General Information一般资料

Incarnation denotes the embodiment of a deity in human form. The idea occurs frequently in mythology.化身表示形式体现人类对神英寸的想法经常出现在神话。In ancient times, certain people, especially kings and priests, were often believed to be divinities.在古代,某些人,尤其是国王和祭司,往往认为是神。In Hinduism, Vishnu is believed to have taken nine incarnations, or Avatars. For Christians, the incarnation is a central dogma referring to the belief that the eternal son of God, the second person of the Trinity, became man in the person of Jesus Christ.在印度教中,毗湿奴被认为已采取九个化身,或化身。 对于基督徒的化身,是指中央教条相信三位一体的,永恒的上帝的儿子的人的,第二个是成为基督里的人在耶稣的人。

The incarnation was defined as a doctrine only after long struggles by early church councils.化身被界定为一种理论,只有经过长期的早期教会的议会斗争。The Council of Nicaea (325) defined the deity of Christ against Arianism; the Council of Constantinople (381) defined the full humanity of the incarnate Christ against Apollinarianism; the Council of Ephesus (431) defined the unity of Christ's person against Nestorianism; and the Council of Chalcedon (451) defined the two natures of Christ, divine and human, against Eutyches.理事会的尼西亚(325)中定义的反对阿里乌主义基督的神性安理会的君士坦丁堡(381),确定了对亚波里拿留派肉身的基督充满人性;安理会的以弗所(431),确定了基督对景教人的团结;及安理会的chalcedon(451)中定义的基督,神和人的反对欧迪奇,两个性质。

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Bibliography 参考书目
B Hebblethwaite, The Incarnation (1987); J Hick, ed., The Myth of God Incarnate (1977); JAT Robinson, The Human Face of God (1973).乙Hebblethwaite,化身(1987年);。Ĵ希克,海关,上帝道成肉身(1977)神话;李祖泽罗宾逊,神人脸(1973年)。


Advanced Information先进的信息

The Incarnation was that act of grace whereby Christ took our human nature into union with his Divine Person, became man.是的化身优雅的行动,使基督了与他的神圣的人进入联盟的人性,成为人。Christ is both God and man.基督是上帝和人。Human attributes and actions are predicated of him, and he of whom they are predicated is God.人的属性和行为进行预测的他,和他的人,他们的前提是上帝。A Divine Person was united to a human nature (Acts 20:28; Rom. 8:32; 1 Cor. 2:8; Heb. 2:11-14; 1 Tim. 3:16; Gal. 4:4, etc.).一个神圣的人是团结的是人的天性(徒20​​:28;罗8:32。林前2:8;。希伯来书2:11-14; 1。添3:16;。加拉太4:4,等等。 。)。The union is hypostatical, ie, is personal; the two natures are not mixed or confounded, and it is perpetual.工会是hypostatical,即是个人的,二者的本性不是混合或混淆,这是永久的。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Advanced Information先进的信息

(Lat. in and caro, stem carn, meaning "flesh").(拉丁语中和卡罗,干卡恩,意思是“肉”)。In the context of Christian theology, the act whereby the eternal Son of God, the Second Person of the Holy Trinity, without ceasing to be what he is, God the Son, took into union with himself what he before that act did not possess, a human nature, "and so (He) was and continues to be God and man in two distinct natures and one person, forever" (Westminister Shorter Catechism, Q. 21).在基督教神学,该行为即永恒的上帝的儿子,圣灵三位一体的第二位,而不再是什么,他是神的儿子,他将与自己之前的行为不具备参加联盟的背景下,是人的天性,“等(他)是并将继续是在两个不同的性质和一个人的神和人,永远”(西敏寺小要理问答,问:21)。 Scripture support for this doctrine is replete, eg, John 1:14; Rom.经文,为支持这一学说充满,例如,约翰1:14;光盘。1:3; 8:3; Gal. 1:3,8:3;半乳糖。4:4; Phil. 4:4;菲尔。2:7 - 8; 1 Tim.2:7 - 8,1添。3:16; 1 John 4:2; 2 John 7 (cf. also Eph. 2:15; Col. 1:21 - 22; 1 Pet. 3:18; 4:1). 3:16;约翰一书4:2;约翰二书7(参见也弗2:15;上校1:21 - 22;。。一宠物3:18; 4:1)。

The Nature of the Incarnation大自然的化身

Like many other theological terms, this term can be misleading.像许多其他神学术语,这个术语可能会产生误导。It might suggest that the eternal Logos by the act of incarnation was confined to the human body of Jesus of Nazareth.这可能表明,由化身行为的永恒标志是局限在拿撒勒的耶稣人体。The implication of such a construction of the result of the incarnation is that God the Son, kenotically "emptying" himself, divested himself of his attribute of being always and everywhere immediately present in his universe.对这样一个结果的化身建设的启示是上帝的儿子,kenotically“掏空”自己,剥夺了他时时处处被立即在他的宇宙自己目前的属性。 But to hold such a view is tantamount to contending that he who enfleshed himself as Jesus of Nazareth, while doubtless more than man, is not quite God.但是,持有这种看法是等于争,他谁enfleshed作为拿撒勒的耶稣自己,而毫无疑问,以上的人,是不是很神。Divine attributes are not, however, characteristics separate and distinct from God's essence that he can set aside when he desires.神圣的属性都没有,但是,特点独立于上帝的本质,他可以放下时,他的欲望明显。

To the contrary, it is precisely the sum total of God's attributes that constitutes the essence of his deity and expresses his divine glory.相反,正是上帝的属性的总和,构成了他的神的本质,表达了他神圣的荣耀。Jesus, during the days of his flesh, claimed omnipresence for himself in Matt.耶稣,在他的肉的日子里,声称自己在马特无所不在。 18:20 and 28:20. 18:20和28:20。Recognizing this, the Council of Chalcedon (AD 451), whose creedal labors produced the Christological definition that fixed the boundaries for all future discussion, declared that Jesus Christ possessed "two natures without confusion, without change, without division, without separation, the distinctiveness of the natures being by no means removed because of the union, but the properties of each nature being preserved" (emphasis added; cf. also Calvin, Inst. 2.13.4; Heidelberg Catechism, Q. 48).认识到这一点,安理会的chalcedon(公元451),其教义劳动力产生的基督定义,讨论确定今后所有的界限,宣布耶稣基督拥有“两无混淆性质,没有改变,没有分裂,没有分离,独​​特性对性质并不意味着被删除,因为该联盟,但每个性质的属性被保存下来“(强调后加。比照也卡尔文研究所2.13.4。海德堡问答,问:48)。 The doctrine, thus clarified, means that in the incarnation the divine Logos, while in the body of Jesus and personally united to it, is also beyond the bounds of the human nature he assumed.该学说,从而澄清,也就是说,在化身神圣的标志,而在美国耶稣的身体,亲自到它,也超出了他的人性假定的界限。

It is very important, in light of what has just been said, to underscore that in the incarnation the divine Logos did not take into union with himself a human person; otherwise, he would have been two persons, two egos, with two centers of self consciousness.这是非常重要的,在刚刚说什么,光强调,在化身神圣的标志没有考虑到与自己一人的联盟,否则,他会一直与两个中心的两个人,两个自我,自我意识。

The Scriptures will not tolerate such a view.圣经不会容忍这种看法。Never does Jesus Christ, when referring to himself, say "we" or "us" or "our"; he always uses "I" or "me" or "my."从来不会耶稣基督,当提到自己,说“我们”或“我们”或“我们”,他总是用“我”或“我”或“。我的”What the divine Logos, who was already and eternally a person, did do, through the operation of the Holy Spirit, was to take into union with himself a human nature with the result that Jesus Christ was one person with a divine nature (ie, a complex of divine attributes) and a human nature (ie, a complex of human attributes).神圣的标志是什么,谁是已经和永恒的人,确确实实,通过圣灵的工作,是采取与自己同进联盟的结果,基督是一个具有神圣的性质(即人的人性,一个神圣的属性复杂)和人性(即一个人的属性复杂)。 This is not to say that the human nature of Christ is impersonal; "the human nature of Christ was not for a moment impersonal. The Logos assumed that nature into personal subsistence with Himself. The human nature has its personal existence in the person of the Logos. It is in - personal rather than impersonal" (L. Berkhof).这并不是说,基督的人性是客观的,“基督的人性了片刻客观理性假设并不是为个人生活和自己,自然的人性在该人的个人存在。。 。标识正是在 - 个人,而不是客观的“(属伯克霍夫)。John Murray writes: "The Son of God did not become personal by incarnation. He became incarnate but there was no suspension of his divine self identity."约翰穆雷写道:“上帝的儿子没有化身成为个人,他成为肉身,但没有他的神圣的自我认同停牌。。”

The Effecting Means of the Incarnation化身的影响的手段

The means, according to Scripture, whereby the incarnation came about is the virginal conception (a more accurate description than virgin birth) of the Son of God by the Holy Spirit in the womb of Mary (Isa. 7:14; Matt. 1:16, 18, 20, 23, 25; Luke 1:27, 34 - 35; 2:5; 3:23; Gal. 4:4).的手段,根据经文,即化身来的,是处女的构想,由圣灵上帝的儿子(比处女生育更准确的描述)在玛丽的子宫(以赛亚书7:14;马特1。: 16,18,20,23,25;路加福音1:27,34 - 35; 2:5; 3:23;加拉太书4:4)。。Due to the interpenetration of the persons within the Godhead (cf. John 14:20; 17:21 - 23; Heb. 9:14), the Holy Spirit, by means of the virginal conception, insured the divine personality of the God - man without creating at the same time a new human personality.由于在神的源头的人渗透(参见约翰14:20,17:21 - 23;。希伯来书9:14),圣灵的处女的概念由被保险人的神圣人格的神,指 - 人没有在同一时间建立一个新的人类个性。As Berkhof says: "If Christ had been generated by man, He would have been a human person, included in the covenant of works, and as such would have shared the common guilt of mankind. But now that His subject, His ego, His person, is not out of Adam, He is not in the covenant of works and is free from the guilt of sin. And being free from the guilt of sin, His human nature could also be kept free, both before and after His birth, from the pollution of sin."由于伯克霍夫说:“如果基督是由人产生的,他会一直一个人的人,在盟约的作品包括在内,因此将共同为人类的共同内疚,但现在他的问题,他自我,他的。人,是不是亚当了,他是不是在盟约的作品,而且可以免费从罪的罪行。而被从有罪,罪的自由,他的人性也可以保持自由,之前和之后他的出生,从罪恶的污染。“

Scriptural Representations of the Incarnate Person人的化身圣经代表处

Because Jesus Christ is the God - man (one person who took human nature into union with his divine nature in the one divine person), the Scriptures can predicate of his person whatever can be predicated of either nature.因为耶稣基督是神 - 人(一人谁带着他的神性到人性联盟在一个神圣的人),念经,无论他的人谓语可以是任何性质的前提。In fact, can be predicated of either nature.事实上,任何一方可预测性。In fact, the person of Christ may be designated in terms of one nature while what is predicated of him so designated is true by virtue of his union with the other nature (cf. Westminister Confession, VIII, vii).事实上,基督的人可能会指定一个什么性质的条款,而前提是他这样指定是由他的工会美德与其他性质(参见威斯敏斯特供述,八,七)也是如此。 In other words:换句话说:

RL Reymond RL雷蒙德
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
L Berkhof, Systematic Theology; C Hodge, Systematic Theology, II; J Murray, Collected Writings, II; BB Warfield, The Person and Work of Christ.L伯克霍夫的,有系统的神学; ç Ho​​dge的,有系统的神学,二; Ĵ默里,丛谈,二; BB心跳沃菲尔德,人与基督的工作。

The Incarnation化身

Catholic Information天主教新闻

I. The Fact of the Incarnation一,事实的化身

(1) The Divine Person of Jesus Christ(1)耶稣基督的神人

A. Old Testament Proofs答:旧约证明

B. New Testament Proofs二新约证明

C. Witness of Tradition三证人的传统

(2) The Human Nature of Jesus Christ(2)耶稣基督的人性

(3) The Hypostatic Union(3)本质的联盟

A. The Witness of the Scriptures答:证人的圣经

B. Witness of Tradition二证人的传统

II.二。The Nature of the Incarnation大自然的化身

(1) Nestorianism(1)景教

(2) Monophysitism(2)基督一

(3) Monothelitism(3)Monothelitism

(4) Catholicism(4)天主教

III.三。Effects of the Incarnation作者的化身

(1) On Christ Himself(1)在基督自己

A. On the Body of ChristA.在基督的身体

B. On the Human Soul of ChristB.在基督的人的灵魂

C. On the God-ManC.在神人

(2) The Adoration of the Humanity of Christ(2)人类的基督崇拜

(3) Other Effects of the Incarnation(3)其他影响的化身

The Incarnation is the mystery and the dogma of the Word made Flesh.神秘的化身,是与道成肉身的教条。ln this technical sense the word incarnation was adopted, during the twelfth century, from the Norman-French, which in turn had taken the word over from the Latin incarnatio.法律公告本技术意义上的字的化身获得通过,在十二世纪的诺曼法语,而且反过来又接替了拉丁incarnatio字。 The Latin Fathers, from the fourth century, make common use of the word; so Saints Jerome, Ambrose, Hilary, etc. The Latin incarnatio (in: caro, flesh) corresponds to the Greek sarkosis, or ensarkosis, which words depend on John (i, 14) kai ho Logos sarx egeneto, "And the Word was made flesh".拉丁教父,从四世纪,使常用字,所以圣徒杰罗姆,刘汉铨,希拉里等拉美incarnatio(在:卡罗,肉),对应于希腊sarkosis,或ensarkosis,其中字约翰依赖(一,14)启浩标志扎尔克斯egeneto,“字是肉”。 These two terms were in use by the Greek Fathers from the time of St. Irenæus--ie according to Harnack, AD 181-189 (cf. lren., "Adv. Haer." III, l9, ni; Migne, VII, 939).这两个名词在使用由圣爱任纽时希腊的父亲 - 即根据哈纳克,公元181-189(参见lren,“腺病毒Haer。。”三,第十九,镍;米涅,第七章。 939)。The verb sarkousthai, to be made flesh, occurs in the creed of the Council of Nicaea (cf. Denzinger, "Enchiridion", n. 86).动词sarkousthai,将肉制成,发生在理事会的尼西亚(参见登青格,“便览”,注86)的信条。In the language of Holy Writ, flesh means, by synecdoche, human nature or man (cf. Luke 3:6; Romans 3:20).在通过提喻,人性或人的语言圣经,肉,系指:(参见路加福音3:6,罗马书3:20)。Francisco Suárez deems the choice of the word incarnation to have been very apt.弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯认为这个词的化身选择已经非常贴切。Man is called flesh to emphasize the weaker part of his nature.男子叫肉,强调他的性质较弱的部分。When the Word is said to have been incarnate, to have been made Flesh, the Divine goodness is better expressed whereby God "emptied Himself . . . and was found in outward bearing (schemati) like a man" (Phil. ii, 7); He took upon Himself not only the nature of man, a nature capable of suffering and sickness and death, He became like a man in all save only sin (cf. Francisco Suárez, "De Incarnatione", Praef. n. 5).当Word是说已经化身,已作出肉体,神的善良,是更好地表达,即上帝“掏空自己。。。,并在离港轴承像男人(schemati)发现”(腓二,7) ,他以他代替不仅是男人,一个自然的痛苦和疾病的性质和死亡的能力,他变得像只保存在所有的罪(参见弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯,“德incarnatione”,Praef北路5。)人。 The Fathers now and then use the word henanthropesis, the act of becoming man, to which correspond the terms inhumanatio, used by some Latin Fathers, and "Menschwerdung", current in German.现在的父亲,然后用这个词henanthropesis,成为人的行为,以对应的条款inhumanatio,一些拉丁美洲的父亲使用,“Menschwerdung”,在德国的电流。 The mystery of the Incarnation is expressed in Scripture by other terms: epilepsis, the act of taking on a nature (Hebrews 2:16): epiphaneia, appearance (2 Timothy 1:10); phanerosis hen sarki, manifestation in the flesh (1 Timothy 3:16); somatos katartismos, the fitting of a body, what some Latin Fathers call incorporatio (Hebrews 10:5); kenosis, the act of emptying one's self (Phil., ii, 7).神秘的化身,是圣经中所表达的其他条款:痫,关于其性质(希伯来书2:16)采取行动:epiphaneia,外观(提摩太后书1:10); phanerosis母鸡sarki,在肉体中的表现(1提摩太后书3:16); somatos katartismos,一个身体配件,一些拉丁美洲的父亲叫什么公司成立(希伯来书10:5);的kenosis,对排空一个人的自我(腓,二法,7)。 In this article, we shall treat of the fact, nature and effects of the Incarnation.在这篇文章中,我们将处理的事实,性质和作用的化身。


The Incarnation implies three facts: (1) The Divine Person of Jesus Christ; (2) The Human Nature of Jesus Christ; (3) The Hypostatic Union of the Human with the Divine Nature in the Divine Person of Jesus Christ.化身意味着三个事实:(1)耶稣基督的神人;(2)耶稣基督的人性;(3)与人类本质的联盟中的神人耶稣基督的神性。


