venial单从灵魂圣洁的宽限期。Hence, St. Augustine says (De spir. et lit., xxviii, 48): "Non impediunt a vita Aeterna justum quaedam peccata venialia, sine quibus haec vita non ducitur."因此,圣奥古斯丁说,(德spir等点燃,二十八,48。。):“。非impediunt一维他永恒之justum quaedam peccata venialia,正弦quibus haec履历表非ducitur”But does venial sin, without extinguishing grace, nevertheless diminish it, just as good works give an increase of grace?但是否可原谅的罪过,没有灭火的宽限期,但削弱它,就像好的作品给人一种优雅的增加?Denys the Carthusian (d. 1471) was of the opinion that it does, though St. Thomas rejects it (II-II:24:10).丹尼斯的卡尔特(草1471)被认为是这样,但它拒绝圣托马斯(二-Ⅱ:24:10)。A gradual decrease of grace would only be possible on the supposition that either a definite number of venial sins amounted to a mortal sin, or that the supply of grace might be diminished, grade by grade, down to ultimate extinction.逐渐减少的宽限期,只会有可能在这样的假设上要么是可宽恕的罪确定的数目达一弥天大罪,或者说,宽限期供应可能会减少,按职级,到最终灭绝。 The first hypothesis is contrary to the nature of venial sin; the second leads to the heretical view that grace may be lost without the commission of mortal sin.第一个假设是违背了可宽恕的罪性,第二个导致邪教认为,宽限期,可以不经的弥天大罪的佣金损失。Nevertheless, venial sins have an indirect influence on the state of grace, for they make a relapse into mortal sin easy (cf. Ecclus., xix, 1).然而,venial罪孽都对国家的宽限期间接影响,因为他们使之成为容易复发的弥天大罪(参见Ecclus。,十九,1)。 Does the loss of sanctifying grace bring with it the forfeiture of the supernatural retinue of infused virtues?是否亏损的sanctifying恩典与它带来的好处的,充满了超自然的随从没收?Since the theological virtue of charity, though not identical, nevertheless is inseparably connected with grace, it is clear that both must stand or fall together, hence the expressions "to fall from grace" and "to lose charity" are equivalent.由于慈善神学美德,但不完全相同,但仍然是密不可分的风度相连,很显然,双方必须共同立场或下降,因此表现形式“到失宠”和“失去慈善”是等价的。 It is an article of faith (Trent, Sess. VI, can. xxviii, cap. xv) that theological faith may survive the Commission of mortal sin, and can be extinguished only by its diametrical opposite, namely, infidelity.这是一篇文章的信仰(遄达,sess。六,可以的。二十八,帽。XV部)的神学信仰可能存活委员会的弥天大罪,可被扑灭其针锋相对的对立面,即只不忠。 It may be regarded as a matter of Church teaching that theological hope also survives mortal sin, unless this hope should be utterly killed by its extreme opposite, namely despair, though probably it is not destroyed by it second opposite, presumption.它可能被视为教学,神学,教会也希望生存弥天大罪的事,除非这个心愿,应该完全由它的极端对立面,即绝望杀死,虽然可能它不是由它的第二相反,推定销毁。 With regard to the moral virtues, the seven gifts and the indwelling of the Holy Ghost, which invariably accompany grace and charity, it is clear that when mortal sin enters into the soul they cease to exist (cf. Francisco Suárez, "De gratia", IX, 3 sqq.).关于美德,七个礼物和留置的圣灵,它总是伴随着优雅和慈善事业,这是弥天大罪时明确表示将进入他们的灵魂不再存在(参见弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯,“德特惠” ,九,3 sqq。)。As to the fruits of sanctifying grace, see MERIT.至于sanctifying恩典的果实,看到的优点。

Publication information Written by J. Pohle.出版信息写了J. Pohle。Transcribed by Scott Anthony Hibbs & Wendy Lorraine Hoffman.转录由斯科特安东尼希布斯和温迪洛林霍夫曼。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.天主教百科全书,第六卷。Published 1909.1909年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat 9月1日,1909。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


"Saying Grace"“说恩典”

Additional Information附加信息

(Editor's Note: We received the following essay, which we think includes some worthwhile insights.)(编者注:我们收到了下面的文章,这包括一些我们认为值得的见解。)

