Holy Spirit,Holy Ghost, Paraclete, Comforter圣灵,圣灵,圣灵,棉被

shènglíng

General Information一般资料

In Christian theology, the Holy Spirit, or Holy Ghost, is the third person of the Trinity, distinct from but coequal with God the Father and God the Son. The Holy Spirit is sometimes described as the creative, healing, renewing presence of God. Theologians point to a gradual development of the doctrine in Scripture. 在基督教神学,圣灵,或圣灵,是三位一体的第三人的,不同于但精神与神同等的父亲和上帝的儿子。神圣的,有时愈合描述为创意,更新的神面前。指向一个神学家的圣经教义的逐步发展。 In the Old Testament, the Spirit was at work in the creation of the world (Gen. 1) and in prophecy (Isa. 61:1).在旧约中,圣灵是在世界(创1)创造和在预言(以赛亚书61:1)。In the New Testament, the Spirit was present in the life and works of Jesus Christ (Mark 1:12) and continues to be present as the Paraclete (advocate) in the Christian community (John 14:26).在新约中,圣灵是在生活和耶稣基督(马克1:12)工程现时并继续作为圣灵(倡导)在基督教社区(约翰福音14:26)中。 The early church saw the descent of the Holy Spirit on the apostles at Pentecost as the outpouring of divine gifts of holiness, love, prophecy, healing, and speaking in Tongues.早期教会的使徒看到了圣灵降临在五旬节作为圣洁的爱,预言,愈合流露神圣礼物,并说方言。The doctrine of the Holy Spirit was formulated at the Council of Constantinople in 381.在圣灵的教义制定的安理会的君士坦丁堡在381。

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Holy Ghost圣灵

Advanced Information先进的信息

The third Person of the adorable Trinity.可爱的三位一体的第三人。

His personality is proved证明了他的个性
  1. from the fact that the attributes of personality, as intelligence and volition, are ascribed to him (John 14:17, 26; 15:26; 1 Cor. 2:10, 11; 12:11). He reproves, helps, glorifies, intercedes (John 16:7-13; Rom. 8:26).事实上,从他的属性和个性,作为情报意志,是认定为(约翰14:17,26; 15时26分,1肺心病。2:10,11 12:11)。 他谴责,帮助,美化,祈求 (约翰16:7-13;罗8:26)。。
  2. He executes the offices peculiar only to a person.他特有的执行办公室仅一人。The very nature of these offices involves personal distinction (Luke 12:12; Acts 5:32; 15:28; 16:6; 28:25; 1 Cor. 2:13; Heb. 2:4; 3:7; 2 Pet. 1:21).这些办事处的性质涉及个人的区别(路加福音12:12,徒5:32,15:28,16:6,28:25,1肺心病2:13。希伯来书2:4。3:7 2宠物。1:21)。

His divinity is established他的神性,建立

  1. from the fact that the names of God are ascribed to him (Ex. 17:7; Ps. 95:7; comp. Heb. 3:7-11); and从所神的名字归因于他的事实(例如:17时07分;诗95:7。。比赛希伯来书3:7-11。)和
  2. that divine attributes are also ascribed to him, omnipresence (Ps. 139:7; Eph. 2:17, 18; 1 Cor. 12:13); omniscience (1 Cor. 2:10, 11); omnipotence (Luke 1:35; Rom. 8:11); eternity (Heb. 9:4).这神圣的属性也归因于他,无所不在(诗篇139:7;弗2:17,18,1肺心病12:13。。);无所不知(林前2:10,11。);全能(路加福音1: 35;罗8:11)。永恒(希伯来书9:4)。
  3. Creation is ascribed to him (Gen. 1:2; Job 26:13; Ps. 104:30), and the working of miracles (Matt. 12:28; 1 Cor. 12:9-11).创新是归因于他(创1:2;作业26:13。诗104:30),以及工作奇迹 (太12:28;肺心病。1 12:9-11)。
  4. Worship is required and ascribed to him (Isa. 6:3; Acts 28:25; Rom. 9:1; Rev. 1:4; Matt. 28:19).崇拜是必要的,归因于他(以赛亚书6:3,徒28:25,罗马书9:1;。启示录1:4;。马特28:19)。


(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Holy Spirit圣灵

Advanced Information先进的信息

In the NT, the third person of the Trinity; in the OT, God's power. 新台币在三一,对第三人,在加时赛,神的力量。

The Old Testament旧约

In the OT the spirit of the Lord (ruah yhwh; LXX, to pneuma kyriou) is generally an expression for God's power, the extension of himself whereby he carries out many of his mighty deeds (eg, 1 Kings 8:12; Judg. 14:6ff; 1 Sam. 11:6).在城市旅游局耶和华的灵(ruah耶和华; LXX的,以牛马kyriou)通常是一对上帝的力量,表达自己的扩展,让他履行他的威武事迹(例如,列王纪上8:12多; Judg。 14时06分几段1萨姆11:6)。。As such, "spirit" sometimes finds expression in ways similar to other modes of God's activity, such as "the hand of God" (Ps. 19:1; 102:25); "the word of God" (Ps. 33:6; 147:15, 18); and the "wisdom of God" (Exod. 28:3; 1 Kings 3:28; Job 32:8).因此,“精神”的方式,有时发现类似其他交通工具神的活动,如“上帝之手”(诗篇19:1; 102:25),表达(诗篇33“上帝的话”: 6; 147:15,18)和“神的智慧”(出28:3 1国王3:28,职业32:8)。The origins of the word "spirit" in both Hebrew (ruah) and Greek (pneuma) are similar, stemming from associations with "breath" and "wind," which were connected by ancient cultures to unseen spiritual force, hence "spirit" (cf. John 3:8, note the association with air in English; eg, "pneumatic," "respiration," etc.). The AV uses the term "Holy Ghost" for "Holy Spirit" based on an obsolete usage of the word "ghost" (from Middle English and Anglo-Saxon, originally meaning "breath," "spirit", cf. the German Geist).这个词的“精神”的源头都在希伯来语(ruah)和希腊(牛马)是相似的,从“呼吸”和“风”,这是由无形的精神力量对古代文化相连,因此,“精神”产生关联( 。比照约翰一书3:8,注意英语协会与空气,例如,“气动”,“呼吸”等)的任期该AV使用“圣灵”的“圣灵”的基础上的一个过时的用法单词“鬼”(源自中古英语和盎格鲁撒克逊人,原本意思是“呼吸”,“精神”,比照。德国盖伊斯特)。 Thus it is understandable that God's creative word (Gen. 1:3ff.) is closely akin to God's creative breath (Gen. 2:7).因此,它是可以理解的上帝的创造性的字(创1:3几段)。密切类似于上帝的创意气息(创2:7)。Both ideas are identified elsewhere with God's spirit. As an agent in creation, God's spirit is the life principle of both men and animals (Job 33:4; Gen. 6:17; 7:15).思想是别处与上帝的精神。 既是一个创造代理人,上帝的精神是与动物的生活原则的男性 (约伯记33:4;创6:17,7:15)。

The primary function of the spirit of God in the OT is as the spirit of prophecy. God's spirit is the motivating force in the inspiration of the prophets, that power which moved sometimes to ecstasy but always to the revelation of God's message, expressed by the prophets with "thus saith the Lord." 该城市旅游局的主要职能在上帝的精神作为预言精神。上帝的精神是先知的动力,在灵感,这种权力的动议有时狂喜,但始终以邮件的启示上帝的,表达了与先知“耶和华如此说。” Prophets are sometimes referred to as "men of God" (1 Sam. 2:27; 1 Kings 12:22; etc.); in Hos.先知有时也被称为“上帝的人”(1萨姆2:27。1国王12:22,等等),在居屋计划。9:7 they are "men of the Spirit."9:7他们是“男人的精神。”The general implication in the OT is that the prophets were inspired by the spirit of God (Num. 11:17; 1 Sam. 16:15; Mic. 3:8; Ezek. 2:2; etc.).加时赛中的一般含义是先知,由上帝的精神鼓舞下(民数记11:17; 1萨姆16:15。话筒3:8。以西结书2:2。等)。

The phrase "Holy Spirit" appears in two contexts in the OT, but is qualified both times as God's holy Spirit (Ps. 51:11; Isa. 63:10-11, 14), such that it is clear that God himself is the referent, not the Holy Spirit which is encountered in the NT.这句话“圣灵”出现在两个加时赛中的情境,但精神都合格倍神的圣洁(诗篇51:11;。赛63:10-11,14),这样清楚自己是神能指,而不是圣灵的是NT中遇到的。 The OT does not contain an idea of a semi-independent divine entity, the Holy Spirit. Rather, we find special expressions of God's activity with and through men. 加时赛中不包含一个实体的想法的一个半独立的神,圣灵。相反,我们发现通过人的特殊表达和上帝的活性。God's spirit is holy in the same way his word and his name are holy; they are all forms of his revelation and, as such, are set in antithesis to all things human or material. The OT, especially the prophets, anticipates a time when God, who is holy (or "other than/separate from" men; cf. Hos. 11:9) will pour out his spirit on men (Joel 2:28ff.; Isa. 11:1ff.; Ezek. 36:14ff.). who will themselves become holy. The Messiah/ Servant of God will be the one upon whom the spirit rests (Isa. 11:1ff.; 42:1ff.; 63:1ff.), and will inaugurate the time of salvation (Ezek. 36:14ff.; cf. Jer. 31:31ff.).神的精神是神圣的,以同样的方式他的话,他的名字是圣都的启示和形式的他,因此,载于对立面,一切事物的人力或材料。它们的职能治疗,特别是先知,预期的时候上帝,谁是圣洁的(或“以外/从单独的”男人居屋比照。。11时09分)将他的人倒精神,(珥2:28几段。。赛11:1几段。。以西结书36:14几段。)几段。 谁将会成为自己圣洁。仆人弥赛亚/神会是一对人的精神在于(以赛亚; 11:1 42:1法郎;。几段。63:1),这将开创时的救恩(结36:14法郎;。比照耶31:31几段。。。)。

Intertestamental JudaismIntertestamental犹太教

Within intertestamental Judaism several significant developments shaped the idea of "Holy Spirit" as it was understood in NT times.在intertestamental犹太教若干重大发展形成了“圣灵”的概念,因为它是理解新台币时代。 After the OT prophets had proclaimed the coming of the Spirit in the messianic age of salvation, Judaism had developed the idea that the spirit of prophecy had ceased within Israel with the last of the biblical prophets (Syriac Bar. 85:3; 1 Macc. 4:46; 14:41; etc.; cf. Ps. 74:9).经过加时赛先知曾宣布未来的精神在拯救的弥赛亚时代,犹太教已经开发出了预言的精神已经停止与以色列境内的圣经先知(叙利亚酒吧了主意85:3; 1。排雷。 4:46,14:41,等等。比照诗74:9)。。Consequently, there arose from time to time a hope of the dawning of the new age, especially within the apocalyptic movement, which generally pointed to a supposed messiah and/or prophetic reawakening of some kind (cf. Acts 5:34ff.).因此,人们不时出现的一个新时代的曙光的希望,尤其是在世界末日的运动,一般都指出一个假设的弥赛亚和/或预言某种觉醒(参见行为5:34几段)。。 The Qumran community is illustrative of this, since it understood itself to be involved in the fulfillment of Israel's messianic hope as the "preparers of the way of the Lord" (Isa. 40:3; cf. 1QS 8. 14-16).昆兰社区是这说明问题,因为它知道自己是在以色列的救世主的希望参与履行为“主的编制方法”(以赛亚书40:3;比照1QS八月14日至一十六号。。)。 The Qumran literature also shows increased identification of the spirit of prophecy with "God's Holy Spirit" (1QS 8. 16; Zadokite Documents II. 12).库姆兰文献也显示增加的预言与“上帝的圣灵”(1QS 8 16。Zadokite文件二12。)精神鉴定。The phrase, "the Holy Spirit," occasionally occurs in Judaism (IV Ezra 14:22; Ascension of Isa. 5:14; etc.), but, as in the rabbis, it generally meant "God's spirit of prophecy."这句话,“圣灵”,偶尔发生在犹太教(四以斯拉14:22;伊萨阿森松5:14。等),但如在拉比,它通常意味着“预言神的精神。” Thus, the messaianic expectation of Judaism, which included the eschatological outpouring of God's spirit (eg, 1 Enoch 49:3, citing Isa. 11:2; cf. Sybilline Oracle III, 582, based on Joel 2:28ff.), was bound up with the conviction that the Spirit had ceased in Israel with the last of the prophets; the Holy Spirit was understood as God's spirit of prophecy, which would be given again in the new age to a purified Israel in conjunction with the advent of a messiah.因此,犹太教,其中包括神的精神流露messaianic末世期望(如1伊诺克49:3,11:2援引伊萨。比照Sybilline甲骨文第三,582的基础上,乔尔2:28几段。。),是约束与这一精神已经停止在以色列的先知最后的信念,圣灵为神的精神的预言,这将得到再次在新的时代一起使用,以洁净的以色列与一个到来的理解弥赛亚。

The concept of the Holy Spirit was broadened through the Wisdom Literature, especially in the personification of wisdom as that idea came into contact with the idea of Spirit. 圣灵的神圣概念,扩大了智慧,通过智慧文学,尤其是在人格化的这个想法跟走进与时俱进的精神理念。As early as Prov.早在省。 8:22ff.8:22几段。and Job 28:25ff.与工作28:25几段。wisdom is presented as a more or less independent aspect of God's power (here as agent in creation), and wisdom is credited with functions and characteristics that are attributed to the Holy Spirit in the NT.智慧是作为一个神的力量或多或少独立方面(如在这里创造剂),智慧与函数和归因于圣灵在新台币特征记。 Wisdom proceeded from the mouth of God and covered the earth as a mist at creation (Sir. 24:3); she is the breath of the power of God (Wisd. Solomon 7:25); and by means of his wisdom God formed man (Wisd. Sol. 9:2).智慧从神出发口,涉及作为一个在创作(Sir. 24:3)雾地球,她是上帝的力量(Wisd.所罗门7:25)呼吸;通过他的智慧神的手段,并形成男子(Wisd.溶胶。9:2)。The Lord poured out wisdom upon all his works, and she dwells with all flesh (Sir. 1:9-10).主把碗倒在他的所有作品的智慧,她和所有的肉(Sir. 1:9-10)同居。Moreover, wisdom is full of spirit, and indeed is identified with the Spirit (Wisd. Sol. 7:22; 9:1; cf. 1:5).此外,智慧饱满的精神,确实是与精神鉴定(Wisd.溶胶7:22。9:1;比照1:5。)。Thus the Jews of NT times were familiar with the background of these ideas as they are variously expressed in the NT, ideas which use these background concepts but move beyond them to some unexpected conclusions.因此,犹太人的新台币时代与思想背景,这些熟悉的,因为他们是不同的表达新台币,超出了他们的想法是利用这些背景的概念,但移动到一些意想不到的结论。 Indeed, Jesus taught that his messiahship and the corresponding outpouring of the Spirit were firmly rooted in OT understanding (Luke 4:18ff., citing Isa. 61:1-2), and, similar to intertestamental Judaism, understood the messianic Spirit of the Lord to be the Holy Spirit (Matt. 12:32), the spirit which had foretold through the prophets that the coming Messiah would inaugurate the age of salvation with the pouring out of the Spirit on all flesh.事实上,耶稣教导他的弥赛亚和相应的源源不断的精神理解的是牢牢植根于催产素(路加福音4:18几段。援引伊萨。61:1-2),以及类似intertestamental犹太教, 理解精神的救世主的主是圣灵(太12:32),肉体精神的先知曾预言,未来通过弥赛亚将主持开幕的精神对所有年龄的救赎与浇筑出来的。 Jesus developed the idea of the Holy Spirit as a personality (eg, John 15:26; 16:7ff.), specifically as God working in the church.耶稣开发 )的想法,圣灵作为一个人格 (例如,约翰; 16:7几段15:26。,具体为神的教会工作的。

The New Testament新约

The NT teaching of the Holy Spirit is rooted in the idea of both the spirit of God as the manifestation of God's power and the spirit of prophecy. Jesus, and the church after him, brought these ideas together in predicating them of the Holy Spirit, God's eschatological gift to man. When Mary is "overshadowed" by the power of the Most High, a phrase standing in parallel construction to "the Holy Spirit" (Luke 1:35; cf. 9:35), we find echoes of the OT idea of God's spirit in the divine cloud which "overshadowed" the tabernacle so that the tent was filled with the glory of the Lord (Exod. 40:35; Isa. 63:11ff. identifies God's presence in this instance as "God's Holy Spirit").圣灵新台币教学的,是植根于的想法两个上帝的精神体现了上帝的力量和精神的预言。 耶稣,并在教堂,带来圣灵这些思想的共同的预估他们,神的末世论的礼物的人“。玛丽是”黯然失色“的精神力量的最高级的神圣,短语平行站在建设”(路加福音1:35;。比照9:35),我们发现相呼应加时赛思想上帝的神圣的云“黯然失色”的帐幕,使帐篷是与主的荣耀(出40:35充满精神。。赛63:11几段在这种情况下确定为“上帝的神圣的上帝的存在精神“)。 Luke records Jesus' power to cast out demons "by the finger of God," an OT phrase for God's power (Luke 11:20; Exod. 8:19; Ps. 8:3).路加记录耶稣的权力,投出“,由上帝的手指,”一个神的力量催产素短语魔(路加福音11:20; Exod 8:19。诗8:3)。。This power is identified as the "Spirit of God" (Matt. 12:28), ie, the Holy Spirit (Matt. 12:32). At Jesus' baptism the spirit came upon him (Mark 1:10; "the spirit of God," Matt. 3:16 "the Holy Spirit," Luke 3:21), and he received God's confirmation of his divine sonship and messianic mission (Matt. 3:13ff., par.).这项权力被确定为“神精神”(太12:28),即圣灵(太12:32)。 在耶稣洗礼的精神来到他马克(1:10“的精神神“马特。3:16”圣灵,“卢克3:21),他接受神的确认了他的神圣的sonship和救世主的使命 (太3:13几段。,不相上下。。Jesus went up from the Jordan full of the Holy Spirit (Luke 4:1), and after the temptation began his ministry "in the power of the Spirit" (Luke 4:14).耶稣就从4:1)约旦充满圣灵(路,并经教育部开始了他的诱惑“的精神力量的”(路加福音4:14)。 Taking up the message of John the Baptist, Jesus proclaimed the coming of the kingdom of God (Matt. 4:17; cf. 3:1), a coming marked by the presence of the Holy Spirit (Matt. 12:28ff., par.) as the sign of the messianic age of salvation (Luke 4:18ff.; Acts 10:38; etc.).占用了施洗约翰的消息,耶稣宣布未来的神的国度(太4:17;。比照3:1),一来所存在的圣灵(太12:28几段明显。杆)作为弥赛亚时代的救赎(路加福音4:18几段标志;。。徒10:38;等)。

From the beginning of Jesus' ministry he identified himself with both the victorious messiah king and the suffering servant figures of OT prophecy (Isa. 42:1ff.; cf. Mark 10:45), ideas which Judaism had kept separate.从耶稣的事工开始,他发现无论是胜利的救世主与国王和OT的预言数字自己痛苦的仆人(以赛亚书42:1法郎;。比照马克10:45。),其中犹太教分开的想法。 Jesus further defined the role of God's Messiah as proclaiming God's favor, God's salvation, in the new age, a message stressed far beyond that of "judgment of the nations," which the Jews had come to expect.进一步明确了耶稣神的弥赛亚作为宣告上帝的青睐作用,神的救恩,在新的时代,一个消息强调,远远超出了其中犹太人前来期望“的国家,判断”问题。 At the synagogue in Nazareth (Luke 4:16ff.) when Jesus identified himself with the Messiah promised in Isa.在犹太教堂在拿撒勒(路加福音4:16几段)。当耶稣与弥赛亚确定自己承诺的伊萨。61:1-2a he stopped short of reading the "words of judgment" of Isa.61:1 - 2a的他停止了阅读伊萨“的判断词”的缩写。61:2b (even though Isa. 61:2c, "comfort to those who mourn," is part of Jesus' teaching at Matt. 5:4). 61:2乙(即使伊萨。61:2 ç,“谁安慰那些哀悼”,是耶稣的一部分'在马特教学。5:4)。This emphasis is made again when John the Baptist asks whether Jesus is indeed the one who was to come (Luke 7:18-23).这是由时再次强调施洗约翰询问耶稣的确是一个谁是来(路加福音7:18-23)。Indeed, even though John the Baptist proclaimed Jesus to be the one who would "baptize in the Holy Spirit and in fire" as aspects of the new age (salvation and judgment, respectively, Luke 3:15ff; note the clear judgment connections of "baptism with fire" in 3:17), Jesus' own focus was on the positive, salvific aspect of the new age as represented in the baptism with the Holy Spirit (Acts 1:5; 11:16).事实上,即使施洗约翰宣告耶稣是一个谁“将在圣灵施洗和火”作为新时代(救恩和判断,分别路加福音3:15几段方面;注意明确的判断连接的“ 3:17洗礼与火“), 耶稣自己的年龄为重点的新的积极的,救赎的方面为代表的 1:5 洗礼与圣灵 (使徒; 11:16)。

Jesus understood the Holy Spirit as a personality. This comes out especially in John's Gospel, where the Spirit is called the "Paraclete," ie, the Comforter (Counselor, Advocate). Jesus himself was the first Counselor (Paraclete, John 14:16), and he will send the disciples another Counselor after he is gone, ie, the Spirit of truth, the Holy Spirit (14:26; 15:26; 16:5). The Holy Spirit will dwell in the believers (John 7:38; cf. 14:17), and will guide the disciples into all truth (16:13), teaching them "all things" and bringing them "to rememberance of all that [Jesus] said" to them (14:26). 耶稣理解为一种个性圣灵。这出来,特别是在约翰的福音,这里的精神是所谓的“圣灵”,即,保惠师(顾问,辩护律师)。 耶稣自己是第一个辅导员(圣灵,约翰14时16分),他将派遣门徒辅导员后,他又走了,即真理的精神的,圣灵(14:26,15:26,16:5)7。圣灵要住在信徒 (约翰:38;比照14:26。14:17), 并会所有指导弟子真相 (16:13),教他们“万物”,并把他们“以纪念耶稣的所有[]说:”他们( )。The Holy Spirit will testify about Jesus, as the disciples must also testify (John 15:26-27).圣灵将耶稣作见证,也为弟子必须作证(约15:26-27)。

In Acts 2:14ff.在使徒行传2:14几段。Peter interpreted the Pentecost phenomena as the fulfillment of Joel's prophecy of the outpouring of the spirit upon all flesh in the messianic age (Joel 2:28ff.).彼得解释为乔尔的救世主的年龄在浇灌凡有血气的精神预言的应验圣灵降临节现象(珥2:28几段)。。The outpouring of the spirit upon all flesh was accomplished for the benefit of Jew and Gentile alike (Acts 10:45; 11:15ff.), and individual converts had access to this gift of the age of salvation through repentance and baptism into the name of Jesus Christ (Acts 2:38).果肉流露的精神后,所有的都完成了对犹太人和外邦人利益(徒10:45; 11:15几段。)和个人的礼物得救了转换名忏悔和洗礼进入了进入这一年龄耶稣基督 (徒2:38)。This, according to Peter, put the converts in contact with the promise of Joel's prophecy, the gift of the Holy Spirit; "for to you is the promise for all whom the Lord our God will call" (Acts 2:39; Joel 2:32).为此,根据彼得,把接触的转换与约珥的预言,圣灵的恩赐的承诺,“因为你是诺言 ,因为所有的人,就是主我们神所召来”(使徒2: 39;乔尔2:32)。The apostles and others carried out their ministries "full of the Holy Spirit" (4:31; 6:5; 7:54; etc.), and the Holy Spirit, identified in Acts 16:7 as the Spirit of Jesus, directed the mission of the fledgling church (Acts 9:31; 13:2; 15:28; 16:6-7).使徒和其他部委开展的“圣灵充满的”(4:31; 6:5; 7:54,等等),和圣灵,在使徒行传16:7确定为耶稣的灵,导演对刚刚起步的教会的使命(徒9:31; 13:2; 15:28; 1​​6:6-7)。The salvific aspects of the new age practiced by Jesus, notably healing and exorcism, were carried out by the early church through the power of the Holy Spirit.由耶稣,特别是医治和驱魔实行新的时代,救赎方面进行初期是由教会了通过圣灵的力量。Visions and prophecies occurred within the young church (Acts 9:10; 10:3; 10:ff.; 11:27-28; 13:1; 15:32) in keeping with the Acts 2 citation of Joel 2:28ff.异象和预言发生在年轻的教会(徒9:10; 10时03分,10:法郎; 11:27-28; 1​​3:1; 15:32。)与行为的2珥2:28几段引文一致。The experience of the early church confirmed that the messianic age had indeed come.在早期教会的经验证实,救世主的时代确实来了。