We presuppose the historicity, of Jesus Christ -- ie that He was a real person of history (cf. JESUS CHRIST); the Messiahship of Jesus; the historical worth and authenticity of the Gospels and Acts; the Divine ambassadorship of Jesus Christ established thereby; the establishment of an infallible and never failing teaching body to have and to keep the deposit of revealed truth entrusted to it by the Divine ambassador, Jesus Christ; the handing down of all this deposit by tradition and of part thereof by Holy Writ; the canon and inspiration of the Sacred Scriptures--all these questions will be found treated in their proper places.我们假定的历史性,耶稣基督的 - 即,他是一个真正的人的历史(参见耶稣基督);耶稣的弥赛亚;的历史价值和福音和行为的真实性;耶稣基督的神圣大使的建立,从而;一个犯错和教学机构的设立从来没有拥有和保持存款透露真相赋予的神圣大使,耶稣基督给它;移交由传统和部分下所有该矿床由圣令状;的佳能和圣经的神圣启示 - 所有这些问题将在适当的地方找到治疗。Moreover, we assume that the Divine nature and Divine personality are one and inseparable (see TRINITY).此外,我们认为神圣的性质和个性是一个神圣的和不可分割的(见三一)。The aim of this article is to prove that the historical person, Jesus Christ, is really and truly God, --ie has the nature of God, and is a Divine person.本文的目的是证明历史的人,耶稣基督,是真的,真正的上帝, - 即具有神的本质,是一个神圣的人。The Divinity of Jesus Christ is established by the Old Testament, by the New Testament and by tradition.耶稣基督的神性,建立了旧约,新约,以由传统。

A. Old Testament Proofs答:旧约证明

The Old Testament proofs of the Divinity of Jesus presuppose its testimony to Him as the Christ, the Messias (see MESSIAS).在耶稣的神旧约假定其证词证明他为基督,弥赛亚(见弥赛亚)。Assuming then, that Jesus is the Christ, the Messias promised in the Old Testament, from the terms of the promise it is certain that the One promised is God, is a Divine Person in the strictest sense of the word, the second Person of the Holy Trinity, the Son of the Father, One in nature with the Father and the Holy Spirit.假设当时,耶稣是基督,弥赛亚在旧约从承诺的条款,这是肯定的承诺是上帝的一个承诺,是一个神圣的人,在这个词的,严格意义上的第二个人圣三位一体,儿子的父亲,与父亲和圣灵的本质之一。 Our argument is cumulative.我们的论点是累积性的。The texts from the Old Testament have weight by themselves; taken together with their fulfilment in the New Testament, and with the testimony of Jesus and His apostles and His Church, they make up a cumulative argument in favour of the Divinity of Jesus Christ that is overwhelming in its force.从旧约有自己的重量文本;采取他们在新约履行在一起,与耶稣和他的门徒和他的教会的见证,他们弥补了耶稣基督是神的论点赞成累积绝大多数它的力量。 The Old Testament proofs we draw from the Psalms, the Sapiential Books and the Prophets.我们从旧的诗篇,是智慧的书籍和先知画约证明。


Psalm 2:7.诗篇2:7。"The Lord hath said to me: Thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee."“上帝对我说:你是我的儿子,我今日生你。”Here Jahweh, ie, God of Israel, speaks to the promised Messias.在这里,亚威,即以色列的神,讲许诺的弥赛亚。So St. Paul interprets the text (Hebrews 1:5) while proving the Divinity of Jesus from the Psalms.因此,圣保罗解释文本(希伯来书1:5),而从诗篇证明耶稣的神性。The objection is raised that St. Paul is here not interpreting but only accommodating Scripture.反对的是圣保罗提出,在这里不解释,但只可容纳经文。He applies the very same words of Psalm 2:7 to the priesthood (Hebrews 5:5) and to the resurrection (Acts 13:33) of Jesus; but only in a figurative sense did the Father beget the Messias in the priesthood and resurrection of Jesus; hence only in a figurative sense did He beget Jesus as His Son.他申请的诗篇2:7的同样的话去当牧师(希伯来书5:5),以及耶稣的复活(徒13:33),但只有在一个比喻的意义上做了父亲招致的神职人员和复活的messias耶稣,因此只有在一个比喻的意义上他招致他的儿子耶稣。 We answer that St. Paul speaks figuratively and accommodates Scripture in the matter of the priesthood and resurrection but not in the matter of the eternal generation of Jesus.我们的答案,圣保罗讲形象,可容纳在神职人员和,但不是在永恒的耶稣复活的问题产生问题的经文。The entire context of this chapter shows there is a question of real sonship and real Divinity of Jesus.本章的整个环境显示有一个真正的sonship和耶稣真神的问题。In the same verse, St. Paul applies to Christ the words of Jahweh to David, the type of Christ: "I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son".在同一节,圣保禄适用于基督的Jahweh的话大卫,基督的类型:“我要作他的父亲,他要作我的儿子”。(2 Samuel 7:14) In the following verse, Christ is spoken of as the first-born of the Father, and as the object of the adoration of the angels; but only God is adored: "Thy throne, O God, is forever and ever. . . Thy God, O God, hath anointed thee" (Ps. xliv, 7, 8). (撒母耳记下7:14)在下面的诗句,基督是口语的,因为第一次出生的父亲,并作为崇拜对象的天使,但只有上帝是崇拜:“你的宝座,神阿,是直到永远。。。你的神,上帝啊,用膏膏你“(诗篇四十四,7,8)。 St. Paul refers these words to Christ as to the Son of God (Hebrews 1:9).圣保罗是指以神的儿子(希伯来书1:9),这些基督的话。 We follow the Massoretic reading, "Thy God, O God".我们遵循的massoretic阅读,“你的上帝,上帝啊。”The Septuagint and New Testament reading, ho theos, ho theos sou, "O God, Thy God", is capable of the same interpretation.七十和新约阅读,何theos,苏浩theos,“上帝啊,你的上帝”,是同样的解释能力。Hence, the Christ is here called God twice; and his throne, or reign, is said to have been from eternity.因此,这里所谓的基督是神两次,他的王位,或统治,据说是被从永恒。Ps.聚苯乙烯。cix, 1: "The Lord said to my Lord (Heb., Jahweh said to my Adonai): Sit thou at my right hand".的CIX,1:“耶和华对我主说(希伯来书,亚威说,我阿多奈):坐在我右边你”。Christ cites this text to prove that He is Adonai (a Hebrew term used only for Deity), seated at the right hand of Jahweh, who is invariably the great God of Israel (Matthew 22:44).基督引用此文字,证明他是阿多奈(希伯来语任期只有一个神使用),在亚威,谁总是伟大的神的以色列(马太22:44)右手就座。 In the same psalm, Jahweh says to Christ: "Before the day-star, I begat thee".在同一诗篇,亚威基督说:“前一天,明星,我生了你”。Hence Christ is the begotten of God; was begotten before the world was, and sits at the right hand of the heavenly Father.因此,基督是上帝的独生子,是造物主在世界面前,并在天父的右边坐下。Other Messianic psalms might be cited to show the clear testimony of these inspired poems to the Divinity of the promised Messias.其他弥赛亚诗篇可能被引用,以显示这些灵感的诗清楚地证明了所承诺的弥赛亚神。


So clearly do these Sapiential Books describe uncreated Wisdom as a Divine Person distinct from the First Person, that rationalists have resort to a subterfuge and claim that the doctrine of uncreated Wisdom was taken over by the authors of these books from the Neo-Platonic philosophy of the Alexandrian school.所以,做这些智慧的书籍清楚描述毁灭作为一个神圣的人从不同的第一人,即理性主义有一个借口,并诉诸宣称,毁灭智慧学说是由来自新柏拉图主义哲学的这些书的作者在智慧亚历山大学校。 It is to be noted that in the pre-sapiential books of the Old Testament, the uncreated Logos, or hrema, is the active and creative principle of Jahweh (see Psalm 32:4; 32:6; 118:89; 102:20; Isaiah 40:8; 55:11).这是必须指出,在旧约中,非受造的徽标或hrema预智斗书,是积极和创造性的Jahweh原则(见诗篇32:4,32:6,118:89; 102:20 ,以赛亚书40:8,55:11)。Later the logos became sophia, the uncreated Word became uncreated Wisdom.后来,徽标成为索菲亚,毁灭道成了毁灭智慧。To Wisdom were attributed all the works of creation and Divine Providence (see Job 28:12: Proverbs 8 and 9; Sirach 1:1; 24:5-12; Wisdom 6:21; 9:9).智慧是由于创作和神圣的普罗维登斯所有的作品(请参阅作业28:12:箴言8和第9条;西拉奇1:1; 24:5-12;智慧6:21,9:9)。In Wis., ix, 1, 2, we have a remarkable instance of the attribution of God's activity to both the Logos and Wisdom.在美国威斯康星州,九,一,二,我们有一个既理性和智慧的神的活动归属显着的情况。This identification of the pre-Mosaic Logos with the Sapiential Wisdom and the Johannine Logos (see LOGOS) is proof that the rationalistic subterfuge is not effective.这与智斗智慧和Johannine标识(见徽标)的前花叶标识识别证明,理性的说辞是不能奏效的。The Sapiential Wisdom and the Johannine Logos are not an Alexandrian development of the PIatonic idea, but are a Hebraistic development of the pre-Mosaic uncreated and creating Logos or Word.在智慧的智慧和Johannine标志是不是该PIatonic想法亚历山大的发展,而且是对前花叶Hebraistic发展的毁灭和创造标识或Word。

Now for the Sapiential proofs: In Ecclus., xxiv, 7, Wisdom is described as uncreated, the "first born of the Most High before all creatures", "from the beginning and before the World was I made" (ibid., 14).现在到了智慧的证明:。在Ecclus,二十四,七,智慧被称为非受造的,“第一次的最高级​​出生之前,所有的动物”,“从一开始就在世界面前我做了”(同上,14 )。So universal was the identification of Wisdom with the Christ, that even the Arians concurred with the Fathers therein; and strove to prove by the word ektise, made or created, of verse 14, that incarnate Wisdom was created.如此普遍是智慧与基督,连白羊座其中与父亲同意的确定以及努力来证明字ektise作出或创造,诗14,这是智慧的化身创建。 The Fathers did not make answer that the word Wisdom was not to be understood of the Christ, but explained that the word ektise had here to be interpreted in keeping with other passages of Holy Writ and not according to its usual meaning,--that of the Septuagint version of Genesis 1:1.父亲并没有回答,这个词的智慧,不被理解的基督,但解释这个词ektise已在这里得到保持与其他通道的圣经,而不是根据其通常含义解释, - 即创世纪1:1七十版本。We do not know the original Hebrew or Aramaic word; it may have been the same word that occurs in Prov.我们不知道原来的希伯来文或阿拉姆语单词,它可能是同一个词,在省发生。viii, 22: "The Lord possessed me (Hebrew gat me by generation; see Genesis 4:1) in the beginning of His ways, before He made anything from the beginning, I was set up from eternity."八,22:“主占有我(希伯来文水道由代我见创世纪4:1)在他的方式开始之前,他从一开始就什么,我是被陷害的永恒了。” Wisdom speaking of itself in the Book of Ecclesiasticus cannot contradict what Wisdom says of itself in Proverbs and elsewhere.讲智慧的ecclesiasticus本书不能违背自己说的什么智慧箴言和其他地方的本身。Hence the Fathers were quite right in explaining ektise not to mean made or created in any strict sense of the terms (see St. Athanasius, "Sermo ii contra Arianos", n. 44; Migne, PG, XXVI, 239).因此,父亲在解释ektise相当不意味着在任何制造或条款严格意义上的创造权(见圣亚他那修,“Sermo二禁忌Arianos”,注44;米涅,前列腺素,26,239)。 The Book of Wisdom, also, speaks clearly of Wisdom as "the worker of all things . . . a certain pure emanation of the glory of the almighty God . . . the brightness of eternal light, and the unspotted mirror of God's majesty, and the image of his goodness."智慧,书也讲清楚的智慧“万物工人。。。一个全能者的神。荣耀某些纯气。。永恒的光亮度,和神的威严清白的一面镜子,他善良的形象。“ (Wisdom 7:21-26) St. Paul paraphrases this beautiful passage and refers it to Jesus Christ (Hebrews 1:3). (智慧7:21-26)圣保罗复述这个美丽的通道,是指它以耶稣基督(希伯来书1:3)。It is clear, then, from the text-study of the books themselves, from the interpretation of these books by St. Paul, and especially, from the admitted interpretation of the Fathers and the liturgical uses of the Church, that the personified wisdom of the Sapiential Books is the uncreated Wisdom, the incarnate Logos of St. John, the Word hypostatically united with human nature, Jesus Christ, the Son of the Eternal Father.很明显,那么,从文本本身研究的书籍,从这些书籍由圣保罗的解释,尤其是从父亲承认解释和教会的礼仪用途,即人格化的智慧the智慧的书是毁灭的智慧,体现圣约翰标识,这个词hypostatically人性,耶稣基督,永恒之父的儿子团结。 The Sapiential Books prove that Jesus was really and truly God.在智慧的书籍证明耶稣是真的,真正的上帝。


The prophets clearly state that the Messias is God.先知们清楚指出,弥赛亚是上帝。Isaias says: "God Himself will come and will save you" (xxxv, 4); "Make ready the way of Jahweh" (xl, 3); "Lo Adonai Jahweh will come with strength" (xl, 10).伊萨亚斯说:“上帝会来拯救你”(第三十五卷,4),“请准备好了的Jahweh方式”(四十,3),“罗阿多奈亚威将带着力量”(四十,10)。 That Jahweh here is Jesus Christ is clear from the use of the passage by St. Mark (i 3).这亚威这里是耶稣基督是明确的从通道的圣马克(一三)使用。The great prophet of Israel gives the Christ a special and a new Divine name "His name will be called Emmanuel" (Isaiah 7:14).以色列伟大的先知使基督一种特殊的,一个新的神的名字“他的名字将被称为以马内利”(以赛亚书7:14)。 This new Divine name St. Matthew refers to as fulfilled in Jesus, and interprets to mean the Divinity of Jesus.这个新的神的名字圣马太指为耶稣完成,并解释为是指耶稣的神性。"They shall call his name Emmanuel, which, being interpreted, is God with us." “他们给他起名叫以马内利,其中,被解释,是与我们的上帝。”(Matthew 1:23) Also in ix, 6, Isaias calls the Messias God: "A child is born to us . . . his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, God the Strong One, the Father of the world to come, the Prince of Peace." (马太福音1:23)又在九,六,伊萨亚斯调用弥赛亚神:“孩子出生时,我们他的名字应称为奇妙,策士,神坚强的人,对天下的父亲来了,。。。和平王子“。 Catholics explain that the very same child is called God the Strong One (ix, 6) and Emmanuel (vii, 14); the conception of the child is prophesied in the latter verse, the birth of the very same child is prophesied in the former verse.天主教徒解释说,同样的孩子是所谓的上帝坚强的人(九,6)和埃马纽埃尔(七,14);儿童的概念是在后者的诗预言,对同样的预言是在孩子出生前的诗句。 The name Emmanuel (God with us) explains the name that we translate "God the Strong One."这个名字灵光(神与我们同)说明我们的名称翻译“上帝的坚强的人。”It is uncritical and prejudiced on the part of the rationalists to go outside of lsaias and to seek in Ezechiel (xxxii, 21) the meaning "mightiest among heroes" for a word that everywhere else in Isaias is the name of "God the Strong One" (see Isaiah 10:21).它是批判和对理性的一部分偏见去外面的lsaias在Ezechiel寻求(三十二,21)的意思是“最强大的英雄之一”的一个词,在其他地方伊萨亚斯是“上帝的坚强的人的名字“(见以赛亚书10:21)。 Theodotion translates literally theos ischyros; the Septuagint has "messenger".Theodotion翻译字面上theos ischyros;的译本有“信使”。Our interpretation is that commonly received by Catholics and by Protestants of the stamp of Delitzsch ("Messianic Prophecies", p. 145).我们的解释是,普遍收到由新教徒和天主教徒的德里邮票(“弥赛亚的预言”,第145页)。 Isaias also calls the Messias the "sprout of Jahweh" (iv, 2), ie that which has sprung from Jahweh as the same in nature with Him.伊萨亚斯还呼吁该messias的“萌芽亚威”(四,2),即它已经从亚威兴起作为与他同一性质。 The Messias is "God our King" (Isaiah 52:7), "the Saviour sent by our God" (Isaiah 52:10, where the word for Saviour is the abstract form of the word for Jesus); "Jahweh the God of Israel" (Isaiah 52:12): "He that hath made thee, Jahweh of the hosts His name" (Isaiah 54:5)". messias是“上帝我们的国王”(以赛亚书52:7),(以赛亚书52:10,那里的救世主字是文字的抽象形式为耶稣)“我们的救世主,上帝派”,“亚威的神以色列“(以赛亚书52:12):”他说,救了你,他的主机名“(以赛亚书54:5)”亚威。

