American Holiness Movement美国圣洁运动

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Originating in the United States in the 1840s and 50s, this was an endeavor to preserve and propagate John Wesley's teaching on entire sanctification and Christian perfection.在美国起源于19世纪40年代和50年代,这是一个努力维护和宣传约翰卫斯理的圣洁,对整个基督教完善教学。 Wesley held that the road from sin to salvation is one from willful rebellion against divine and human law to perfect love for God and man.韦斯利认为,从罪的救赎之路是从蓄意反抗神和人的法律为神和人完美的爱情之一。Following Wesley, Holiness preachers emphasized that the process of salvation involves two crises.韦斯利之后,圣洁牧师强调,拯救的过程涉及到两个危机。

In the first, conversion or justification, one is freed from the sins he has committed.在第一,转换或理由,一个是摆脱了他所犯的罪。In the second, entire sanctification or full salvation, one is liberated from the flaw in his moral nature that causes him to sin.第二,整个成圣或全部得救,一个是从他的道德本质缺陷,导致他罪恶中解放出来。Man is capable of this perfection even though he dwells in a corruptible body marked by a thousand defects arising from ignorance, infirmities, and other creaturely limitations.此人是完美的,即使他在由多名来自无知,软弱而产生缺陷,标志着腐朽的身体犹存,和其他creaturely限制的能力。 It is a process of loving the Lord God with all one's heart, soul, and mind, and it results in the ability to live without conscious or deliberate sin.这是一个与所有爱一个人的心脏,灵魂和精神的主神的过程,它在生活能力而不自觉或故意犯罪的结果。However, to achieve and then remain in this blessed state requires intense, sustained effort, and one's life must be marked by constant self renunciation, careful observance of the divine ordinances, a humble, steadfast reliance on God's forgiving grace in the atonement, the intention to look for God's glory in all things, and an increasing exercise of the love which itself fulfills the whole law and is the end of the commandments.不过,要达到并保持在此祝福国家要求强烈,持续的努力,人的一生必须不断地自我放弃标记,小心遵守神的条例,一个谦卑,对神的宽恕,在赎罪的恩典坚定的依赖,其用意寻找上帝的荣耀,所有的事情,以及对爱情本身满足了整个法律,是结束的诫命增加锻炼。

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In the midnineteenth century several factors converged that contributed to the renewal of the Holiness emphasis, among them the camp meeting revivals that were a common feature in rural America, the Christian perfectionism of Charles Finney and Asa Mahan (the Oberlin theology), the "Tuesday Meeting" of Phoebe Palmer in New York, the urban revival of 1857 - 58, and protests within the Methodist churches about the decline of discipline which resulted in the Wesleyan Methodist secession in 1843 and Free Methodist withdrawal in 1860.在midnineteenth世纪的几个因素汇集的贡献,其中包括坎普米廷复苏,在农村被美国的查尔斯芬尼和亚撒马汉(即奥伯林神学)基督教完美主义的共同特征为重点的圣洁更新,“周二菲比帕尔默会议,对1857年在纽约城市复兴“ - 58,抗议在大约下降的纪律这导致在1843年和循理撤出的卫斯理循道卫理公会于1860年分裂教会。These two became the first denominations formally committed to Holiness.这两人成为正式承诺圣洁第一教派。 After the Civil War a full fledged Holiness revival broke out within the ranks of Methodism, and in 1867 the National Camp Meeting Association for the Promotion of Holiness was formed.南北战争后完全成熟的圣洁复兴循道内爆发的行列,并在1867年全国坎普米廷为圣洁促进会成立。From 1893 it was known as the National Holiness Association (NHA) and in 1971 was renamed the Christian Holiness Association.从1893年它被称为全国圣洁协会(NHA的),并于1971年改名为基督教圣洁协会。Until the 1890s Methodists dominated the movement and channeled its enthusiasm into their churches.直到19世纪90年代卫为主的运动和引导到他们的教堂中的积极性。