Paul taught that the Holy Spirit, poured out in the new age, is the creator of new life in the believer and that unifying force by which God in Christ is "building together" the Christians into the body of Christ (Rom. 5:5; II Cor. 5:17; Eph. 2:22; cf. I Cor. 6:19). Romans 8 shows that Paul identified the spirit, the spirit of God, and the spirit of Christ with the Holy Spirit (cf. the spirit of Christ as the spirit of prophecy in I Pet. 1:10ff.), and that these terms are generally interchangeable.保罗教导说,圣灵,倒在新的时代出现,是对新生活的信徒和凝聚力,其中在基督上帝是“共建”为基督的身体的基督徒(罗马书5:5的创造者;二,肺心病。弗5:17。2:22比照精神 。我(肺心病。参见6:19)。 入乡随俗8显示,保罗所确定的精神,精神神的,精神的基督与圣灵在基督的预言在我的宠物。1:10几段)。精神,而这些条款的精神是一般互换。 If anyone does not have the spirit of Christ, he does not belong to Christ (Rom. 8:9); but those who are led by the spirit of God are sons of God (Rom. 8:14).如果有人不有基督的精神,他不属于基督(罗马书8:9),但那些谁是上帝的精神引导的,都是神(罗马书8:14)的儿子。 We all have our access to the Father through one spirit (Eph.2:18), and there is one body and one spirit (Eph. 4:4).我们都有自己的通过一个精神(Eph.2:18)获得了父亲,并有一个机构和一个精神(以弗所书4:4)。We were all baptized by one spirit into one body, and we were all given the one spirit to drink (I Cor.12:13).我们都从一位圣灵受洗,成了一个身体,我们都给予一个精神的饮料(我Cor.12:13)。The believer receives the spirit of adoption or "sonship" (Rom. 8:15), indeed, the spirit of God's own Son (Gal. 4:6), by whom we cry, "Abba, Father," that intimate address of filial relationship to God pioneered by Jesus, the unique Son of God (Mark 14:36).信徒得到采纳或“的sonship”(罗马书8:15),实际上,神自己的儿子(加拉太书4:6),我们的精神,谁哭了精神,“阿爸,父”,亲密地址孝顺的关系,以神开创的耶稣,神的唯一的儿子(马克14:36​​)。

The believers are being built together into a dwelling place of God in the spirit (Eph. 4:22).正在兴建的信徒汇集成的精神(以弗所书4:22)神居住的地方。To each one was apportioned grace according to the measure of the gift of Christ (Eph. 4:7; cf. Rom. 12:3), and Christ has given different ones to be prophets, apostles, evangelists, pastors, and teachers (Eph. 4:11) for the edification of the body. Similarly, the Spirit gives different kinds of spiritual gifts for different kinds of service (I Cor. 12:4-5;7), all for the common good. The way of love is to be followed in all things; indeed, the fruit of the spirit is love, joy, peace, etc. (Gal. 5:22ff.).被分配到每一个宽限期根据基督的恩赐(弗4:7;。。比照罗12:3),基督给予不同的,是先知,使徒,传福音,牧师和教师(弗4:11)。启迪人的身体的。 同样,精神,使服务。(我肺心病不同类型的精神礼物,为不同的种类;的12:4-5),所有。为了共同的利益7方式爱,是在所有事情之后,事实上,圣灵的果子,就是仁爱,喜乐,和平,等等(加5:22几段)。。 All of this is because God has initiated the new covenant (Jer. 31:31ff.; Ezek. 36:14ff.;26) in the hearts of men by means of his eschatological spirit (II Cor. 3:6ff.).所有这一切都是因为上帝已经启动了新约(耶31:31几段。。以西结书36:14法郎;。26)(。。二肺心病3:6几段)在人们的心中由他的末世论的精神手段。 In this new age the spirit is the earnest of our inheritance (II Cor. 1:22; 5:5; Eph. 1:14), a "firstfruits," the seal of God (II Cor. 1:22; Eph. 1:13; 4:30).在这个新时代的精神,是我们得基业的认真(二肺心病1:22。5:5弗1:14。),一个“初熟”的神(二肺心病密封1:22;。弗。 1:13,4:30)。These phrases point out the "already vs. the not yet" tension of the new age: the new age has dawned, and the eschatological spirit has been poured out, yet all of creation awaits the final consummation.这些词组指出“已经在主场迎战没有”紧张的新时代:新时代已经到来,并在eschatological精神已经倒了,但创造的一切等待着最后的圆满。 Even though the spirit bears witness with our spirit that we are sons of God (Rom. 8:16) and we truly have the firstfruits of the spirit (Rom. 8:23), we await the adoption as sons (8:23) at the final consummation. Until that time Christians have the Comforter, the Spirit who intercedes on behalf of the saints according to the will of the Father (Rom. 8:27).尽管熊的精神与我们的精神的见证,我们是神的儿子(罗马书8:16),我们真正有精神(罗马书8:23)初熟的果子,我们等待着采纳的儿子(8:23)在最后的圆满。 直到那时基督徒的安慰,圣灵是谁祈求代表罗马书8:27 的圣人按父亲的意愿

Patristic and Medieval Theology教父和中世纪神学

In the patristic period we encounter little that moves beyond the biblical ideas of the Holy Spirit.在教父时期,我们遇到一点,超越圣灵圣经思想移动。The apostolic fathers reflect the NT idea that the spirit is operative in the church, inspiring prophecy and otherwise working within individuals (Barnabas 12:2; Ignatius, Phil . 7:1).使徒的父亲反​​映新台币想法,即精神是执行在教会里,鼓舞人心的预言和其他工作在个体(巴纳巴斯12:2;伊格,菲尔7:1。)。 Itinerant Christian prophets are dealt with as a present reality in the Didache, but as time passes, such charismata are treated as theoretical.流动基督教先知盈亏作为一个在十二使徒遗训目前的现实,但随着时间的推移,这些都为理论的charismata处理。 The view that the spirit of OT prophecy is one and the same Holy Spirit that inspired the apostles is periodically encountered (Justin, Dialogues 1-7; 51; 82; 87; etc.; Irenaeus, Against Heresies II, 6.4; III, 21.3-4), and the apostles emerge as the "Spirit-bearers" (pneumatophoroi), a designation given to the OT prophets (Hos. 9:7, LXX).认为OT的预言精神是同一个圣灵启发了周期性遇到(贾斯汀,对话1-7使徒; 51; 82; 87;等;依,对异端邪说第二,6.4;三,21.3 -4),和使徒的“圣灵者”(pneumatophoroi),给予(Hos. 9:7,LXX的)旧约先知的一种标记出现。The Holy Spirit is credited with empowering the church, even with inspiring certain noncanonical writings, as late as the fourth century.圣灵是贷赋予教会,甚至与某些noncanonical鼓舞人心的著作,迟在第四世纪。

Even though the "trinitarian" formula of Matt.即使“三位一体”马特公式。28:19 is found in the apostolic fathers, the word "trinity" is first applied to the Godhead by Theophilus of Antioch (To Autolycus 2:15). 28:19是祖宗在使徒中,“三位一体”是首次应用到神的源头由西奥菲勒斯安提的 (对Autolycus 2:15)。Tertullian clearly taught the divinity of the Holy Spirit, an idea that was later to occupy the church in discussion for a thousand years.德尔图良明确教的圣灵,一个想法,后来占据了一千多年的讨论教会的神性。Tertullian wrestled with the problem of the tension between the authority of the Spirit in the church versus apostolic tradition and Scripture as received revelation. He espoused montanism for a time, a system which placed primary importance on the current inspiration of the Spirit in the body. The church, however, rejected montanism in favor of the objective authority of apostolic tradition as reflected in Scripture, and montanism eventually died out. The church's stand against the montanist heresy was largely responsible for the demise of Christian prophecy and other charismata. The Muratorian Canon (lines 75ff.) states that the number of prophets is settled, and even the Apostolic Tradition of Hippolytus, which elevates charismatic leadership above ecclesiastical structure, restricts the term "prophet" entirely to the canonical prophets.德尔图良的问题与身体搏斗的紧张之间的权力圣灵在教会与使徒传统和圣经所收到的启示。 他是一个信奉孟他努的时候,一个系统,放置在主要的精神的重要性在当前的启示。教堂,但拒绝圣经孟他努在赞成管理局反映了客观的使徒传统,孟他努终于熄灭了。 教会的异端抵挡montanist在很大程度上的charismata负责另一方的消亡基督教的预言和。穆拉多利佳能(系75ff。)表示,先知数已定,甚至是西波吕,它上面的教会结构提升魅力领导使徒传统的国家,完全限制了长期规范先知“先知”。 In the late fourth century John Chrysostom could speak of the spiritual gifts as belonging to an age in the past.在四世纪后期约翰金口会说话的精神礼物属于一个过去的时代。

In the period immediately prior to Nicaea the church was preoccupied with the famous "Christological controversies" and paid scant attention to a doctrine of the Holy Spirit. The Nicene Creed confesses faith in the Holy Spirit, but without any development of the idea of the Spirit's divinity or essential relationship to the Father and the Son. This question became a major issue within the church in the late fourth century and following, and the Council of Constantinople added to the words of the Nicene Creed, describing the Holy Spirit as "the Lord and Giver of Life, proceeding from the Father, to be worshiped and glorified together with the Father and the Son." A controversy developed around the source of the Spirit, specifically concerning whether he ought not also be confessed as "proceeding from the Son." Following Augustine's teaching, the phrase filioque ("and the Son") was added by the Western church to the above creed at the Council of Toledo in 589.在此期间前夕尼西亚教会忙于与著名的“基督论的争论”,并支付很少注意精神学说的圣灵。 尼西亚信经承认精神信仰的圣地,但没有任何发展的理念精神的神或基本的关系,父亲和儿子。这个问题成为了第四世纪末期和下一个主要问题在教会内,以及在君士坦丁堡会添加到尼西亚信的话,描述的“上帝的圣灵为及赋予生命,从父亲出发,以崇拜和歌颂的儿子和父亲一起了。“精神的一个来源的争议围绕发展,特别是关于他是否不应该也可以作为承认”儿子出发的。 “ 继奥古斯丁的教学中,这句话filioque(”和子“)是由 589 增加至托莱多在西方教会信条上述委员会。The Eastern church rejected the filioque doctrine, and the creed constituted confessional grounds for the split between East and West which had already taken place in practice.东部教会拒绝filioque学说和信仰构成了东方和西方之间的分裂而已经采取的执业地点忏悔的理由。

Although other aspects of the Spirit were occasionally discussed, the procession of the Spirit continued to occupy theologians in the West.虽然偶尔精神等方面进行讨论,圣灵的游行继续占据西方神学家。Anselm of Canterbury brought the debate into the era of scholasticism and, although reason as proof of doctrine was unevenly received, filioque remained the standard of the church.坎特伯雷安瑟伦带来了进入士林时代的辩论,尽管作为证据的理由是不均衡学说收到filioque仍是教会的标准。Peter Lombard argued from Scripture for filioque, and the fourth Lateran Council again espoused Trinitarianism and filioque. Although Aquinas rejected reason as a means to know the distinctions of the Divine Persons, he affirmed that the spirit proceeds from the special relationship that exists between the Father and the Son.彼得伦巴辩称,从经文,为filioque,以及第四次拉特兰安理会再次信奉三位一体和filioque。阿奎那拒绝的原因,虽然作为一种手段来认识神的人的区别的,他肯定是父亲的精神之间的所得款项存在特殊关系和儿子。 Such discussions as this continued into the fifteenth century, when the Council of Florence again attempted to unite the Western and Eastern churches.像这样的讨论一直持续到十五世纪,当安理会的佛罗伦萨再次试图团结,西方和东方教会。The filioque idea was reaffirmed and, although a cosmetic change of wording was made in an attempt to satisfy the Eastern church, the Greek Orthodox Church rejected the substance of the creed. The position of the Roman Catholic Church has remained essentially unchanged, and the rift between East and West over this issue remains to the present.该filioque主意得到肯定,尽管措辞化妆品的变化是在教堂,企图以满足东部,希腊东正教教堂拒绝了信条的实质内容。 教会的罗马天主教的立场基本上保持不变,并裂痕东方与西方之间在这一问题上仍然到现在。

The Reformation改革

Although other aspects of the Spirit's work were of importance in medieval theology, including sanctification and illumination, it was not until the Reformation that the work of the Spirit in the church was truly rediscovered.虽然工作的其他方面的精神的重要性是在中世纪的神学, 包括成圣和光照,但直到改革的重新发现了工作中的精神是真正的教会。This was due at least in part to the rejection of Rome's dogma of church tradition as the gurantor of correct Scripture interpretation and formation of true doctrine.这是因为至少有一部分到罗马的教堂作为正确的经文解释和真正的教义形成gurantor传统教条的拒绝。This reaction led to a Reformation stress on the idea of sola Scriptura and the work of the Spirit in salvation independent of the Catholic Church's "unbroken succession back to Christ."这种反应导致了对改革的强调唯独圣经思想和精神的救赎工作的天主教教会的独立的“完整的继承回到基督。”While Luther rejected "enthusiasm" (the subjective claim of direct guidance by the Spirit independent of Scripture or church structure, he stressed Spirit over structure, and understood the Spirit to be at work through the Word (the gospel), primarily in preaching, and in the sacraments, and therefore in salvation.虽然路德拒绝了“热情”(教会结构主观声称圣经的直接指导或独立的精神,他强调团队精神的结构,并理解的精神,在工作,通过话语(福音)的说教,主要是在和在圣礼,因此在拯救。

The Spirit works in salvation by influencing the soul to reliance, by faith, on Christ.通过影响工作的精神灵魂的依赖,对基督的信仰,在救赎。Faith is itself a mystical gift of God whereby the believers mit Gott ein Kuche werden (become kneaded into one cake with God). Without the grace and work of the Spirit man is incapable of making himself acceptable to God or of having saving faith (cf. The Bondage of the Will, 1525).信仰本身就是上帝的神秘礼物,让信徒麻省理工戈特艾因库车韦登 (成为神捏成一个蛋糕)。未受人类的恩典和工作精神是无能力使自己接受的上帝或具有储蓄信仰比照。的意志,1525年)束缚。This is accomplished by the Holy Spirit through the Word of God. Salvation is thus a gift bestowed by the grace of God, and Luther implies that the Word (the Gospel) as preached is primarily the efficacious Word of God after the Spirit works upon the heart of the hearer.这是通过圣灵透过神的话语。 救恩是神的恩典因而赋予的礼物,和路德意味的话语(福音),主要是为宣扬神的有效字的作品后,对精神心脏的听者。For Luther, the Word is the main sacrament, for faith and the Holy Spirit are conveyed through the preaching and the teaching of the gospel (Rom. 10:17); baptism and the Lord's Supper are signs of the "sacrament of the Word," in that they proclaim the Word of God. Luther favored the preached Word over the written Word, but did not hold the two to be mutually exclusive. To be Christian the preaching of the church had to be faithful to the Scripture; but to be faithful to Scripture, the church had to preach.路德,这个词是主要的圣餐,为信仰和圣灵,是通过说教和传达的福音(罗马书10:17)教学;洗礼和主的晚餐是在Word的“圣事的迹象,在他们宣布这个词。上帝“ 路德青睐文字,却呈现出文字比,但没有举行两个相互排斥。为基督徒的教会的说教,必须忠实于圣经,但要忠实于圣经,教会了宣讲。

The Word, primarily the incarnate Logos, is God's channel for the Spirit. Man brings the Word of the Scripture to the ear, but God infuses his Spirit into the heart; the word of Scripture thus becomes the Word of God (Lectures on Psalms; Epistle to the Romans). No one can rightly understand the Word of Scripture without the working of the Spirit; where the Word is, the Spirit inevitably follows. The Spirit does not operate independent of the Word.这个词,主要是体现标志,是上帝的。通道的;鬼带来的Word到圣经的耳朵,但上帝把注入他的精神心中的圣经字从而成为神的话语(诗篇讲座;书中说,罗马)。没有人能正确地理解了,工作了无字的经文精神这个字是不可避免的精神如下的话语圣灵,是不是就独立运作。 Luther resisted the enthusiasts' sharp distinction between inward and outward Word.路德抵抗爱好者之间的抵港及离港的Word鲜明的区别。On the other hand, he rejected the Roman Catholic idea that the Spirit is identified with church office and that the sacraments are effective in and of themselves (ex opere operato).另一方面,他拒绝了罗马天主教会的想法,这一精神是确定与教会办公室和圣礼,是有效的和它们自己的(当然opere operato)。Thus the Spirit makes Christ present in the sacraments and in Scripture; only when the Spirit makes Christ present in the word is it Gods own living Word.因此,在目前的精神,使基督和圣经中的圣​​礼,只有当精神,使基督在目前这个词是神自己的活的话。Otherwise the Scripture is letter, a law, it merely describes, it is only history.否则,经文是一封信,一个法律,它只是描述,它只是历史。But as preaching, the Word is gospel (as opposed to law); the Spirit makes it so.但作为传道,这个词是福音(而非法律);的精神使然。The Spirit is not bound to the Word; he exists in God's eternal glory, away from the Word and our world.精神是未绑定到Word中,他在上帝的永恒的荣耀存在,远离Word和我们的世界。But as revealing Spirit he does not come without the Word.但作为揭示的精神,他不来没有这个词。

Melanchthon followed Luther with few exceptions.其次,除少数例外梅兰希路德。Although allowing more room for man's response to the gospel than did Luther, he still stressed the primary work of the Spirit in salvation.虽然让更多的人的反应比路德福音的房间,他仍然强调,在救赎的精神的主要工作。 Melanchthon showed more flexibility than Luther in the issue of the real presence in the Lord's Supper (cf. the Wittenberg Concord), but was in basic agreement with Luther as seen in the Augsburg Confession and its Apology. Zwingli departed from Luther and Melanchthon over the work of the Spirit in the sacraments, denying the necessity of baptism and asserting the largely commemorative significance of the Lord's Supper. The radical Reformers, too, were at odds with Luther and Melanchthon, and taught the priority of immediate revelation over Scripture.梅兰希显示)参见维滕贝格康科德更大的灵活性比路德真实存在的问题中的主的晚餐(, 茨温利的协议,但在基本路德。就像在奥格斯堡忏悔与道歉梅兰希离开路德及以上工作的精神,在圣礼,否认洗礼的必要性和主张主的晚餐主要是纪念意义的。激进的改革者,也被用在路德和梅兰希赔率,并教导圣经启示立即在优先地位。 Lutherans and Catholics alike were condemned by the Schwarmer (fanatics) for their dependence upon the letter of Scripture instead of making the Bible subject to tests of religious experience. lutherans和天主教徒都不约而同谴责Schwarmer(狂热)后,他们的圣经,而不是使圣经受测试信宗教经验的依赖。

Calvin taught that the Spirit works in regeneration to illumine the mind to receive the benefits of Christ and seals them in the heart. By the Spirit the heart of a man is opened to the penetrating power of the Word and sacraments. 卡尔文教授认为,精神的作品在再生去照亮你的心智去接受基督的福利和海豹的心脏他们在精神圣礼由心及一名男子被打开了Word的穿透力的。 Calvin went beyond Luther in asserting that not only is the preached Word the agent of the Spirit, but the Bible is in its essence the Word of God (Genevan Catechism). The Spirit works in the reading of Scripture as well as in the preaching of the Word, and the Word, preached or read, is efficacious through the work of the Holy Spirit. The divine origin of Scripture is certified by the witness of the Spirit; the Scripture is the Word of God given by the Spirit's guidance through limited human speech.卡尔文超出了路德的断言,不仅是宣扬字的精神代理的,但圣经)是在其本质上讲授的神的话语(Genevan。 圣经的精神在阅读作品以及在鼓吹这个词,和Word,鼓吹或阅读,是有效的,通过圣灵的工作的神圣。起源的神圣经文是认证的见证圣灵的圣经是神的话语,通过给予精神的指导有限的人力讲话。 Thus the exegete must inquire after God's intention in giving Scripture for us (eg, in the modern application of the OT; Institutes 2.8.8).因此,释经询问后,必须神在圣经给我们的意图(在加时赛的现代应用,例如;学院2.8.8)。

The highest proof of Scripture derives from the fact that God in person speaks in it, ie, in the secret testimony of the Spirit (Inst. 1.7.4).最高的经文,证明一个事实,即来自于神的人说话,那样的精神(机构1.7.4),即秘密证词。We feel the testimony of the Spirit engraved like a seal on our hearts with the result that it seals the cleansing and sacrifice of Christ.我们感受到了精神的证词就像一个结果,它与密封件的清洗和基督的牺牲,我们的心刻印章。 The Holy Spirit is the bond by which Christ unites us to himself (Inst. 3.1.1).圣灵是债券由基督我们团结起来,对自己(机构3.1.1)。Although Calvin rejected rational proofs as a basis for authenticating Scripture, interconfessional battles later caused the rigidifying of Reformed thought, and a tradition of scholastic proofs was developed to overcome the subjectivism of Calvin's authentication theory (cf. the Canons of Dort).虽然卡尔文拒绝作为认证依据圣经理性的证明,interconfessional战斗后所造成的僵化的改革思想,传统的学术证明的开发是为了克服卡尔文的认证理论主观主义(参见大炮的dort)。

A seventeenth century reaction to strict Calvinism arose in Holland among the followers of James Arminius. Arminius rejected strict predestination, allowing for man's freedom to reject God's offer of grace. 一个十七世纪荷兰的反应,以严格的加尔文亚米纽斯出现在詹姆斯之间的追随者。亚米纽斯拒绝了严格的宿命,宽限期允许人的自由拒绝神的报价。 The Arminian position was denounced by the Synod of Dort, but had great influence in England.在阿民念主义的立场是谴责了主教的dort,但在英国影响很大。John Wesley grew up in early eighteenth century England within this climate of Arminianism, and through him Methodism was given its distinctive Arminian character. For Wesley, God acts in cooperation with, but not in violation of, free human response in the matter of saving faith.约翰韦斯利成长于十八世纪初英国在这一气候亚米纽斯主义,并通过他methodism是由于其独特的阿民念主义性质。对于韦斯利,上帝的行为,在合作的反应,但不违反人类对自由的信念的问题,拯救。 God does not merely dispense upon man justifying grace, nor does man simply acquire such grace by believing.上帝不只是在人免除宽限期理由,也没有人相信这样简单地获得了宽限期。There is rather a unified process of God's giving and man's receiving. The Holy Spirit convicts of sin and also bears witness of justification.有一个统一的过程,而上帝的给予和人的接受。圣灵为罪,也负有理由见证。Thereafter the Holy Spirit continues to work in man in sanctification, such that the believer feels in his heart the mighty workings of the Spirit of God. God continually "breathes" upon man's soul, and the soul "breathes unto God", a fellowship of spiritual respiration by which the life of God in the soul is sustained. Sanctification, the renewal of man in the image of God, in righteousness and true holiness, is effected by the Spirit through faith. It includes being saved from sin and being perfected in love. Works are necessary to a continuance of faith, and "entire santification," perfection, is the goal of every believer. 此后,圣灵继续工作的人,在成圣,这样,信徒感到在他的心中人的灵魂上帝在不断“呼吸” 的强大运作的精神神的 ,和灵魂“呼吸所不欲,上帝”,这是金精神呼吸其中灵魂的生命的神的是持续的。 圣洁的神人在更新的形象,为正义和真正的圣洁,是透过圣灵借着信心。它包括从罪和被保存在不断完善爱。 工程是必要的一种信仰的延续,而“整个santification,”完美,是每一个信徒的目的。