The other prophets are as clear as Isaias, though not so detailed, in their foretelling of the Godship of the Messias.其他先知是不清晰,伊萨亚斯在他们的messias神格的预言,虽然不是那么详细。 To Jeremias, He is "Jahweh our Just One" (xxiii, 6; also xxxiii, 16).赫雷米亚斯,他是“亚威我们的正义一”(二十三,6;也三十三,16)。Micheas speaks of the twofold coming of the Child, His birth in time at Bethlehem and His procession in eternity from the Father (v, 2).Micheas的双重儿童来说话,他出生在伯利恒的时间和他在永恒​​游行从父(五,2)。 The Messianic value of this text is proved by its interpretation in Matthew (ii, 6).本文的救世主值证明了它在马太(二,六)项的解释。Zacharias makes Jahweh to speak of the Messias as "my Companion"; but a companion is on an equal footing with Jahweh (xiii, 7).撒迦利亚使亚威发言为“我的同伴”的messias,但在与同伴亚威(十三,7)具有同等地位。Malachias says: "Behold I send my angel, and he shall prepare the way before my face, and presently the Lord, whom you seek, and the angel of the testament, whom you desire, shall come to his temple" (iii, 1).玛拉基亚亚说:“看哪,我将我的天使,他将准备在我面前的道路,目前主,你所寻求和遗嘱,就是你的愿望的天使,要到他的殿”(三,1 )。The messenger spoken of here is certainly St. John the Baptist.这里所说的使者当然是圣若翰。 The words of Malachias are interpreted of the Precursor by Our Lord Himself (Matthew 11:10).对玛拉基亚亚的话被解释的前兆了我们的主自己(马太11:10)。But the Baptist prepared the way before the face of Jesus Christ.但浸会准备之前,面对耶稣基督的方式。Hence the Christ was the spokesman of the words of Malachias.因此,基督是对玛拉基亚亚发言人的话。But the words of Malachias are uttered by Jahweh the great God of Israel.但玛拉基亚亚说出的话是由亚威以色列伟大的神。Hence the Christ or Messias and Jahweh are one and the same Divine Person.因此,基督或弥赛亚和亚威是同一个神圣的人。The argument is rendered even more forcible by the fact that not only is the speaker, Jahweh the God of hosts, here one and the same with the Messias before Whose face the Baptist went: but the prophecy of the Lord's coming to the Temple applies to the Messias a name that is ever reserved for Jahweh alone.这个论点是所提供的事实,不仅是议长,亚威上帝的主机,这里之一,与前谁的弥赛亚相同甚至更多的强行面对浸会去:但主的预言的来寺适用该messias一个是以往任何时候都亚威保留单独的名称。 That name occurs seven times (Exodus 23:17; 34:23; Isaiah 1:24; 3:1; 10:16 and 33; 19:4) outside of Malachias, and is clear in its reference to the God of Israel.这名字出现七次(出埃及记23:17,34:23,以赛亚书1:24; 3:1; 10:16和33; 19时04分)以外的玛拉基亚亚,并在其提及以色列的神清楚。The last of the prophets of Israel gives clear testimony that the Messias is the very God of Israel Himself.在以色列的先知最后提供了明确的证词中说,该messias是以色列自己很神。This argument from the prophets in favour of the Divinity of the Messias is most convincing if received in the light of Christian revelation, in which light we present it.这从各神青睐的messias先知最有说服力的论据是,如果在基督教启示的光,其中轻,我们目前收到。The cumulative force of the argument is well worked out in "Christ in Type and Prophecy", by Maas.争论的累积力量以及曾在出“基督的类型和预言”,由马斯。

B. New Testament Proofs二新约证明

We shall give the witness of the Four Evangelists and of St. Paul.我们将给出了四福音和圣保禄见证。 The argument from the New Testament has a cumulative weight that is overwhelming in its effectiveness, once the inspiration of the New Testament and the Divine ambassadorship of Jesus are proved (see INSPIRATION; CHRISTIANITY).来自新约圣经的论点有一个累积的重量,其效力是巨大的,一旦新约圣经和耶稣的神圣大使的被证实的启示(见灵感;基督教)。 The process of the Catholic apologetic and dogmatic upbuilding is logical and never-failing.的天主教歉意的和教条式upbuilding过程是合乎逻辑,永不失败。The Catholic theologian first establishes the teaching body to which Christ gave His deposit of revealed truth, to have and to keep and to hand down that deposit without error or failure.天主教神学家首先确立的教学机构,以基督给了他启示的真理的存款,并随时有手下来,并错误或失败,没有存款。This teaching body gives us the Bible; and gives us the dogma of the Divinity of Christ in the unwritten and the written Word of God, ie in tradition and Scripture.这种教学身体给我们的圣经,给我们的传统和圣经中的不成文的教条的基督的神和神的文字,IE浏览器。When contrasted with the Protestant position upon "the Bible, the whole Bible and nothing but the Bible"--no, not even anything to tell us what is the Bible and what is not the Bible--the Catholic position upon the Christ-established, never-failing, never-erring teaching body is impregnable.当与根据“圣经,整个圣经并没有什么,但圣经”新教的立场对比 - 不,甚至没有什么要告诉我们什么是圣经,什么是不是圣经 - 基督后成立的天主教会的立场,永不失败,永不犯错误的教学机构,是坚不可摧的。The weakness of the Protestant position is evidenced in the matter of this very question of the Divinity of Jesus Christ.的新教地位的弱点是体现在这个耶稣的基督的神非常有关问题。The Bible is the one and only rule of faith of Unitarians, who deny the Divinity of Jesus; of Modernistic Protestants, who make out His Divinity to be an evolution of His inner consciousness; of all other Protestants, be their thoughts of Christ whatsoever they may.圣经是一及神论信仰的唯一准则,谁否认耶稣神性,现代性新教徒,谁做了他的神是一个他内心的意识进化,所有其他新教徒,不论他是基督自己的想法5月。 The strength of the Catholic position will be clear to any one who has followed the trend of Modernism outside the Church and the suppression thereof within the pale.在天主教会的立场是明确的强度会向任何谁遵循了教会之外的趋势,现代主义和抑制内其中一苍白。


We here assume the Gospels to be authentic, historical documents given to us by the Church as the inspired Word of God.我们在这里假设是真实的福音,因为我们的教会作为上帝所默示的历史文献。We waive the question of the dependence of Matthew upon the Logia, the origin of Mark from "Q", the literary or other dependence of Luke upon Mark; all these questions are treated in their proper places and do not belong here in the process of Catholic apologetic and dogmatic theology.我们放弃了马修后Logia,对马克从“问”中,卢克文学或其他来源的依赖于马克的依赖问题,这些问题都在适当的地方治疗,不属于这里的过程中天主教的道歉和教条式的神学。 We here argue from the Four Gospels as from the inspired Word of God.我们在这里说,从由神所默示的四福音。The witness of the Gospels to the Divinity of Christ is varied in kind.的福音见证了基督的神是多种多样的实物。Jesus is the Divine Messias耶稣是神的弥赛亚

The Evangelists, as we have seen, refer to the prophecies of the Divinity of the Messias as fulfilled in Jesus (see Matthew 1:23; 2:6; Mark 1:2; Luke 7:27).福音,正如我们所看到的,指的messias作为神在耶稣应验的预言(见马太1:23; 2:6,马可福音1:2;路加福音7:27)。

Jesus is the Son of God耶稣是神的儿子

According to the testimony of the Evangelists, Jesus Himself bore witness to His Divine Sonship.据福音见证,耶稣亲自见证了他的神圣的sonship。As Divine Ambassador He can not have borne false witness.作为神的大使,他不能承担伪证。

Firstly, He asked the disciples, at Caesarea Philippi, "Whom do men say that the Son of man is?"首先,他要求弟子,在该撒利亚腓立比,“谁做男人说,人子是谁?”(Matthew 16:13). (马太16:13)。This name Son of man was commonly used by the Saviour in regard to Himself; it bore testimony to His human nature and oneness with us.这名男子的儿子,是常用的救世主,对于自己,它承担证明他的人性,与我们合一。The disciples made answer that others said He was one of the prophets.门徒回答说,其他人说他是一个先知。Christ pressed them.按他们的基督。"But whom do you say that I am? "(ibid., 15).“但是谁你说我?”(同上,15)。Peter, as spokesman, replied: "Thou art Christ, the Son of the living God" (ibid., 16).彼得,作为发言人,回答说:“你是基督,是永生神的儿子”(同上,16)。Jesus was satisfied with this answer; it set Him above all the prophets who were the adopted sons of God; it made Him the natural Son of God.耶稣是不满意这个回答,它上面设置所有的先知谁是神的儿子通过他,这使他成为神的亲生儿子。 The adopted Divine sonship of all the prophets Peter had no need of special revelation to know.政府所采取的一切神圣的先知的sonship彼得并没有特殊的启示需要知道的。This natural Divine Sonship was made known to the leader of the Apostles only by a special revelation.这自然是神圣sonship知会的使徒领导人只有一个特殊的启示。"Flesh and blood hath not revealed it to thee, but my Father who is in heaven" (ibid., 17). “肉和血因为这不是你,但我的父亲是谁在天堂”(同上,17)。Jesus clearly assumes this important title in the specially revealed and altogether new sense.耶稣清楚地假定在完全新的发现和特殊感这一重要称号。He admits that He is the Son of God in the real sense of the word.他承认,他在这个词的真正意义上的神的儿子。

Secondly, we find that He allowed others to give Him this title and to show by the act of real adoration that they meant real Sonship.其次,我们发现,他让别人给他这个称号,并表明了真正崇拜的行为,他们的意思真正的sonship。The possessed fell down and adored Him, and the unclean spirits cried out: "Thou art the Son of God" (Mark 3:12).在拥有了下来,崇拜他,邪魔哭了出来:“你是神的儿子”(马克3:12)。After the stilling of the storm at sea, His disciples adored Him and said: "Indeed thou art the Son of God "(Matthew 14:33).风暴后,消力在海上,他的弟子崇拜他,说:“事实上,你是神的儿子”(马太14:33)。Nor did He suggest that they erred in that they gave Him the homage due to God alone.他也没有表明他们是错误的,因为它们给了他的敬意因为只有上帝。The centurion on Calvary (Matthew 27:54; Mark 15:39), the Evangelist St. Mark (i, 1), the hypothetical testimony of Satan (Matthew 4:3) and of the enemies of Christ (Matthew 27:40) all go to show that Jesus was called and esteemed the Son of God.对髑髅百夫长(马太27:54;马克15:39),传道圣马克(一,1),假设的撒旦的证词(马太4:3)和基督的敌人(马太27:40)都去表明,耶稣和爱戴被称为神的儿子。 Jesus Himself clearly assumed the title.耶稣自己清楚地承担了冠军。He constantly spoke of God as "My Father" (Matthew 7:21; 10:32; 11:27; 15:13; 16:17, etc.).他经常谈到神为“我的父亲”(马太福音7:21,10:32,11:27,15:13,16:17,等等)。

Thirdly, the witness of Jesus to His Divine Sonship is clear enough in the Synoptics, as we see from the foregoing argument and shall see by the exegesis of other texts; but is perhaps even more evident in John.第三,对他的神圣的sonship耶稣作见证,是清除该synoptics不够,因为我们看到,从上述的论点,并看到其他文本注释,但更可能是在约翰明显。 Jesus indirectly but clearly assumes the title when He says: "Do you say of him whom the Father hath sanctified and sent into the world: Thou blasphemest, because I said, I am the Son of God? . . . the Father is in me and I in the Father."耶稣间接但很明显,假设称号时,他说:“你对他说他们的父亲所分别为圣,又差到世界:。。。你blasphemest,因为我说,我是神的儿子,父在我看来,和我的父亲。“ (John 10:36, 38) An even clearer witness is given in the narrative of the cure of the blind man in Jerusalem.(约翰10:36,38)更清楚的看到是由于在对盲人在耶路撒冷治愈叙事。Jesus said: "Dost thou believe in the Son of God?"耶稣说:“难道你在神的儿子相信吗?”He answered, and said: "Who is he, Lord, that I may believe in him? And Jesus said to him: Thou hast both seen him; and it is he that talketh with thee. And he said: I believe, Lord. And falling down, he adored him."他回答,并说:“他是谁,主阿,我可以相信,在他的耶稣对他说:你已经看见他,并与你同他说说话的他说:我相信,主。。和跌倒,他喜欢他。“ (John 9:35-38) Here as elsewhere, the act of adoration is allowed, and the implicit assent is in this wise given to the assertion of the Divine Sonship of Jesus. (约翰福音9:35-38)在这里与其他地方一样,对崇拜的行为是允许的,并同意在特定的隐含对耶稣的神圣sonship断言这一明智的。

Fourthly, likewise to His enemies, Jesus made undoubted profession of His Divine Sonship in the real and not the figurative sense of the word; and the Jews understood Him to say that He was really God.第四,同样对他的敌人,耶稣不容置疑的现实,而不是比喻意义上的字,他的神圣sonship专业;和了解他的犹太人说,他是真正的上帝。 His way of speaking had been somewhat esoteric.他说话的样子有点深奥了。He spoke often in parables.他说话常常比喻。He willed then, as He wills now, that faith be "the evidence of things that appear not" (Hebrews 11:1).他意志那么,现在他的意志,信仰是(希伯来书11:1)“的事情,似乎没有证据”。The Jews tried to catch Him, to make Him speak openly.犹太人试图追上他,使他畅所欲言。They met Him in the portico of Solomon and said: "How long dost thou hold our souls in suspense? If thou be the Christ, tell us plainly" (John 10:24).他们会见了在所罗门的廊下他说:“难道你多长时间举行悬念我们的灵魂你若是基督,就明明地告诉我们?”(约翰福音10:24)。 The answer of Jesus is typical.耶稣的回答是典型的。He puts them off for a while; and in the end tells them the tremendous truth: "I and the Father are one" (John 10:30).他把它们关闭了一段时间,并最终告诉他们的巨大的真理:“我与父原为一”(约10:30)。They take up stones to kill Him.他们拿起石头要杀死他。He asks why.他问为什么。He makes them admit that they have understood Him aright.他使​​他们也承认,他们已经正确地理解他。They answer: "For a good work we stone thee not, but for blasphemy; and because that thou, being a man makest thyself God" (ibid., 33).他们回答:“对于一个良好的工作,我们的石头你不是,但亵渎,又为你是个人反将自己当作神”(同上,33)。These same enemies had clear statement of the claim of Jesus on the last night that He spent on earth.这些相同的敌人已对耶稣在最后一晚,他在地球上用了索赔明确的声明。Twice He appeared before the Sanhedrim, the highest authority of the enslaved Jewish nation.他两次出现之前,公会,对被奴役的犹太国家的最高权力机构。The first times the high priest, Caiphas, stood up and demanded: "I adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us if thou be the Christ the Son of God" (Matthew 26:63).第一个时代的大祭司,Caiphas,站了起来,并要求:“我指着永生的神,那你告诉我们,如果你是基督是神的儿子你”(马太26:63)。 Jesus had before held His peace.耶稣面前举行了他的和平。Now His mission calls for a reply.现在,他的任务要求的答复。"Thou hast said it" (ibid., 64). “你说的是它”(同上,64)。The answer was likely--in Semitic fashion--a repetition of the question with a tone of affirmation rather than of interrogation.答案是可能的 - 在犹太人的时尚 - 一个用的肯定语气重复的问题,而不是审问。St. Matthew reports that answer in a way that might leave some doubt in our minds, had we not St. Mark's report of the very same answer.报告说,在圣马太的方式回答这个问题可能在我们的脑海中留下一些疑问,如果我们没有圣马克的报告非常相同的答案。According to St. Mark, Jesus replies simply and clearly: "I am" (Mark 14:62).据圣马克,耶稣回答简单明了:“​​我”(马克14:62)。The context of St. Matthew clears up the difficulty as to the meaning of the reply of Jesus.圣马太方面清除了至于耶稣的答复意义的困难。The Jews understood Him to make Himself the equal of God.犹太人理解他做出自己为神的平等。They probably laughed and jeered at His claim.他们可能笑了,在他的要求嘲笑。He went on: 'Nevertheless I say to you, hereafter you shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of the power of God, and coming in the clouds of heaven" (Matthew 26:64). Caiphas rent his garments and accused Jesus of blasphemy. All joined in condemning Him to death for the blasphemy whereof they accused Him. They clearly understood Him to make claim to be the real Son of God; and He allowed them so to understand Him, and to put Him to death for this understanding and rejection of His claim. It were to blind one's self to evident truth to deny the force of this testimony in favour of the thesis that Jesus made claim to be the real Son of God. The second appearance of Jesus before the Sanhedrim was like to the first; a second time He was asked to say clearly: "Art thou then the Son of God?" He made reply: "You say that I am." They understood Him to lay claim to Divinity. "What need we any further testimony?他接着说:'但是,我告诉你,以后你会看到关于神权能的右边坐着的人的儿子,和天上的云降临“(马太福音26:64)Caiphas他的衣服和租金。 。指控亵渎耶稣都加入谴责他为亵渎死亡信守他们指责他,他们清楚地了解他作出声称自己是上帝的真正的儿子。与他允许他们如此了解他,并把他死刑对于这样的认识和其要求的排斥反应。它是盲目的一个人的自我到自明的真理否认在论文赞成这一证词的力量,耶稣自称是神真正的儿子。耶稣的第二次出现之前,公会就像第一;第二次,他被要求说清楚:“谁呢,你是神的儿子”,他在回答:“你说我是。”他们明白他声称打下神“有什么需要。我们任何进一步的证词? for we ourselves have heard it from his own mouth" (Luke 22:70, 71). This twofold witness is especially important, in that it is made before the great Sanhedrim, and in that it is the cause of the sentence of death. Before Pilate, the Jews put forward a mere pretext at first. "We have found this man perverting our nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Cæsar, and saying that he is Christ the king" (Luke 23:2). What was the result? Pilate found no cause of death in Him! The Jews seek another pretext. "He stirreth up the people .的,我们都从自己的嘴里听到它“(路加福音22:70,71)。这种双重的见证是特别重要,因为它是在伟大公会,以及在它是对死刑的原因。彼拉多面前,犹太人首先提出了一个单纯的借口。“我们发现这个人贪赃枉法我们的国民,禁止纳税给该撒,并说他是基督之王”(路加福音23:2)。什么是结果呢?彼拉多发现他有什么死因!犹太人寻求另一种借口。“他煽惑百姓。 ..from Galilee to this place" (ibid., 5). This pretext fails. Pilate refers the case of sedition to Herod. Herod finds the charge of sedition not worth his serious consideration. Over and again the Jews come to the front with a new subterfuge. Over and again Pilate finds no cause in Him. At last the Jews give their real cause against Jesus. In that they said He made Himself a king and stirred up sedition and refused tribute to Caesar, they strove to make it out that he violated Roman law. Their real cause of complaint was not that Jesus violated Roman law; but that they branded Him as a violator of the Jewish law. How? "We have a law; and according to that law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God (John 19:7).从加利利到这个地方“(同上,5)。以此为借口失败。彼拉多是指煽动叛乱案件希律王。希律认为不值得认真考虑他的煽动负责。一遍又再次犹太人来到一个新的前托词。彼拉多再次发现过他有什么原因。最后,犹太人对耶稣给他们的真正原因。他们说他在给自己做了国王,挑起叛乱,拒绝纳税给凯撒,他们力图使出来,他违反罗马法他们的投诉的真正原因并非是耶稣违反罗马法。。但他们的品牌作为犹太违法行为他如何“我们有一个法律;?并根据该法律,他应该死,因为他以自己为神的儿子(约翰福音19:7)。 The charge was most serious; it caused even the Roman governor "to fear the more."充电最为严重,它造成即便罗马总督“害怕了。” What law is here referred to?这里所说的法律是什么呢?There can be no doubt.不可能有任何怀疑。It is the dread law of Leviticus: "He that blasphemeth the name of the Lord, dying let him die: all the multitude shall stone him, whether he be a native or a stranger. He that blasphemeth the name of the Lord dying let him die" (Leviticus 24:17).这是法律利未记恐惧:“他说,blasphemeth主的姓名,死亡让他死:众人都将石头他,不管他是本地人或一个陌生人,他说,blasphemeth主的名字,让他死。死“(利未记24:17)。 By virtue of this law, the Jews were often on the very point of stoning Jesus; by virtue of this law, they often took Him to task for blasphemy whensoever He made Himself the Son of God; by virtue of this same law, they now call for His death.依照本法的规定,犹太人常常在乱石耶稣很点;依照本法的规定,他们经常把他带到任务亵渎whensoever他以自己为神的儿子,由同一法律的规定,他们现在呼吁他的死亡。 It is simply out of the question that these Jews had any intention of accusing Jesus of the assumption of that adopted sonship of God which every Jew had by blood and every prophet had had by special free gift of God's grace.这只不过是出了问题,这些犹太人有任何指责的,上帝通过的sonship每一个犹太人的血液,每一个有先知的神特别的恩典免费赠送了假设耶稣的意图。