The increasing number of Holiness evangelists, many of whom were unsanctioned by their superiors, a flourishing independent press, and the growth of nondenominational associations gradually weakened the position of mainline Methodism in the movement.法律的神圣福音,其中许多人被他们的上司,一个蓬勃发展的独立的新闻媒体未经批准的人数不断增加,协会的nondenominational增长逐渐削弱了在运动主线循道地位。 By the 1880s the first independent Holiness denominations had begun to appear, and tensions between Methodism and the Holiness associations escalated.到了19世纪80年代第一次独立圣洁教派开始出现,与methodism和圣洁协会紧张局势升级。The gap between the two widened as Methodist practice drifted steadily toward a sedate, middleclass American Protestantism, while the Holiness groups insisted they were practicing primitive Wesleyanism and were the true successors of Wesley in America.两者之间的差距扩大为卫实践漂流稳步迈向稳重,美国的中产阶级新教,而圣洁团体坚称,他们在练习原始Wesleyanism,并在美国的韦斯利的真正继承者。 The small schismatic bodies gradually coalesced into formal denominations, the largest of which were the Church of God, Anderson, Indiana (1880), Church of the Nazarene (1908), and Pilgrim Holiness Church (1897, merged with the Wesleyan Methodists in 1968 to form the Wesleyan Church).分裂的小团体逐渐结合成正式面额,其中最大的是上帝,安德森,印第安纳州(1880年),教会的拿撒勒(1908年)的教会,并朝圣节圣洁会(1897,与1968年合并卫斯理卫形成卫斯理堂)。

The polity of these bodies was a modified Methodism in that there was generally somewhat more congregational autonomy, and the "second blessing" of entire sanctification was an integral part of their theology.这些机构的政体是修改methodism在有较为普遍公理的自主权,而“第二次祝福”的整个成圣他们的神学是一个不可分割的一部分。 Most operated with a strict perfectionist code of personal morality and demanded from their adherents plain dress and abstinence from "worldly" pleasures and amusements.大多数运作的个人道德严格的完美主义者的代码和他们的信徒穿着朴素的,从“世俗”的乐趣和娱乐禁欲要求。Also, nearly all of them allowed women to be ordained to the ministry and occupy leadership positions.此外,他们几乎所有允许妇女要受戒内政部,占据领先地位。

The Holiness movement quickly spread beyond the bounds of Methodism.神圣的运动迅速蔓延的范围超出了循道。A Mennonite group, the United Missionary Church (formerly Mennonite Brethren in Christ and since a merger in 1969 called the Missionary Church), adopted the doctrine of entire sanctification and Holiness standards of personal conduct.阿门诺集团,美国传教士教会(原门诺弟兄,在基督和1969年合并以来的所谓的传教教会),通过了整个成圣圣洁和个人行为准则的原则。 The Brethren in Christ (founded 1863) was of mixed Pennsylvania German pietist and Mennonite origins, but it also took on Wesleyan perfectionism.在基督里的弟兄(创建于1863年)德国混合宾夕法尼亚虔信和门诺派的起源是,但它也卫斯理完美了。 Four Quaker yearly meetings that had been influenced by Holiness doctrines came together in 1947 to form the Evangelical Friends Alliance.四奎克尔已经由圣洁教义的影响,1947年年度会议来共同组成联盟的福音朋友。 The Salvation Army also has had a firm commitment to Holiness.救世军人也有一个圣洁的坚定承诺。The Christian and Missionary Alliance with its emphasis on Christ as Savior, sanctifier, healer, and coming King has an affinity with the Wesleyan movement, and its two most prominent thinkers, AB Simpson and AW Tozer, are widely read in Holiness circles, but it never accepted the doctrine of the eradication of sin.基督教宣道会强调其对基督为救主,成圣,治疗师,和未来的国王有一个与卫斯理运动亲和力,它的两个最突出的思想家,宣信和AW托泽,圣洁界广泛阅读,但它从未接受过的罪恶消灭的学说。