The Modern Period现代时期

While seventeenth century radical Puritanism produced the Quakers with their emphasis on subjective experience of the Holy Spirit (the Inner Light of George Fox), such that Scripture is only a secondary source of knowledge for faith and practice (Robert Barclay Apology), eighteenth century Methodism expressed a more balanced approach to the work of the Spirit.而十七世纪清教徒产生自由基乔治十八世纪循道的内在的光谊与他们强调主观体验圣灵的(福克斯),使得圣经罗伯特巴克利(只有第二手来源的知识,为信仰和实践的道歉),表达了对工作精神更平衡的做法。 The focus of later Methodism on the work of the Spirit after conversion as an experience of divine grace has found development in the modern Holiness Movement, represented by churches in the Christian Holiness Association.在后来的循道对转换后的精神作为工作的重点是神的恩典的经验发现,在现代圣洁运动在基督教圣洁教会协会的代表,发展。

Another development that can be traced to Methodism's stress on sanctification is the twentieth century reawakening of Pentecostalism. Stemming from earlier emphases upon "second experience," Pentecostalism has placed great importance upon the "baptism of the Holy Spirit," which is seen as the completion of a two-stage process of salvation. Since the inception of this modern movement at the turn of the century, speaking in tongues has been proclaimed as the main sign of Spirit baptism, although other "gifts of the Spirit", notably healing, are also emphasized. 另一种圣洁的发展,可卫理公会的应力追踪的是二十世纪缘于重新唤醒五旬节运动。从侧重于早期的“第二次的经验,”五旬节运动已经把完成重视圣看到精神“,这是作为后的”洗礼一个阶段的过程中拯救两个。 由于在世纪之交开始在现代运动舌头在此,说已被宣布为主要标志的精神洗礼,虽然其他的特别是精神“,医治”礼品,都也得到强调。From its fundamentalist/biblicist beginning the Pentecostal movement has grown into what is loosely called the charismatic movement, which now touches all of Protestantism and has made inroads into Roman Catholicism.从它的原教旨主义/开始五旬节运动biblicist已经发展成为什么是松散的所谓有魅力的运动,现在涉及所有的新教和罗马天主教已就进军。 This movement generally proclaims a distinct experience of "Spirit baptism" and, as a rule, focuses on speaking in tongues as the manifestation of that experience.这种运动通常宣称的“精神洗礼”,并作为一项规则,在作为该经验集中体现舌头不同的经验。

One of the most significant twentieth century developments in understanding the Holy Spirit was made in the teaching of Karl Barth.最显着的认识圣灵之一是二十世纪的发展作出了卡尔巴特教学。 Barth was a Reformed theologian who was largely responsible for the introduction of neoorthodoxy, the so-called dialectical or crisis theology.归正神学家巴特是谁,主要是用于neoorthodoxy,所谓的辩证神学或危机负责引进。Barth and others broke with classical liberalism in the first decades of the twentieth century, denying liberalism's theology of pious religious selfconsciousness, its man-centeredness (Schleiermacher; Ritschl; Feuerbach).巴特和其他人打破了古典自由主义在二十世纪的头几十年,否认自由主义的虔诚的宗教selfconsciousness神学,其人为本位(施莱尔马赫;里奇尔,费尔巴哈)。 Barth emphasized the "infinite qualitative distinction" between man and God, and prophetically proclaimed God's nein to all of man's attempt at self-righteousness.巴特强调人与神之间的“无限质的区别”,并预言宣告上帝的nein到人的AT自以为是报考全部。 Barth's Letter to the Romans sounded this note of man's "crisis", the acknowledgement that what man knows of God, God has himself revelaed.巴特的信说,罗马人敲响这种男人的“危机”,承认什么人,上帝知道,上帝自己revelaed注意。Barth developed his idea of God's self-revelation in terms of the doctrine of the Word of God (Church Dogmatics I/1 and I/2).巴特开发的神的话语(教会教义学余/ 1和I / 2),他的学说条款上帝的自我启示的想法。First and most importantly, Jesus is the incarnate Logos, the Word of God.首先,最重要的是,耶稣是肉身的标识,神的话语。The Word of God is subsequently found in the preaching of the gospel, and "among the words of Scripture" (cf. Luther's doctrine of Spirit and Word).神的话后来发现是在福音讲道,“在圣经的话”(见路德的学说的精神和Word)。The Word of God is God himself in Holy Scripture.神的话语是上帝在圣经。Scripture is holy and the Word of God, because by the Holy Spirit it became and will become to the church a witness to divine revelation.圣经是神圣的上帝的话,因为圣灵成为和将成为该教堂见证神的启示。This witness is not identical to the revelation; it is not itself revelation, but the witness to it. Faith in Jesus as the Christ, specifically in Jesus' resurrection, is effected through the work of the Holy Spirit. The subjective "in Spirit" is the counterpart to the objective "in Christ".这名证人是不完全相同的启示,是不是本身的启示,但证人。它是在基督信仰的耶稣,复活特别是在耶稣的,是通过圣灵的工作影响了圣“。主观”的精神是到“在基督里”的目标对应。 God's grace is manifested both in the objective revelation of God in Christ and man's subjective appropriation of this revelation through the Spirit.神的恩典是体现在客观的启示上帝在基督里,人的精神启示,这是一条既主观拨款。According to Scripture, God's revelation occurs in our enlightenment by the Holy Spirit to a knowledge of God's Word.根据圣经,上帝的启示发生在我们由圣灵启示的神的话语的知识。The outpouring of the Spirit is God's revelation.圣灵的浇灌是神的启示。In this reality we are free to be God's children and to know, love, and praise him in his revelation.在这种现实,我们是自由是上帝的孩子,要知道,爱,赞美他在他的启示。The Spirit as subjective reality of God's revelation makes possible and real the existence of Christianity in the world.的精神,作为上帝的启示主观现实使这个世界上有和真正的基督教的存在。For, Barth observes, "where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom" (II Cor. 3:17); God in his freedom discloses himself to man and so makes man free for him (Evangelical Theology, pp. 53ff.).因为,巴特指出,“在主的精神是,有自由”(二肺心病3:17。)上帝在他的自由,公开自己的人,所以让人为他免费(基督教神学,第53ff。 )。

Concluding Observations结论性意见

This sketch shows some of the diversity in the development of Christian thinking about the Holy Spirit. It is ironic that God's eschatological gift to man has so often been a point of contention and division among Christians. 此示意图显示精神的神圣一些有关基督教的思维多样性的发展。讽刺的是神的末世论的人有这样的礼物往往是一个基督教徒之间的争点和分裂。 Since the road ahead appears no less difficult than the way we have come, we would do well to be humbly mindful of God's sovereignty and of our weakness.由于前面的道路似乎没有那么困难比已经来到了我们, 我们会很好地将虚心弱点铭记神的主权和我们。

Because God in Christ has initiated the messianic age with its outpouring of the Spirit, man's relationship to God has been forever changed.因为上帝在基督里已开始与它的弥赛亚时代精神的流露,人的关系,以上帝已经永远地改变。No longer can the law be used as a means of exclusion and oppression of the disenfranchised: Jesus has preached the messianic gospel of release to the captive, sight to the blind, and good news to the poor; the new law of life has been written on the hearts of men.再也不能依法被用作一种排斥和压迫的被剥夺权利的手段:耶稣宣扬的救世主的福音释放俘虏,盲人重见光明,好消息,穷人的生活已被写入新的法律在人们的心中。 Thus we must abhor any new legalism which uses the Scripture to exclude and oppress, this is to turn the good news of Christ into "the letter that kills."因此,我们必须痛恨任何新的法家,它使用的圣经排斥和压迫,这是把基督的好消息“,信中杀死。”We must, rather, recognize the "God-breathed" character of Scripture, and the "Spirit that makes alive."我们必须,而是承认“神吹”字的经文,和“精神,使活着。”Only so will the Scripture be profitable. Conversely, the Spirit cannot be claimed as the mark of an elite, as that which distinguishes and divides. The gospel of Jesus Christ includes the message that the Holy Spirit has been poured out on all flesh.只有这样,将圣经是有利可图的。 相反,精神不能被称作为精英的标志,因为这其中的区别和分歧。福音的基督耶稣的肉,包括信息,即圣灵已全部倾注于其中。All abuses of Scripture and the Spirit must hear God's message: "The promise is to those who are near, and to those who are afar off, as many as the Lord our God will call."经文和滥用的精神都必须听上帝的消息:“无极是那些谁是近了,和那些谁是远方的人,只要主我们神所召来的。”

TS Caulley考利的TS
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
CK Barrett, The Holy Spirit and the Gospel Tradition; FD Bruner, A Theology of the Holy Spirit; JDG Dunn, Baptism in the Holy Spirit and Jesus and the Spirit; M. Green, I Believe in the Holy Spirit; H. Gunkel, The Influence of the Holy Spirit; GS Hendry, The Holy Spirit: Growth of a Biblical Tradition; CFD Moule, The Holy Spirit; PDM Ramsey, Holy Spirit; E. Schweizer, The Holy Spirit; HB Swete, The Holy Spirit in the Ancient Church and The Holy Spirit in the New Testament; H. Watkins-Jones, The Holy Spirit from Arminius to Wesley.对照Barrett表示,圣灵与福音的传统;金融衍生工具布鲁纳,一个神学的圣灵; jdg邓恩,在圣灵和耶稣和精神洗礼;米绿色,我信圣灵;阁下贡克尔,在圣灵的影响,广深高速亨德利,圣灵:一个圣经传统增长;差价莫尔,圣灵; PDM的拉姆齐,圣灵;大肠杆菌施瓦泽,圣灵;正面Swete,在古代圣灵教会和新约中的圣灵;阁下沃特金斯琼斯,圣灵从亚米纽斯韦斯利。


Advocate主张

Advanced Information先进的信息

Advocate, (Gr. parakletos), one who pleads another's cause, who helps another by defending or comforting him.倡导,(Gr. parakletos),一个谁喊对方的事业,谁帮助或安慰他的另一个辩护。It is a name given by Christ three times to the Holy Ghost (John 14:16; 15:26; 16:7, where the Greek word is rendered "Comforter," qv).它是由基督的一个名字三次到圣灵(约14:16,15:26,16:7,那里的希腊字是立下“惠”,请参阅)。It is applied to Christ in 1 John 2:1, where the same Greek word is rendered "Advocate," the rendering which it should have in all the places where it occurs.将它应用到基督在约翰一2:1,如果同一希腊字是立下“倡导者”的渲染,它应该在所有的地方出现。Tertullus "the orator" (Acts 24:1) was a Roman advocate whom the Jews employed to accuse Paul before Felix.帖土罗“的演说家”(使徒24:1)是罗马人,犹太人主张采用指责保罗之前菲利克斯。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Comforter棉被

Advanced Information先进的信息

Comforter, the designation of the Holy Ghost (John 14:16, 26; 15:26; 16:7; RV marg., "or Advocate, or Helper; Gr. paracletos").惠,对指定的圣灵(约翰14时16分,26; 15:26,16:7,风疹病毒玛格,“还是提倡,或帮手;石墨paracletos。”。)。The same Greek word thus rendered is translated "Advocate" in 1 John 2:1 as applicable to Christ.因此,同一希腊字翻译呈现在约翰一2:1适用基督“代言人”。It means properly "one who is summoned to the side of another" to help him in a court of justice by defending him, "one who is summoned to plead a cause."这意味着正常“一谁是传唤到另一侧”,以帮助在一个由法院为他辩护,他“一个谁被传唤申辩一个原因。”"Advocate" is the proper rendering of the word in every case where it occurs.“倡导”是这个词在每一种情况下发生的地方适当的渲染。 It is worthy of notice that although Paul nowhere uses the word paracletos, he yet presents the idea it embodies when he speaks of the "intercession" both of Christ and the Spirit (Rom. 8:27, 34).这是值得注意,尽管保罗无处用字paracletos,他还介绍了它所体现的想法时,他讲的“说情”,都是基督和精神(罗马书8:27,34)。


Spirit, Breath精神,呼吸

Advanced Information先进的信息

Ruah: "breath; air; strength; wind; breeze; spirit; courage; temper; Spirit." Ruah:“呼吸,空气,强度,风,微风;精神,勇气,脾气;精神。”This noun has cognates in Ugaritic, Aramaic, and Arabic.这个名词在乌加里特文,阿拉姆语和阿拉伯语的同源词。The word occurs about 378 times and in all periods of biblical Hebrew.这个词出现在约378倍和希伯来文圣经的各个时期。

First, this word means "breath," air for breathing, air that is being breathed.首先,这个词的意思是“呼吸”,呼吸的空气,空气被吸入。This meaning is especially evident in Jer.这意思是特别明显在哲。14:6: "And the wild asses did stand in the high places, they snuffed up the wind like dragons" 14:6:“和野生驴没有在高处的立场,他们扼杀了像龙风"When one's "breath" returns, he is revived: "When he [Samson] had drunk [the water], his spirit [literally, "breath"] came again, and he revived."当一个人的“呼吸”的回报,他是复活:“ 当他[黄山]喝过[水],他的精神[字面上来看,”呼吸“]又回来了,他复活 ” (Judg. 15:19).(Judg. 15:19)。Astonishment may take away one's "breath": "And when the queen of Sheba had seen all Solomon's wisdom, and the house that he had built, And the meat of his table, there was no more spirit in her [she was overwhelmed and breathless]" (1 Kings 10:4-5).惊讶可能带走一个人的“呼吸”:“和示巴女王见所罗门的智慧,和他所建造的房子,和他的表肉, 有没有她[她更多的精神不知所措,气喘吁吁]“(1国王10:4-5)。 Ruah may also represent speaking, or the breath of one's mouth: "By the word of the Lord were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath of his mouth" (Ps. 33:6; cf. Exod. 15:8; Job 4:9; 19:17). Ruah也可能代表发言,或一个人的嘴一口气:“到了耶和华的话是天;及所有由他口中的气,其中主机”(诗篇33:6;比照Exod 15。。 :8,职业4:9; 19:17)。

Second, this word can be used with emphasis on the invisible, intangible, fleeting quality of "air": "O remember that my life is wind: mine eyes shall no more see good" (Job 7:7).第二,这个词可以用在重点看不见,摸不着,“空气”短暂的质量:“啊,记得,我的生命是风:我的眼睛不会再看到好的”(约伯记7:7)。 There may be a suggestion of purposelessness, uselessness, or even vanity (emptiness) when ruah is used with this significance: "And the prophets shall become wind, and the word is not in them."有可能是无目的,无用,甚至虚荣(空虚)当ruah是使用这个意义上建议:“和先知的话必成为风,道也不在他们 ” (Jer. 5:13).(耶5:13)。 "Windy words" are really "empty words" (Job 16:3), just as "windy knowledge" is "empty knowledge" (Job 15:2; cf. Eccl. 1:14, 17, "meaningless striving"). “风话”,真的是“空话”(伯16:3),正如“刮风知识”,是“空知识”(约伯记15:2。比照传道书1:14,17日,“毫无意义的努力”。)。 In Prov.在省。11:29 ruah means "nothing": "He that troubleth his own house shall inherit the wind."11:29 ruah指“无”:“他搅扰自己的房子,必承受清风 "This nuance is especially prominent in Eccl.这个细微差别是,尤其是在传道书突出。5:15-16: "And he came forth of his mother's womb, naked shall he return to go as he came, and shall take nothing of his labor, which he may carry away in his hand. And this also is a sore evil, that in all points as he came, so shall he go: and what profit hath he that hath labored for the wind?" 5:15-16:“他出来,他母亲的子宫,必赤身他返回去,因为他来了,应考虑到他的劳动,他可能在他的手进行了一分钱,这也是一大祸患。 ,在所有的点,他来的情形,他去:他什么长处和利润已经给风劳碌“?

Third, ruah can mean "wind."第三,ruah意为“风”。In Gen. 3:8 it seems to mean the gentle, refreshing evening breeze so well known in the Near East: "And they heard the voice of the Lord God walking in the garden in the cool [literally, "breeze"] of the day."在将军3:8这似乎意味着温柔,这么好清爽晚风在已知近东:“他们听到在凉爽的主神在园中行走的声音[字面上来看,”微风“]的一天" It can mean a strong, constant wind: "And the Lord brought an east wind upon the land all that day, and all that night."这可能意味着一个强大,恒风:“ 上主在大地带来了东风刮那一天,所有的夜晚 ”(Exod. 10:13).(出10:13)。 It can also signify an extremely strong wind: "And the Lord turned a mighty strong west wind ."它也意味着一个非常强烈的风:“耶和华转了极大的西风 ”(Exod. 10:19).(出10:19)。 In Jer.在哲。4:11 the word appears to represent a gale or tornado (cf. Hos. 8:7).4:11字似乎代表了大风或龙卷风(参见居屋。8:7)。God is the Creator (Amos 4:13) and sovereign Controller of the winds (Gen. 8:1; Num. 11:31; Jer. 10:13).上帝是造物主(阿摩司书4:13)和主权的风控制器(创8:1;序号11:31。耶10:13)。。

Fourth, the wind represents direction.第四,风代表着方向。In Jer.在哲。49:36 the four winds represent the four ends of the earth, which in turn represent every quarter: "And upon Elam will I bring the four winds [peoples from every quarter of the earth] from the four quarters of heaven, and will scatter them toward all those winds; and there shall be no nation whither the outcasts of Elam shall not come." 49:36四方代表地球的四个目的,而这又代表每季度:“,并呼吁以拦我将带来的四风[从地球的每一个季度的人民]从天的四个季度,将分散他们对所有那些风;并不得有国家向何处去以拦的弃儿,不得来了“。 Akkadian attests the same phrase with the same meaning, and this phrase begins to appear in Hebrew at a time when contact with Akkadian-speaking peoples was frequent.阿卡证明具有相同的含义相同的短语,这句话在一开始时出现在希伯来文和阿卡时讲人民的接触是频繁。

Fifth, ruah frequently represents the element of life in a man, his natural "spirit": "And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, All in whose nostrils was the breath of life ."第五,ruah经常代表着一个人的生命元素,他的自然“精神”:“和所有的肉感动死在地上, 所有在其鼻孔是生命的气息 ” (Gen. 7:21-22). (创7:21-22)。In these verses the animals have a "spirit" (cf. Ps. 104:29).在这些经文的动物有一个“精神”(参见聚苯乙烯。104:29)。On the other hand, in Prov.另一方面,在省。16:2 the word appears to mean more than just the element of life; it seems to mean "soul": "All the ways of a man are clean in his own eyes; but the Lord weigheth the spirits [NASB, "motives"]." 16:2这个词似乎意味着不仅仅是生活元素,它更似乎是指“灵魂”:“所有男人的方式是在他自己的眼睛干净,但主weigheth精神[NASB,”动机“ ]。“Thus, Isaiah can put nepes, "soul," and ruah in synonymous parallelism: "With my soul have I desired thee in the night; yea, with my spirit within me will I seek thee early "因此,可以把nepes以赛亚,在同义并行的“灵魂”和ruah:“我的灵魂有我所追求的在夜里你,是啊,我在我的精神,我请你早 ” (26:9).(26:9)。It is the "spirit" of a man that returns to God (Eccl. 12:7).这是“精神”一个男人,上帝(传道书12:7)的回报。

Sixth, ruah is often used of a man's mind-set, disposition, or "temper": "Blessed is the man unto whom the Lord imputeth not inqiuity, and in whose spirit there is no guile" (Ps. 32:2).第六,ruah是常用的一个人的思维定势,处置,或“脾气”:“这个人是有福的人,尚且耶和华不算inqiuity,并在其精神也没有诡诈”(诗篇32:2)。 In Ezek.在ezek。13:3 the word is used of one's mind or thinking: "Woe unto the foolish prophets, that follow their own spirits, and have seen nothing" (cf. Prov. 29:11). 13:3这个词是用一个人的心灵或思想:“愚顽的先知有祸了,他们随从自己的精神,却一无所见”(见箴29:11)。。Ruah can represent particular dispositions, as it does in Josh.Ruah可以代表特定部署,因为它在乔希一样。2:11: "And as soon as we had heard these things, our hearts did melt, neither did there remain any more courage in any man, because of you " 2:11:“当我们一听到这些事,我们的心就消化,也没有任何人仍然有更多的勇气,因为你, ”(cf. Josh. 5:1; Job 15:13). (参见乔希5:1;。求职15:13)。Another disposition represented by this word is "temper": "If the spirit [temper] of the ruler rise up against thee, leave not thy place ."另一种倾向是这个词所代表的“脾气”:“如果精神统治者[脾气]起来攻击你,不要离开你的地方 ”(Eccl. 10:4).(传道书10:4)。 David prayed that God would "restore unto me the joy of thy salvation; and uphold me with thy free Spirit" (Ps. 51:12).大卫祈祷上帝“对我恢复了你的救恩欢乐,坚持你的自由精神与我”(诗51:12)。In this verse "joy of salvation" and "free Spirit" are parallel and, therefore, synonymous terms.在这节经文“喜悦的救赎”和“自由精神”是平行的,因此,同义术语。Therefore, "spirit" refers to one's inner disposition, just as "joy" refers to an inner emotion.因此,“精神”是指一个人的内在气质,正如“喜悦”,是指一种内在的情绪。

Seventh, the Bible often speaks of God's "Spirit," the third person of the Trinity. This is the use of the word in its first biblical occurrence: "And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters" (Gen. 1:2). 第七,圣经常常谈到上帝的“精神,以”三位一体的第三人的。这是圣经的先用这个词在其发生:“与地球是没有形式,而且无效;和面对黑暗是后深。与神的灵运行在水面“(创1:2)的脸。 Isa.伊萨。63:10-11 and Ps. 63:10-11和Ps。51:12 specifically speak of the "holy or free Spirit." 51:12特别谈到“神圣的或自由精神。”

Eighth, the non-material beings (angels) in heaven are sometimes called "spirits": "And there came forth a spirit, and stood before the Lord, and said, I will persuade him" (1 Kings 22:21; cf. 1 Sam. 16:14).八,非物质的生命在天堂(天使)有时被称为“精神”:“还有出来的精神,和站在耶和华面前,说,我会说服他”(1国王22:21;比照。 1萨姆。16:14)。

Ninth, the "spirit" may also be used of that which enables a man to do a particular job or that which represents the essence of a quality of man: "And Joshua the son of Nun was full of the spirit of wisdom; for Moses had laid his hands upon him "第九,“精神”也可用于对那些为使一个人在做某一特定工作,或者说这代表着一个人的素质的本质:“和嫩的儿子约书亚是智慧的灵充满了摩西奠定了他的手在他身上 “ (Deut. 34:9).(申命记34:9)。 Elisha asked Elijah for a double portion of his "spirit" (2 Kings 2:9) and received it.以利沙问他的“精神”双分,以利亚(2国王2:9)和接收它。


Holy Ghost圣灵

Catholic Information天主教新闻

I. SYNOPSIS OF THE DOGMA一,概要的教条

The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms an integral part of her teaching on the mystery of the Holy Trinity, of which St. Augustine (De Trin., I, iii, 5), speaking with diffidence, says: "In no other subject is the danger of erring so great, or the progress so difficult, or the fruit of a careful study so appreciable".的天主教教会教义有关圣灵构成对三位一体的神秘,她的教学不可分割的一部分,其中圣奥古斯丁(德草,一,三,五。),与缺乏自信来说,说:“在没有其他主题是如此之大的犯错误的危险,或所取得的进展如此艰难,或仔细研究,以便可观“的成果。 The essential points of the dogma may be resumed in the following propositions:对教条的基本点可以恢复以下主张:

The Holy Ghost is the Third Person of the Blessed Trinity.圣灵是三位一体的第三人的祝福。

Though really distinct, as a Person, from the Father and the Son, He is consubstantial with Them; being God like Them, He possesses with Them one and the same Divine Essence or Nature.虽然很明显,作为一个人,从父亲和儿子,他是与他们同体;被喜欢他们的神,他拥有与他们同一个神圣的精华或本质。

He proceeds, not by way of generation, but by way of spiration, from the Father and the Son together, as from a single principle.他的收益,而不是一代的方式,而是通过spiration方式,从父亲和儿子一起,从一个单一的原则。

Such is the belief the Catholic faith demands.这就是信仰天主教的信仰需求。

II.二。CHIEF ERRORS行政错误

All the theories and all the Christian sects that have contradicted or impugned, in any way, the dogma of the Trinity, have, as a logical consequence, threatened likewise the faith in the Holy Ghost.所有的理论和所有有矛盾或非难,以任何方式,三位一体的教义基督教教派,有,作为一个合乎逻辑的结果,同样的威胁,在圣灵的信念。 Among these, history mentions the following:其中,历史提到了以下内容:

In the second and third centuries, the dynamic or modalistic Monarchians (certain Ebionites, it is said, Theodotus of Byzantium, Paul of Samosata, Praxeas, Noëtus, Sabellius, and the Patripassians generally) held that the same Divine Person, according to His different operations or manifestations, is in turn called the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; so they recognized a purely nominal Trinity.在第二和第三世纪,动态或情态Monarchians(某些以便尼派,这是说,奥多托斯拜占庭,Samosata的,Praxeas,Noëtus,撒伯流保罗和Patripassians通常情况下),同样神圣的人持有,根据他不同操作或表现形式,是在称为父亲,儿子,和圣灵转,所以他们认识到纯粹的象征三位一体。

In the fourth century and later, the Arians and their numerous heretical offspring: Anomans or Eunomians, Semi-Arians, Acacians, etc., while admitting the triple personality, denied the consubstantiality.在第四世纪以后,白羊座和他们的后代许多异端:Anomans或Eunomians,半白羊座,Acacians等,同时承认三重人格,否认同体。 Arianism had been preceded by the Subordination theory of some ante-Nicene writers, who affirmed a difference and a gradation between the Divine Persons other than those that arise from their relations in point of origin.阿里乌主义之前,已对一些产前尼西亚作家,谁肯定了之间的差异,比那些神圣的人​​从起点出现其他层次的从属关系理论。

In the sixteenth century, the Socinians explicitly rejected, in the name of reason, along with all the mysteries of Christianity, the doctrine of Three Persons in One God.在十六世纪,苏西尼明确拒绝,在理性的姓名,连同所有的基督教,三一神人学说的奥秘。

Mention may also be made of the teachings of Johannes Philoponus (sixth century), Roscellinus, Gilbert de la Porrée, Joachim of Flora (eleventh and twelfth centuries), and, in modern times, Günther, who, by denying or obscuring the doctrine of the numerical unity of the Divine Nature, it reality set up a triple deity.还可以提到由约翰内斯Philoponus(六世纪),Roscellinus,吉尔伯特德拉Porrée,区系(第十一届和第十二届世纪)约阿希姆的教诲,并在近代,半滑舌鳎,谁,否认或掩盖学说的神圣性数值的统一,它实际上建立一个三神。

In addition to these systems and these writers, who came in conflict with the true doctrine about the Holy Ghost only indirectly and as a logical result of previous errors, there were others who attacked the truth directly:除了这些系统和这些作家,谁排在冲突和人们对真正的教义圣灵只是间接的和以前的错误作为一个合乎逻辑的结果,谁还有其他直接袭击的真相:

Towards the middle of the fourth century, Macedonius, Bishop of Constantinople, and, after him a number of Semi-Arians, while apparently admitting the Divinity of the Word, denied that of the Holy Ghost.在接近的第四个世纪中叶,Macedonius,君士坦丁堡主教,并在他之后的半白羊座的数量,同时显然承认的字神,否认圣灵。 They placed Him among the spirits, inferior ministers of God, but higher than the angels.他们把其中的精神,上帝的部长不如他,但比天使高。They were, under the name of Pneumatomachians, condemned by the Council of Constantinople, in 381 (Mansi, III, col. 560).他们下,Pneumatomachians名称谴责安理会的君士坦丁堡,在381(曼西,三,山口。560)。Since the days of Photius, the schismatic Greeks maintain that the Holy Ghost, true God like the Father and the Son, proceeds from the former alone.由于时代的photius的裂希腊人认为,圣灵,真正像父亲和儿子,从以前的单独收益神。

III.三。THE THIRD PERSON OF THE BLESSED TRINITY的祝福三一第三人

This heading implies two truths:这个标题意味着两个真理:

The Holy Ghost is a Person really distinct as such from the Father and the Son;圣灵是一个人真的从父亲和儿子这种独特的;

He is God and consubstantial with the Father and the Son.他与父亲和儿子上帝和同质。

The first statement is directly opposed to Monarchianism and to Socinianism; the second to Subordinationism, to the different forms of Arianism, and to Macedonianism in particular.第一条语句是直接反对神格和Socinianism;到Subordinationism第二,不同形式的阿里乌主义,并Macedonianism尤其如此。 The same arguments drawn from Scripture and Tradition may be used generally to prove either assertion.从圣经和传统中得出的同样的观点可能是普遍使用证明或声明。We will, therefore, bring forward the proofs of the two truths together, but first call particular attention to some passages that demonstrate more explicitly the distinction of personality.我们将因此,提出了两个真理的证据在一起,但先请特别注意一些段落表明更明确的个性区别。

A. Scripture答:圣经

In the New Testament the word spirit and, perhaps, even the expression spirit of God signify at times the soul or man himself, inasmuch as he is under the influence of God and aspires to things above; more frequently, especially in St. Paul, they signify God acting in man; but they are used, besides, to designate not only a working of God in general, but a Divine Person, Who is neither the Father nor the Son, Who is named together with the Father, or the Son, or with Both, without the context allowing them to be identified.在新约中的字的精神,也许就是神的象征表达的精神在时代的灵魂或他本人,因为他在神的影响力和渴望的东西上面,更频繁,尤其是在圣保罗,它们象征神的人采取行动,但他们的使用,此外,为指定不仅在普通公众的神工作,而是一项神圣的人,他既不是父亲和儿子,谁被命名为与父亲在一起,或子,或同时,没有让他们上下文来确定。 A few instances are given here.少数情况下给出了这里。We read in John, xiv, 16, 17: "And I will ask the Father, and he shall give you another Paraclete, that he may abide with, you for ever. The spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive"; and in John, xv, 26: "But when the Paraclete cometh, whom I will send you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceedeth from the Father, he shall give testimony of me."我们读到约翰,十四,十六,十七:“我要求父,他必给你,直到永远另一个圣灵,他可能会遵守与你的真理,就是世界不能接受的精神。”;及在约翰,十五,26:“。但当圣灵降临,我会派谁从父,真理的精神,谁从父你,他会给予我的见证” St. Peter addresses his first epistle, i, 1-2, "to the strangers dispersed . . . elect, according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, unto the sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ".圣彼得谈到他的第一次书信,我,1-2陌生人,“分散。。。选举,根据神的预知父,你们的精神,以致顺服成圣和耶稣基督的血所洒“。 The Spirit of consolation and of truth is also clearly distinguished in John 16:7, 13-15, from the Son, from Whom He receives all He is to teach the Apostles, and from the Father, who has nothing that the Son also does not possess.在精神慰藉和真理也明确区分,在约翰16时07分,13-15,从儿子,从他获得一切,他要教的使徒,并从父,谁的儿子也没有什么不不具备的。 Both send Him, but He is not separated from Them, for the Father and the Son come with Him when He descends into our souls (John 14:23).同时发送他,但他不是脱离他们的父亲和儿子,他来的时候,他把我们的灵魂(约翰福音14:23)降落。

Many other texts declare quite as clearly that the Holy Ghost is a Person, a Person distinct from the Father and the Son, and yet One God with Them.其他许多文件申报很清楚,因为圣灵是一个人,一个人从父亲和儿子不同,但一个神与他们。In several places St. Paul speaks of Him as if speaking of God.在几个地方圣保罗说仿佛上帝说他的。In Acts 28:25, he says to the Jews: "Well did the Holy Ghost speak to our fathers by Isaias the prophet"; now the prophecy contained in the next two verses is taken from Isaias 6:9-10, where it is put in the mouth of the "King the Lord of hosts".在使徒行传28:25,他说,向犹太人说:“好做了发言圣灵向我们的祖先by伊萨亚斯先知”,现在,在未来两个诗句中的预言是从伊萨亚斯6:9-10,它是采取设身处地为“国王的万军之耶和华”的嘴。 In other places he uses the words God and Holy Ghost as plainly synonymous.在其他地方,他用赤裸裸地同义字作为上帝和圣灵。Thus he writes, I Corinthians 3:16: "Know you not, that you are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?"因此,他写道,我哥林多前书3:16:“?知道你不是,那你是神的殿,神的圣灵住在你”and in 6:19: "Or know you not, that your members are the temple of the Holy Ghost, who is in you . . . ?"在18:19:“还是不认识你们,你们的成员是圣灵的殿,在你是谁。。。?”St. Peter asserts the same identity when he thus remonstrates with Ananias (Acts 5:3-4): "Why hath Satan tempted thy heart, that thou shouldst lie to the Holy Ghost . . . ? Thou hast not lied to men, but to God."圣彼得断言时,他这样相同的标识与亚拿尼亚(徒5:3-4)remonstrates:“为什么撒但诱惑你的心,那要你欺​​骗圣灵你不是欺哄男人,但。。。?神。“ The sacred writers attribute to the Holy Ghost all the works characteristic of Divine power.作家的神圣属性,以圣灵全部工程的神圣权力的特征。It is in His name, as in the name of the Father and of the Son, that baptism is to be given (Matthew 28:19).正是在他的名字,如名称的父亲和儿子,即洗礼,是考虑(马太28:19)。It is by His operation that the greatest of Divine mysteries, the Incarnation of the Word, is accomplished (Matthew 1:18, 20; Luke 1:35).它是由他的手术是神圣的奥秘,化身字完成,最大的(马太1:18,20;路加福音1:35)。It is also in His name and by His power that sins are forgiven and souls sanctified: "Receive ye the Holy Ghost. Whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them" (John 20:22-23); "But you are washed, but you are sanctified, but you are justified in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the Spirit of our God" (1 Corinthians 6:11); "The charity of God is poured forth in our hearts, by the Holy Ghost, who is given to us" (Romans 5:5).也正是在他的名字和他的力量和灵魂的罪被赦免圣:“。你们受圣灵谁的罪过,你会原谅,他们是原谅他们”(约20:22-23),“但你是水洗,但你是圣洁,你们在我们主耶稣基督的名有道理的,我们神的精神“(哥林多前书6:11),”慈善的上帝是倾注了我们心中的圣灵, ,谁是给我们“(罗马书5:5)。He is essentially the Spirit of truth (John 14:16-17; 15:26), Whose office it is to strengthen faith (Acts 6:5), to bestow wisdom (Acts 6:3), to give testimony of Christ, that is to say, to confirm His teaching inwardly (John 15:26), and to teach the Apostles the full meaning of it (John 14:26; 16:13).他本质上是真理的圣灵(约翰14:16-17,15:26),其办公室是为了加强信心(徒6:5),赐智慧(徒6:3),让基督的见证,这就是说,以确认他的教学内心(约翰15:26),并教导使徒它的全部意义(约14:26; 16:13)。With these Apostles He will abide for ever (John 14:16).有了这些使徒,他将遵守永远(约14:16)。Having descended on them at Pentecost, He will guide them in their work (Acts 8:29), for He will inspire the new prophets (Acts 11:28; 13:9), as He inspired the Prophets of the Old Law (Acts 7:51).经对他们的后裔在圣灵降临节,他将指导他们的工作(徒8:29),因为他将激励新的先知(徒11:28; 1​​3:9),因为他激发了的旧法(使徒和先知7:51)。He is the source of graces and gifts (1 Corinthians 12:3-11); He, in particular, grants the gift of tongues (Acts 2:4; 10:44-47).他是青睐和礼物(1哥林多前书12:3-11)来源;他,特别是赋予方言恩赐(徒2:4; 10:44-47)。 And as he dwells in our bodies sanctifies them (1 Corinthians 3:16; 6:19),so will and them he raise them again, one day, from the dead (Romans 8:11).当他住在我们的身体他们成圣(林前3:16; 6:19),所以他会和他们再次提高,有一天从死(罗马书8:11)。But he operates especially in the soul, giving it a new life (Romans 8:9 sq.), being the pledge that God has given us that we are his children (Romans 8:14-16; 2 Corinthians 1:22; 5:5; Galatians 4:6).但是,他操纵,特别是在灵魂,赋予它新的生命(罗马书8:9平),即上帝给了我们,我们是他的孩子承诺(罗马书8:14-16;哥林多后书1:22; 5 :5;加拉太书4:6)。He is the Spirit of God, and at the same time the Spirit of Christ (Romans 8:9); because He is in God, He knows the deepest mysteries of God (1 Corinthians 2:10-11), and He possesses all knowledge.他是上帝的精神,并在同一时间内,基督的灵(罗马书8:9),因为他是上帝,他知道神的最深奥秘(林前2:10-11),他拥有一切知识。 St. Paul ends his Second Epistle to the Corinthians (13:13) with this formula of benediction, which might be called a blessing of the Trinity: "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the charity of God, and the communication of the Holy Ghost be with you all."圣保罗结束他的第二次书信向科林蒂安(13:13)这个公式的祝福,这可能是所谓的三位一体的祝福:“我们的主耶稣基督的恩惠,神的慈善机构,以及通讯圣灵与你们。“ -- Cf.- 比照。Tixeront, "Hist. des dogmes", Paris, 1905, I, 80, 89, 90,100,101. Tixeront“的历史。德dogmes”,巴黎,1905年,我,80,89,90100101。

B. Tradition二传统

While corroborating and explaining the testimony of Scripture, Tradition brings more clearly before us the various stages of the evolution of this doctrine.而确证和解释圣经的见证,传统带来更清楚地摆在我们面前的这一理论演​​化的各个阶段。As early as the first century, St. Clement of Rome gives us important teaching about the Holy Ghost.早在第一世纪初,圣克莱门特的罗马给了我们圣灵的重要教学。His "Epistle to the Corinthians" not only tells us that the Spirit inspired and guided the holy writers (viii, 1; xlv, 2); that He is the voice of Jesus Christ speaking to us in the Old Testament (xxii, 1 sq.); but it contains further, two very explicit statements about the Trinity.他的“书信向哥林多前书”不仅告诉我们,精神的鼓​​舞和指导了神圣的作家(八,1,第四十五,二),那他是耶稣基督的声音说话,在旧约(22,1平方公里我们。),但它包含更多,两个非常明确的关于三位一体的陈述。 In c.在Cxlvi, 6 (Funk, "Patres apostolici", 2nd ed., I,158), we read that "we have only one God, one Christ, one only Spirit of grace within us, one same vocation in Christ".四十六,6(芬克“Patres apostolici”,第二版。,我,158),我们读到,“我们只有一个上帝,一个基督,一个只有圣灵在我们恩典,在基督里同一个天职”。In lviii, 2 (Funk, ibid., 172), the author makes this solemn affirmation; zo gar ho theos, kai zo ho kyrios Iesous Christos kai to pneuma to hagion, he te pistis kai he elpis ton eklekton, oti .在lviii,2(方克,同上,172。),作者让这个庄严的肯定;莫宁噶尔何theos,启莫宁何kyrios Iesous克里斯托启到牛马到hagion,他启德pistis他埃尔皮斯吨eklekton,奥蒂。..which we may compare with the formula so frequently met with in the Old Testament: zo kyrios.我们可以比较有这么频繁会见在旧约,公式是:莫宁kyrios。From this it follows that, in Clement's view, kyrios was equally applicable to ho theos (the Father), ho kyrios Iesous Christos, and to pneuma to hagion; and that we have three witnesses of equal authority, whose Trinity, moreover, is the foundation of Christian faith and hope.由此可以得出,在克莱门特认为,kyrios同样适用于何theos(父亲),Iesous克里斯托浩kyrios,并牛马到hagion,并认为我们有三个平等的权力,其三位一体的证人,而且,是基督教信仰的基础和希望。

The same doctrine is declared, in the second and third centuries, by the lips of the martyrs, and is found in the writings of the Fathers.同样的学说是宣布,在第二和第三世纪,由烈士的嘴唇,并在著作的父亲发现。St. Polycarp (d. 155), in his torments, thus professed his faith in the Three Adorable Persons ("Martyrium sancti Polycarpi" in Funk op. cit., I, 330): "Lord God Almighty, Father of Thy blessed and well beloved Son, Jesus Christ . . . in everything I praise Thee, I bless Thee, I glorify Thee by the eternal and celestial pontiff Jesus Christ, Thy well beloved Son, by whom, to Thee, with Him and with the Holy Ghost, glory now and for ever!"圣波利卡普(四155),在他的折磨,因此自称在三可爱的人他的信仰(“Martyrium sancti Polycarpi”的方克同前,我,330。。):“主神全能者,你的祝福和父井爱子,耶稣基督。。。在所有我赞美你,我祝福你,我赞美的永恒和神圣教皇耶稣基督你,你的好心爱的儿子,谁到你,同他和圣灵,现在和永远的荣耀!“

St. Epipodius spoke more distinctly still (Ruinart, "Acta mart.", Verona edition, p. 65): "I confess that Christ is God with the Father and the Holy Ghost, and it is fitting that I should give back my soul to Him Who is my Creator and my Redeemer."圣Epipodius仍然以较为明显(Ruinart,“学报集市。”维罗纳版,第65页):“我坦白地说,基督是与父和圣灵神,这是恰当的,我应该还给我的灵魂以他的人是我的创造者,我的救赎。“

Among the apologists, Athenagoras mentions the Holy Ghost along with, and on the same plane as, the Father and the Son.其中辩护士,哥拉提到圣灵一起,并在同一平面上的,父亲和儿子。 "Who would not be astonished", says he (Legat. pro christian., n. 10, in PG, VI, col. 909), "to hear us called atheists, us who confess God the Father, God the Son and the Holy Ghost, and hold them one in power and distinct in order [. . . ten en te henosei dynamin, kai ten en te taxei diairesin]?" “谁也不会感到惊讶”,说他(Legat.亲的朋友。,注10,在编号,六,彩色。909),“听到我们所谓的无神论者,我们谁承认圣父,圣子和圣灵,并持有其中一人在不同的权力与秩序[。。。十恩德henosei dynamin上,启德taxei diairesin十恩]?“

Theophilus of Antioch, who sometimes gives to the Holy Ghost, as to the Son, the name of Wisdom (sophia), mentions besides (Ad Autol., lib. I, n. 7, and II, n. 18, in PG, VI, col. 1035, 1081) the three terms theos, logos, sophia and, being the first to apply the characteristic word that was afterwards adopted, says expressly (ibid., II, 15) that they form a trinity (trias).西奥菲勒斯安提,谁有时给人以圣灵为子,名字的智慧(索菲亚),提到。此外(广告Autol,随机应变。本人,全7,第二,注18,在编号,六,彩色。1035,1081)三个条件theos,标识,索菲亚,并作为第一个报名的特征是事后通过的话,说明确(同上,二,15岁),他们形成了三位一体(三叠纪)。 Irenæus looks upon the Holy Ghost as eternal (Adv. Hær., V, xii, n. 2, in PG, VII, 1153), existing in God ante omnem constitutionem, and produced by him at the beginning of His ways (ibid., IV, xx, 3).爱任纽俯视作为永恒的圣灵(上海高考Hær。,五,十二,31日2,在编号,七,1153),在上帝事先omnem constitutionem现有的,由他在其生产方式开始(同上,四,二十,3)。Considered with regard to the Father, the Holy Ghost is his wisdom (IV, xx, 3); the Son and He are the "two hands" by which God created man (IV, præf., n. 4; IV, xx, 20; V, vi, 1).关于父亲考虑,圣灵是他的智慧(四,二十,3);。儿子和他是“两只手”,而上帝创造了人(四,præf,注4;四,第二十条, 20;五,六,1)。Considered with regard to the Church, the same Spirit is truth, grace, a pledge of immortality, a principle of union with God; intimately united to the Church, He gives the sacraments their efficacy and virtue (III, xvii, 2, xxiv, 1; IV, xxxiii, 7; V, viii, 1).教会方面考虑,同样的精神是真理,恩典,一个不朽的承诺,与神联​​合的原则,紧密团结的教会,他给人的圣礼其疗效和美德(三,十七,二,二十四, 1,四,三十三,七;第五,第八,1)。

St. Hippolytus, though he does not speak at all clearly of the Holy Ghost regarded as a distinct person, supposes him, however, to be God, as well as the Father and the Son (Contra Noët., viii, xii, in PG, X, 816, 820).圣西波吕,虽然他不说任何话,作为一个独特的人视为圣灵清楚,假设他,但是,上帝,以及父亲和儿子(魂斗罗Noët。,八,十二,在编号中,x,816,820)。 Tertullian is one of the writers of this age whose tendency to Subordinationism is most apparent, and that in spite of his being the author of the definitive formula: "Three persons, one substance".良,是对这个年龄的倾向是最明显的Subordinationism的作家之一,而且在他被这个权威公式尽管笔者:“三个人,一个物质”。 And yet his teaching on the Holy Ghost is in every way remarkable.然而,他对教学是圣灵在各方面都显着。He seems to have been the first among the Fathers to affirm His Divinity in a clear and absolutely precise manner.他似乎一直是中首先肯定他的父亲在一个清晰的,绝对准确地神。In his work "Adversus Praxean" lie dwells at length on the greatness of the Paraclete.在他的作品在长度“相反Praxean”谎言整篇对圣灵的伟大。The Holy Ghost, he says, is God (c. xiii in PL, II, 193); of the substance of the Father (iii, iv in PL, II, 181-2); one and the same God with the Father and the Son (ii in PL, II, 180); proceeding from the Father through the Son (iv, viii in PL, II, 182, 187); teaching all truth (ii in PL, II, 179).圣灵,他说,是神(约十三在特等,二,193)的父(三,在临时立法会,二,181-2四)的物质;之一,与父亲和上帝一样儿子(II在特等,二,180);出发从父亲通过儿子(四,在特等,二,182,187八);教学一切的真理(在特等,二,179二)。 St. Gregory Thaumaturgus, or at least the Ekthesis tes pisteos, which is commonly attributed to him, and which dates from the period 260-270, gives us this remarkable passage (PG, X, 933 sqq.): "One is God, Father of the living Word, of the subsisting Wisdom. . . . One the Lord, one of one, God of God, invisible of invisible. . .One the Holy Ghost, having His subsistence from God. . . . Perfect Trinity, which in eternity, glory, and power, is neither divided, nor separated. . . . Unchanging and immutable Trinity."圣格雷戈里Thaumaturgus,或者至少是Ekthesis pisteos工商业污水附加费,也就是通常归因于他,并从260-270日期间,通过给我们这个杰出的公司(PG,第十,933 sqq。):“一个是上帝,父亲的生活的圣言,在存续的智慧。。。。一个主,一个一个,神神,看不见的。。。一个圣灵,有他从神的生存。。。。完美的三位一体,这在永恒里,荣耀,权势,既不是分裂,也不分开。。。。不变的,不可改变的三位一体“​​。