Fifthly, we may only give a summary of the other uses of thee title Son of God in regard to Jesus.第五,我们可能只拿出你的上帝的儿子,另一个使用的标题中关于耶稣的摘要。The angel Gabriel proclaims to Mary that her son will "be called the Son of the most High" (Luke 1:32); "the Son of God" (Luke 1:35); St. John speaks of Him as "the only begotten of the Father" (John 1:14); at the Baptism of Jesus and at His Transfiguration, a voice from heaven cries: "This is my beloved son" (Matthew 3:17; Mark 1:11; Luke 3:22; Matthew 17:3); St. John gives it as his very set purpose, in his Gospel, "that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God" (John 20:31).天使加布里埃尔宣布玛丽说,她的儿子将“被称为至高者的儿子”(路加福音1:32)“神的儿子”(路加福音1:35);圣约翰他说,作为“唯一生的父亲“(约1:14),在耶稣的洗礼,并在他的变身,从天上有声音呼喊:”这是我心爱的儿子“(马太3:17;马克1:11;路加福音3时22分;马太17:3);圣约翰赋予它作为自己的目的很有一套,在他的福音,“你可以相信耶稣是基督,是神​​的儿子”(约20:31)它。

Sixthly, in the testimony of John, Jesus identifies Himself absolutely with the Divine Father.第六,在约翰的见证,耶稣绝对确定自己与神的父亲。According to John, Jesus says: "he that seeth me seeth the Father" (ibid., xiv, 9).据约翰,耶稣说:“他说,看见我就看见父亲”(同上,第十四条,9)。St. Athanasius links this clear testimony to the other witness of John "I and the Father are one" (ibid., x, 30); and thereby establishes the consubstantiality of the Father and the Son.圣亚他那修链接这与其他证人约翰“我与父原为一”明确的证词(同上,第十,30);,从而确立了父亲和儿子同体。St. John Chrysostom interprets the text in the same sense.圣约翰金口解释在同样的意义的文本。A last proof from John is in the words that bring his first Epistle to a close: "We know that the Son of God is come: and He hath given us understanding that we may know the true God, and may be in his true Son. This is the true God and life eternal" (1 John 5:20).从约翰最后证明是在他的第一个词带来书信结束:“我们知道,上帝的儿子已经来到:和他所赐给我们的理解是,我们可能知道的真神,并且可能在他真正的儿子。这是真正的上帝和永恒的生命“(约翰一书5:20)。 No one denies that "the Son of God" who is come is Jesus Christ.没有人会否认,谁是来“上帝的儿子”是耶稣基督。This Son of God is the "true Son" of "the true God"; in fact, this true son of the True God, ie Jesus, is the true God and is life eternal.这是神的儿子是“真正的儿子”的“真神”,事实上,这真神,即耶稣,真正的儿子是真神,是永恒的生命。Such is the exegesis of this text given by all the Fathers that have interpreted it (see Corluy, "Spicilegium Dogmatico-Biblicum", ed. Gandavi, 1884, II, 48).这就是由所有已经解释它的父亲有这个文本的注释(见Corluy,“Spicilegium Dogmatico - Biblicum”,教育署。Gandavi,1884年,二,48)。All the Fathers that have either interpreted or cited this text, refer outos to Jesus, and interpret "Jesus is the true God and life eternal."所有已经或解释或引用这个文本的父亲,是指耶稣outos,并解释“耶稣是真正的上帝和永恒的生命。”The objection is raised that the phrase "true God" (ho alethisnos theos) always refers, in John, to the Father.反对的是提出,把“真神”(何alethisnos theos)始终是指,在约翰,给父亲。Yes, the phrase is consecrated to the Father, and is here used precisely on that account, to show that the Father who is, in this very verse, first called "the true God", is one with the Son Who is second called "the true God" in the very same verse.是的,这句话是献给父亲,并在这里使用的正是在该帐户,以证明父亲是谁,就在这个诗句,首先所谓的“真神”,是与那些所谓的第二个儿子之一“真神“,在同样的诗句。 This interpretation is carried out by the grammatical analysis of the phrase; the pronoun this (outos) refers of necessity to the noun near by, ie His true Son Jesus Christ.这一解释进行了这句话的语法分析的代名词今(outos)是指名词的必要性附近,即他真正的儿子耶稣基督。Moreover, the Father is never called "life eternal" by John; whereas the term is often given by him to the Son (John 11:25; 14:6: 1 John 1:2; 5:11-12).此外,父亲是从来没有所谓的“生命永恒”约翰,而这个词经常给他的儿子(约11:25; 14:6:1约翰1:2; 5:11-12)。These citations prove beyond a doubt that the Evangelists bear witness to the real and natural Divine Sonship of Jesus Christ.这些引文证明,毫无疑问的福音见证了真实和自然的神圣sonship耶稣基督。

Outside the Catholic Church, it is today the mode to try to explain away all these uses of the phrase Son of God, as if, forsooth, they meant not the Divine Sonship of Jesus, but presumably His sonship by adoption--a sonship due either to His belonging to the Jewish race or derived from His Messiahship.以外的天主教教会,它是今天的模式,尝试了所有这些解释这句话是神的儿子的用途,如果forsooth,他们的意思不是耶稣的神圣sonship,但据推测他的sonship收养 - 一因的sonship要么他属于犹太人的种族或从他的弥赛亚而得。Against both explanations stand our arguments; against the latter explanation stands the fact that nowhere in the Old Testament is the term Son of God given as a name peculiar to the Messias.我们反对两种解释立场的论据;对后者的解释屹立在旧约的事实,没有任何一个地方,同为神的任期特有的名称定的messias。 The advanced Protestants of this twentieth century are not satisfied with this latter and wornout attempt to explain away the assumed title Son of God.这个二十世纪先进的新教徒不满意这个后者,头脑情形试图解释过去的假设题神的儿子。To them it means only that Jesus was a Jew (a fact that is now denied by Paul Haupt).对他们来说这只是说,耶稣是一个犹太人(即现在一个由保罗豪普特否认的事实)。We now have to face the strange anomaly of ministers of Christianity who deny that Jesus was Christ.我们现在要面对的是基督教的部长谁否认耶稣是基督奇怪的反常现象。Formerly it was considered bold in the Unitarian to call himself a Christian and to deny the Divinity of Jesus; now "ministers of the Gospel" are found to deny that Jesus is the Christ, the Messias (see articles in the Hibbert Journal for 1909, by Reverend Mr. Roberts, also the articles collected under the title "Jesus or Christ?" Boston, 19m).在以前它被认为是统一大胆称自己为基督徒,并否认耶稣神性,现在的“福音部长”被发现否认耶稣是基督,是弥赛亚(见1909年希伯特期刊文章由牧师罗伯特先生,也受到了题为“或基督耶稣?”波士顿,1900)收集的文章。 Within the pale of the Church, too, there were not wanting some who followed the trend of Modernism to such an extent as to admit that in certain passages, the term "Son of God" in its application to Jesus, presumably meant only adopted sonship of God.在教会的脸色苍白,也有一些谁不想跟着西方现代主义思潮到这样的程度,以承认,在某些段落中,“上帝的儿子”在适用于耶稣,大概的意思只是采取的sonship神。 Against these writers was issued the condemnation of the proposition: "In all the texts of the Gospels, the name Son of God is merely the equivalent of the name Messias, and does not in any wise mean that Christ is the true and natural Son of God" (see decree "Lamentabili", S. Off., 3-4 July, 1907, proposition xxxii).针对这些作家发表了谴责的命题:“在所有的福音文本,以上帝的名义仅仅是儿子的名字弭赛亚同等学历,并没有在任何明智的意思不是说,基督是真正的和自然之子神“(见法令”lamentabili“,学关。,7月3-4日,1907年,命题三十二)。 This decree does not affirm even implicitly that every use of the name "Son of God" in the Gospels means true and natural Sonship of God.该法令不肯定甚至暗示,每一个命名为“上帝的儿子”在福音中使用的手段真实和自然神的sonship。Catholic theologians generally defend the proposition whenever, in the Gospels, the name "Son of God" is used in the singular number, absolutely and without any additional explanation, as a proper name of Jesus, it invariably means true and natural Divine Sonship of Jesus Christ (see Billot, "De Verbo Incarnato," 1904, p. 529).天主教神学家一般的主张辩护时,在福音,名称为“上帝的儿子”是用在单数,绝对和不带任何附加的解释,耶稣的适当的名称,它总是意味着真实和自然的神圣sonship耶稣基督(见Billot,“德Verbo Incarnato,”1904年,第529页)。Corluy, a very careful student of the original texts and of the versions of the Bible, declared that, whenever the title Son of God is given to Jesus in the New Testament, this title has the inspired meaning of natural Divine Sonship; Jesus is by this title said to have the same nature and substance as the Heavenly Father (see "Spicilegium", II, p. 42). Corluy,原始文本和圣经的版本非常认真的学生,宣布,每当神称号的儿子是由于在新约耶稣,这个称号具有天然的神圣sonship启发意义,耶稣是由据说,这个称号作为天父的同一性质和内容(见“Spicilegium”,第二章,第42页)。

Jesus is God耶稣是神

St. John affirms in plain words that Jesus is God.圣约翰申明耶稣是神平原的话。The set purpose of the aged disciple was to teach the Divinity of Jesus in the Gospel, Epistles, and Apocalypse that he has left us; he was aroused to action against the first heretics that bruised the Church.老人的弟子集的目的是要教导耶稣的福音,书信和启示,他留给我们的神,他是第一个引起侵害异端的行动​​,受伤的教会。 "They went out from us, but they were not of us. For if they had been of us, they would no doubt have remained with us" (1 John 2:19). “他们从我们中间出去,但他们不是出于我们。因为如果他们有我们的,他们将毫无疑问仍然是与我们”(约翰一书2:19)。They did not confess Jesus Christ with that confession which they had obligation to make (1 John 4:3).他们不承认与该供认,他们已义务做出(约翰一书4:3)耶稣基督。John's Gospel gives us the clearest confession of the Divinity of Jesus.约翰福音给我们的耶稣神性最明确的自白。We may translate from the original text: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was in relation to God and the Word was God" (John i, 1).我们可以从原文翻译:“在太初有道,道与神的关系过去是,道就是神”(约翰一,1)。The words ho theos (with the article) mean, in Johannine Greek, the Father.的话(与文章)何theos意思是,在Johannine希腊,父亲。The expression pros ton theon reminds one forcibly of Aristotle's to pros ti einai.正反的表达想起一吨theon强行亚里士多德到钛einai利弊。This Aristotelian way of expressing relation found its like in the Platonic, Neo-Platonic, and Alexandrian philosophy; and it was the influence of this Alexandrian philosophy in Ephesus and elsewhere that John set himself to combat.这种表达方式的关系找到了亚里士多德像柏拉图,新柏拉图,亚历山大哲学,它是这一哲学的影响力在以弗所亚历山大和其他地方,约翰为自己定下打击。 It was, then, quite natural that John adopted some of the phraseology of his enemies, and by the expression ho logos en pros ton theon gave forth the mystery of the relation of Father with Son: "the Word stood in relation to the Father", ie, even in the beginning.它是,那么,很自然的,约翰通过了一些措辞,他的敌人,并表达浩恩利弊吨theon标志给提出了与儿子的父亲的关系之谜:“字有关的父亲站在” ,也就是说,即使是在开始。At any rate the clause theos en ho logos means "the Word was God".无论如何恩豪标识的条款theos的意思是“道就是神”。This meaning is driven home, in the irresistible logic of St. John, by the following verse: "All things were made by him."这意思是开车回家,在圣约翰不可抗拒的逻辑,通过下面的诗句:“万物是借着他造的。”The Word, then, is the Creator of all things and is true God.这个词,那么,是万物的创造者,是真正的上帝。Who is the Word!是谁的话! It was made flesh and dwelt with us in the flesh (verse 14); and of this Word John the Baptist bore witness (verse 15).它是由肉体和我们住在肉体(诗14),以及这个词的施洗约翰见证(15节)。But certainly it was Jesus, according to John the Evangelist, Who dwelt with us in the flesh and to Whom the Baptist bore witness.但可以肯定的是耶稣,根据约翰福音,谁跟我们住在肉体和向谁浸会见证。Of Jesus the Baptist says: "This is he, of whom I said: After me there cometh a man, who is preferred before me: because he was before me" (verse 30).耶稣的浸会说:“这是他,就是我曾说:在我之后来到有一个人,谁是首选我面前:因为他在我面前是”(诗30)。This testimony and other passages of St. John's Gospel are so clear that the modern rationalist takes refuge from their forcefulness in the assertion that the entire Gospel is a mystic contemplation and no fact-narrative at all (see JOHN, GOSPEL OF SAINT).圣约翰的福音,这证词和其他段落是如此清楚,从他们的现代理性主义需要有力的断言,整个福音是一个神秘的沉思,没有事实的叙述在所有(见圣约翰福音)避难。 Catholics may not hold this opinion denying the historicity of John.天主教徒不得担任这个观点否定了约翰的历史性。The Holy Office, in the Decree "Lamentabili", condemned the following proposition: "The narrations of John are not properly speaking history but a mystic contemplation of the Gospel: the discourses contained in his Gospel are theological meditations on the mystery of salvation and are destitute of historical truth."神圣的办公室,在法令“lamentabili”,谴责以下命题:“约翰的叙述是不正确地讲历史,而是一个神秘的福音沉思:在他的福音中的论述是对救赎的奥秘神学沉思,并贫困的历史真相。“ (See prop. xvi.) (见支撑。十六。)

(b) WITNESS OF ST.(二)证人的圣。PAUL郑明

It is not the set purpose of St. Paul, outside of the Epistle to the Hebrews, to prove the Divinity of Jesus Christ.这不是圣保罗集的目的,外面的书信希伯来人,以证明耶稣神性。The great Apostle takes this fundamental principle of Christianity for granted.伟大的使徒借此基督教的基本原则是理所当然的。Yet so clear is the witness of Paul to this fact of Christ's Divinity, that the Rationalists and rationalistic Lutherans of Germany have strived to get away from the forcefulness of the witness of the Apostle by rejecting his form of Christianity as not conformable to the Christianity of Jesus.然而,如此明确的是,保罗证明了这一点,基督的神性的事实,即理性和德国理性路德会一直努力,拒绝为不相符合的基督教他对基督教的形式,得到了的使徒的见证有力离耶稣。 Hence they cry: "Los von Paulus, zurück zu Christus"; that is, "Away from Paul, back to Christ" (see J¨licher, Paulus und Christus", ed. Mohr, 1909). We assume the historicity of the Epistles of Paul; to a Catholic, the Christianity of St. Paul is one and the same with the Christianity of Christ. (See SAINT PAUL). To the Romans, Paul writes: "God sending his own Son, in the likeness of sinful flesh and of sin" (viii, 3). His Own Son (ton heautou) the Father sends, not a Son by adoption. The angels are by adoption the children of God; they participate in the Father's nature by the free gifts He has bestowed upon them. Not so the Own Son of the Father. As we have seen, He is more the offspring of the Father than are the angels. How more? In this that He is adored as the Father is adored; the angels are not adored. Such is Paul's argument in the first chapter of the Epistle to the Hebrews. Therefore, in St. Paul's theology, the Father's Own Son, Whom the angels adore, Who was begotten in the today of eternity, Who was sent by the Father, clearly existed before His appearance in the Flesh, and is, in point of fact, the great "I am who am",--the Jahweh Who spoke to Moses on Horeb. This identification of the Christ with Jahweh would seem to be indicated, when St. Paul speaks of Christ as ho on epi panton theos, "who is over all things, God blessed for ever" (Romans 9:5). This interpretation and punctuation are sanctioned by all the Fathers that have used the text; all refer to Christ the words "He who is God over all". Petavius (De Trin., 11, 9, n. 2) cites fifteen, among whom are Irenaeus, Tertullian, Cyprian, Athanasius, Gregory of Nyssa, Ambrose, Augustine, and Hilary. The Peshitta has the same translation as we have given. Alford, Trench, Westcott and Hort, and most Protestants are at one with us in this interpretation.因此,他们高喊:“洛杉矶冯保卢斯,zurück祖基督”,即“远离保罗,回到基督”(见Ĵ ¨ licher,保卢斯有限公司基督“,教育署莫尔,1909年。)我们承担的历史性。 。。书信保罗的天主教,基督教的圣保罗是一个整体,与基督的基督教(见圣保罗)相同的罗马,保罗写道:“在上帝的罪孽深重相似派遣自己的儿子, 。肉体和罪恶“(八,3)自己的儿子(吨heautou)父亲发,不是儿子收养天使收养是神的儿​​女。他们在父亲的性质参加由他免费赠品赐予他们不要因此对自己儿子的父亲正如我们所看到的,他更多的是子女的父亲比是天使如何更在此,他是崇拜的父亲是崇拜。。。?天使是不崇拜。这就是保罗在书信的第一章的希伯来人的论点。因此,在圣保罗的神学,父亲自己的儿子,谁的天使崇拜,谁在永恒今天出师不利,被送往由父显然存在之前,他在肉体外观点,事实上是,伟大的“我是谁时”, - 亚威谁的发言何烈这与亚威基督鉴定摩西似乎是表示。当圣保罗说,作为议员基督在外延潘theos,“谁是对所有的事情,上帝永远祝福”(罗马书9:5)这种解释和标点符号是由所有已使用的文本父亲制裁。都指基督的话:“谁是对所有的神”。Petavius​​(德草。,11,9,31日2)引用十五,其中有依,良,塞浦路斯,亚他那修,对果树,刘汉铨,奥古斯丁格雷戈里,和希拉里。了Peshiṭta具有相同的翻译,因为我们已发出。奥尔福德,海沟,Westcott和园艺,大多数新教徒在与我们一本解释。