And when he had thus spoken, he took bread, and gave thanks to God in presence of them all: and when he had broken it, he began to eat. Acts 27:35 当他了这话,他拿起饼来,祝谢了神在他们面前的一切:当他打破了它,他开始吃27:35。 行为


Don't Ask the Blessing, Offer One不问祝福,提供一

In your mind's eye I want you to picture Jesus at the Feeding of the Five Thousand.在你心灵的眼睛,我想你想象耶稣在饲养的5000。Hungry multitudes cover the hillside.饿了众多覆盖在山坡上。Jesus takes the little boy's lunch, lifts it up, and says the familiar prayer: "Bless this food to the nourishing and strengthening of our bodies. Amen."耶稣把小男孩的午餐,升降机起来,并说熟悉的祈祷:“上帝保佑这食物的营养和加强我们的身体阿门。​​”。I'm here to tell you that it just didn't happen like that.我在这里要告诉你,它只是没有发生这样的。No way!没办法!

Since when did we begin to bless our food, anyway?从什么时候起,我们开始祝福我们的食物啊?Frankly, our food's been blessed to the point that most of us -- how shall I say this -- are "overnourished."坦率地说,我们的食物的非常幸运的一点,是我们很多 - 怎么说 - 是“overnourished。”

You find two words in the New Testament used in connection with praying before meals.你会发现在饭前祈祷与连接所使用的新约两个单词。

Offering Praise发售赞美

Here's what really happened at the Feeding of the Five Thousand.下面是真正在饲养的5000发生。"Taking the five loaves and the two fish and looking up to heaven, he gave thanks and broke the loaves" (Mark 6:41).“以这五个饼和两条鱼,望着天,他给了感谢,并打破了面包”(马可福音6:41)。The Greek word for "gave thanks" (NIV) or "blessed" (KJV) is "eulogeo," from which we get our English word "eulogy."在新译)希腊字“感恩”(证)或“祝福”(是“eulogeo,”从我们得到我们的英文单词“悼词”。 It means "speak well of, praise, extol."它的意思是“你称赞,赞美,歌颂。”The word commonly translates the Hebrew word, "barak," "to bless."这个词通常翻译希伯来文的话,“巴拉克”,“祝福”。 But it wasn't the food Jesus was "speaking well of" or "blessing," it was his Father.但是这不是说耶稣是食品“嗯,或”“祝福”, 这是他的父亲。

Every faithful Jew would offer this blessing before partaking of bread: "Blessed are you, Lord our God, King of the world, who has caused bread to come forth out of the earth."Every忠实犹太人将提供此之前圣餐面包祝福:“祝福你,主我们的上帝,是世界之王,谁令面包出来的地球了。” Before partaking of wine, the blessing was said this way: "Blessed are you, Lord our God, King of the world, who has created the fruit of the vine."酒前partaking的,祝福是这样说:“。祝福你,主我们的上帝,是世界之王,谁创造了这葡萄汁”The first word, "eulogeo," reminds us to eulogize or praise God before we eat.第一个字,“eulogeo,”提醒我们要歌颂或赞美神在我们吃。

Offering Thanks感谢的

The second praying-before-meals word is the Greek word "eucharisteo," from which we get our English word "Eucharist," often used as the name of Holy Communion.第二个礼拜前先吃饭字是希腊字“eucharisteo,”从我们得到我们的英文单词“圣体”,往往共融作为神圣的名称。 "Eucharisteo" means, "be thankful, offer thanks," and was used at the Last Supper. “Eucharisteo”的意思,“感恩,谢谢你的好意”,是在最后的晚餐使用。

"While they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks (eulogeo) and broke it, and gave it to his disciples, saying, 'Take and eat; this is my body.' “他们吃的时候,耶稣拿起饼来,祝谢了(eulogeo),并打破了它,并给他的弟子说,'你们拿着吃,这是我的身体。Then he took the cup, gave thanks (eucharisteo) and offered it to them, saying, 'Drink from it, all of you' " (Matthew 26:26-27, NIV). 然后,他拿起杯来,祝谢了(eucharisteo),递给他们,说,'都喝这个,你都'“(马太26:26-27,和合本)。