In 304, the martyr St. Vincent said (Ruinart, op. cit., 325): "I confess the Lord Jesus Christ, Son of the Father most High, one of one; I recognize Him as one God with the Father and the Holy Ghost."在304,烈士圣文森说:“我承认主耶稣基督,圣子的父亲最高,一个接一个,我承认一个上帝与父亲和他(Ruinart,同上,325。。)圣灵。“

But we must come down towards the year 360 to find the doctrine on the Holy Ghost explained both fully and clearly.但是,我们一定要争取在今年下降到360找到圣灵的教义解释既充分和明确。It is St. Athanasius who does so in his "Letters to Serapion" (PG, XXVI, col. 525 sq.).圣亚他那修是谁做,所以在他的“书信谢拉皮翁”公司(PG,26,山口。525平方米)。He had been informed that certain Christians held that the Third Person of the Blessed Trinity was a creature.他被告知,一些基督徒认为,第三人的祝福三是生物。To refute them he questions the Scriptures, and they furnish him with arguments as solid as they are numerous.他质疑,驳斥他们的圣经,他们提供坚实的论点作为他,因为他们是多方面的。They tell him, in particular, that the Holy Ghost is united to the Son by relations just like those existing between the Son and the Father; that He is sent by the Son; that He is His mouth-piece and glorifies Him; that, unlike creatures, He has not been made out of nothing, but comes forth from God; that He performs a sanctifying work among men, of which no creature is capable; that in possessing Him we possess God; that the Father created everything by Him; that, in fine, He is immutable, has the attributes of immensity, oneness, and has a right to all the appellations that are used to express the dignity of the Son.他们告诉他,特别是圣灵是团结的儿子,仿佛之间的儿子和父亲现有的关系,他是由儿子送到,那他是他的嘴片,颂扬他,说,不同的生物,他还没有作出无中生有,而是来自神出来的,那他在男子成圣执行工作,这是任何有能力的生物,这在拥有他,我们拥有上帝的父亲借着他造的一切; ,在天气好,他是不可改变的,具有巨大的,统一性的属性,并已加入了所有用来表达对儿子的尊严原产地名称的权利。Most of these conclusions he supports by means of Scriptural texts, a few from amongst which are given above.这些结论,他以经文手段支持大多数情况下,从这些当中很少有人作参考。But the writer lays special stress on what is read in Matthew 28:19.但作家对什么是奠定在马太福音28:19读特殊的压力。"The Lord", he writes (Ad Serap., III, n. 6, in PG, XXVI, 633 sq.), "founded the Faith of the Church on the Trinity, when He said to His Apostles: 'Going therefore, teach ye all nations; baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.' “上帝”,他写道(。广告小型企业研究资助,三,注六,在编号,26,633平方米),“建立在三位一体,当他说他的使徒教会信仰:'走出去,因此,教你们所有国家; baptizing在他们的名字父亲,和儿子,和圣灵'。If the Holy Ghost were a creature, Christ would not have associated Him with the Father; He would have avoided making a heterogeneous Trinity, composed of unlike elements. What did God stand in need of? Did He need to join to Himself a being of different nature? . . . No, the Trinity is not composed of the Creator and the creature."如果是一个生物圣灵,基督就不会与他的父亲。?他本来可以避免使异构三位一体,不同元素的上帝站在什么组成的需要,他没有必要加入到自己一个幸福不同性质的?。。。不,不构成三位一体的创造者和生物。“

A little later, St. Basil, Didymus of Alexandria, St. Epiphanius, St. Gregory of Nazianzus, St. Ambrose, and St. Gregory of Nyssa took up the same thesis ex professo, supporting it for the most part with the same proofs.过了一会儿,圣罗勒,亚历山大Didymus,圣埃皮法尼乌斯,圣的nazianzus,圣刘汉铨格雷戈里,和圣格雷戈里的果树一样拿起前professo论文,支持它具有相同的证明大部分。 All these writings had prepared the way for the Council of Constantinople which, in 381, condemned the Pneumatomachians and solemnly proclaimed the true doctrine.所有这些著作已拟定了安理会的君士坦丁堡其中,在381谴责,并郑重宣布Pneumatomachians真正的教义的方式。 This teaching forms part of the Creed of Constantinople, as it is called, where the symbol refers to the Holy Ghost, "Who is also our Lord and Who gives life; Who proceeds from the Father, Who is adored and glorified together with the Father and the Son; Who spoke by the prophets".这种教学形式的君士坦丁堡信条,因为它是所谓的一部分,那里的标志,是指圣灵,“谁是我们的主,谁也赋予生命,谁收益来自父亲,谁是崇拜和歌颂与父亲在一起和儿子,谁的先知“发言。 Was this creed, with these particular words, approved by the council of 381?在这个信条,与这些特定的词,由理事会批准381? Formerly that was the common opinion, and even in recent times it has been held by authorities like Hefele, Hergenröther, and Funk; other historians, amongst whom are Harnack and Duchesne, are of the contrary opinion; but all agree in admitting that the creed of which we are speaking was received and approved by the Council of Chalcedon, in 451, and that, at least from that time, it became the official formula of Catholic orthodoxy.以前这是共同的意见,甚至在最近的时代已经由像黑弗勒,Hergenröther,和Funk当局举行;其他历史学家,他们之间是哈纳克和德雷珀,相反的意见是对的,但同意在承认所有的信条我们所讲的已收到并批准了安理会的chalcedon在451的时候,这至少从那个时候,它成为官方正统的天主教公式。

IV.四。PROCESSION OF THE HOLY GHOST游行的圣灵

We need not dwell at length on the precise meaning of the Procession in God.我们不必纠缠在长度上的神游行的确切含义。(See TRINITY.) It will suffice here to remark that by this word we mean the relation of origin that exists between one Divine Person and another, or between one and the two others as its principle of origin. (见三一。)将足以在这里说法,这个词,我们指的是一个神圣的起源之间存在的关系,另一个人,或一至作为其原产地原则的两个人。The Son proceeds from the Father; the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son.从父亲要把儿子,收益;从父亲和儿子圣灵收益。The latter truth will be specially treated here.后者将被特别处理的事实在这里。

A

That the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father has always been admitted by all Christians; the truth is expressly stated in John, xv, 26.这神圣的收益来自父亲的鬼魂一直承认所有基督徒;明确的事实是在约翰,十五,26列账。But the Greeks, after Photius, deny that He proceeds from the Son.但在Photius希腊人,否认,他从儿子的收益。And yet such is manifestly the teaching of Holy Scripture and the Fathers.然而,这种明显的圣经和父亲教学。

(1) In the New Testament(1)在新约

(a) The Holy Ghost is called the Spirit of Christ (Romans 8:9), the Spirit of the Son (Galatians 4:6), the Spirit of Jesus (Acts 16:7). (一)圣灵被称为基督的灵(罗马书8:9),圣子(加拉太书4:6),耶稣的灵(徒16:7)精神。These terms imply a relation of the Spirit to the Son, which can only be a relation of origin.这些条款意味着对精神的儿子,这只能是一种渊源关系的关系。This conclusion is so much the more indisputable as all admit the similar argument to explain why the Holy Ghost is called the Spirit of the Father.这个结论是不争与其说是更多的,因为所有承认类似的说法来解释为什么圣灵被称为精神之父。Thus St. Augustine argues (In Joan., tr. xcix, 6, 7 in PL, XXXV, 1888): "You hear the Lord himself declare: 'It is not you that speak, but the Spirit of your Father that speaketh in you'. Likewise you hear the Apostle declare: 'God hath sent the Spirit of His Son into your hearts. Could there then be two spirits, one the spirit of the Father, the other the spirit of the Son? Certainly not. Just as there is only one Father, just as there is only one Lord or one Son, so there is only one Spirit, Who is, consequently, the Spirit of both. . . Why then should you refuse to believe that He proceeds also from the Son, since He is also the Spirit of the Son? If He did not proceed from Him, Jesus, when He appeared to His disciples after His Resurrection, would not have breathed on them, saying: 'Receive ye the Holy Ghost'. What, indeed, does this breathing signify, but that the Spirit proceeds also from Him?"因此,圣奥古斯丁认为(在琼,文xcix,6,在特等,三十五,1888年7。。):“你听到主自己宣布:'这是不是你自己说的,乃是你们父的灵在这说话你同样你听到使徒宣称:。'。?。神差遣到你的心,他的儿子精神可以有那么两个精神,一个是精神的父亲,另一个是精神的儿子当然不只是为只有一个父亲,就像只有一个上帝或一个儿子,所以只有一个精神,是谁,因此,不论是精神。。。那么,为什么你不相信,他的收益也从儿子,因为他也是儿子的精神,他没有从他的,耶稣,当他出现后,他的复活,他的弟子,不会对他们吸了一口气,说:?。'你们要接纳圣灵'什么,事实上,这是否意味着呼吸,但精神收益也从他吗?“ St. Athanasius had argued in exactly the same way (De Trinit. et Spir. S., n. 19, in PG, XXVI, 1212), and concluded: "We say that the Son of God is also the source of the Spirit."圣亚他那修辩称在完全相同的方式(德Trinit等符号或者交互学,注19,在编号,26,1212。​​。),并得出结论:“我们说,上帝的儿子也是的精神源泉“。

(b) The Holy Ghost receives from the Son, according to John 16:13-15: "When he, the Spirit of truth, is come he will teach you all truth. For he shall not speak of himself; but what things soever he shall hear, he shall speak; and the things that are to come, he shall shew you. He shall glorify me; because he shall receive of mine, and shall shew it to you. All things whatsoever the Father hath, are mine. Therefore I said, that he shall receive of mine, and shew it to you." (二)接收来自圣灵的儿子,根据约翰16:13-15:“当他等真理的圣灵来了,他会教你所有真相因为他对自己不说话,但无论身处什么事情。他会听到,他应讲及的事情,今后,他将告诉你们,他要荣耀我。因为他要将受于我的,要指示给你所有的东西无论是父所,是我的。。所以我说,他要接受我的,叫人知道你。“ Now, one Divine Person can receive from another only by Procession, being related to that other as to a principle.现在,一个神圣的人可以得到另一只游行,被相关的其他作为一个原则。What the Paraclete will receive from the Son is immanent knowledge, which He will afterwards manifest exteriorly.什么圣灵将收到儿子是内在的知识,后来他将表现表里。But this immanent knowledge is the very essence of the Holy Ghost.但这种内在的知识是圣灵的本质。The latter, therefore, has His origin in the Son, the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son.后者,因此,有他的儿子,从儿子圣灵的收益来源。"He shall not speak of Himself", says St. Augustine (In Joan., tr. xcix, 4, in PL, XXXV, 1887), "because He is not from Himself, but He shall tell you all He shall have heard. He shall hear from him from whom He proceeds. In His case, to hear is to know, and to know is to be. He derives His knowledge from Him from Whom He derives His essence." “他不得发言的自己”,说圣奥古斯丁(琼。,文。xcix,4名特等,三十五,1887年),“因为他不是他自己,但他会告诉你所有他要听到。他要听到他说从他的收益。在他的情况,听到的是要知道,要知道。他来自谁认识他,他从他的本质源于他。“ St. Cyril of Alexandria remarks that the words: "He shall receive of mine" signify "the nature" which the Holy Ghost has from the Son, as the Son has His from the Father (De Trinit., dialog. vi, in PG, LXXV, 1011).圣西里尔亚历山大发言说的话:“他应领取的地雷”意味着“性”的圣灵从儿子已作为他的儿子已经从父亲(德Trinit,对话第六,在编号。。 ,LXXV,1011)。Besides, Jesus gives this reason of His assertion: "He shall receive of mine": "All things whatsoever the Father hath, are mine Now, since the Father has with regard to the Holy Ghost the relation we term Active Spiration, the Son has it also; and in the Holy Ghost there exists, consequently, with regard to both, Passive Spiration or Procession.此外,耶稣给他的这个说法的理由:“他应领取的地雷”:“无论何事,父所,是我的现在,因为有父与圣灵方面的关系我们长期活跃Spiration,儿子已经有它也和在圣灵就存在,因此,两者,被动Spiration或游行。

(2) The same truth has been constantly held by the Fathers(2)相同的事实不断举行的父亲

This fact is undisputed as far as the Western Fathers are concerned; but the Greeks deny it in the case of the Easterns.这个事实是无可争议至于西方的父亲担心,但否认了希腊人在Easterns盒中。 We will cite, therefore, a few witnesses from among the latter.我们将举,因此,从一些证人,其中后者。The testimony of St. Athanasius has been quoted above, to the effect that "the Son is the source of the Spirit", and the statement of Cyril of Alexandria that the Holy Ghost has His "nature" from the Son.圣亚他那修被引用上述证词,大意是“儿子是精神之源”,和西里尔亚历山大声明说,圣灵有他的“自然”从儿子。The latter saint further asserts (Thesaur., assert. xxxiv in PG, LXXV, 585); "When the Holy Ghost comes into our hearts, He makes us like to God, because He proceeds from the Father and the Son"; and again (Epist., xvii, Ad Nestorium, De excommunicatione in PG, LXXVII, 117): "The Holy Ghost is not unconnected with the Son, for He is called the Spirit of Truth, and Christ is the Truth; so He proceeds from Him as well as from God the Father."后者圣进一步断言(Thesaur.,断言在编号,LXXV,585三十四。)“当圣灵在我们心里来了,他让我们像上帝,因为他从父亲和儿子收益”,并再次(Epist.,十七,广告Nestorium,德在编号excommunicatione,LXXVII,117)说:“圣灵不与儿子无关,因为他被称为真理的圣灵,基督是真理,所以他从他的收益以及来自上帝的父亲。“ St. Basil (De Spirit. S., xviii, in PG, XXXII, 147) wishes us not to depart from the traditional order in mentioning the Three Divine Persons, because "as the Son is to the Father, so is the Spirit to the Son, in accordance with the ancient order of the names in the formula of baptism".圣罗勒(德精神。学,十八,在前列腺素,三十二,147)希望我们不从传统秩序中提到的三个离开神的人,因为“作为儿子,是父,所以是精神儿子,在与公式的洗礼中的名字“古按照顺序。 St. Epiphanius writes (Ancor., viii, in PG, XLIII, 29, 30) that the Paraclete "is not to be considered as unconnected with the Father and the Son, for He is with Them one in substance and divinity", and states that "He is from the Father and the Son"; a little further, he adds (op. cit., xi, in PG, XLIII, 35): "No one knows the Spirit, besides the Father, except the Son, from Whom He proceeds and of Whom He receives."圣epiphanius写道(Ancor.,第八,在编号,四十三,29,30)表示,圣灵“是不被视为与父亲和儿子无关的考虑,他和他们在物质和神之一是”,并指出,“他是从父亲和儿子”,一个远一点,他补充道(同前,十一,在编号,四十三,35。):“没有人知道,除了父亲的精神,除了儿子,从他的收益和他所接收。“ Lastly, a council held at Seleucia in 410 proclaims its faith "in the Holy Living Spirit, the Holy Living Paraclete, Who proceeds from the Father and the Son" (Lamy, "Concilium Seleuciæ", Louvain, 1868).最后,在塞琉西亚举行的理事会第410宣布其“在圣洁生活的精神,圣洁生活的圣灵,谁从父亲和儿子收益”信仰(拉米,“Concilium Seleuciæ”,鲁汶,1868)。

However, when we compare the Latin writers, as a body, with the Eastern writers, we notice a difference in language: while the former almost unanimously affirm that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and from the Son, the latter generally say that He proceeds from the Father through the Son.然而,当我们比较拉丁美洲作家与东方的作家,作为一个机构,我们注意到在语言差异:而前者几乎一致肯定,从父亲和儿子从圣灵的收益,后者一般说,他所得款项通过儿子的父亲。 In reality the thought expressed by both Greeks and Latins is one and the same, only the manner of expressing it is slightly different: the Greek formula ek tou patros dia tou ouiou expresses directly the order according to which the Father and the Son are the principle of the Holy Ghost, and implies their equality as principle; the Latin formula expresses directly this equality, and implies the order.在现实中都表达了希腊人和拉丁人的思想是同一个,只是表达方式略有不同的是:希腊式绽出头patros直径土特产品ouiou表示直接的命令,根据该父亲和儿子是原则圣灵的,并暗示他们的平等为原则;拉美公式直接表达这种平等,并暗示该命令。 As the Son Himself proceeds from the Father, it is from the Father that He receives, with everything else, the virtue that makes Him the principle of the Holy Ghost.作为儿子自己从父亲的收益,这是他接受,与一切,使他的美德的原则的圣灵从父。Thus, the Father alone is principium absque principio, aitia anarchos prokatarktike, and, comparatively, the Son is an intermediate principle.因此,爸爸独自一人是原理absque普林奇皮奥,aitia anarchos prokatarktike,而且,相对来说,儿子是一个中间的原则。The distinct use of the two prepositions, ek (from) and dia (through), implies nothing else.这两个不同的介词使用,克朗(从)和DIA(通过),意味着没有别的。In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the Greek theologians Blemmidus, Beccus, Calecas, and Bessarion called attention to this, explaining that the two particles have the same signification, but that from is better suited to the First Person, Who is the source of the others, and through to the Second Person, Who comes from the Father.在第十三和第十四世纪,Blemmidus,Beccus,Calecas,希腊神学家和贝萨利昂呼吁重视这一点,并解释说,两个粒子具有相同的意义,但是,从更适合到的第一人,谁是源其他人,并通过给第二人,谁从父来。 Long before their time St. Basil had written (De Spir. S., viii, 21, in PG, XXXII, 106): "The expression di ou expresses acknowledgment of the primordial principle [ tes prokatarktikes aitias]"; and St. Chrysostom (Hom. v in Joan., n. 2, in PG, LIX, 56): "If it be said through Him, it is said solely in order that no one may imagine that the Son is not generated": It may be added that the terminology used by the Eastern and Western writers, respectively, to express the idea is far from being invariable.很久以前,他们的时间写了圣罗勒(德spir学,八,21日,在前列腺素,三十二,106。)说:“欧邸表达表达了原始原则[工商业污水附加费prokatarktikes aitias]承认”;和圣金口(Hom.琼五,31日2,在编号,LIX,56。):“如果说通过他,这是说完全是为了没有人可以想像,儿子是不会生成”:这可能是补充说,由东方和西方作家,分别使用的术语,表达的思想还远未不变。 Just as Cyril, Epiphanius, and other Greeks affirm the Procession ex utroque, so several Latin writers did not consider they were departing from the teaching of their Church in expressing themselves like the Greeks.正如西里尔,埃皮法尼乌斯,和其他希腊人肯定utroque游行前,有几个拉丁美洲作家并不认为他们是从教学出发,他们的教会像希腊人表达自己。 Thus Tertullian (Contra Prax., iv, in PL, II, 182): "Spiritum non aliunde puto quam a Patre per Filium"; and St. Hilary (De Trinit., lib., XII, n. 57, in PL, X, 472), addressing himself to the Father, protests that he wishes to adore, with Him and the Son "Thy Holy Spirit, Who comes from Thee through thy only Son".因此,戴尔都良(矛盾普凯,四,在特等,二,182。):。。“Spiritum非aliunde普陀华富每Filium Patre”;和圣希拉里(德Trinit,库,十二,注57,在临时立法会,十,472),解决自己的父亲,抗议,他希望与他崇拜的儿子“你的圣灵,谁是通过你唯一的儿子离开你”。 And yet the same writer had said, a little higher (op. cit., lib. II, 29, in PL, X, 69), "that we must confess the Holy Ghost coming from the Father and the Son", a clear proof that the two formulæ were regarded as substantially equivalent.然而,同一作家曾说过,一个高一点(同前。,随机应变。二,29岁,在特等,第十,69),“我们必须承认圣灵来自父亲和儿子来了”,明确证明这两个的公式被视为实质上等同。

B

Proceeding both from the Father and the Son, the Holy Ghost, nevertheless, proceeds from Them as from a single principle.无论是从父亲和儿子,圣灵出发,不过,从他们的收益,从一个单一的原则。This truth is, at the very least insinuated in the passage of John, xvi, 15 (cited above), where Christ establishes a necessary connection between His own sharing in all the Father has and the Procession of the Holy Ghost.这事实是,目前在约翰,十六通道暗示最起码,15(上述),其中基督他自己之间建立一个连接所有共享所需父和圣灵游行。 Hence it follows, indeed, that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the two other Persons, not in so far as They are distinct, but inasmuch as Their Divine perfection is numerically one.因此,它如下,实际上,这从另外两个人在圣灵的收益不那么远,因为他们是不同的,但因为自己神圣的完善是一个数值。Besides, such is the explicit teaching of ecclesiastical tradition, which is concisely put by St. Augustine (De Trin., lib. V, c. xiv, in PL, XLII, 921): "As the Father and the Son are only one God and, relatively to the creature, only one Creator and one Lord, so, relatively to the Holy Ghost, They are only one principle."此外,这就是教会的传统,这是由圣奥古斯丁简洁明确提出教学(德草,库五,三十四,在特等,四十二,921。。):“作为父亲和儿子只有一个上帝和相对的生物,只有一个造物主并有一位主,所以,相对于圣灵,他们只是一个原则。“ This doctrine was defined in the following words by the Second Ecumenical Council of Lyons [Denzinger, "Enchiridion" (1908), n.这种学说被界定在以下文字的第二次大公会议的里昂[登青格,“便览”(1908年),注 460]: "We confess that the Holy Ghost proceeds eternally from the Father and the Son, not as from two principles, but as from one principle, not by two spirations, but by one single spiration." 460]:“。坦白地说,我们永远来自父亲和儿子,而不是从两个原则,而且从一个原则,由两个spirations,而是由一个spiration圣灵收益” The teaching was again laid down by the Council of Florence (ibid., n. 691), and by Eugene IV in his Bull "Cantate Domino" (ibid., n. 703 sq.).教学又订下由安理会的佛罗伦萨(同上,注691),并在他的尤金四牛“Cantate多米诺”(同上,注703平方米)。