This identification of the Christ with Jahweh is clearer in the First Epistle to the Corinthians.这与亚威基督认同是在第一书信向科林蒂安清晰。Christ is said to have been Jahweh of the Exodus.基督是说已经亚威的外流。"And all drank the same spiritual drink; (and they drank of the spiritual rock that followed them, and the rock was Christ)" (x, 4).“并且所有饮料喝了一样的灵,(他们的精神跟着他们喝岩石,岩石是基督)”(十,4)。 It was Christ Whom some of the Israelites "tempted, and (they) perished by the serpents" (x, 10); it was Christ against Whom "some of them murmured, and were destroyed by the destroyer" (x, 11).这是基督谁的以色列人一些“诱惑,(他们)死亡的蛇”(十,10),这是针对谁基督“有些喃喃地说,被摧毁的驱逐舰”(十,11)。 St. Paul takes over the Septuagint translation of Jahweh ho kyrios, and makes this title distinctive of Jesus.圣保罗接管的Jahweh浩kyrios译本翻译,使得这个称号耶稣与众不同。The Colossians are threatened with the deception of philosophy (ii, 8).歌罗西书受到威胁与哲学(二,8)欺骗。St. Paul reminds them that they should think according to Christ; "for in him dwelleth the fulness of the Godhead (pleroma tes theotetos) corporeally" (ii, 9); nor should they go so low as give to angels, that they see not, the adoration that is due only to Christ (ii, 18, 19).圣保罗提醒他们,他们应该考虑根据基督,“因为在他住的丰满的神体(pleroma工商业污水附加费theotetos)物质上”(二,9);也不应该去得过低,给天使,他们看到没有,这是因为只有崇拜基督(二,18,19)。 "For in Him were all things created in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominations or principalities or powers; all things were created by Him and for Him" (eis auton). “,在他创造了在天堂和在地球上,有形及无形的,有位或支配权或权力或执政的一切事物,一切事物都是借着他造和他”(EIS的奥顿)。He is the cause and the end of all things, even of the angels whom the Colossians are so misguided as to prefer to Him (i, 16).他是事业和万物的结局,甚至是天使谁的歌罗西书是如此误导,以喜欢他(我,16)。The cultured Macedonians of Philippi are taught that in "the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those that are in heaven, on earth, and under the earth; and that every tongue should confess that the Lord Jesus Christ is in the glory of God the Father" (ii, 10, 11).马其顿的腓力比的培养被教导,在“耶稣的名无不屈膝,对那些在天上的,地上的,和地底下的,并认为每口称主耶稣基督的荣耀父神“(二,10,11)。 This is the very same genuflexion and confession that the Romans are bidden to make to the Lord and the Jews to Jahweh (see Romans 14:6; Isaiah 14:24).这是同样的跪拜和忏悔的罗马人都被召要对上帝和犹太人亚威(见罗马书14点06,以赛亚书14:24)。The testimony of St. Paul could be given at much greater length.在圣保罗的证词可能会给予更大的长度。These texts are only the chief among many others that bear Paul's witness to the Divinity of Jesus Christ.这些文本只是其中而承受保罗的见证耶稣基督的神许多其他行政。

C. Witness of Tradition三证人的传统

The two main sources wherefrom we draw our information as to tradition, or the unwritten Word of God, are the Fathers of the Church and the general councils.从那两个主要来源,我们得出的信息,以传统或不成文的神字,是教会和广大议会的父亲。


The Fathers are practically unanimous in explicitly teaching the Divinity of Jesus Christ.几乎一致的父亲是在明确教学中耶稣基督的神性。The testimony of many has been given in our exegesis of the dogmatic texts that prove the Christ to be God.许多证词,都赐给我们的教条式的文字训诂学可以证明基督是神。It would take over-much space to cite the Fathers adequately.这将需要过大的空间举出充分的父亲。We shall confine ourselves to those of the Apostolic and apologetic ages.我们将自己局限在使徒和道歉的年龄组。By joining these testimonies to those of the Evangelists and St. Paul, we can see clearly that the Holy Office was right in condemning these propositions of Modernism: "The Divinity of Christ is not proven by the Gospels but is a dogma that the Christian conscience has evolved from the notion of a Messiah. It may be taken for granted that the Christ Whom history shows us is much inferior to the Christ Who is the object of Faith" (see prop. xxvii and xxix of Decree "Lamentabili").通过加入这些证词的福音和圣保禄的,我们可以清楚地看到,罗马办事处是对现代主义的谴责这些命题:“基督的神的福音,是不是证明,而是一个教条,基督教的良心已经从一个弥赛亚的概念。这可能是理所当然的,基督是谁的历史告诉我们,远不如在基督的人,是信仰的对象采取“(见道具。二十七和二十九的法令”lamentabili“)。

The Fathers Themselves自己的父亲

St. Clement of Rome (AD 93-95, according to Harnack), in his first epistle to the Corinthians, xvi, 2, speaks of "The Lord Jesus Christ, the Sceptre of the Might of God" (Funk, "Patres Apostolici", T¨bingen ed., 1901, p. 118), and describes, by quoting Is., iii, 1-12, the humiliation that was foretold and came to pass in the self-immolation of Jesus.圣克莱门特的罗马(公元93-95根据的Harnack),在他第一次书信向科林蒂安,十六,二,说的是“主耶稣基督,上帝的权杖的威力”(方克,“Patres Apostolici “吨•宾根版。,1901年,第118页),并说明引用是。,三,1-12,认为是预言和29:23到的自我羞辱耶稣自焚。 As the writings of the Apostolic Fathers are very scant, and not at all apologetic but rather devotional and exhortive, we should not look in them for that clear and plain defence of the Divinity of Christ which is evidenced in the writings of the apologists and later Fathers.作为使徒父亲的著作都非常缺乏,而不是在所有的歉意,而是虔诚和exhortive,我们不应该认为他们寻找的是证明基督的神在后来的著作和辩护士明确和纯防御父亲。

The witness of St. Ignatius of Antioch (AD 110-117, according to Harnack) is almost that of the apologetic age, in whose spirit he seems to have written to the Ephesians.圣依纳爵的安提阿证人(公元110-117,根据的Harnack)是几乎是致歉的年龄,在他们的精神,他似乎已经写信给以弗所。 It may well be that at Ephesus the very same heresies were now doing havoc which about ten years before or, according to Harnack's chronology, at the very same time, St. John had written his Gospel to undo.很可能,在以弗所同异端邪说的人现在很混乱做其中约十年前,或根据哈纳克的年表在同样的时间,圣约翰写下了福音,撤消。 If this be so, we understand the bold confession of the Divinity of Jesus Christ which this grand confessor of the Faith brings into his greetings, at the beginning of his letter to the Ephesians.如果这是这样,我们认识耶稣基督的神本信仰的隆重忏悔带进他的问候在他的信开始到以弗所,大胆告白。"Ignatius . . . . to the Church . . . which is at Ephesus . . . . in the will of the Father and of Jesus Christ Our God (tou theou hemon)."“伊格。。。。来教会。。。这是在以弗所。。。在父亲和耶稣基督我们的神(头施展theou hemon)会。。”He says: "The Physician in One, of the Flesh and of the Spirit, begotten and not begotten, who was God in Flesh (en sarki genomenos theos) . . . Jesus Christ Our Lord" (c. vii; Funk, I, 218).他说:“。。。在一位医师,对肉体和精神,造物主,而不是造物主,谁是在肉体的上帝(恩sarki genomenos theos)我们的主耶稣基督”(长七;芬克,我, 218)。"For Our God Jesus Christ was borne in the womb by Mary" (c. xviii, 2; Funk, I, 226). “对于我们的上帝耶稣基督被传染的玛丽子宫”(约十八,2,方克,我226)。To the Romans he writes: "For Our God Jesus Christ, abiding in the Father, is manifest even the more" (c. iii, 3; Funk, 1, 256).给罗马人,他写道:“对于我们的上帝耶稣基督,守法的父亲,甚至更是体现”(长三,3,方克,1,256)。

The witness of the Letter of Barnabas: "Lo, again, Jesus is not the Son of man but the Son of God, made manifest in form in the Flesh. And since men were going to say that the Christ was the Son of David, David himself, fearing and understanding the malice of the wicked, made prophecy: The Lord said to my Lord . . . . . Lo, how David calls Him the Lord and not son" (c. xiii; Funk, I, 77).该信的石碑见证:“看哪,同样,耶稣是不是人的儿子,但上帝的儿子,在形式上取得了明显的肉,因为在男人会说,基督是大卫的儿子了。大卫自己,怕和理解恶人的恶意,作出预言:。。。。。主对我主说罗大卫如何称他是上帝,而不是儿子“(约十三,放克,我77)。 In the apologetic age, Saint Justin Martyr (Harnack. AD 150) wrote: "Since the Word is the first-born of God, He is also God" (Apol. I, n. 63; PG, VI, 423).在致歉的年龄,圣贾斯汀烈士(Harnack.公元150)中写道:“因为这个词是第一个从神生的,他也是神”(Apol.我,注63;编号,六,423)。 It is evident from the context that Justin means Jesus Christ by the Word; he had just said that Jesus was the Word before He became Man, and used to appear in the form of fire or of some other incorporeal image.这是从上下文显然意味着贾斯汀字基督耶稣,他刚说,耶稣是字之前,他成为人,并用出现在火灾形式或其他无形的形象。St. Irenæus proves that Jesus Christ is rightly called the one and only God and Lord, in that all things are said to have been made by Him (see "Adv. Haer.", III, viii, n. 3; PG, VII, 868; bk. IV, 10, 14, 36).圣爱任纽证明耶稣基督是正确的那叫一个只有上帝和主,在这所有的东西据说是由他(见,三,八,北三“副Haer。。”;编号,第七,868。浅滩四,10,14,36)。 Deutero-Clement (Harnack, AD 166; Sanday, AD 150) insists: "Brethren, we should think of Jesus Christ as of God Himself, as of the Judge of the living and the dead" (see Funk, I, 184).氘,克莱门特(哈纳克,公元166;桑迪,公元150)坚称:“弟兄们,我们应该想到耶稣基督为上帝,作为活着的和死法官”(见芬克,我,184)。 St. Clement of Alexandria (Sanday, AD 190) speaks of Christ as "true God without any controversy, the equal of the Lord of the whole universe, since He is the Son and the Word is in God" (Cohortatio ad Gentes, c. x; PG, VIII, 227).圣克莱门特亚历山大(桑迪,公元190)讲基督为“真神没有任何争议,对整个宇宙的主平等的,因为他是儿子和Word是上帝”(Cohortatio广告氏族,ç 。x;前列腺素,八,227)。

Pagan Writers异教作家

To the witness of these Fathers of the Apostolic and apologetic age, we add a few witnesses from the contemporary pagan writers.到了使徒和歉意,年龄这些父亲的见证,我们添加异教作家从当代一些证人。 Pliny (AD 107) wrote to Trajan that the Christians were wont before the light of day to meet and to sing praises "to Christ as to God" (Epist., x, 97).普林尼(公元107)写信给图拉真基督徒之前的曙光,以满足和唱不会推崇“以上帝的基督”(Epist.,第十,97)。 The Emperor Hadrian (AD 117) wrote to Servianus that many Egyptians had become Christians, and that converts to Christianity were "forced to adore Christ", since He was their God (see Saturninus, c. vii).皇帝哈德良(公元117)写信给Servianus,许多埃及人已成为基督徒,并转换为基督教是“被迫崇拜基督”,因为他是他们的神(见撒端黎纳角七)。 Lucian scoffs at the Christians because they had been persuaded by Christ "to throw over the gods of the Greeks and to adore Him fastened to a cross" (De Morte Peregrini, 13).卢西恩嘲笑,因为他们已经说服基督“扔了希腊人的神和崇拜他固定在十字架上”(德莫提Peregrini,13)在基督徒。 Here also may be mentioned the well-known graffito that caricatures the worship of the Crucified as God.这里还可以提到了著名的乱画的漫画,作为神的崇拜十字架。This important contribution to archaeology was found, in 1857, on a wall of the Paedagogium, an inner part of the Domus Gelotiana of the Palatine, and is now in the Kircher Museum, Rome.这一重要贡献,考古发现,在1857年,一项对Paedagogium,一对腭多莫斯Gelotiana内部的墙壁,并在基歇尔博物馆,罗马现在。 After the murder of Caligula (AD 41) this inner part of the Domus Gelotiana became a training-school for court pages, called the Paedagogium (see Lanciani, "Ruins and Excavations of Ancient Rome", ed. Boston, 1897, p. 186).后卡利古拉(公元41)这多莫斯Gelotiana内部谋杀成了培训学校网页法庭,被称为Paedagogium(见Lanciani,“遗址发掘与古代罗马”,教育署。波士顿,1897年,第186页)。 This fact and the language of the graffito lead one to surmise that the page who mocked at the religion of one of his fellows has so become an important witness to the Christian adoration of Jesus as God in the first or, at the very latest, the second century.这一事实以及乱画导致一种语言推测,谁在他的同伴嘲笑页都有一个宗教等成为一个重要的见证了耶稣是上帝的基督教崇拜在第一或在很迟的第二个世纪。 The graffito represents the Christ on a cross and mockingly gives Him an ass's head; a page is rudely scratched kneeling and with hands outstretched in the attitude of prayer; the inscription is "Alexamenos worships his God" (Alexamenos sebetai ton theon).该乱画代表在十字架上的基督和嘲笑给他一屁股的头,一个网页被强行抓在祈祷的态度,跪在地上,伸出双手,题词是“Alexamenos崇拜他的上帝”(Alexamenos sebetai吨theon)。In the second century, too, Celsus arraigns the Christians precisely on this account that they think God was made man (see Origen, "Contra Celsum", IV, 14; PG, XI, 1043).在第二个世纪,也塞尔苏斯arraigns正是在这个帐户,他们认为上帝造人是基督徒(见渊源,“魂斗罗Celsum”,四,14;前列腺素,十一,1043)。 Aristides wrote to the Emperor Antonius Pius (AD 138-161) what seems to have been an apology for the Faith of Christ: "He Himself is called the Son of God; and they teach of Him that He as God came down from heaven and took and put on Flesh of a Hebrew virgin" (see "Theol. Quartalschrift", Tübingen, 1892, p. 535).阿里斯蒂德说给皇帝安东尼庇护(公元138-161)什么似乎一直是为基督信仰道歉:“他被称为神的儿子,他们对他来教教他作为神从天上下来,上了一个希伯来处女肉“(见”Theol。Quartalschrift“,蒂宾根大学,1892年,第535页)提出。


The first general council of the Church was called to define the Divinity of Jesus Christ and to condemn Arius and his error (see ARIUS).第一次总理事会的教会被称为界定耶稣基督神性,并谴责阿里乌和他的错误(见阿里乌斯)。Previous to this time, heretics had denied this great and fundamental dogma of the Faith; but the Fathers had been equal to the task of refuting the error and of stemming the tide of heresy.在此之前的时间,异端已经否认了这一伟大的信仰和基本教义,但是父亲已经等于批驳错误和制止异端的潮流任务。Now the tide of heresy was so strong as to have need of the authority of the universal Church to withstand it.现在的潮流是如此强烈异端,以具有普世教会的权威需要承受它。In his "Thalia", Arius taught that the Word was not eternal (en pote ote ouk en) nor generated of the Father, but made out of nothing (ex ouk onton hehonen ho logos); and though it was before the world was, yet it was a thing made, a created thing (poiema or ktisis).在他的“塔莉亚”,阿里乌斯告诉我们,这个词是不是永恒的(恩pote希腊电信ouk恩),也不产生的父亲,但由无中生有(当然ouk ont​​on hehonen浩标志),虽然它在世界面前的时候,然而,这是一个东西后,一个创造物(poiema或ktisis)。Against this bold heresy, the Council of Nicaea (325) defined the dogma of the Divinity: of Christ in the clearest terms: "We believe . . . in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the Only-begotten, generated of the Father (hennethenta ek tou patros monogene), that is, of the substance of the Father, God of God, Light of Light, True God of True God, begotten not made, the same in nature with the Father (homoousion to patri) by Whom all things were made" (see Denzinger, 54).在这种大胆的异端,理事会的尼西亚(325)中定义的教条的神:基督的最明确的条款:。。。“我们相信独一的主耶稣基督,上帝的儿子,只有出师不利,产生的父亲(hennethenta绽出头patros单基因),也就是对父的神,神,光而为光,真神真神实质,造物主没有作出,在与父亲(homoousion至帕特里)性质相同万物是由谁来制造“(见登青格,54)。