The growth of the independent churches was related to the decline of the Holiness emphasis within Methodism, and after World War II denominationalism turned the originally evangelistic NHA into a council of Holiness churches.设立了独立的教会增长相关的重点在卫理公会的神圣下降,宗派主义第二次世界大战后变成了圣洁的教堂布道会的原住房管理局。 But numerical growth and material prosperity led inexorably to compromise with contemporary culture, and the relaxation of personal discipline was reflected in the wearing of fashionable dress and jewelry and secular entertainments such as participation in athletics and television viewing.但数值增长和物质繁荣不可避免地导致妥协与当代文化,以及个人纪律松弛是时髦的服饰,珠宝和世俗的娱乐穿着诸如田径和看电视的参与反映。 As a result, several conservative splinter groups seceded from the Holiness denominations and joined together in an interchurch organization in 1947 known as the Interdenominational Holiness Convention.因此,一些保守的派别分裂出去的教派和圣洁,在1947年加入该教派教会共同为圣洁公约知名组织在一起。This now sees itself as the defender of pristine Wesleyanism.现在认为,这与原始的Wesleyanism后卫本身。

Pentecostalism is an offshoot of the Holiness movement. It teaches that speaking in tongues is the evidence one has received the second blessing. 五旬节运动是一个分支的圣洁。它教导我们,说方言的证据之一是已收到第二次祝福。At a Bible school in Topeka, Kansas, founded by a Holiness evangelist the "gift of the Spirit" came to a student in 1901, and the practice of glossolalia quickly spread.在一个在托皮卡,堪萨斯州的一个圣洁传道者的“精神礼物”成立后,来到了一个圣经学校学生在1901年,和方言的做法迅速蔓延。 The Pentecostal revival made its greatest inroads in areas where Holiness movements were already prospering, and it attracted far more non Methodists than had the earlier forms of perfectionism.在五旬节复兴圣洁的地方运动已经蓬勃发展其最大的侵蚀,并吸引更多的非卫远远超过了完美主义的早期形式。 Besides the emphasis on the baptism of the Holy Spirit, Pentecostalism recognized divine healing and demanded highly puritanical standards of personal conduct.除了对圣灵的洗礼强调,五旬节运动公认的神圣的愈合,并要求高标准的个人操守清教徒。Like the Holiness groups the Pentecostals were theological conservatives, and they comprised an important addition to the Arminian wing of Protestant conservatism in the period when the fundamentalist movement was gathering steam.像圣洁神学组的五旬节是保守派,他们包括在此期间的一个重要补充保守主义阿民念主义的新教原教旨主义运动时,机翼被收集蒸汽。

Some Holiness denominations, most notably the Church of the Nazarene, flatly reject the use of tongues, while others, the largest being the Church of God, Cleveland, TN, and the Pentecostal Holiness Church, teach both glossolalia and entire sanctification.有些圣洁教派,尤其是教会的拿撒勒,断然拒绝使用方言,而其他国家,最大的是上帝,克利夫兰,田纳西州的教会,五旬节圣洁会,教两个方言和整个成圣。 Denominationalism soon took hold in Pentecostalism, and before long it had more adherents than its parent in such bodies as the Assemblies of God, the black Church of God in Christ, and the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel.宗派主义发生在五旬节即将举行,不久,它已经超过了其在大会的上帝,上帝在基督黑人教堂,以及国际四方福音教会等机构家长更多的信徒。

More difficult to characterize is the Keswick movement which originated in Britain in 1875 at a "Convention for the Promotion of Practical Holiness" in the Lake District town of that name.更困难的特点是凯瑟克运动起源于1875年在英国,一个“为尊者推广实用公约”,在湖区的名镇。Speakers at the annual Keswick conferences emphasized the "deeper life" instead of holiness, believing that the tendency to sin is not extinguished but is counteracted by victorious living through the Holy Spirit.在年度会议的发言强调敬诚,而不是成圣“深入生活”,认为该罪的趋势没有熄灭,但生活是胜利抵消通过圣灵。The predominance of Reformed Anglicans along with like minded Free Church evangelicals in the movement prevented the Wesley - Arminian view of sanctification from establishing a foothold.归正教教徒的优势志同道合一起免费教会在福音派运动阻止韦斯利 - 成圣阿民念主义观点,从建立一个立足点。