Cç

It is likewise an article of faith that the Holy Ghost does not proceed, like the Second Person of the Trinity, by way of generation.这是同样的一个信念,即圣灵不继续,就像第二人的三位一体的一代方式的文章。Not only is the Second Person alone called Son in the Scriptures, not only is He alone said to be begotten, but He is also called the only Son of God; the ancient symbol that bears the name of Saint Athanasius states expressly that "the Holy Ghost comes from the Father and from the Son not made not created, not generated, but proceeding".不仅是所谓的第二人独自在圣经的儿子,他不仅是单单说是出师不利,但他也被称为上帝的独生子;古老的符号,熊圣亚他那修的国名明确规定,“圣鬼来自父亲和儿子没有作出不创建,不产生,但出发“。 As we are utterly incapable of otherwise fixing the meaning of the mysterious mode affecting this relation of origin, we apply to it the name spiration, the signification of which is principally negative and by way of contrast, in the sense that it affirms a Procession peculiar to the Holy Ghost and exclusive of filiation.由于我们完全以其他方式固定的神秘影响这种能力的渊源关系模式的意义,我们运用它的名字spiration,其中的意义主要是消极和反观在某种意义上说,它肯定游行奇特,以圣灵和亲子关系在内。 But though we distinguish absolutely and essentially between generation and spiration, it is a very delicate and difficult task to say what the difference is.但是,尽管我们的生成和spiration区分绝对和本质,这是一个非常微妙和困难的任务,说什么区别。St. Thomas (I, Q. xxvii), following St. Augustine (Do Trin., XV, xxvii), finds the explanation and, as it the were, the epitome, of the doctrine in principle that, in God, the Son proceeds through the Intellect and the Holy Ghost through the Will.圣托马斯(一,问二十七),继圣奥古斯丁(不要草。,十五,二十七),找到了解释,并为它的人,一个缩影,原则上学说认为,在上帝,圣子所得款项通过智力和意志,通过圣灵。 The Son is, in the language of Scripture, the image of the Invisible God, His Word, His uncreated wisdom.儿子是,在圣经中,无形的神的形象,他的话语,他的非受造的智慧语言。God contemplates Himself and knows Himself from all eternity, and, knowing Himself, He forms within Himself a substantial idea of Himself, and this substantial thought is His Word.设想自己和上帝知道自己从所有永恒,并了解自我,他内心的形式大量自己的想法,这主要思想是他的话语。Now every act of knowledge is accomplished by the production in the intellect of a representation of the object known; from this head, then the process offers a certain analogy with generation, which is the production by a living being of a being partaking of the same nature; and the analogy is only so much the more striking when there is question of this act of Divine knowledge, the eternal term of which is a substantial being, consubstantial within the knowing subject.现在每个行为的知识是通过在一个已知的对象表示智力生产,从这个头,那么过程提供了一定的比喻,拥有发电,这是由一个相同partaking的生活正被生产性质和类比只有这么多更为引人注目的当有这种神圣知识行为的问题,永恒的期限最长是一个庞大的存在,在同质的认识问题。 As to the Holy Ghost, according to the common doctrine of theologians, He proceeds through the will.至于圣灵,根据共同的军事学说的神学家,他的收益通过意志。The Holy Spirit, as His name indicates, is Holy in virtue of His origin, His spiration; He comes therefore from a holy principle; now holiness resides in the will, as wisdom is in the intellect.圣灵,因为他的名字所示,是在他的出身,他的spiration美德神圣;他出身因此,从一个神圣的原则,现在居住在圣洁的意志,在智力,智慧的。 That is also the reason why He is so often called par excellence, in the writings of the Fathers, Love and Charity.这也是为什么他是如此出色通常被称为中的父亲,爱与慈善的著作的原因。The Father and the Son love one another from all eternity, with a perfect ineffable love; the term of this infinite fruitful mutual love is Their Spirit Who is co-eternal and con-substantial with Them.父亲和儿子的爱彼此从所有永恒,以一个完美的无法形容的爱,这种互爱无限富有成效的长期谁是他们的精神是共同的永恒与反对与他们巨大的。 Only, the Holy Ghost is not indebted to the manner of His Procession precisely for this perfect resemblance to His principle, in other words for His consubstantiality; for to will or love an object does not formally imply the production of its immanent image in the soul that loves, but rather a tendency, a movement of the will towards the thing loved, to be united to it and enjoy it.只是,圣灵是不会感激他的游行方式正是为这个完美的相似之处,他的原则,为他的同体,换句话说;为会或爱一个对象不意味着正式的灵魂,其内在的图像制作有爱,而是一种趋势,一种精神状态,动作上的东西爱,团结起来,并享受它。 So, making every allowance for the feebleness of our intellects in knowing, and the unsuitability of our words for expressing the mysteries of the Divine life, if we can grasp how the word generation, freed from all the imperfections of the material order may be applied by analogy to the Procession of the Word, so we may see that the term can in no way befittingly applied to the Procession of the Holy Ghost.因此,让每一个为我们的知识分子在明知衰弱津贴,以及我们的语言来表达的神圣生命的奥秘,如果我们能掌握了Word的一代,从所有的物质秩序不完善释放可用于不适合通过类比的Word游行,所以我们可以看到,这个词可绝不befittingly应用到圣灵的游行。

V. FILIOQUE五FILIOQUE

Having treated of the part taken by the Son in the Procession of the Holy Ghost, we come next to consider the introduction of the expression Filioque into the Creed of Constantinople.具有由儿子采取了游行的圣灵的一部分对待,我们来到下一个要考虑的表达Filioque到君士坦丁堡的信条介绍。 The author of the addition is unknown, but the first trace of it is found in Spain.增加部分的作者不详,但第一个痕迹它是在西班牙发现。The Filioque was successively introduced into the Symbol of the Council of Toledo in 447, then, in pursuance of an order of another synod held in the same place (589), it was inserted in the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed.该Filioque先后被引入到会象征的托莱多在447,那么,一个在同一地点举行另一个主教为依据第(589),它是在Niceno - Constantinopolitan信条插入。Admitted likewise into the Symbol Quicumque, it began to appear in France in the eighth century.录取到符号Quicumque同样,在法国开始出现在第八世纪。It was chanted in 767, in Charlemagne's chapel at Gentilly, where it was heard by ambassadors from Constantine Copronymnus.这是高喊767,在查理曼的AT古提,它是由君士坦丁Copronymnus大使听到教堂。The Greeks were astonished and protested, explanations were given by the Latins, and many discussions followed.希腊人惊奇和抗议,给予的解释是拉丁人,并多次讨论之后。The Archbishop of Aquileia, Paulinus, defended the addition at the Council of Friuli, in 796.作者:阿奎,Paulinus,捍卫了大主教在弗留利会,除了796。It was afterwards accepted by a council held at Aachen, in 809.这是事后接受了在亚琛举行的理事会809。However, as it proved a stumbling-block to the Greeks Pope Leo III disapproved of it; and, though he entirely agreed with the Franks on the question of the doctrine, he advised them to omit the new word.然而,因为它证明了一个绊脚石的希腊人教宗利奥三世却反对,而且,虽然他完全与对理论的问题弗兰克斯赞成,他建议他们省略新词。 He himself caused two large silver tablets, on which the creed with the disputed expression omitted was engraved to be erected in St. Peter's.他自己造成的二大银片,对其中的争议与省略表达的信条是要刻在圣彼得的建造。 His advice was unheeded by the Franks; and, as the conduct and schism of Photius seemed to justify the Westerns in paying no more regard to the feelings of the Greeks, the addition of the words was accepted by the Roman Church under Benedict VIII (cf. Funk, "Kirchengeschichte", Paderborn, 1902, p. 243).他的建议置若罔闻由法兰克人,而且,作为行为和分裂的photius似乎没有更多的理由在支付方面的希腊人感情的西部片,在被接受的话除了根据本笃八(比照由罗马教会。芬克,“Kirchengeschichte”,帕德博恩,1902年,第243页)。

The Greeks have always blamed the Latins for making the addition.希腊人一直指责作出此外,拉丁人。 They considered that, quite apart from the question of doctrine involved by the expression, the insertion was made in violation of a decree of the Council of Ephesus, forbidding anyone "to produce, write, or compose a confession of faith other than the one defined by the Fathers of Nicæa".他们认为,撇开所表达有关理论的问题,插入是在一个安理会的以弗所违反法令,禁止任何人“生产,写,或撰写一个认罪的信仰以外的其他定义由尼西亚的父亲。“ Such a reason will not bear examination.这样的理由将不承担检查。Supposing the truth of the dogma (established above), it is inadmissible that the Church could or would have deprived herself of the right to mention it in the symbol.在假设的教条(常设以上)的真理,这是不可接受的,教会可能或将被剥夺的权利,何况在自己的象征。If the opinion be adhered to, and it has strong arguments to support it, which considers that the developments of the Creed in what concerns the Holy Ghost were approved by the Council of Constantinople (381), at once it might be laid down that the bishops at Ephesus (431) certainly did not think of condemning or blaming those of Constantinople.如果是坚持认为,它具有很强的论据支持它,这认为,关心的圣灵发展的信条是由安理会的君士坦丁堡(381)批准,这可能是一次了,这条规定在以弗所主教(431)肯定没有想到的谴责或指责那些君士坦丁堡。 But, from the fact that the disputed expression was authorized by the Council of Chalcedon, in 451, we conclude that the prohibition of the Council of Ephesus was never understood, and ought not to be understood, in an absolute sense.但是,从存在争议的表达,安理会的chalcedon,授权451事实上,我们得出这样的结论,安理会的以弗所禁止从来没有理解,不应该被理解为一种绝对意义。 It may be considered either as a doctrinal, or as a merely disciplinary pronouncement.它可以被认为无论是作为一个理论,或者作为一个纯粹的纪律声明。In the first case it would exclude any addition or modification opposed to, or at variance with, the deposit of Revelation; and such seems to be its historic import, for it was proposed and accepted by the Fathers to oppose a formula tainted with Nestorianism.在第一种情况,将排除任何增加或修改反对,或与,存款变化的启示,以及这种似乎是它的历史性的进口,因为它是由父亲提出和接受,反对与景教污染公式。 In the second case considered as a disciplinary measure, it can bind only those who are not the depositaries of the supreme power in the Church.在第二种情况下作为惩罚手段加以考虑,我们可以只约束那些谁是不是在教会最高权力的保存。The latter, as it is their duty to teach the revealed truth and to preserve it from error, possess, by Divine authority, the power and right to draw up and propose to the faithful such confessions of faith as circumstances may demand.后者,因为这是他们的责任,教导透露真相,并保存它的错误,拥有的神圣权力,权力与权利,制订并提出这样的忠实招供的信仰,但可按情况的需求。 This right is as unconfinable as it is inalienable.这一权利是不可剥夺的,因为它是unconfinable。

VI.六。GIFTS OF THE HOLY GHOST礼品的圣灵

This title and the theory connected with it, like the theory of the fruits of the Holy Ghost and that of the sins against the Holy Ghost, imply what theologians call appropriation.这个称号和与它相连的理论喜欢的圣灵的果实理论,这对圣灵的罪,意味着什么神学家呼吁拨款。By this term is meant attributing especially to one Divine Person perfections and exterior works which seem to us more clearly or more immediately to be connected with Him, when we consider His personal characteristics, but which in reality are common to the Three Persons.由这个名词是指归于一个神圣的人,特别是完善和这似乎对我们更清楚或更立即与他有联系的外部工作,当我们考虑到他的个人特点,但在现实中是共同的三人。 It is in this sense that we attribute to the Father the perfection of omnipotence, with its most striking manifestations, eg the Creation, because He is the principle of the two other Persons; to the Son we attribute wisdom and the works of wisdom, because He proceeds from the Father by the Intellect; to the Holy Ghost we attribute the operations of grace and the sanctification of souls, and in particular spiritual gifts and fruits, because He proceeds from the Father and the Son as Their mutual love and is called in Holy Writ the goodness and the charity of God.正是在这个意义上,我们的属性,向父亲的全能完美,其最突出的表现,如创作,因为他是另外两个人的原则;在儿子的属性,我们的智慧和智慧的作品,因为他的收益来自父亲的智力;在我们的属性,圣灵的恩典行动和灵魂圣洁,尤其是精神上的礼品和水果,因为他的收益来自父亲和作为他们互爱子,被称为圣经的善良和慈善的上帝。

The gifts of the Holy Ghost are of two kinds: the first are specially intended for the sanctification of the person who receives them; the second, more properly called charismata, are extraordinary favours granted for the help of another, favours, too, which do not sanctify by themselves, and may even be separated from sanctifying grace.圣灵的礼物有两类:第一类是专门为接收这些人谁打算成圣;第二,更妥善所谓的charismata,是另一个非常赞成给予帮助,优惠,也该做不成圣自己,甚至可能从sanctifying恩典分开。 Those of the first class are accounted seven in number, as enumerated by Isaias (11:2-3), where the prophet sees and describes them in the Messias.第一类是那些占第七位,由伊萨亚斯(11:2-3),其中先知看到并介绍了他们所列举的messias。They are the gifts of wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety (godliness), and fear of the Lord.他们是智慧,理解,律师,毅力,知识,虔诚礼物(虔诚),和主的恐惧。

The gift of wisdom, by detaching us from the world, makes us relish and love only the things of heaven.智慧的礼物由来自世界分离我们,让我们津津乐道和爱的仅仅是天上的东西。

The gift of understanding helps us to grasp the truths of religion as far as is necessary.该谅解的礼物,可以帮助我们掌握真理的宗教尽量是必要的。

The gift of counsel springs from supernatural prudence, and enables us to see and choose correctly what will help most to the glory of God and our own salvation.辩护律师的泉水从超自然谨慎礼物,让我们看到并正确选择怎样才能帮助是最大的神的荣耀和我们自己的拯救。

By the gift of fortitude we receive courage to overcome the obstacles and difficulties that arise in the practice of our religious duties.到了刚毅的礼物我们收到的勇气,克服障碍和困难,在实践中出现的宗教义务。The gift of knowledge points out to us the path to follow and the dangers to avoid in order to reach heaven.知识的礼物给我们指出了道路可走和危险,以避免为了达到天堂。

The gift of piety, by inspiring us with a tender and filial confidence in God, makes us joyfully embrace all that pertains to His service.礼物的虔诚通过激励与招标我们和孝在上帝的信心,使我们高兴地迎接所有涉及到他的服务。

Lastly, the gift of fear fills us with a sovereign respect for God, and makes us dread, above all things, to offend Him.最后,恐惧的礼物充满了对上帝主权的尊重我们,使我们害怕,上面所有的东西,得罪他。

As to the inner nature of these gifts, theologians consider them to be supernatural and permanent qualities, which make us attentive to the voice of God, which render us susceptible to the workings of actual grace, which make us love the things of God, and, consequently, render us more obedient and docile to the inspirations of the Holy Ghost.至于这些礼物的内在本质,神学家认为他们是超自然的和永久的素质,使我们留意神的声音,这使我们容易受到实际的宽限期运作,使我们的爱神的事情, ,从而使我们更加听话和温顺的圣灵的启示。

But how do they differ from the virtues?但他们如何不同于美德?Some writers think they are not really distinct from them, that they are the virtues inasmuch as the latter are free gifts of God, and that they are identified essentially with grace, charity, and the virtues.一些作家认为他们并没有真正从他们不同,他们是美德因为后者是神免费赠品,他们基本上是有风度,慈善,和美德鉴定。 That opinion has the particular merit of avoiding a multiplication of the entities infused into the soul.这一观点具有避免了灵魂注入到实体乘法特别有好处。Other writers look upon the gifts as perfections of a higher order than the virtues; the latter, they say, dispose us to follow the impulse and guidance of reason; the former are functionally intended to render the will obedient and docile to the inspirations of the Holy Ghost.其他作家的眼光来看待,作为礼物比美德高阶波罗蜜,后者,他们说,处置我们跟随的冲动和理性的引导,前者在功能上是为了使该会听话和温顺到的启示圣灵。 For the former opinion, see Bellevüe, "L'uvre du Saint-Esprit" (Paris, 1902), 99 sq.; and for the latter, see St. Thomas, I-II, Q. lxviii, a.对于前一种观点,见贝尔维尤,“欧莱雅uvre杜圣思捷”(巴黎,1902年),99平方米;并为后者,见圣托马斯,第一和第二,问:lxviii,甲 1, and Froget, "De l'habitation du Saint-Esprit dans les âmes justes" (Paris, 1900), 378 sq. 1,Froget,“德欧莱雅居住的杜圣思捷丹斯莱斯艾姆斯justes”(巴黎,1900年),378平方米

The gifts of the second class, or charismata, are known to us partly from St. Paul, and partly from the history of the primitive Church, in the bosom of which God plentifully bestowed them.第二类,或的charismata的礼物,我们是众所周知的部分来自圣保罗,部分从原始教会的历史,在上帝赐予他们丰满的怀抱。 Of these "manifestations of the Spirit", "all these things [that] one and the same Spirit worketh, dividing to every one according as he will", the Apostle speaks to us, particularly in I Corinthians 12:6-11; I Corinthians 12:28-31; and Romans 12:6-8.这些“的精神表现”,“所有这些东西[是]同一个精神作事,划分到每一个根据,因为他将要”,对我们说话的使徒在哥林多前书12:6-11特别;我哥林多前书12:28-31;和罗马12:6-8。

In the first of these three passages we find nine charismata mentioned: the gift of speaking with wisdom, the gift of speaking with knowledge, faith, the grace of healing, the gift of miracles, the gift of prophecy, the gift of discerning spirits, the gift of tongues, the gift of interpreting speeches.在这三个通道,我们发现九的charismata提到第一:用智慧说话的礼物,用知识,信仰,疗伤优雅,奇迹的礼物,礼物的预言,在挑剔的精神馈赠礼品来说,所赐的口才,在解释发言的礼物。 To this list we must at least add, as being found in the other two passages indicated, the gift of government, the gift of helps, and perhaps what Paul calls distributio and misericordia.这份名单,我们必须至少添加,作为目前在其他两个通道发现表明,政府的礼物,礼物的帮助,也许保罗呼吁分布和仁慈堂。 However, exegetes are not all agreed as to the number of the charismata, or the nature of each one of them; long ago, St. Chrysostom and St. Augustine had pointed out the obscurity of the question.然而,解经家是不是所有的同意,以数量的的charismata,或他们每个人的性质;很久以前,圣金口和圣奥古斯丁曾指出,问题的默默无闻。 Adhering to the most probable views on the subject, we may at once classify the charismata and explain the meaning of most of them as follows.坚持关于这一问题的最可能的意见,我们可能会在一次分类的charismata,并解释了其中最有意义如下。They form four natural groups:他们形成四个自然组:

Two charismata which regard the teaching of Divine things: sermo sapientiæ, sermo scientiæ, the former relating to the exposition of the higher mysteries, the latter to the body of Christian truths.这两个方面的charismata神圣的东西教学:sermo sapientiæ,sermo科学学报,前者涉及到较高的奥秘,后者身体的基督教真理的论述。

Three charismata that lend support to this teaching: fides, gratia sanitatum, operatio virtutum.三的charismata这支持了这样的教诲:惹人,特惠sanitatum,手术中virtutum。The faith here spoken of is faith in the sense used by Matthew 17:19: that which works wonders; so it is, as it were, a condition and a part of the two gifts mentioned with it.这里谈到的信念是由Matthew 17:19使用的意义的信念:这里面能创造奇迹,所以它是,因为它是一个条件和一个与它提到了两件礼物的一部分。

Four charismata that served to edify, exhort, and encourage the faithful, and to confound the unbelievers: prophetia, discretio spirituum, genera linguarum, interpretatio sermonum.四是有助于陶冶的charismata,规劝,鼓励忠诚,不信的羞愧:prophetia,discretio spirituum,属linguarum,口译sermonum。These four seem to fall logically into two groups; for prophecy, which is essentially inspired pronouncement on different religious subjects, the declaration of the future being only of secondary import, finds its complement and, as it were, its check in the gift of discerning spirits; and what, as a rule, would be the use of glossololia -- the gift of speaking with tongues -- if the gift of interpreting them were wanting?这四个似乎分为两组符合逻辑;的预言,它在本质上不同的宗教题材的启发宣判,对进口仅为二级未来宣言,认为它的补充和,因为它是,它在挑剔的礼券精神,以及什么,作为一项规则,将是glossololia使用 - 与说方言的礼物 - 如果想解释他们中的礼物?

Lastly there remain the charismata that seem to have as object the administration of temporal affairs, amid works of charity: gubernationes, opitulationes, distributiones.最后,还有保持的charismata,似乎已经为对象的世俗事务管理中的慈善工作:gubernationes,opitulationes,distributiones。 Judging by the context, these gifts, though conferred and useful for the direction and comfort of one's neighbour, were in no way necessarily found in all ecclesiastical superiors.由上下文来看,这些礼物,虽然赋予的的方向和自己的邻居安慰有用的,绝不是必然发现,在所有教会的上司。

The charismata, being extraordinary favours and not requisite for the sanctification of the individual, were not bestowed indiscriminately on all Christians.本的charismata,特别是有利于而不是为了个人的成圣的先决条件,盲目上没有赋予所有基督徒。However, in the Apostolic Age, they were comparatively common, especially in the communities of Jerusalem, Rome, and Corinth.然而,在使徒时代,他们比较普遍,特别是在耶路撒冷,罗马和科林斯社区。The reason of this is apparent: in the infant Churches the charismata were extremely useful, and even morally necessary, to strengthen the faith of believers, to confound the infidels, to make them reflect, and to counterbalance the false miracles with which they sometimes prevailed.这个理由是明显的:在婴儿教会的极其有益的charismata,甚至在道德上有必要,以加强对信徒的信仰,以混淆异教徒,使他们反映,并与他们抗衡,有时占了上风虚假的奇迹。 St. Paul was careful (I Corinthians 12, 13, 14) to restrict authoritatively the use of these charismata within the ends for which they were bestowed, and thus insist upon their subordination to the power of the hierarchy.圣保罗是谨慎的(哥林多前书12,13,14),限制了这些权威的charismata内为他们被赋予完使用,因此在他们服从权力的层次坚持。 Cf.比照。Batiffol, "L'Eglise naissante et le catholicisme" (Paris, 1909), 36. Batiffol,“欧莱雅埃格斯naissante等乐catholicisme”(巴黎,1909年),36。(See CHARISMATA.) (见的charismata。)

VII.七。FRUITS OF THE HOLY GHOST圣灵的果实

Some writers extend this term to all the supernatural virtues, or rather to the acts of all these virtues, inasmuch as they are the results of the mysterious workings of the Holy Ghost in our souls by means of His grace.一些作家这个词扩展到所有超自然的美德,或者更确切地说,所有这些美德的行为,因为它们是由他的恩典手段的圣灵在我们的灵魂的神秘运作的结果。 But, with St. Thomas, I-II, Q. lxx, a.但是,与圣托马斯,第一和第二,问:LXX的,甲2, the word is ordinarily restricted to mean only those supernatural works that are done joyfully and with peace of soul.2,这个词是指通常只限于那些快乐和完成和平与超自然的灵魂工程。This is the sense in which most authorities apply the term to the list mentioned by St. Paul (Galatians 5:22-23): "But the fruit of the Spirit is, charity, joy, peace, patience, benignity, goodness, longanimity, mildness, faith, modesty, continency, chastity."这是常识,其中最当局申请到由圣保罗(加拉太书5:22-23)中提到的名单词:“但圣灵的果子是,慈善,喜乐,和平,忍耐,亲切,善良,泰然,温和,信念,谦逊,continency,贞洁。“ Moreover, there is no doubt that this list of twelve -- three of the twelve are omitted in several Greek and Latin manuscripts -- is not to be taken in a strictly limited sense, but, according to the rules of Scriptural language, as capable of being extended to include all acts of a similar character.此外,毫无疑问,这十二表 - 一二〇三年在几个希腊和拉丁手稿省略 - 是不是将要采取严格的限制感,但是,根据圣经的语言的规则,因为有能力被扩大到包括类似性质的一切行为。That is why the Angelic Doctor says: "Every virtuous act which man performs with pleasure is a fruit."这就是为什么天使般的医生说:“。良性行为,每个人愉快地执行是一种水果”The fruits of the Holy Ghost are not habits, permanent qualities, but acts.圣灵的果实有没有习惯,永久的品质,但行为。They cannot, therefore, be confounded with the virtues and the gifts, from which they are distinguished as the effect is from its cause, or the stream from its source.他们不能,因此,可以与美德和礼物,从他们都是杰出的效果,从它的原因,或者从源头流的界线。The charity, patience, mildness, etc., of which the Apostle speaks in this passage, are not then the virtues themselves, but rather their acts or operations; for, however perfect the virtues may be, they cannot be considered as the ultimate effects of grace, being themselves intended, inasmuch as they are active principles, to produce something else, ie their acts.慈善,耐心,温和等,其中使徒在这一段说话,是不是那么的美德本身,而是他们的行为或行动;为,但完美的优点可能是,他们不能被视为最终影响的宽限期,而本身的意图,因为他们是活跃的原则,以生产别的东西,即他们的行为。 Further, in order that these acts may fully justify their metaphorical name of fruits, they must belong to that class which are performed with ease and pleasure; in other words, the difficulty involved in performing them must disappear in presence of the delight and satisfaction resulting from the good accomplished.此外,为了使这些行为可以充分证明他们的水果隐喻的名字,他们必须属于那个是轻松和愉悦演出类,换句话说,他们的困难,必须在执行中存在的喜悦和满足感消失造成的参与从良好的完成。