The Gnostics taught that matter was of its very nature evil, somewhat as the present-day Christian Scientists teach that it is an "error of mortal mind"; hence Christ as God could not have had a material body, and His body was only apparent.该Gnostics教这个问题是其本身的性质邪恶,有点像现在的基督教科学家告诉我们,这是一个“凡人mind的错误”,因此基督作为上帝不会有重大的身体,他的身体只是明显。 These heretics, called doketae included Basilides, Marcion, the Manichæans, and others.这些异端,被称为doketae包括巴西里德,马吉安的摩尼等。Valentinus and others admitted that Jesus had a body, but a something heavenly and ethereal; hence Jesus was not born of Mary, but His airy body passed through her virgin body.瓦伦廷等人承认耶稣有一个机构,而是一个天上和缥缈的东西,因此耶稣不是马利亚所生,但他的身体在她的处女通风的身体通过。 The Apollinarists admitted that Jesus had an ordinary body, but denied Him a human soul; the Divine nature took the place of the rational mind.该Apollinarists承认耶稣有一个普通的身体,但否认他一个人的灵魂;神圣的性质发生了理性思维的地方。Against all these various forms of the heresy that denies Christ is true Man stand countless and clearest testimonies of the written and unwritten Word of God.对所有这些异端,否认基督的各种形式是真正的男人站在无数的神的书面证词和不成文的字清晰。The title that is characteristic of Jesus in the New Testament is Son of Man; it occurs some eighty times in the Gospels; it was His Own accustomed title for Himself.的标题是耶稣在新约的特点是不以人的儿子,它发生在一些福音80倍,这是对他本人就是他自己的习惯称号。The phrase is Aramaic, and would seem to be an idiomatic way of saying "man".这句话是阿拉姆语,而似乎是一个说“人”的惯用方式。 The life and death and resurrection of Christ would all be a lie were He not a man, and our Faith would be vain.生命与死亡和复活的基督都将是一个谎言是他不是一个人,我们的信心将是徒劳的。(1 Corinthians 15:14). (哥林多前书15:14)。"For there is one God, and one mediator of God and men, the man Christ Jesus" (1 Timothy 2:5).“因为只有一位神,在神和人之一,为人的基督耶稣调解员”(提摩太前书2:5)。Why, Christ even enumerates the parts of His Body.为什么基督甚至列举了他的身体部分。"See my hands and feet, that it is I myself; handle and see: for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as you see me to have" (Luke 24:39). “看我的手和脚,这是我自己;处理,看到:一个精神岂不是肉和骨头,你看我有”(路加福音24:39)。St. Augustine says, in this matter: "If the Body of Christ was a fancy, then Christ erred; and if Christ erred, then He is not the Truth. But Christ is the Truth; hence His Body was not a fancy' (QQ. lxxxiii, q. 14; PL, XL, 14). In regard to the human soul of Christ, the Scripture is equally clear. Only a human soul could have been sad and troubled. Christ says: "My soul is sorrowful even unto death" (Matthew 26:38). "Now is my soul troubled" (John 12:27). His obedience to the heavenly Father and to Mary and Joseph supposes a human soul (John 4:34; 5:30; 6:38; Luke 22:42). Finally Jesus was really born of Mary (Matthew 1:16), made of a woman (Galatians 4:4), after the angel had promised that He should be conceived of Mary (Luke 1:31); this woman is called the mother of Jesus (Matthew 1:18; 2:11; Luke 1:43; John 2:3); Christ is said to be really the seed of Abraham (Galatians 3:16), the son of David (Matthew 1:1), made of the seed of David according to the flesh (Romans 1:3), and the fruit of the loins of David (Acts 2:30). So clear is the testimony of Scripture to the perfect human nature of Jesus Christ, that the Fathers held it as a general principle that whatsoever the Word had not assumed was not healed, ie, did not receive the effects of the Incarnation.圣奥古斯丁说,在这个问题:“如果基督的身体是一个幻想,基督失误;若基督犯了错误,那么他是不是真理,而是基督是真理,因此他的身体不是一个幻想的(。 。。。。QQ号捌拾叁,问:14;特等,加大码,14)关于基督的人的灵魂,圣经同样清楚的只有一个人的灵魂本来是悲伤和不安基督说:“我的灵魂,是悲哀的,即使以至于死。“(马太26:38)”现在是我的灵魂不安“(约翰12:27),他服从天父和玛丽和约瑟夫假设一个人的灵魂(约翰4:34。5:30 6 :38。路加福音22:42)最后耶稣真的出生的玛丽(马太1:16),女人(加拉太书4:4)制成,经过天使曾承诺,他应该考虑玛丽(路加福音1: 31);这个女人是所谓的耶稣的母亲(马太1:18; 2:11;路加福音1:43,约翰2:3),基督被认为是真正亚伯拉罕的后裔(加拉太书3:16),在大卫(马太1:1),儿子大卫根据肉(罗马书1:3),和大卫(徒2:30)腰部果种子。因此,明确的是圣经的证词完美的耶稣基督,父亲举行了一个总的原则是没有任何字以为她没有愈合,即它,人类的本性没有收到的化身的影响。


Here we consider this union as a fact; the nature of the union will be later taken up.在这里,我们认为这是事实联盟,该联盟的性质,稍后会采纳。Now it is our purpose to prove that the Divine nature was really and truly united with the human nature of Jesus, ie, that one and the same Person, Jesus Christ, was God and man.现在是我们的宗旨,以证明神的本质是实实在在地与耶稣,即人性的团结,这是同一个人,耶稣基督,是上帝和人。We speak here of no moral union, no union in a figurative sense of the word; but a union that is physical, a union of two substances or natures so as to make One Person, a union which means that God is Man and Man is God in the Person of Jesus Christ.在这里,我们说没有道德的结合,没有对这个词比喻意义联盟,但联盟的是一个身体,两个物质或工会性质,从而使一个人,一个联盟,这意味着上帝就是人,人是神在基督耶稣的人。

A. The Witness of Holy Writ答:圣经的见​​证

St. John says: "The Word was made flesh" (i, 14), that is, He Who was God in the Beginning (i, 2), and by Whom all things were created (i. 3), became Man.圣约翰说:“道成了肉身”(一,14),也就是说,他谁是上帝在一开始(一,二),及由何人所有的东西被创造(一3),成为人。 According to the testimony of St. Paul, the very same Person, Jesus Christ, "being in the form of God [en morphe Theou hyparxon] . . . emptied himself, taking the form of a servant [morphen doulou labon]" (Phil., ii, 6, 7).根据圣保禄,同样的人,耶稣基督的证词,“在上帝[英文morphe施展theou hyparxon]形式的福利。。。掏空自己,取了奴仆[morphen doulou labon]表”(菲尔。第一,二,六,七)。It is always one and the same Person, Jesus Christ, Who is said to be God and Man, or is given predicates that denote Divine and human nature.它始终是一个和同一人,耶稣基督,他被认为是神与人,或有谓词表示神性与人性。 The author of life (God) is said to have been killed by the Jews (Acts 3:15); but He could not have been killed were He not Man.生命(神)的作者,据说已被杀害的犹太人(徒3:15),但他不能被打死了,他不是人。

B. Witness of Tradition二证人的传统

The early forms of the creed all make profession of faith, not in one Jesus Who is the Son of God and in another Jesus Who is Man and was crucified, but "in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Only-begotten Son of God, Who became Man for us and was crucified".早期的信条作出一切形式的职业信仰,而不是在一个耶稣谁是上帝的儿子,耶稣是谁在另一个人与被钉在十字架,而是“一主耶稣基督,上帝的独生子是谁成为人,为我们被钉在十字架“。 The forms vary, but the substance of each creed invariably attributes to one and the same Jesus Christ the predicates of the Godhead and of man (see Denzinger, "Enchiridion").的形式各不相同,但每个信条物质属性总是同一个耶稣基督的神性和人的谓词(见登青格,“便览”)。 Franzelin (thesis xvii) calls special attention to the fact that, long before the heresy of Nestorius, according to Epiphanius (Ancorat., II, 123, in PG, XLII, 234), it was the custom of the Oriental Church to propose to catechumens a creed that was very much more detailed than that proposed to the faithful; and in this creed the catechumens said: "We believe . . . in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, begotten of God the Father . . . that is, of the substance of the Father . . . in Him Who for us men and for our salvation came down and was made Flesh, that is, was perfectly begotten of Mary ever Virgin by the Holy Spirit; Who became Man, that is, took perfect human nature, soul and body and mind and all whatsoever is human save only sin, without the seed of man; not in another man, but unto himself did He form Flesh into one holy unity [eis mian hagian henoteta]; not as He breathed and spoke and wrought in the prophets, but He became Man perfectly; for the Word was made Flesh, not in that It underwent a change nor in that It exchanged Its Divinity for humanity, but in that It united Its Flesh unto Its one holy totality and Divinity [eis mian . . . heautou hagian teleioteta te kai theoteta].' Franzelin(论文十七)调用特别注意的事实是,早在异端的nestorius据埃皮法尼乌斯(Ancorat.,二,123,在编号,四十二,234),它是东方教会的习俗建议慕道一个信条是非常详细比对忠实的建议,在这种信条和慕道说:。。。。。。“我们相信独一的主耶稣基督,上帝的儿子,是上帝的独生子。。。是,该物质的父亲是谁在他为了我们人类和我们的拯救下来,并成了肉身,即是完全圣母玛利亚所生曾经被圣灵,谁成为人,也就是说,完善了人性,灵魂和肉体和精神是人类和一切没有保存人的种仅罪过,不要在另一名男子,只叫他自己到一个神圣的统一形式[EIS的绵hagian henoteta]肉,不作为他怔怔地发言,并在先知紧张得要命,但他成为人完美;为道成了肉身,而不是因为它经历了一个变化,而在于它为人类交流的神,但因为它的肉给美国的一圣洁的神的整体性和[EIS的眠。。。heautou hagian teleioteta德启theoteta]。'"The one holy totality", Franzelin considers, means personality, a person being an individual and complete subject of rational acts. This creed of the catechumens gives even the Divinity of the totality, ie the fact that the individual Person of Jesus is a Divine and not a human Person. Of this intricate question we shall speak later on. “一个神圣的总和”,Franzelin着想,是指个性,一个人作为一个理性行为的个人和完整的问题。这种信仰的慕道甚至给神的整体,即一个事实,即耶稣的人是一个神圣的individual而不是一个人的。在这个复杂的问题,我们将稍后发言。

The witness of tradition to the fact of the union of the two natures in the one Person of Jesus is clear not only from the symbols or creeds in use before the condemnation of Nestorius, but also from the words of the ante-Nicaean Fathers.对传统的在耶稣的一个人见证两个性质是明确的事实工会不仅从符号或之前涅斯谴责使用信条,但也从休息室Nicaean父亲的话。 We have already given the classic quotations from St. Ignatius the Martyr, St. Clement of Rome, St. Justin the Martyr, in all of which are attributed to the one Person, Jesus Christ, the actions or attributes of God and of Man.我们已经给圣依纳爵的烈士,圣克莱门特的罗马的经典语录,圣贾斯汀的烈士,在所有这些归结为一个人,耶稣基督,上帝的行动或与人的属性。 Melito, Bishop of Sardis (about 176), says: "Since the same (Christ) was at the same time God and perfect Man, He made His two natures evident to us; His Divine nature by the miracles which He wrought during the three years after His baptism; His human nature by those thirtv years that He first lived, during which the lowliness of the Flesh covered over and hid away all signs of the Divinity, though He was at one and the same time true and everlasting God" (Frag. vii in PG, V, 1221).美利托,对萨迪斯(约176),主教说:“因为同样的(基督)在同一时间神和完美的人了,他把他的两个性质,明显给我们,他的神圣的,是因他在三天的性质造成的奇迹多年后,他的洗礼,他的那些thirtv年,他第一次住,在此期间覆盖谦虚超越肉体藏了所有的神的迹象,尽管他是在同一个时代的人性和永恒的上帝“(片段。第七编程器,五,1221)。 St. Irenæus, toward the close of the second century, argues: "If one person suffered and another Person remained incapable of suffering; if one person was born and another Person came down upon him that was born and thereafter left him, not one person but two are proven . . . whereas the Apostle knew one only Who was born and Who suffered" ("Adv. Haer.", III, xvi, n, 9, in PG, VII, 928).圣爱任纽,向着第二个世纪结束时,认为:“如果一个人与另一人仍然遭受痛苦的能力,如果一个人出生和另一个人来到他失望的是出生,其后离开了他,而不是一个人但有两个已被证明。。。而使徒只知道一出生,谁是谁遭受“(”地。Haer。“,三,十六,氮,9日,在编号,七,928)。 Tertullian bears firm witness: "Was not God really crucified? Did He not realiy die as He really was crucified?"德尔图良熊坚定的证明:“不是上帝真的钉在十字架上他没有realiy而死,他真的是钉了十字架吗?”("De Carne Christi", c. v, in PL, II, 760).(“德卡恩基督”,长五,在临时立法会,二,760)。


We have treated the fact of the Incarnation, that is, the fact of the Divine nature of Jesus, the fact of the human nature of Jesus, the fact of the union of these two natures in Jesus.我们对待的化身,也就是对耶稣,对耶稣,在耶稣其实这两个联盟的性质其实人性的神性事实的事实。 We now take up the crucial question of the nature of this fact, the manner of this tremendous miracle, the way of uniting the Divine with the human nature in one and the same Person.我们现在负起这个事实性质的关键问题,这个巨大的奇迹的方式,团结在一个人类与自然和人的神圣的方式相同。Arius had denied the fact of this union.阿里乌斯否认了这个联盟的事实。No other heresy rent and tore the body of the Church to any very great extent in the matter of this fact after the condemnation of Arius in the Council of Nicaea (325).没有其他异端租金,撕毁了教会中的任何问题这一事实非常大的阿里乌斯后在理事会的尼西亚(325)谴责程度的身体。Soon a new heresy arose in the explanation of the fact of the union of the two natures in Christ.很快,一个新的异端出现在的,在基督联盟的两个性质的事实的解释。Nicaea had, indeed, defined the fact of the union; it had not explicitly defined the nature of that fact; it had not said whether that union was moral or physical.尼西亚说实在话,明确了工会的事实,它没有明确界定了该事实的性质,它没有说是否该联盟是道德或身体。The council had implicitly defined the union of the two natures in one hypostasis, a union called physical in opposition to the mere juxtaposition or joining of the two natures called a moral union.安理会已含蓄地定义在一个本质的两个性质工会,工会称为物理,反对仅仅并列或加入的两个性质称为道德联盟。 Nicaea had professed a belief in "One Lord Jesus Christ . . . true God of true God . . . Who took Flesh, became Man and suffered".自称曾在尼西亚信“一主耶稣基督。。。真神的真神。。。谁拿了肉,成为人与遭受”。This belief was in one Person Who was at the same time God and Man, that is, had at the same time Divine and human nature.这种信念是一个人是在同一时间神和人,也就是在同一时间神和人类的本性。Such teaching was an implicit definition of all that was later on denied by Nestorius.这样的教学,是一所有,后来由涅斯否认隐含的定义。We shall find the great Athanasius, for fifty years the determined foe of the heresiarch, interpreting Nicaea's decree in just this sense; and Athanasius must have known the sense meant by Nicaea, in which he was the antagonist of the heretic Arius.我们会发现五十年的巨大亚他那修,对异教确定的敌人,这个意义上解释,在短短尼西亚的法令,以及亚他那修,必须有已知的尼西亚,其中他是邪教阿里乌斯拮抗剂意味着感。


In spite of the efforts of Athanasius, Nestorius, who had been elected Patriarch of Constantinople (428), found a loophole to avoid the definition of Nicaea.鉴于他那修,涅斯,谁当选君士坦丁堡(428)的努力,尽管找到了漏洞,以避免尼西亚的定义。Nestorius called the union of the two natures a mysterious and an inseparable joining (symapheian), but would admit no unity (enosin) in the strict sense of the word to be the result of this joining (see "Serm.", ii, n. 4; xii, n. 2, in PL, XLVIII).涅斯称为神秘的两个性质和不可分割的加入(symapheian)工会,但会承认,在没有严格意义上的统一(enosin)被这个连接(见“变换SERM。”第一,二,氮结果。4;十二,31日2,在临时立法会,48)。 The union of the two natures is not physical (physike) but moral, a mere juxtaposition in state of being (schetike); the Word indwells in Jesus like as God indwells in the just (loc. cit.); the indwelling of the Word in Jesus is, however, more excellent than the indwelling of God in the just man by grace, for that the indwelling of the Word purposes the Redemption of all mankind and the most perfect manifestation of the Divine activity (Serm. vii, n. 24); as a consequence, Mary is the Mother of Christ (Christotokos), not the Mother of God (Theotokos).这两个联盟是不是物理性质(physike),但道义上,在被(schetike)状态仅仅并列,这个字眼圣灵内住在耶稣像,因为神在刚刚圣灵内住(如上。)的Word留置耶稣不过,比在刚刚由男子留置神的恩典,特别适用于该目的的Word赎回及全人类的神圣活动最完美的表现(Serm.七,注24留置),因此,玛丽是基督的母亲(Christotokos),而不是天主之母(圣母)。 As is usual in these Oriental heresies, the metaphysical refinement of Nestorius was faulty, and led him into a practical denial of the mystery that he had set himself to explain.由于在这些东方邪说往常一样,形而上学的涅斯细化是错误的,并导致成的,他已为自己设定的神秘解释实际否定了他。 During the discussion that Nestorius aroused, he strove to explain that his indwelling (enoikesis) theory was quite enough to keep him within the demands of Nicaea; he insisted that "the Man Jesus should be co-adored with the Divine union and almighty God [ton te theia symapheia to pantokratori theo symproskynoumenon anthropon] "(Serm., vii, n. 35); he forcibly denied that Christ was two persons, but proclaimed Him as one person (prosopon) made up of two substances.在这涅斯引起的讨论中,他力图解释说,他的留置(enoikesis)理论已经足够保持在尼西亚的要求他,他坚持“耶稣应配合神圣联盟和全能的上帝[崇拜曼特忒伊亚symapheia吨至pantokratori西奥symproskynoumenon anthropon]“(Serm.,七,35),他强行否认基督是两个人,但作为一个人宣布由两种物质的注册(成虫)他。The oneness of the Person was however only moral, and not at all physical.此人不过是唯一的道德统一性,并在所有物理没有。Despite whatsoever Nestorius said as a pretext to save himself from the brand of heresy, he continually and explicitly denied the hypostatic union (enosin kath hypostasin, kata physin, kat ousian), that union of physical entities and of substances which the Church defends in Jesus; he affirmed a juxtaposition in authority, dignity, energy, relation, and state of being (synapheia kat authentian, axian, energeian, anaphoran, schesin); and he maintained that the Fathers of Nicaea had nowhere said that God was born of the Virgin Mary (Sermo, v, nn. 5 and 6).尽管任何涅斯为借口来挽救自己品牌的异端说,他不断地和明确地否认了本质联盟(enosin与Kath hypostasin,卡塔physin,吉ousian),即物理实体的物质,工会和教会在耶稣辩护,他肯定了权威,尊严,能源,并列关系,并正(synapheia吉authentian,axian,energeian,anaphoran,schesin)状态,以及他坚持认为,尼西亚的父亲无处说,上帝是美属维尔京诞生玛丽(Sermo,五,神经网络。5和6)。