In Germany the Holiness concept was institutionalized in the Gemeinschaftsbewegung (Fellowship Movement) which came into existence under the influence of Keswick and Methodist evangelists from Britain and the United States.在德国的神圣概念是制度化的Gemeinschaftsbewegung(团契运动),它开始存在下,敬诚和卫理福音来自英国和美国的影响力。 Several societies were founded, the most important being the German Evangelization Association (1884), Gnadau Association (1888), and Blankenburg Alliance Conference (1905), which cultivated a deeper holiness among members of the territorial churches.几个社团的成立,最重要的是德国福音协会(1884年),Gnadau协会(1888年),和勃兰根堡联盟会议(1905年),其中耕地之间的领土教会的成员更深的圣洁。

The Holiness movement contributed to a deepening of the spiritual life in a materialistic age, and it was a welcome contrast to the sterile intellectualism and dead orthodoxy that characterized so many churches at the time.神圣的运动促成了深入的精神生活在一个物欲横流的时代,这是一个值得欢迎的对比,无菌理智和死正统的特征是有如此多的教堂。 However, it has been criticized for suggesting that a "second blessing" can provide some Christians with a higher kind of sanctification than that which flows from one's justifying faith.然而,它一直批评这表明“第二次祝福”可以提供一个比这从一个人的正当信仰一种更高一些流动圣洁的基督徒。PT Forsyth said it is "a fatal mistake to think of holiness as a possession which we have distinct from our faith and conferred upon it.铂佛塞斯说,它是“一个致命的错误,作为一个拥有圣洁认为,在我们从我们的信仰不同,并赋予它。

That is a Catholic idea, still saturating Protestant pietism." Other objections include the tendency to identify holiness with quietistic self abasement and even loss of personality, an otherwordly asceticism that calls for the rejection of all secular culture as sinful, confining the grace of God to stereotyped forms of religious experience, an overemphasis on feeling, and claiming with overweening confidence the special action of the Holy Spirit in one's life and direct inspiration in the details of thought and action.这是一个天主教的想法,还是饱和新教虔诚主义。“其他反对包括寂静主义倾向,自我认同自卑,甚至丧失个性,一otherwordly禁欲主义,对于所有的世俗文化的取舍呼吁罪孽深重,圣洁的神的恩典围以刻板形式的宗教经验,过分强调对感觉,并与唯我独尊的信心,圣灵专项行动在一个人的生活中,在思想和行动的细节,声称直接灵感。

RV Pierard风疹病毒皮耶拉尔
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
CE Jones, A Guide to the Study of the Holiness Movement; DW Dayton, The American Holiness Movement: A Bibliographic Introduction; ME Dieter, The Holiness Revival of the Nineteenth Century; CE Jones, Perfectionist Persuasion: The Holiness Movement and American Methodism; JL Peters, Christian Perfection and American Methodism; TL Smith, Called Unto Holiness; P Scharpff, History of Evangelism; A Clarke, Commentary on the Holy Bible; HO Wiley, An Introduction to Christian Theology; RH Coats, HERE , VI; DW Dayton, NIDCC ; V Synan, The Holiness Pentecostal Movement.行政长官琼斯,A到了圣洁运动研究指南;德国之声代顿,美国的圣洁运动:书目介绍; ME的迪特,在十九世纪的圣洁复兴;行政长官琼斯,追求完美的信念:在圣洁运动与美国methodism;巨浪彼得斯,基督教完善和美国methodism;热释光史密斯,被称为圣洁,P Scharpff,布道的历史,一个克拉克,在圣经的评注;何威利,安基督教神学导论;相对湿度大衣,在这里,六;德国之声代顿, NIDCC; V Synan,五旬节圣洁运动。


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