VIII.八。SINS AGAINST THE HOLY GHOST得罪圣灵

The sin or blasphemy against the Holy Ghost is mentioned in Matthew 12:22-32; Mark 3:22-30; Luke 12:10 (cf. 11:14-23); and Christ everywhere declares that it shall not be pardoned.该罪或对圣灵的亵渎,是在马太12:22-32提到,马可福音3:22-30,路加福音12:10(参见11:14-23)和基督到处声明,它将不会被赦免。 In what does it consist?在什么组成?If we examine all the passages alluded to, there can be little doubt as to the reply.如果我们审查所有的通道提到,可以有作为的答复毫无疑问的。

Let us take, for instance, the account given by St. Matthew which is more complete than that of the other Synoptics.让我们看看,例如,由圣马太给出的帐户,这比其他天气学,完整。There had been brought to Christ "one possessed with a devil, blind and dumb: and he healed him, so that he spoke and saw".目前已提请基督“一具有一个魔鬼,盲人和哑巴:他就治好了他,让他说话,看见”。While the crowd is wondering, and asking: "Is not this the Son of David?", the Pharisees, yielding to their wonted jealousy, and shutting their eyes to the light of evidence, say: "This man casteth not out devils but by Beelzebub the prince of the devils."虽然人群疑惑,问:“难道这不是大卫的儿子?”,法利赛人,屈从于他们的旧嫉妒,并关闭他们的眼睛的证据,说:“这个人不掉赶鬼,而是由魔王的恶魔王子“。 Jesus then proves to them this absurdity, and, consequently, the malice of their explanation; He shows them that it is by "the Spirit of God" that He casts out devils, and then He concludes: "therefore I say to you: Ever sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven men, but the blasphemy of the Spirit shall not be forgiven. And whosoever shall speak a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but he that shall speak against the Holy Ghost, it shall not he forgiven him, neither in this world, nor in the world to come."耶稣就证明给他们这个荒谬,而且,因此,对他们的解释恶意,他指示他们,它是由“上帝的灵”,他施放出魔鬼,然后他的结论:“因此,我对你说:曾经。罪和亵渎得赦免的人,但圣灵的亵渎不得赦免,凡讲反对人子的,应当原谅他:但他说,应当说对圣灵的,不得他原谅了他,无论是在这个世界上,也不在世界来。“

So, to sin against the Holy Ghost is to confound Him with the spirit of evil, it is to deny, from pure malice, the Divine character of works manifestly Divine.因此,要对圣灵的罪是混淆与邪恶的精神他,那就是否认,从纯粹的恶意,神圣的工程性质明显神圣。This is the sense in which St. Mark also defines the sin question; for, after reciting the words of the Master: "But he that shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost shall never have forgiveness", he adds at once: "Because they said: He hath an unclean spirit."这是常识,其中圣马克也定义了罪的问题,因为,后背诵师父的话:“但他认为应亵渎圣灵永远不会有宽恕”,他立刻补充说:“因为他们说:他凡有不洁的精神“。 With this sin of pure downright malice, Jesus contrasts the sin "against the Son of man", that is the sin committed against Himself as man, the wrong done to His humanity in judging Him by His humble and lowly appearance.有了这个罪恶的纯彻头彻尾的恶意,耶稣对比了“反对人子”,即作为人对自己所犯的罪,做听其谦逊卑微,他到自己的外观人类的罪错。 This fault, unlike the former, might he excused as the result of man's ignorance and misunderstanding.此故障,不像以前,他可以原谅的人的无知和误解的结果。

But the Fathers of the Church, commenting on the Gospel texts we are treating of, did not confine themselves to the meaning given above.但是,教会的神父,在文本的福音,我们治疗,评论并不局限于自己的意思作参考。Whether it be that they wished to group together all objectively analogous cases, or whether they hesitated and wavered when confronted with this point of doctrine, which St. Augustine declares (Serm. ii de verbis Domini, c. v) one of the most difficult in Scripture, they have proposed different interpretations or explanations.无论是,他们希望所有客观地组合在一起类似的案件,还是犹豫和动摇时,他们用这种学说点,圣奥古斯丁宣称(Serm.第二代verbis多米尼角五)之一,面临的最困难的在经文中,他们提出了不同的解释或说明。 St. Thomas, whom we may safely follow, gives a very good summary of opinions in II-II, Q. xiv.圣托马斯的人,我们可以有把握地跟进,给出了在二,二,问:十四意见很好的总结。He says that blasphemy against the Holy Ghost was and may be explained in three ways.他说,对圣灵的亵渎,并且可能在三个方面解释。

Sometimes, and in its most literal signification, it has been taken to mean the uttering of an insult against the Divine Spirit, applying the appellation either to the Holy Ghost or to all three Divine persons.有时,在其最字面意义,它已采取指的是对说出的神圣精神的侮辱,运用称谓无论对圣灵或所有三个神圣的人。This was the sin of the Pharisees, who spoke at first against "the Son of Man", criticizing the works and human ways of Jesus, accusing Him of loving good cheer and wine, of associating with the publicans, and who, later on, with undoubted bad faith, traduced His Divine works, the miracles which He wrought by virtue of His own Divinity.这是法利赛,谁讲了话反对“人子”首先,批评耶稣的工作和人类罪恶的方式,指责税吏爱与交往,良好的欢呼和葡萄酒,他和谁,后来,以不容置疑的不守信用,traduced他的神的作品,他以他自己的神性美德造成的奇迹。

On the other hand, St. Augustine frequently explains blasphemy against the Holy Ghost to be final impenitence, perseverance till death in mortal sin.另一方面,圣奥古斯丁频频解释对圣灵的亵渎是最后不知悔改,直至死亡的弥天大罪毅力。This impenitence is against the Holy Ghost, in the sense that it frustrates and is absolutely opposed to the remission of sins, and this remission is appropriated to the Holy Ghost, the mutual love of the Father and the Son.这不知悔改是对圣灵,在某种意义上说,它挫败,是绝对反对的罪得赦,这是拨缓解圣灵,对父亲和儿子互爱。In this view, Jesus, in Matthew 12 and Mark 3 did not really accuse the Pharisees of blaspheming the Holy Ghost, He only warned them against the danger they were in of doing so.这种观点认为,耶稣,在马太福音12和马克3没有真正指控亵渎圣灵的法利赛人,他只是警告的危险,他们在这样做了他们。

Finally, several Fathers, and after them, many scholastic theologians, apply the expression to all sins directly opposed to that quality which is, by appropriation, the characteristic quality of the Third Divine Person.最后,几个父亲,并在他们之后,许多学术神学家申请直接表达反对的质量是所有的罪孽,按拨款,第三神圣的人的特征质量。 Charity and goodness are especially attributed to the Holy Ghost, as power is to the Father and wisdom to the Son.慈善和善良特别归因于圣灵,因为权力是父和智慧的儿子。Just, then, as they termed sins against the Father those that resulted from frailty, and sins against the Son those that sprang from ignorance, so the sins against the Holy Ghost are those that are committed from downright malice, either by despising or rejecting the inspirations and impulses which, having been stirred in man's soul by the Holy Ghost, would turn him away or deliver him from evil.只是,那么,他们称之为对父亲那些从衰弱造成的罪孽,反对儿子和罪孽那些从无知窜出,所以对圣灵的罪是指那些致力于从彻头彻尾的恶意,由轻视或拒绝要么灵感和,现已获得冲动强烈地震撼着人的灵魂的圣灵,会变成他离开或脱离邪恶他。

It is easy to see how this wide explanation suits all the circumstances of the case where Christ addresses the words to the Pharisees.这是很容易看到这种广泛的解释适用于所有的地址的情况下基督的话来法利情况。These sins are commonly reckoned six: despair, presumption, impenitence or a fixed determination not to repent, obstinacy, resisting the known truth, and envy of another's spiritual welfare.一般估计,这些罪六:绝望,推定,不知悔改或固定决心不思悔改,顽固不化,抵抗已知的事实,以及他人的精神福利羡慕。

The sins against the Holy Ghost are said to be unpardonable, but the meaning of this assertion will vary very much according to which of the three explanations given above is accepted.对圣灵的罪过说成是不可饶恕的,但这种说法的意思很可能会有所不同,根据该三个上述解释被接受。As to final impenitence it is absolute; and this is easily understood, for even God cannot pardon where there is no repentance, and the moment of death is the fatal instant after which no mortal sin is remitted.至于它是绝对的最后不知悔改的人,这是很容易理解,因为即使上帝不能原谅那里没有悔过书,和死亡的时刻是致命的瞬间之后,没有人的罪是汇出。 It was because St. Augustine considered Christ's words to imply absolute unpardonableness that he held the sin against the Holy Ghost to be solely final impenitence.这是因为圣奥古斯丁认为基督的话暗示,他绝对unpardonableness举行的对圣灵的罪是单纯的最后不知悔改。 In the other two explanations, according to St. Thomas, the sin against the Holy Ghost is remissable -- not absolutely and always, but inasmuch as (considered in itself) it has not the claims and extenuating circumstance, inclining towards a pardon, that might be alleged in the case of sins of weakness and ignorance.在另外两种解释,根据圣托马斯,对圣灵的罪是remissable - 不是绝对的祝福,但因为(在考虑本身)有没有索赔和减轻罪责的情况下,对赦免倾斜,即据称在可能的软弱和无知的罪案件。He who, from pure and deliberate malice, refuses to recognize the manifest work of God, or rejects the necessary means of salvation, acts exactly like a sick man who not only refuses all medicine and all food, but who does all in his power to increase his illness, and whose malady becomes incurable, due to his own action.他谁,从纯粹的和蓄意的恶意,不承认神的工作表现,或拒绝救恩的必要手段,就像一个生病的人谁不仅拒绝所有药品和所有食物,但谁也正是在他的权力,所有增加自己的疾病,其病成为不治之症,因为他自己的行动。 It is true, that in either case, God could, by a miracle, overcome the evil; He could, by His omnipotent intervention, either nuillify the natural causes of bodily death, or radically change the will of the stubborn sinner; but such intervention is not in accordance with His ordinary providence; and if he allows the secondary causes to act, if He offers the free human will of ordinary but sufficient grace, who shall seek cause of complaint?这是真的,在这两种情况下,神能,是一个奇迹,战胜邪恶,他可以通过他的无所不能的干预,无论是nuillify身体的自然原因死亡,或从根本上改变顽固的罪人会,但这种干预不符合按照他的普通普罗维登斯;如果他允许的次要原因采取行动,如果他提供了自由人的意志一般,但足够的宽限期,谁应征求投诉的原因? In a word, the irremissableness of the sins against the Holy Ghost is exclusively on the part of the sinner, on account of the sinner's act.总之,在对圣灵的罪irremissableness完全是对罪人的一部分,对罪人的行为帐户。

Publication information Written by J. Forget.出版信息写了J.忘记。Transcribed by WS French, Jr.转录的是法国人,小。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.天主教百科全书,体积七。Published 1910.1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年6月1号。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

On the dogma see: ST.在教条看到:圣。THOMAS, Summa Theol., I, Q. xxxvi-xliii; FRANZELIN, De Deo Trino (Rome, 1881); C. PESCH, Pælectiones dogmaticæ, II (Freiburg im Br., 1895) POHLE, Lehrbuch der Dogmatik, I (Paderborn, 1902); TANQUEREY, Synop.托马斯,总结Theol,我问:三十六,四十三。FRANZELIN,德迪奥特里诺(罗马,1881年),三佩施,Pælectiones dogmaticæ,二(。弗赖堡的IM溴,1895年)POHLE,Lehrbuch明镜Dogmatik,我(帕德博恩,1902年); TANQUEREY,Synop。Theol.Theol。dogm.dogm。spec., I, II (Rome, 1907-8).规范。,一,二(罗马,1907-8)。Concerning the Scriptural arguments for the dogma: WINSTANLEY, Spirit in the New Testament (Cambridge, 1908); LEMONNYER, Epîtres de S. Paul, I (Paris, 1905).关于圣经的教条的论据:在新约圣经(剑桥,1908年)温斯坦利,精神; LEMONNYER,Epîtres德第保罗,我(巴黎,1905年)。Concerning tradition: PETAVIUS, De Deo Trino in his Dogmata theologica; SCHWANE, Dogmengeschichte, I (Freiburg im Br., 1892); DE REGNON, Etudes théologiques sur la Sainte Trinité (Paris, 1892); TIXERONT, Hist.关于传统:PETAVIUS,德迪奥特里诺在他的教理神学,SCHWANE,Dogmengeschichte,我(弗赖堡的IM溴,1892年。)德REGNON,练习曲théologiques拉河畔圣圣三一(巴黎,1892年); TIXERONT,组织胺。Des dogmes, I (Paris, 1905); TURMEL, Hist.德dogmes,我(巴黎,1905年); TURMEL,组织胺。de la théol.德拉théol。 positive (Paris, 1904).阳性(巴黎,1904年)。


Holy Spirit圣灵

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观资料

Biblical View of the Spirit.圣经观点的精神。

The most noticeable difference between sentient beings and dead things, between the living and the dead, is in the breath.众生之间的和死的东西之间​​的差别最明显的生者与死者,是在呼吸。Whatever lives breathes; whatever is dead does not breathe.无论生命呼吸;不管是死也不能呼吸。Aquila, by strangling some camels and then asking Hadrian to set them on their legs again, proved to the emperor that the world is based on "spirit" (Yer. Ḥag. 41, 77a).雕,证明了扼杀一些骆驼,然后问哈德良上设置他们自己的腿再次向皇帝,世界上“精神”(Yer.女巫。41,77A条)的基础。 In most languages breath and spirit are designated by the same term.在大多数语言中的呼吸和精神是相同的指定任期。The life-giving breath can not be of earthly origin, for nothing is found whence it may be taken.赐生命的气息不能尘世的起源,因为那里没有发现它可能采取。It is derived from the supernatural world, from God.这是来自超自然的世界,从神。God blew the breath of life into Adam (Gen. ii. 7).上帝吹进亚当的生命的气息(创二7。)。"The Spirit of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath given me life" (Job xxxiii. 4; comp. ib. xxvii. 3).他说:“上帝使我的精神,和全能的上帝给了我生命的气息”(约伯记三十三4;。比赛兴业二十七3。。。)。God "giveth breath unto the people upon it [the earth], and spirit to them that walk therein" (Isa. xlii. 5).上帝“赐气息给众人在它[地球],和精神向他们表示,在其间”(以赛亚书四十二。5)。"In whose hand is the soul of every living thing, and the breath of all mankind" (Job xii. 10). “在他手中,是每一个活物的生命,以及所有人类的气息”(伯十二。10)。Through His spirit all living things are created; and when He withdraws it they perish (ib. xxxiv. 14; Ps. civ. 29, 30).通过他的精神是万物创造,而当他退出它,他们灭亡(同上三十四14;。哀诗29,30。。)。He is therefore the God of the spirits of all flesh (Num. xvi. 22, xxvii. 16).因此,他的一切肉体的灵神(民数记十六。22,二十七。16)。The breath of animals also is derived from Him (Gen. vi. 17; Ps. civ. 30 [AV 29]; Eccl. iii. 19-21; Isa. xlii. 5).动物的呼吸也来自他(创六17;。哀诗30 [视听29]。。。传道书三19-21;。赛四十二5。。)。The heavenly' bodies likewise are living beings, who have received their spirit from God (Job xxvi. 13; Ps. xxxiii. 6).天上的身体同样是活生生的人,谁收到了上帝的精神(伯二十六13;。诗三十三6。。)。God's spirit hovered over the form of lifeless matter, thereby making the Creation possible; and it still causes the most tremendous changes (Gen. i. 2; Isa. xxxii. 15).上帝的精神上空盘旋无生命物质的形式,从而使创作成为可能;,它还是引起了巨大的变化最(创一2。赛三十二15。)。

Hence all creatures live only through the spirit given by God.因此,所有生物生活,只有通过神所赋予的精神。In a more restricted sense, however, the spirit of God is not identical with this life-giving spirit.在一个更严格的意义上说,上帝的精神是不完全相同这种赋予生命的精神。He pours out His own spirit upon all whom He has chosen to execute His will and behests, and this spirit imbues them with higher reason and powers, making them capable of heroic speech and action (Gen. xli. 38; Ex. xxxi. 3; Num. xxiv. 2; Judges iii. 10; II Sam. xxiii. 2).他倒在一切人,他选择了执行他的意志和遗志他自己的精神,这种精神贯穿具有较高的原因和他们的权力,使他们能够英勇言论和行动(创四十一38;。前三十一3。。 ;编号二十四二。。法官三10;。二山姆二十三2)。。。This special spirit of God rests upon man (Isa. xi. 2, xlii. 1); it surrounds him like a garment (Judges vi. 34; II Chron. xxiv. 20); it falls upon him and holds him like a hand (Ezek. xi. 5, xxxvii. 1).这种特殊的精神在于对上帝的人(以赛亚书十一二,四十二1。。),它围绕着他像一间制衣(法官六34;。二慢性四条20。。);跌倒在他的身上,并持有他像一只手(结十一。五,三十七。1)。 It may also be taken away from the chosen one and transferred to some one else (Num. xi. 17).这也可能是带离选择之一,并转移到另外一个人(民数记十一。17)。It may enter into man and speak with his voice (II Sam. xxiii. 2; Ezek. ii. 2; comp. Jer. x. 14).它可以进入男子和他说话的声音(二山姆二十三2;。。。以西结书二2。比赛耶十14。。)。The prophet sees and hears by means of the spirit (Num. xxiv. 2; I Sam. x. 6; II Sam. xxiii. 2; Isa. xlii. 1; Zech. vii. 12).先知看到和听到的精神手段(民数记二十四2;。我心十6;。二山姆二十三2;。。。赛四十二1。。撒加利亚七12。)。 The Messianic passage in Joel ii.在乔尔二弥赛亚通道。28-29, to which special significance was subsequently attached, is characteristic of the view regarding the nature of the spirit: "And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out my Spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions: And also upon the servants and upon the handmaids in those days will I pour out my Spirit." 28-29日,对于这些特殊的意义其后重视,是关于自然观的精神特征:“它应当到2:28以后,我要将我的灵浇灌凡有血气的,而你的儿女要说预言,你们的老年人要作异梦,少年人要见异象:而且还取决于公务员,并呼吁在那些日子,使女我把精神“。

The Divine Spirit.神圣的精神。

What the Bible calls "Spirit of Yhwh" and "Spirit of Elohim" is called in the Talmud and Midrash "Holy Spirit" ("Ruaḥ ha-Ḳodesh." never "Ruaḥ Ḳedoshah," as Hilgenfeld says, in "Ketzergesch." p. 237).什么圣经所说的“耶和华神”和“耶洛因精神”,就是在塔木德和米德拉士“圣灵”所谓的(“Ruaḥ公顷Ḳodesh。”从不“RuaḥḲedoshah,”作为Hilgenfeld说,在“Ketzergesch。的”P 。237)。Although the expression "Holy Spirit" occurs in Ps.虽然表达的“圣灵”发生在PS。li.李。11 (LXX. πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον) and in Isa.11(LXX.πνεῦματὸἅγιον)和伊萨。lxiii.lxiii。10, 11, it had not yet the definite meaning which was attached to it in rabbinical literature: in the latter it is equivalent to theexpression "Spirit of the Lord," which was avoided on account of the disinclination to the use of the Tetragrammaton (see, for example, Targ. to Isa. xl. 13). 10,11,但它没有明确的含义是重视它在犹太教文学:在后者就相当于theexpression“主的灵”,这是对不愿帐户避免到Tetragrammaton(使用见,例如,塔尔格。以伊萨。xl的。13)。 It is probably owing to this fact that the Shekinah is often referred to instead of the Holy Spirit.这大概也是由于这个原因的Shekinah而不是通常被称为圣灵的事实。It is said of the former, as of the Holy Spirit, that it rests upon a person.据说前,作为神圣的精神,它在一个人身上。 The difference between the two in such cases has not yet been determined.这两者之间的差异在这种情况下尚未确定。It is certain that the New Testament has πνεῦμα ἅγιον in those passages, also, where the Hebrew and Aramaic had "Shekinah"; for in Greek there is no equivalent to the latter, unless it be δόξα (="gleam of light"), by which "ziw ha-shekinah" may be rendered.可以肯定的是新约已经πνεῦμα在这些通道ἅγιον,同时,在希伯来文和阿拉姆语有“舍吉拿”,因为在希腊也没有后者相当于,除非它是δόξα(=“曙光”),其中“ziw公顷希金”可能被渲染。 Because of the identification of the Holy Spirit with the Shekinah, πνεῦμα ἅγιον is much more frequently mentioned in the New Testament than is "Ruaḥ ha-Ḳodesh" in rabbinical literature.由于用的Shekinah圣灵鉴定,πνεῦμαἅγιον更频繁的新约比“Ruaḥ公顷Ḳodesh”,在犹太教文献提及。

Nature of the Holy Spirit.大自然的圣灵。

Although the Holy Spirit is often named instead of God (eg, in Sifre, Deut. 31 [ed. Friedmann, p. 72]), yet it was conceived as being something distinct.虽然圣灵是上帝,而不是通常命名(例如,在Sifre,申命记。31 [教育署。弗里德曼,第72页]),但它是作为正在构思独特的东西。The Spirit was among the ten things that were created on the first day (Ḥag. 12a, b).的精神,是其中十个是在第一天创造的东西(Ḥag.12A条,二)。Though the nature of the Holy Spirit is really nowhere described, the name indicates that it was conceived as a kind of wind that became manifest through noise and light.虽然圣灵的性质是真的没有完整的记载,顾名思义,它是作为一种风,成为噪音,光线通过舱单设想。As early as Ezek.早在以西结书。 iii.三。12 it is stated, "the spirit took me up, and I heard behind me a voice of a great rushing," the expression "behind me" characterizing the unusual nature of the noise. 12这是说“的精神,我花了起来,我听到身后传来一个伟大的声音冲”,表达“我身后”刻画的噪音不寻常的性质。The Shekinah made a noise before Samson like a bell (Soṭah 9b, below).参孙的Shekinah之前像钟(Soṭah9B条,下文)噪音。 When the Holy Spirit was resting upon him, his hair gave forth a sound like a bell, which could be heard from afar.当圣灵在他身上休息,他的头发像提出了一个钟,这可能是从远处听到的声音。It imbued him with such strength that he could uproot two mountains and rub them together like pebbles, and could cover leagues at one step (ib. 17b; Lev. R. viii. 2).它充满了这样的实力,他可以铲除他两山像鹅卵石揉搓在一起,并能涵盖一步联赛(同上17B条。。列弗传译八2)。Similarly Acts ii.同样的行为二。 2 reads: "And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting" (it must be noted that this happened at Pentecost, ie, the Feast of Revelation). 2款规定:“突然出现了一个由好像一阵大风吹过天籁之声,充满所有的房子里,他们坐在”(必须指出,这在五旬节,即启示录盛宴发生)。Although the accompanying lights are not expressly mentioned, the frequently recurring phrase "he beheld ["heẓiẓ"] in the Holy Spirit" shows that he upon whom the spirit rested saw a light.虽然伴随灯都没有明确提到的,经常反复出现的一句“他看到”在圣灵[“heẓiẓ]”表明他的精神休息后,他们看见一盏灯。 The Holy Spirit gleamed in the court of Shem, of Samuel, and of King Solomon (Gen. R. lxxxv. 12).圣灵闪着在闪的塞缪尔,法院,所罗门王(创传译捌拾伍。12)。It "glimmered" in Tamar (Gen. xxxviii. 18), in the sons of Jacob (Gen. xlii. 11), and in Moses (Ex. ii. 12), ie, it settled upon the persons in question (see Gen. R. lxxxv. 9, xci. 7; Lev. R. xxxii. 4, "niẓoẓah" and "heẓiẓ"; comp. also Lev. R. viii. 2, "hitḥil le-gashgesh").它“闪闪发光”的玛(创三十八。18),在雅各的儿子(创四十二。11),在摩西(出二。12),也就是说,它在有关人员解决(见将军。捌拾伍九河,xci 7。。。列夫河三十二4,“niẓoẓah”和“heẓiẓ”。比赛也列夫河八2,“hitḥi​​l乐gashgesh”)。。。。From the day that Joseph was sold the Holy Spirit left Jacob, who saw and heard only indistinctly (Gen. R. xci. 6).从约瑟被卖圣灵天左雅各布,谁只能隐约看到和听到的(创传译xci。6)。