Nestorius in this distortion of the sense of Nicaea clearly went against the tradition of the Church.在这个意义上的尼西亚失真涅斯明显违反了传统的教会。Before he had denied the hypostatic union of the two natures in Jesus, that union had been taught by the greatest Fathers of their time.之前,他已否认了在耶稣的两个性质本质的联盟,该联盟曾教导他们有史以来最伟大的父亲。 St. Hippolytus (about 230) taught: "the Flesh [sarx] apart from the Logos had no hypostasis [oude . . . hypostanai edynato, was unable to act as principle of rational activity], for that its hypostasis was in the Word" ("Contra Noet.", n. 15, in PG, X, 823).圣西波吕(约230)教授:“[。。。欧德hypostanai edynato,不能作为理性活动的原则]肉体[扎尔克斯]除了没有本质的标志,其本质是为在单词” (“魂斗罗Noet。”,注15,在编号,第十,823)。St. Epiphanius (about 365): "The Logos united body, mind, and soul into one totality and spiritual hypostasis" ("Haer.", xx, n. 4, in PG, XLI, 277).圣埃皮法尼乌斯(约365):“成一个整体和团结的精神本质的身,心,灵理”(“Haer。”XX条,北四在编号,四十一,277)。 "The Logos made the Flesh to subsist in the hypostasis of the Logos [eis heauton hypostesanta ten sarka]" ("Haer.", cxxvii, n. 29, in PG, XLII, 684).“理念使肌肤在生存本质的标识[EIS的heauton hypostesanta十sarka]”(“Haer。”cxxvii,注29,在编号,四十二,684)。St. Athanasius (about 350): "They err who say that it is one person who is the Son that suffered, and another person who did not suffer ; the Flesh became God's own by nature [kata physin], not that it became consubstantial with the Divinity of the Logos as if coeternal therewith, but that it became God's own Flesh by its very nature [kata physin]."圣亚他那修(约350):“他们宁可说是谁一个人谁是儿子的遭遇,与另外一个人谁没有遭受 ,肉体成了上帝的性质[卡塔physin]自己,而不是它成为与该标识,犹如coeternal与其有关的神同体,但它在本质上成为[卡塔physin]神自己的肉。“ In this entire discourse ("Contra Apollinarium", I, 12, in PG, XXVI, 1113), St. Athanasius directly attacks the specious pretexts of the Arians and the arguments that Nestorius later took up, and defends the union of two physical natures in Christ [kata physin], as apposed to the mere juxtaposition or joining of the same natures [kata physin].在这整个话语(“魂斗罗Apollinarium”,我,12,在编号,26,1113),圣亚他那修直接攻击的白羊座似是而非的借口和论据,涅斯后来接手,并维护了两个物理性质联盟在基督[卡塔physin],如apposed只不过是并列或同性质[卡塔physin]加盟。 St. Cyril of Alexandria (about 415) makes use of this formula oftener even than the other Fathers; he calls Christ "the Word of the Father united in nature with the Flesh [ton ek theou Patros Logon kata physin henothenta sarki] ("De Recta Fide", n. 8, in PG, LXXVI, 1210). For other and very numerous citations, see Petavius (111, 4). The Fathers always explain that this physical union of the two natures does not mean the intermingling of the natures, nor any such union as would imply a change in God, but only such union as was necessary to explain the fact that one Divine Person had human nature as His own true nature together with His Divine nature.圣亚历山大(约415)西里尔使得甚至超过了其他父亲更经常使用这个公式,他呼吁基督“的话语与肉体[吨克朗施展theou Patros登录卡塔physin henothenta sarki](自然团结父”德直肠善意“,注8,在编号,LXXVI,1210)。对于其他和非常众多引文,见Petavius​​(111,4)。教父们总是解释说,这两个物理性质并不意味着联盟的交织性质,也没有任何这样的联盟作为将意味着对上帝的变化,但只有这样的联盟将是必要的解释一个事实,就是神圣的人过他自己的人性的本质与他的神性在一起。

The Council of Ephesus (431) condemned the heresy of Nestorius, and defined that Mary was mother in the flesh of God's Word made Flesh (can. i).安理会的以弗所(431)谴责涅斯异端,并确定玛丽是在神的话语肉母亲成肉身(can.一)。It anathematized all who deny that the Word of God the Father was united with the Flesh in one hypostasis (kath hypostasin); all who deny that there is only one Christ with Flesh that is His own; all who deny that the same Christ is God at the same time and man (can. ii).它anathematized所有谁否认神的话语的父亲是与美国在一肉本质(与Kath hypostasin),所有谁否认有与肉只有一个基督,是他自己,所有谁否认基督是神的同在同一时间和男子(can.二)。In the remaining ten canons drawn up by St. Cyril of Alexandria, the anathema is aimed directly at Nestorius.在剩下的十制定的圣西里尔亚历山大注册门炮,诅咒是直接瞄准涅斯。"If in the one Christ anyone divides the substances, after they have been once united, and joins them together merely by a juxtaposition [mone symapton autas synapheia] of honour or of authority or of power and not rather by a union into a physical unity [synode te kath henosin physiken], let him be accursed" (can. iii). “如果在一个基督人分为物质后,他们已一次团结,并将它们连接在一起仅仅通过一并列[mone symapton autas synapheia]荣誉或权威或权力,而不是由工会统一成一个实体[synode特与Kath henosin physiken],让他被诅咒“(can.三)。These twelve canons condemn plecemeal the various subterfuges of Nestorius.这十二门炮,谴责plecemeal涅斯各种托辞。 St. Cyril saw heresy lurking in phrases that seemed innocent enough to the unsuspecting.圣西里尔异端看到潜伏在短语似乎毫无防备的无辜足够。Even the co-adoration theory is condemned as an attempt to separate the Divine from the human nature in Jesus by giving to each a separate hypostasis (see Denzinger, "Enchiridion", ed. 1908, nn. 113-26).即使是共同崇拜的理论是谴责企图分开耶稣从人的神圣性质,给予每一个单独的本质(见登青格,“便览”,教育署。1908年,神经网络。113-26)。


The condemnation of the heresy of Nestorius saved for the Church the dogma of the Incarnation, "the great mystery of godliness" (1 Timothy 3:16), but lost to her a portion of her children, who, though dwindled down to insignificant numbers, still remain apart from her care.至于为教会保存的化身教条异端的nestorius“的信仰伟大的奥秘”(1提后3:16)的谴责,但输给了她,她的孩子,谁,但缩减到微不足道的数字部分,仍然是除了她的照顾。 The union of the two natures in one Person was saved.在一个人得救了两个性质的联盟。The battle for the dogma was not yet won.为教条的战斗还没有获胜。Nestorius had postulated two persons in Jesus Christ.涅斯在基督耶稣里有假设两个人。A new heresy soon began.即将开始一个新的异端。It postulated only one Person in Jesus, and that the Divine Person.它假设在耶稣只有一个人,而且神圣的人。It went farther.它去更远的地方。 It went too far.它走得太远。 The new heresy defended only one nature, as well as one Person in Jesus.新的异端辩护,只有一个本质,以及一个人耶稣。 The leader of this heresy was Eutyches.这个异端领袖欧迪奇。His followers were called Monophysites.他的追随者被称为Monophysites。They varied in their ways of explanation.他们各有不同的解释自己的方式。Some thought the two natures were intermingled into one.有些人认为,两个性质是混为一体。Others are said to have worked out some sort of a conversion of the human into the Divine.其他人则说,已制定了一些神圣的人​​类进入转换排序。All were condemned by the Council of Chalcedon (451).所有被谴责安理会的chalcedon(451)。This Fourth General Council of the Church defined that Jesus Christ remained, after the Incarnation, "perfect in Divinity and perfect in humanity . . . consubstantial with the Father according to His Divinity, consubstantial with us according to His humanity . . . one and the same Christ, the Son, the Lord, the Only begotten, to be acknowledged in two natures not intermingled, not changed, not divisible, not separable" (see Denzinger, n. 148).这是第四次总理事会的定义,耶稣基督教会仍然存在,之后的化身,“完美的神性与人性的完美。。。与父同体根据他的神性,与我们同质根据他的人性。。。一和同样的基督,儿子,主,独生子,必须承认在没有混合,没有改变,不能分开,不能分开的“两个性质(见登青格,注148)。 By this condemnation of error and definition of truth, the dogma of the Incarnation was once again saved to the Church.通过这种错误和真理的定义谴责,教条的化身再次保存到教会。Once again a large portion of the faithful of the Oriental Church were lost to their mother.再次成为了东方教会的信徒大部分人失去他们的母亲。Monophysitism resulted in the national Churches of Syria, Egypt, and Armenia.基督一性导致了叙利亚,埃及和亚美尼亚国民教会。 These national Churches are still heretic, although there have in later times been formed Catholic rites called the Catholic Syriac, Coptic, and Armenian rites.这些国家的教会仍然是邪教,虽然有在稍后的时间形成了所谓的天主教天主教仪式叙利亚,科普特人,亚美尼亚仪式。The Catholic rites, as the Catholic Chaldaic rite, are less numerous than the heretic rites.天主教仪式,作为天主教Chaldaic仪式,低于许多邪教仪式。


One would suppose that there was no more room for heresy in the explanation of the mystery of the nature of the Incarnation.人们会想,有没有更多的为异端的本质的化身神秘解释余地。There is always room for heresy in the matter of explanation of a mystery, if one does not hear the infallible teaching body to whom and to whom alone Christ entrusted His mysteries to have and to keep and to teach them till ihe end of time.总是有异端的房间中的一个谜的解释问题,如果没有听到犯错的教学机构,谁和谁单独基督托他的奥秘,并随时有和教导IHE的结束时间,直到他们。 Three patriarchs of the Oriental Church gave rise, so far as we know, to the new heresy.三元老的东方教会产生了,只要我们知道,新的异端邪说。These three heresiarchs were Sergius, the Patriarch of Constantinople, Cyrus, the Patriarch of Alexandria, and Athanasius, the Patriarch of Antioch.这三个heresiarchs是谢尔盖,君士坦丁堡,居鲁士,亚历山大主教,以及亚他那修,牧的安提阿主教。St. Sophronius, the Patriarch of Jerusalem, remained true and delated his fellow patriarchs to Pope Honorius.圣Sophronius,耶路撒冷的主教,仍然忠于他的同胞和delated元老,教皇挪。His successor in the see of Peter, St. Martin, bravely condemned the error of the three Oriental patriarchs, who admitted the decrees of Nicaea, Ephesus, and Chalcedon; defended the union of two natures in one Divine Person; but denied that this Divine Person had two wills.在他的继任者彼得,圣马丁看到,勇敢地谴责了东方三元老,谁承认尼西亚,伸出手,和chalcedon法令错误,捍卫了一个神人的两个性质联盟,但否认这神圣人有两个遗嘱。 Their principle was expressed by the words, en thelema kai mia energeia, by which they would seem to have meant one will and one activity, ie only one principle of action and of suffering in Jesus Christ and that one principle Divine.他们的原则是表达的话,启恩thelema米娅energeia,其中,他们似乎就意味着一会一课,即只有一个行动的原则,在基督耶稣的苦难和神圣的一个原则。 These heretics were called Monothelites.这些被称为Monothelites异端。Their error was condemned by the Sixth General Council (the Third Council of Constantinople, 680).他们的错误谴责了第六次总理事会(第三届理事会君士坦丁堡,680)。It defined that in Christ there were two natural wills and two natural activities, the Divine and the human, and that the human will was not at all contrary to the Divine, but rather perfectly subject thereto (Denzinger, n. 291).它规定,在基督里有两个自然的意志和两个自然活动,神和人,而人的意志是在所有的神圣反而没有,而是完全受议定书(登青格,注291)。 The Emperor Constans sent St. Martin into exile in Chersonesus.皇帝Constans送入流亡Chersonesus圣马丁。We have trace of only one body of Monothelites.我们有微量的身体只有一个Monothelites。The Maronites, about the monastery of John Maron, were converted from Monothelism in the time of the Crusades and have been true to the faith ever since.关于约翰马龙马龙派寺院,被转换从Monothelism在十字军东征时,并已真正的信仰至今。The other Monothelites seem to have been absorbed in Monophysitism, or in the schism of the Byzantine Church later one其他Monothelites似乎已经在基督一吸收,或在拜占庭教会分裂后一

The error of Monothelism is clear from the Scripture as well as from tradition.该Monothelism错误是从圣经以及从传统清楚。Christ did acts of adoration (John 4:22), humility (Matthew 11:29), reverence (Hebrews 5:7).基督没有的崇拜(约翰4:22),谦虚(马太11:29),尊敬(希伯来书5:7)的行为。These acts are those of a human will.这些行为是一个人的意志的。The Monothelites denied that there was a human will in Christ.该Monothelites否认有一个在基督人的意志。Jesus prayed: "Father, if Thou wilt, remove this chalice from me: but yet not my will, but thine be done," (Luke 22:42).耶稣祷告说:“爸爸,如果你愿意,请从我这杯:但是却没有我的意愿,而是你做的事,”(路22:42)。Here there is question of two wills, the Father's and Christ's.这里有两个遗嘱的问题,父亲的和基督的。The will of Christ was subject to the will of the Father.基督的意愿是受了父亲的意愿。"As the Father hath given me commandment, so do I" (John 14:31).“父所给我的命,所以我”(约翰福音14:31)。He became obedient even unto death (Phil., ii, 8).即使他成了听话,以至于死(腓,二,八)。The Divine will in Jesus could not have been subject to the will of the Father, with which will it was really identified.在耶稣的神的意志已经不能受父将同这将是真正确定。


Thus far we have that which is of Faith in this matter of the nature of the Incarnation.迄今为止,我们已经表示,这是信仰是在这个问题性质的化身。The human and Divine natures are united in one Divine Person so as to remain that exactly which they are, namely, Divine and human natures with distinct and perfect activities of their own.人类和神性是统一在一个神圣的人,以保持它们的准确,即神圣的,并与他们自己的独特和完美的人性活动。Theologians go farther in their attempts to give some account of the mystery of the Incarnation, so as, at least, to show that there is therein no contradiction, nothing that right reason may not safely adhere to.神学家走得更远在试图给一些神秘的化身帐户,以便,至少表明,其中有没有矛盾,没有什么正当的​​理由可能不能安全地坚持。 This union of the two natures in one Person has been for centuries called a hypostatic union, that is, a union in the Divine Hypostasis.这在一个人的两个性质联盟一直在几个世纪称为本质的联盟,这是因为在工会的神圣本质。What is an hypostasis?什么是本质?The definition of Boethius is classic: rationalis naturae individua substantia (PL, LXIV, 1343), a complete whole whose nature is rational.对波爱修斯的经典定义是:rationalis naturae individua质(特等,LXIV,1343),一个完整的整体,其本质是理性的。This book is a complete whole; its nature is not rational; it is not an hypostasis.这本书是一个完整的整体,其性质是不理性的,它不是一个本质。An hypostasis is a complete rational individual.一个理性的本质是一个完整的个体。St. Thomas defines hypostasis as substantia cum ultimo complemento (III:2:3, ad 2um), a substance in its entirety.圣托马斯定义为质暨阿尔蒂莫complemento本质(三:2:3,广告2um),在其全部的物质。Hypostasis superadds to the notion of rational substance this idea of entirety; nor does the idea of rational nature include this notion of entirety.本质superadds对理性概念的实质内容这个整体概念,也没有思想的合理性包括这个整体概念。Human nature is the principle of human activities; but only an hypostasis, a person, can exercise these activities.人性,是人类活动的原则,但只有一个本质,一个人,可以行使这些活动。The Schoolmen discuss the question whether the hypostasis has anything more of reality than human nature.该schoolmen讨论这个问题的本质,是否有什么比人性的现实。To understand the discussion, one must needs be versed in scholastic Philosophy.为了了解讨论中,一位的需要,必须在士林哲学精通。 Be the case as it may in the matter of human nature that is not united with the Divine, the human nature that is hypostatically united with the Divine, that is, the human nature that the Divine Hypostasis or Person assumes to Itself, has certainly more of reality united to it than the human nature of Christ would have were it not hypostatically united in the Word.如此,因为它在人类的本质问题是不是与神,人的本性是hypostatically与神联合,也就是人性,神圣的本质或个人承担自身,美国当然更可能有现实的团结比基督人性它将如果不是hypostatically在Word团结。 The Divine Logos identified with Divine nature (Hypostatic Union) means then that the Divine Hypostasis (or Person, or Word, or Logos) appropriates to Itself human nature, and takes in every respect the place of the human person.神圣的标志与神圣的性质(本质的联盟)是指确定那神圣的本质(或人,或Word或标志)挪用其自身的人性,并在各方面需要的人的地方。 In this way, the human nature of Christ, though not a human person, loses nothing of the perfection of the perfect man; for the Divine Person supplies the place of the human.这样,基督的人性,但不是一个人的,失去了对完美的男人完美什么;为神圣的人提供了人类的地方。