What Jesus was doing at this Passover meal was offering to his Father the traditional blessings when bread and wine were eaten.耶稣就在这个逾越节餐做的是提供给他父亲的传统祝福面包和酒的时候被吃掉。 It was common for Jews to offer a blessing for each food served during a meal.这是常见的犹太人在用餐时提供服务的每个食品是一种福气。

The Bless Me Club保佑我的俱乐部

So how did we Christians end up blessing the food instead of God? Tradition? 那么我们是怎么结束的祝福基督徒的食物,而不是上帝?传统?Habit?习惯吗?Some of the confusion may have come from a mistranslation of the passage I just quoted.在一些混乱可能来自基于我刚才所通过的误译。In the King James Version, Matthew 26:26 reads: "And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, 'Take, eat; this is my body.'在国王詹姆斯版本,马修26:26写道:“当他们吃的时候,耶稣拿起饼来,祝福,擘开,递给门徒,说:'你们拿着吃,这是我的身体。' " Notice how the tiny word "it" was added after the word "blessed"?“通知了微型字”它“字后加”祝福“?The word "it" isn't part of the Greek text -- that's why it's in italics in the King James Version.这个词的“它”是不是希腊文的一部分 - 这就是为什么它在国王詹姆斯版本斜体的。But "bless it" implies something far different than "bless God."但是,“祝福它”意味着不同的东西,不是“上帝保佑。”That addition of one little word may have twisted the way we pray before meals into something Jesus didn't intend at all.那另外一个小词可能扭曲了我们的祈祷耶稣吃饭前,一些不打算在所有。

Not that there's anything wrong in asking a blessing from God.不是说有什么事在问一个来自上帝的祝福错误的。There's not.这里没有。Jesus taught us to pray, "Give us this day our daily bread" -- but only after praise: "Our Father, which art in heaven, hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come, thy will be done"耶稣教导我们祷告,“让我们在这一天,我们每天的面包” - 但只有在赞叹道:“我们的父亲,其中艺术在天上,神圣的是你的名字你的国降临,愿你的旨意"。No, asking favors from God isn't wrong, but it shouldn't be the primary part of our prayers, or we become like greedy little children: "Gimme this! Gimme that!".不,要求从神青睐并没有错,但它不应该是我们祷告的主要部分,或者我们变得像贪吃的孩子们:“!给我这给我的。”Those prayers are essentially selfish rather than self-giving.这些祈祷是非常自私,而不是自我放弃。They don't fulfill either the First Commandment, to love God with all our heart, or the Second, to love our neighbor as ourselves.他们并不满足,无论是第一诫命,爱我们的心与所有的神,或者第二个,爱如己。

How Should We Pray?我们应该怎样祷告?

The Apostle Paul put it in this perspective.使徒保罗把这个角度来看它。"Do not be anxious about anything, but in everything, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God" (Philippians 4:6). “不要一无挂虑,只要凡事借着祷告,祈求,和感谢,将你们所要的上帝”(腓4:6)。Notice the phrase "with thanksgiving" tucked in there with "present your requests to God." It's essential to keep prayer God-centered rather than self-centered. It's also the key to praying with real faith.请注意“短语”与感恩节藏有与“将你们所要的神。” 这是必须保持祈祷上帝为中心,而不是自我为中心。这也是关键的信仰与真正的祈祷。

So when you pray, remember that your food doesn't deserve a blessing nearly so much as God who gave it. You can bless like Jesus did, "Blessed are you, Lord our God, King of the world, who has caused bread to come forth out of the earth." 因此,当你祈祷,请记住,你的食物不值得祝福高达近所以上帝是谁给了。您可以祝福像耶稣那样,“祝福你,主我们的上帝,世界的王,谁令面包涌现出了地球。“ Or offer a simple prayer of thanks to God for the food.或提供的,用于食品简单的祷告感谢神。Next time, don't "ask the blessing," but offer one to your Father.下一次,不“问祝福”,但提供一个你的父亲。

Dr. Ralph F. Wilson拉尔夫威尔逊博士楼

(We chose to highlight certain phrases of Dr. Wilson)(我们选择威尔逊博士强调某些短语)


This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



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