The Holy Spirit, being of heavenly origin, is composed, like everything that comes from heaven, of light and fire.圣灵,天上血统的组成,都喜欢从天上的光与火来。When it rested upon Phinehas his face burned like a torch (Lev. R. xxi., end).非尼哈当它休息时他的脸像一个火把烧(lev.传译二十一。月底)。When the Temple was destroyed and Israel went into exile, the Holy Spirit returned to heaven; this is indicated in Eccl.当圣殿被毁和以色列流亡,圣灵回到天堂,这是在传道书表示。xii.十二。7: "the spirit shall return unto God" (Eccl. R. xii. 7).7:“的精神,应当返还给神”(传道书传译十二7。)。The spirit talks sometimes with a masculine and sometimes with a feminine voice (Eccl. vii. 29 [AV 28]); ie, as the word "ruaḥ" is both masculine and feminine, the Holy Spirit was conceived as being sometimes a man and sometimes a woman.有时一个男性化的,有时甚至是女性的声音(。传道书七29 [视听28])精神进行了会谈,即作为单词“ruaḥ”,既是男性和女性,圣灵有时被视为是一个男人和有时一个女人。

In the Form of a Dove.的形式鸽子。

The four Gospels agree in saying that when Jesus was baptized the Holy Spirit in the shape of a dove came down from the opening heaven and rested upon him.四福音同意说,当耶稣受洗的鸽子形状的圣灵下来,从天上的开放后,他休息。The phraseology of the passages, especially in Luke, shows that this description was not meant symbolically, as Conybeare ("Expositor," iv., ix. 455) assumes, following Alexandrian views (comp. Matt. iii. 16; Mark i. 10; Luke iii. 22; John iv. 33; and Hastings, "Dict. Bible," ii. 406a).该段落的用语,特别是在路加,表明这并不意味着象征性的描述,作为科尼比尔假设,以下亚历山大次(comp.马特三16(“Expositor的,”四,九455。。)。。马克一10;路加福音三22;。约翰四33;。和黑斯廷斯,“快译通圣经。”二406A章)。。 This idea of a dove-like form is found in Jewish literature also.这是一只鸽子样的形式构思中发现犹太文学也。The phrase in Cant.在斜面短语。 ii.二。12, "the voice of the dove" (AV "turtle"), is translated in the Targum "the voice of the Holy Spirit." 12,“声音的鸽子”(视听“龟”),是在根翻译“圣灵的声音。”The passage in Gen. i.通过在一将军2, "And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters," is interpreted by Ben Zoma (c. 100) to mean, "As a dove that hovers above her brood without touching it" (Ḥag. 15a).2,“和神的灵运行在水面的脸,”是由Ben Zoma(约100)解释为,“作为一个鸽子在盘旋在她耿耿于怀而不触及它”(Ḥag.15A条)。As the corresponding passage in the Palestinian Talmud (Ḥag. 77b, above) mentions the eagle instead of the dove, the latter is perhaps not named here with reference to the Holy Spirit.由于在巴勒斯坦塔木德相应的通道(Ḥag.77B条,段)提到了老鹰,而不是鸽子,后者可能是没有点名提及圣灵在这里。 A teacher of the Law heard in a ruin a kind of voice ("bat ḳol") that complained like a dove: "Wo to the children, because of whose sins I have destroyed my house" (Ber. 3a, below).对法律的老师听到了废墟中的语音样(“蝙蝠科尔”),像一个鸽子抱怨:“禾给孩子,因为他们我已经毁了我家的罪孽”(Ber.第3A,下)。 Evidently God Himself, or rather the Holy Spirit, is here referred to as cooing like a dove (comp. Abbot, "From Letter to Spirit," pp. 106-135).显然上帝,或者更确切地说,圣灵,是在这里被称为如鸽般细语(可比住持,“从信精神”,第106-135)。See Dove.见鸽子。

Dissemination of the Holy Spirit.传播圣灵。

The Holy Spirit dwells only among a worthy generation, and the frequency of its manifestations is proportionate to the worthiness.圣灵住在只有一个有价值的一代,而其表现的频率是成正比的价值。 There was no manifestation of it in the time of the Second Temple (Yoma 21b), while there were many during the time of Elijah (Tosef., Soṭah, xii. 5).目前还没有它在第二圣殿(山脉21B条)时间的表现,虽然有在以利亚的时间(Tosef.,Soṭah,十二。五)很多。According to Job xxviii.根据工作二十八。25, the Holy Spirit rested upon the Prophets in varying degrees, some prophesying to the extent of one book only, and others filling two books (Lev. R. xv. 2). 25日,圣灵休息后,在不同程度上的预言,有些预言到只有一本书的程度,和其他人填补两本书(lev.传译十五。2)。Nor did it rest upon them continually, but only for a time.它也没有休息后,他们不断,但只有一次。The stages of development, the highest of which is the Holy Spirit, are as follows: zeal, integrity, purity, holiness, humility, fear of sin, the Holy Spirit.在发展阶段,其中最高的是圣灵,如下:热情,正直,纯洁,圣洁,谦卑,罪恶的恐惧,圣灵。The Holy Spirit conducts Elijah, who brings the dead to life (Yer. Shab. 3c, above, and parallel passage).圣灵进行利亚,谁带来的生命(yer.沙巴。3c中,上述情况,并平行通道)死亡。The pious act through the Holy Spirit (Tan., Wayeḥi, 14); whoever teaches the Torah in public partakes of the Holy Spirit (Cant. R. i. 9, end; comp. Lev. R. xxxv. 7).通过圣灵(Tan.,Wayeḥi,14)虔诚的行为;凡任教于圣灵的公众参与大的律法(Cant.河一9月底;比赛列夫河三十五7。。。)。 When Phinehas sinned the Holy Spirit departed from him (Lev. R. xxxvii. 4; comp. Gen. R. xix. 6; Pesiḳ. 9a).当非尼哈罪圣灵离开他(lev.传译三十七4;。。比赛创传译十九6;。Pesiḳ9A条。)。

In Biblical times the Holy Spirit was widely disseminated, resting on those who, according to the Bible, displayed a propitious activity; thus it rested on Eber and, according to Josh.在圣经时代,圣灵是广为传播,对那些谁,根据圣经,展示了吉祥活动休息,因此它在希伯和休息,根据乔什。ii.二。16, even on Rahab (Seder 'Olam, 1; Sifre, Deut. 22).16,即使是在喇合(塞德'奥兰,1。Sifre,申命记22)。It was necessary to reiterate frequently that Solomon wrote his three books, Proverbs, Canticles, and Ecclesiastes, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit (Cant. R. i. 6-10), because there was a continual opposition not only to the wise king personally, but also to his writings.有必要重申他经常说,所罗门说三本书,谚语,颂歌,并传道书下,圣灵(Cant.河一6-10)的灵感,因为有一个持续的反对不仅聪明国王本人,但也对他的著作。 A teacher of the Law says that probably for this reason the Holy Spirit rested upon Solomon in his old age only (ib. i. 10, end).对法律的老师说,这可能由于这个原因,圣灵休息后,所罗门在晚年只(ib.一10日结束)。

Holy Spirit and Prophecy.圣灵和预言。

The visible results of the activity of the Holy Spirit, according to the Jewish conception, are the books of the Bible, all of which have been composed under its inspiration.在圣灵的活动的有形成果,根据犹太人的概念,是圣经,所有这些已根据其灵感组成的书籍。All the Prophets spoke "in the Holy Spirit"; and the most characteristic sign of the presence of the Holy Spirit is the gift of prophecy, in the sense that the person upon whom it rests beholds the past and the future.所有先知说话“中的圣灵”,以及在场的圣灵最具特色的标志是预言礼物这个意义上,谁后休息揽过去和未来的人。With the death of the last three prophets, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, the Holy Spirit ceased to manifest itself in Israel; but the Bat Ḳol was still available.随着最后三个先知,哈,撒迦利亚,玛拉基死亡,圣灵不再表现在以色列境内,但蝙蝠科尔仍然可用。"A bat ḳol announced twice at assemblies of the scribes: 'There is a man who is worthy to have the Holy Spirit rest upon him.'“蝙蝠科尔宣布两次集会的文士:'有一个男人谁是值得有圣灵在他身上休息。'On one of these occasions all eyes turned to Hillel; on the other, to Samuel the Lesser" (Tosef., Soṭah, xiii. 2-4, and parallels).在其中一个场合所有的目光都希勒尔,另一方面,要塞缪尔小“(Tosef.,Soṭah,十三2-4,和​​平行线。)。 Although the Holy Spirit was not continually present, and did not rest for any length of time upon any individual, yet there were cases in which it appeared and made knowledge of the past and of the future possible (ib.; also with reference to Akiba, Lev. R. xxi. 8; to Gamaliel II., ib. xxxvii. 3, and Tosef., Pes. i. 27; to Meïr, Lev. R. ix. 9; etc.).虽然圣灵是没有不断地存在,并没有任何时间的任何个人休息时间,但有个案出现,并在其中由过去的知识和未来可能的(同上,也参照秋叶。,列夫传译二十一8;。以加马利亚二,兴业三十七3,Tosef,瘟岛27。。。。。。来梅尔,列夫河九9;。等)。

The Holy Spirit rested not only on the children of Israel who crossed the Red Sea (Tosef., Soṭah, vi. 2), but, toward the end of the time of the Second Temple, occasionally on ordinary mortals; for "if they are not prophets, they are at least the sons of prophets" (Tosef., Pes. iv. 2).圣灵休息不仅对以色列人谁越过红海(Tosef.,Soṭah,六2。),但朝着第二圣殿时间结束偶尔凡人;为“如果他们不是先知,他们至少先知的子孙“(Tosef.,瘟。四。2)。 The Holy Spirit is at times identified with the spirit of prophecy (comp. Seder 'Olam, 1, beginning; Targ. Yer. to Gen. xli. 38, xliii. 14; II Kings ix. 26; Isa. xxxii. 15. xl. 13, xliv. 3; Cant. R. i. 2).圣灵是在与时间的预言精神鉴定(可比塞德'奥兰,一,开始。。塔尔格也门里亚尔到创四十一38,四十三14;。。二王九26;。。赛三十二15。。加大码13,四十四3;。。。不敢河岛2)。 Sifre 170 (to Deut. xviii. 18) remarks: "'I will put My words into his mouth,' means 'I put them into his mouth, but I do not speak with him face to face'; know, therefore, that henceforth the Holy Spirit is put into the mouths of the Prophets."Sifre 170(。。来申命记十八18)备注:“'我会把他的嘴我的话,'是指'我把他的嘴,但我不会说与他面对面';知道,因此,从今以后,圣灵是投入的先知的口中。“ The "knowledge of God" is the Holy Spirit (Cant. R. i. 9).“神的知识”圣灵(Cant.河一9)。The division of the country by lot among the several tribes was likewise effected by means of the Holy Spirit (Sifre, Num. 132, p. 49a).该国由几个部落之间的分工也同样影响了很多由圣灵(sifre,序号。132,第49A条)的方式。On "inspiration" see Jew.论“灵感”看到犹太人。Encyc.Encyc。iii.三。147, sv Bible Canon, § 9; especially Meg.147,希沃特圣经佳能,§ 9,特别是梅格。7a; and Inspiration.第7A及启示。It may simply be noted here that in rabbinical literature single passages are often considered as direct utterances of the Holy Spirit (Sifre, Num. 86; Tosef., Soṭah, ix. 2; Sifre, Deut. 355, p. 148a, six times; Gen. R. lxxviii. 8, lxxxiv. 12; Lev. R. iv. 1 [the expression "and the Holy Spirit cries" occurs five times], xiv. 2, xxvii. 2; Num. R. xv. 21; xvii. 2, end; Deut. R. xi., end).它可能只是在这里指出,在犹太教文学单一通道经常被直接话语的圣灵(sifre,序号86审议;。。Tosef,Soṭah,九2;。。Sifre,申355,第148A条,六次;。将军河第七十八号8,lxxxiv 12。。。列夫河四一[表达“和圣灵的呼声”发生五次],十四二,二十七2;。。。编号河十五21。 ;十七2月底。。申河第十一结束)。。

Gentiles and the Holy Spirit.外邦人和圣灵。

The opposite of the Holy Spirit is the unclean spirit ("ruaḥ ṭum'ah"; lit. "spirit of uncleanliness").在圣灵的对面是不洁的精神(“ruaḥṭum'ah”,点燃“的不洁的精神”。)。The Holy Spirit rests on the person who seeks the Shekinah (God), while the unclean spirit rests upon him who seeks uncleanness (Sifre, Deut. 173, and parallel passage).圣灵在于对人谁搞的Shekinah(上帝),而不洁的精神后,他的目的在于谁污秽(Sifre,申命记。173,和平行通道)。 Hence arises the contrast, as in the New Testament between πνεῦμα ἅγιον and πνεῦμα ἀκάθαρτον.因此出现了反差,因为在新约之间πνεῦμαἅγιον和πνεῦμαἀκάθαρτον。On the basis of II Kings iii.对第二万王之王III的基础。13, the statement is made, probably as a polemic against the founder of Christianity, that the Holy Spirit rests only upon a happy soul (Yer. Suk. 55a, and elsewhere). 13,声明是,可能是因为对基督教的创始人,圣灵只有在一个快乐的灵魂(yer.淑。55A条,以及其他地方)在于论战。Among the pagans Balaam, from being a mere interpreter of dreams, rose to be a magician and then a possessor of the Holy Spirit (Num. R. xx. 7).在巴兰的异教徒,从一个单纯的梦想翻译,上升到一个魔术师,然后是占有的圣灵(num.传译二十。7)。But the Holy Spirit did not appear to him except at night, all pagan prophets being in possession of their gift only then (ib. xx. 12).但圣灵没有出庭,除了在晚上给他,所有的异教先知藏在他们的天赋被才(同上第xx。12)。 The Balaam section was written in order to show why the Holy Spirit was taken from the heathen-ie, because Balaam desired to destroy a whole people without cause (ib. xx. 1).本节是写在巴兰为了说明为什么圣灵是从异教徒- IE的,因为想要摧毁巴兰无故全体人民(同上二十。1)。A very ancient source (Sifre, Deut. 175) explains, on the basis of Deut.一个非常古老的来源(Sifre,申命记。175)解释说,在申命记的基础。xviii.十八。15, that in the Holy Land the gift of prophecy is not granted to the heathen or in the interest of the heathen, nor is it given outside of Palestine even to Jews. 15日,在圣地的预言的恩赐,不给予异教徒或在异教徒的利益,也不是外界给予巴勒斯坦甚至犹太人。In the Messianic time, however, the Holy Spirit will, according to Joel ii.在救世主的时间,但是,圣灵,将按照乔尔二。28, 29, be poured out upon all Israel; ie, all the people will be prophets (Num. R. xv., end). 28,29,倒出呼吁所有以色列(。num.传译十五,结束),即,所有的人将被先知。According to the remarkable statement of Tanna debe Eliyahu, ed.据塔纳debe埃利亚胡,海关显着发言。Friedmann, the Holy Spirit will be poured out equally upon Jews and pagans, both men and women, freemen and slaves.弗里德曼,圣灵将倾注了同样在犹太人和异教徒,无论男女,自由民和奴隶。

In the New Testament.在新约。

The doctrine that after the advent of the Messiah the Holy Spirit will be poured out upon all mankind explains the fact that in the New Testament such great importance is assigned to the Holy Spirit.在之后的弥赛亚圣灵的到来将是对全人类的倒出来的学说解释了在新约中如此重要,是分配到圣灵的事实。The phrase τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον occurs from eighty to ninety times (Swete, in Hastings, "Dict. Bible," ii. 404); while the phrase τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ δεοῦ is comparatively rare, it occurs several times.这句话τὸπνεῦματὸἅγιον发生从80到90倍(在黑斯廷斯,Swete,“快译通圣经。”二404。),而这句话τὸπνεῦματοῦδεοῦ是比较罕见的,它发生几次。 In Acts i.在行为岛5, 8 it is said, as in the midrash quoted above, that in the Messianic time the Holy Spirit will be poured out upon every one, and in Acts ii. 5,8这是说,如在上面引述米特拉斯,在救世主的时候,圣灵会倾在每一个,并在行为二。16 et seq.16起。Peter states that Joel's prophecy regarding the Holy Spirit has been fulfilled.彼得指出,约珥的预言就圣灵已经完成。 "While Peter yet spake these words, the Holy Ghost fell on all them which heard the word. And they of the circumcision which believed were astonished, as many as came with Peter, because that on the Gentiles also was poured out the gift of the Holy Ghost. For they heard them speak with tongues, and magnify God" (ib. x. 44-46). “虽然彼得还说这话的时候,圣灵降在一切听道的他们。它们的割礼的信徒都惊讶不已,因为许多,与彼得来了,因为在外邦人,也被泼出的礼物圣灵。因听见他们说方言,称赞神“(ib.十44-46)。 Luke also says (Luke xi. 13) that God gives the Holy Spirit to those that ask Him.卢克还表示,(路加福音十一13。),神圣灵给求他的人。The phrase "joy of the Holy Ghost" (I Thess. i. 6) also recalls the Midrash sentence quoted above referring to the contrast between the clean and the unclean spirit (Mark iii. 30).这句话的“圣灵中的喜乐”(一帖。一6)还记得上面提到的midrash句之间的清洁和不洁的精神(Mark III的。30)对比报价。The inspiration of the Biblical writers is acknowledged in the same way as in rabbinical literature (Matt. xxii. 43; Mark xii. 36; II Peter i. 21).作家的灵感,圣经中承认一样,在犹太教文学(太二十二43;。马克十二36;。彼得一21)。Hence the conception of the Holy Spirit is derived from one and the same source.因此,圣灵的概念是来自同一个来源。But as the New Testament writers look upon the Messiah, who is actually identified with the Holy Spirit, as having arrived, their view assumes a form fundamentally different from that of the Jewish view in certain respects; ie, as regards: (1) the conception and birth of the Messiah through the Holy Spirit (Matt. i. 18 et seq.; Luke i. 35; John iii. 5-8); (2) the speaking in different tongues ("glossolalia"; Acts ii. et passim): (3) the materialistic view of the Holy Spirit, evidenced in the idea that it may be communicated by means of the breath (eg, John xx. 22); and (4) the strongly developed view of the personality of the Holy Spirit (comp., for example, Matt. xii. 32; Acts v. 3; I Cor. iii. 16; Eph. ii. 22; I Peter ii. 5; Gospel to the Hebrews, quoted inHastings, "Dict. Bible," ii. 406, foot, et passim).但随着新约作者在弥赛亚,谁是真正与圣灵确定,东西当成到达时,他们认为承担的形式从根本上在某些方面的犹太人认为,不同的,也就是说,在以下方面:(1)观念和生育的弥赛亚通过圣灵(太一18起。路加福音一35;约翰三世5-8。)(2)在不同的方言(“方言”;行为二等。各处):(3)圣灵在观念证明,物欲横流认为它可能是由呼吸(例如,约翰二十22)指沟通;及(4)个性的强烈发展的看法。圣灵(可比,例如,马特十二32;。。使徒行诉3;。我肺心病三16;。弗二22;。。我彼得二世5。福音的希伯来人,引述inHastings,“快译通。圣经,“二。406,脚,等各处)。 In consequence of these fundamental differences many points of the Christian conception of the Holy Spirit have remained obscure, at least to the uninitiated.在这些根本分歧的许多基督教的圣灵观点的后果仍然默默无闻,至少在门外汉。

In the Apocrypha.在伪经。

It is noteworthy that the Holy Spirit is less frequently referred to in the Apocrypha and by the Hellenistic Jewish writers; and this circumstance leads to the conclusion that the conception of the Holy Spirit was not prominent in the intellectual life of the Jewish people, especially in the Diaspora.值得注意的是,圣灵是较少的伪经中提到,由希腊犹太作家,以及这种情况下得出的结论说,圣灵的概念并没有在犹太人民的精神生活突出,尤其是在散居。 In I Macc.在我排雷。iv.四。45, xiv.45,14。41 prophecy is referred to as something long since passed.41预言被称为东西早已通过。Wisdom ix.智慧九。17 refers to the Holy Spirit which God sends down from heaven, whereby His behests are recognized. 17指的是圣灵,上帝派从天上降下来,让他的遗志得到确认。The discipline of the Holy Spirit preserves from deceit (ib. i. 5; comp. ib. vii. 21-26).在圣灵的纪律保留从欺骗(ib.一5;。比赛兴业七21-26。。)。It is said in the Psalms of Solomon, xvii.这是说,在所罗门的诗篇,十七。42, in reference to the Messiah, the son of David: "he is mighty in the Holy Spirit"; and in Susanna, 45, that "God raised up the Holy Spirit of a youth, whose name was Daniel." 42,在参考,大卫的儿子弥赛亚:“他是在圣灵大能”,并在苏珊娜,45,“上帝兴起的一个青年,他的名字是丹尼尔圣灵。”Josephus ("Contra Ap." i. 8) expresses the same view in regard to prophetic inspiration that is found in rabbinical literatur (comp. Jew. Encyc. iii. 147b, sv Bible Canon; Josephus, "Ant." iv. 6, § 5; vi. 8, § 2; also Sifre, Deut. 305; Ber. 31b, above; Gen. R. lxx. 8, lxxv. 5; Lev. R. vi.; Deut. R. vi.-the Holy Spirit defending Israel before God; Eccl. R. vii. 23; Pirḳe R. El. xxxvii., beginning).约瑟夫(“。魂斗罗鸭”一,8)表示关于先知的启示同样的看法是,在犹太教literatur(comp.犹太人Encyc三147号B,希沃特圣经佳能发现。。。。约瑟夫“。蚂蚁”四,六,§ 5;六8,§ 2。也Sifre,申305;。误码率31B条,以上;。将军河LXX的8 lxxv 5。。。列夫河六;。。申河六.-圣灵在神面前捍卫以色列。传道书河七23;。pirḳe传译下午三十七,开始)。。。See also Hosanna; Inspiration; Ordination; Tabernacles, Feast of.另见散那;灵感;协调;住棚,盛宴。

Joseph Jacobs, Ludwig Blau约瑟夫雅各布斯,路德维希布劳
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版01年至1906年之间。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
F. Weber, Jüdische Theologie, 2d ed., pp. 80 et seq., 190 et seq., and Index, sv Geist, Leipsic, 1897; Herzog-Hauck, Real-Encyc.楼韦伯,Jüdische神学,第2版,第80页起,190起,并编制索引,希沃特盖斯特,普西克,1897。。。赫尔佐格,克,实时encyc。 3d ed., vi.三维版。,六。444-450 (with full bibliography); Hastings, Dict.444-450(全书目);黑斯廷斯,快译通。Bible, iii.圣经,三。402-411; Bacher, Ag. 402-411;巴切尔,银。Tan.谈。passim; idem, Ag.各处;同上,银。 Pal.帕尔。Amor.奥马尔。passim; EA Abbot, From Letter to Spirit, ch.各处;电针住持,从字母到精神,甲烷。vii.七。et passim, London, 1903; E. Sokolowsky, Die Begriffe Geist und Leben bei Paulus, Göttingen, 1903; H. Weinel, Die Wirkungen des Geistes und der Geister (his quotations [pp. 81, 131, 164, 190] from Christian writers are interesting from a Jewish point of view).JLB等各处,伦敦,1903年;大肠杆菌Sokolowsky,模具Begriffe盖斯特有限公司酸奶北保卢斯,哥廷根,1903年;阁下魏内尔,模具Wirkungen德Geistes und明镜Geister(他的报价[第81,131,164,190]从基督教有趣的是从作家的角度)犹太点。JLB


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