It is to be remembered that, when the Word took Flesh, there was no change in the Word; all the change was in the Flesh.这是必须记住的是,当Word了肉,也没有在Word的变化,所有的改变在肉体。 At the moment of conception, in the womb of the Blessed Mother, through the forcefulness of God's activity, not only was the human soul of Christ created but the Word assumed the man that was conceived.在受孕时刻,母亲子宫里的祝福,通过神的活动有力,不仅是人类灵魂的基督开设,而且承担了该字的构思的人。When God created the world, the world was changed, that is.当上帝创造了世界,世界改变了,那是。it passed from the state of nonentity to the state of existence; and there was no change in the Logos or Creative Word of God the Father.它通过从小人物的生存状态的状态,以及有没有在上帝的父亲标识或创意一字之差。Nor was there change in that Logos when it began to terminate the human nature.也没有改变,标志它开始时终止人类的天性。A new relation ensued, to be sure; but this new relation implied in the Logos no new reality, no real change; all new reality, all real change, was in the human nature.随后一个新的关系,可以肯定的,但这种新的关系中隐含的标识没有新的现实,没有真正的改变,所有新的现实,所有真正的变化,在人类的性质。 Anyone who wishes to go into this very intricate question of the manner of the Hypostatic Union of the two natures in the one Divine Personality, may with great profit read St. Thomas (III:4:2); Scotus (in III, Dist. i); (De Incarnatione, Disp. II, sec. 3); Gregory, of Valentia (in III, D. i, q. 4).任何人谁希望进入这一对在一个神圣的人格本质联盟的两个性质的方式非常复杂的问题,以极大的利润可能读圣托马斯(三:4:2),在第三区司各脱(。一),(德incarnatione,DISP键二秒3);。。格雷戈里的瓦伦西亚(在三,四一,问:4)。 Any modern text book on theology will give various opinions in regard to the way of the union of the Person assuming with the nature assumed任何在现代神学教科书将给予各方面意见,对结合的方式对人与自然的假设假设



A. On the Body of ChristA.在基督的身体

Did union with the Divine nature do away, with all bodily inperfections?是否与神性联盟做了,所有身体inperfections?The Monophysites were split up into two parties by this question.该monophysites被分成两方由这个问题。Catholics hold that, before the Resurrection, the Body of Christ was subject to all the bodily weaknesses to which human nature unassumed is universally subject; such are hunger, thirst, pain, death.天主教徒认为,在复活,基督的身体是受所有身体的弱点,这是普遍人性unassumed主题,这样的是饥饿,干渴,痛苦,死亡。 Christ hungered (Matthew 4:2), thirsted (John 19:28), was fatigued (John 4:6), suffered pain and death.基督渴望(马太4:2),渴望(约19:28),是疲劳(约翰4:6),遭受痛苦和死亡。"We have not a high priest, who cannot have compassion on our infirmities: but one tempted in all things like as we are, without sin" (Hebrews 4:15). “我们还没有一个大祭司,谁也对我们的软弱同情:在所有的事情只有一个诱惑,与我们一样是没有罪”(希伯来书4:15)。"For in that, wherein he himself hath suffered and been tempted, he is able to succour them also that are tempted" (Hebrews 2:18).“因为在这样的,其中他本人祂所遭受痛苦和被诱惑,他能帮助他们也被试探的”(希伯来书2:18)。 All these bodily weaknesses were not miraculously brought about by Jesus; they were the natural results of the human nature He assumed.所有这些身体的弱点并没有带来奇迹般的耶稣,他们是人性的自然结果,他承担了。To be sure, they might have been impeded and were freely willed by Christ.可以肯定的是,他们可能已经受到阻碍,是自由意志的基督。They were part of the free oblation that began with the moment of the Incarnation.他们是自由的祭品,与目前的化身开始的一部分。"Wherefore when he cometh into the world, he saith: Sacrifice and oblation thou wouldest not; but a body thou hast fitted to me" (Hebrews 10:5). “人哪,当他来到这个世界,他说:牺牲和奉献,你不愿意去的,但一个身体祢安装在我的”(希伯来书10:5)。The Fathers deny that Christ assumed sickness.父亲否认基督假定疾病。There is no mention in Scripture of any sickness of Jesus.有没有任何疾病经文提到耶稣。Sickness is not a weakness that is a necessary belonging of human nature.病是不是一个弱点,是一个必要的人性归属感。It is true that pretty much all mankind suffers sickness.确实,几乎所有人类患有疾病。It is not true that any specific sickness is suffered by all mankind.这是不正确的任何特定疾病是全人类受到影响。Not all men must needs have measles.并非所有的人必须需要有麻疹。No one definite sickness universally belongs to human nature; hence no one definite sickness was assumed by Christ.没有一个明确的疾病普遍属于人性的,因此没有一个明确的疾病,是由基督承担。St. Athanasius gives the reason that it were unbecoming that He should heal others who was Himself not healed (PG, XX, 133).圣亚他那修给人的原因,它是不适当的,他应该医治别人谁是自己没有愈合(前列腺素,第二十条,133)。Weaknesses due to old age are common to mankind.因年老的弱点是共同的人类。Had Christ lived to an old age, He would have suffered such weaknesses just as He suffered the weaknesses that are common to infancy.如果基督活到老年,他会遭受这样的弱点,正如他所遭受的弱点是共同的初级阶段。Death from old age would have come to Jesus, had He not been violently put to death (see St. Augustine, "De Peccat.", II, 29; PL, XLIV, 180).因年老死亡便来到耶稣那里,他没有被粗暴地把死刑(见圣奥古斯丁,“德Peccat。”第一,二,29;特等,四十四,180)。 The reasonableness of these bodily imperfections in Christ is clear from the fact that He assumed human nature so as to satisfy for that nature's sin.在基督这些身体缺陷的合理性是明显的事实是他的人性假设,以满足这种性质的犯罪。Now,to satisfy for the sin of another is to accept the penalty of that sin.现在,为了满足另一罪是接受了该罪的刑罚。Hence it was fitting that Christ should take upon himself all those penalties of the sin of Adam that are common to man and becoming.因此,这是恰当的,基督将要采取一切后,自己的亚当的罪,是​​共同的男子,并成为处罚。or at least not unbecoming to the Hypostatic Union.或至少​​不不雅观的本质的联盟。(See Summa Theologica III:14 for other reasons.) As Christ did not take sickness upon Himself, so other imperfections, such as deformities, which are not common to mankind, were not His. (见神学大全三:14。其他原因)由于基督没有承担起自己的疾病,所以其他缺陷,如畸形,这是不常见的人类,是不是他的。St. Clement of Alexandria (III Paedagogus, c. 1), Tertullian (De Carne Christi, c. ix), and a few others taught that Christ was deformed.圣克莱门特的亚历山德里亚(三Paedagogus角1),良(德卡恩基督角九),和其他几个人告诉我们,基督是变形。 They misinterpreted the words of Isaias: "There is no beauty in him, nor comeliness; and we have seen him, and there was no sightliness" etc. (liii, 2).他们误解了伊萨亚斯的话:“没有在他的美,不要举止得体;,我们已经看到了他,也没有sightliness”等(liii,2)。 The words refer only to the suffering Christ.这句话只提到基督的苦难。Theologians now are unanimous in the view that Christ was noble in bearing and beautiful in form, such as a perfect man should be; for Christ was, by virtue of His incarnation, a perfect man (see Stentrup, "Christologia", theses lx, lxi).神学家如今在一致认为基督是高尚和美丽的轴承形式,例如一个完美的人应该是,基督是由他的化身,一个完美的人(美德,见Stentrup,“Christologia”,论文lx的, LXI的)。

B. On the Human Soul of ChristB.在基督的人的灵魂

(a) IN THE WILL(一)在遗嘱


The effect of the Incarnation on the human will of Christ was to leave it free in all things save only sin.在关于人的意志的基督降生的作用是给它自由在一切事上只保存罪。It was absolutely impossible that any stain of sin should soil the soul of Christ.这是绝对不可能的,任何罪应土壤中的基督灵魂的污点。Neither sinful act of the will nor sinful habit of the soul were in keeping with the Hypostatic Union.既不是灵魂的意愿,也没有罪恶的习惯与罪恶的行为在本质联盟一致。The fact that Christ never sinned is an article of faith (see Council, Ephes., can. x, in Denzinger, 122, wherein the sinlessness of Christ is implicit in the definition that he did not offer Himself for Himself, but for us).事实上,基督从来没有犯过罪是信心的文章(见理事会,Ephes。,可以的。十,在登青格,122个,其中,基督是清白的定义暗示,他没有为自己自己,但我们) 。This fact of Christ's sinlessness is evident from the Scripture.这基督的清白的事实是显而易见的,从经文。"There is no sin in Him" (1 John 3:5).“没有在他的罪”(约翰一书3:5)。Him, who knew no sin, he hath made sin for us" ie a victim for sin (2 Corinthians 5:21). The impossibility of a sinful act by Christ is taught by all theologians, but variously explained. G¨nther defended an impossibility consequent solely upon the Divine provision that He would not sin (Vorschule, II, 441). This is no impossibility at all. Christ is God. It is absolutely impossible, antecedent to the Divine prevision, that God should allow His flesh to sin. If God allowed His flesh to sin, He might sin, that is, He might turn away from Himself; and it is absolutely impossible that God should turn from Himself, be untrue to His Divine attributes. The Scotists teach that this impossibility to sin, antecedent to God's revision, is not due to the Hypostatic Union, but is like to the impossibility of the beatified to sin, and is due to a special Divine Providence (see Scotus, in III, d. xiii, Q. i). St. Thomas (III:15:1) and all Thomists, Francisco Suárez (d. xxxiii, 2), Vasquez (d. xi, c. iii), de Lugo (d. xxvi, 1, n. 4), and all theologians of the Society of Jesus teach the now almost universally admitted explanation that the absolute impossibility of a sinful act on the part of Christ was due to the hypostatic union of His human nature with the Divine.他,谁知道没有犯罪,他使我们“,即一对罪恶的受害者(哥林多后书5:21)罪。一个罪恶的行为不可能是由基督教神学家所有,但各种不同解释。Ğ ¨ nther作出辩护不可能仅根据提供的神圣由此,他不会罪(Vorschule,二,441)。这不是不可能的。基督是上帝。这是绝对不可能的,先行,以神圣的预知,神应该让他的肉体犯罪。如果上帝允许他的肉,罪,他可能罪,也就是说,他可能会转而从自己走;,这是绝对不可能的,上帝应该把他自己,是不真实的以他的神的属性的Scotists教导,这是不可能的犯罪。 ,先行,以神的修订,不仅是因为本质的联盟,而是喜欢的赐福不可能犯罪,其原因是由于一个特别神圣的普罗维登斯(见司各脱,在三,四十三,问:我)。圣托马斯(三:15:1)和所有Thomists,弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯(逝世三十三,2),Vásquez案(四西路,长三),德卢戈(四十六,1,注4),耶稣的教导社会各神学家现在几乎普遍承认的一个解释,即在基督的一部分罪恶的行为绝对不可能是因为他与神的人性本质的联盟。


The will of Christ remained free after the Incarnation.基督的将保持自由之后的化身。This is an article of faith.这是一篇文章的信仰。The Scripture is most clear on this point.圣经是最清楚这一点。"When he had tasted, he would not drink" (Matthew 27:34).“当他尝了,他也不会喝”(马太27:34)。"I will; be thou made clean" (Matthew 8:3).“我肯,你洁净了”(太8:3)。The liberty of Christ was such that He merited.基督的自由是这样的,他值得。"He humbled himself, becoming obedient unto death, even to the death of the cross. For which cause God also hath exalted him" (Phil., ii, 8). “他自己卑微,存心顺服,以至于死,甚至到了死在十字架上。为这缘故,上帝也祂所高举他”(腓,二,八)。"Who having joy set before him, endured the cross" (Hebrews 12:2).“谁在他之前有设置的喜悦,忍受了十字架”(希伯来书12:2)。That Christ was free in the matter of death, is the teaching of all Catholics; else He did not merit nor satisfy for us by His death.基督是在死亡的问题自由,是所有天主教徒教学,否则,他没有好处,也为我们满足他的死亡。Just how to reconcile this liberty of Christ with the impossibility of His committing sin has ever been a crux for theologians.只是如何调和这种基督与他犯的罪是不可能的自由曾经一直是神学家的症结所在。Some seventeen explanations are given (see Summa Theologica III:47:3, ad 3; Molina, "Concordia", d. liii, membr. 4).有些十七作出解释(见神学大全三:,公元3 47:3,莫利纳,“协和”,四liii,membr 4。)。


The effects of the Hypostatic Union upon the knowledge of Christ will be treated in a SPECIAL ARTICLE.在基督的知识联盟的本质的影响将被视为在专文。


The Humanity of Christ was holy by a twofold sanctity: the grace of union and sanctifying grace.基督的人性是神圣的双重神圣:圣洁的工会和恩典。The grace of union, ie the Substantial and Hypostatic Union of the two natures in the Divine Word, is called the substantial sanctity of Christ.该联盟的宽限期,即在圣言的两个性质的物质与本质的联盟,被称为基督的重大神圣。St. Augustine says: "Tunc ergo sanctificavit se in se, hoc est hominem se in Verbo se, quia unus est Christus, Verbum et homo, sanctificans hominem in Verbo" (When the Word was made Flesh then, indeed, He sanctified Himself in Himself, that is, Himself as Man in Himself as Word; for that Christ is One Person, both Word and Man, and renders His human nature holy in the holiness of the Divine nature) (In Johan. tract. 108, n. 5, in PL, XXXV, 1916).圣奥古斯丁说:“Tunc号ETM sanctificavit硒本身,特别东部人身攻击硒Verbo本身,quia联合国大学美国东部时间克里斯特斯,拉丁文字语言等同质,sanctificans在Verbo人身攻击”(当道成了肉身,然后,事实上,他本人在圣自己,就是自己为自己男子为Word。对于基督是一个人,无论是Word和人,并使他的人性中的神性圣洁神圣的)(在约翰道108,注5。在特等,三十五,1916)。 Besides this substantial sanctity of the grace of Hypostatic Union, there was in the soul of Christ, the accidental sanctity called sanctifying grace.除了这个联盟的本质的重大神圣的恩典,在基督有灵魂,偶然的神圣称为圣洁的宽限期。This is the teaching of St. Augustine, St. Athanasius, St. John Chrysostom, St. Cyril of Alexandria, and of the Fathers generally.这是圣奥古斯丁,圣亚他那修,圣约翰金口,圣西里尔亚历山大教学,和父亲一般。The Word was "full of grace" (John 1:14), and "of his fullness we all have received, and grace for grace" (John 1:16).这个词是“充分的宽限期”(约翰福音1:14),和“他的丰满,我们都已经收到,和优雅的恩典”(约翰福音1:16)。 The Word were not full of grace, if any grace were wanting in Him which would be a perfection fitting to His human nature.在Word并没有充分的宽限期,在宽限期如有他希望这将是一个完美的拟合他的人性。All theologians teach that sanctifying grace is a perfection fitting the humanity of Christ.所有的神学家告诉我们,圣洁优雅完美拟合是基督的人性。The mystical body of Christ is the Church, whereof Christ is the Head (Romans 12:4; 1 Corinthians 12:11; Ephesians 1:20; 4:4; Colossians 1:18, 2:10).基督的奥体是教会,信守基督是头(罗马书12:4;哥林多前书12:11,以弗所书1:20; 4:4,歌罗西书1:18,2:10)。It is especially in this sense that we say the grace of the Head flows through the channels of the sacraments of the Church--through the veins of the body of Christ.正是在这个意义上说,特别是我们的头部宽限期流经的教会圣礼的渠道 - 通过基督的身体的血脉。Theologians commonly teach that from the very beginning of His existence, He received the fullness of sanctifying grace and other supernatural gifts (except faith, hope, and the moral virtue of penance); nor did He ever increase in these gifts or this sanctifying grace.神学家普遍教导,从一开始,他的存在,他收到的圣洁优雅与其他超自然的礼物(除了信心,希望和美德的道德的忏悔)丰满;他也没有增加过这些礼物或本sanctifying恩典。 For so to increase would be to become more pleasing to the Divine Majesty; and this were impossible in Christ.为了使增加将是更加令人高兴的神圣的国王陛下的人,这是在基督不可能的。Hence St. Luke meant (ii, 52) that Christ showed more and more day after day the effects of grace in His outward bearing.因此圣卢克意思(二52)基督表明日复一日越来越多的一天,在他离港轴承的宽限期影响。


The Hypostatic Union did not deprive the Human Soul of Christ of its human likes and dislikes.本质的联盟不剥夺其人力好恶基督的人的灵魂。The affections of a man, the emotions of a man were His in so far as they were becoming to the grace of union, in so far as they were not out of order.对一个人的感情,一个人的情绪被他,只要他们向工会成为宽限期,在目前为止,因为他们并不过分的。St. Augustine well argues: "Human affections were not out of place in Him in Whom there was really and truly a human body and a human soul" (De Civ. Dei, XIV, ix, 3).圣奥古斯丁也指出:“人类的情感被放置在不出来谁在他身上存在着实实在在地一个人的身体和一个人的灵魂”(德棣哀,第十四条,九,3。)。 We find that he was subject to anger against the blindness of heart of sinners (Mark 3:5); to fear (Mark 14:33); to sadness (Matthew 26:37): to the sensible affections of hope, of desire, and of joy.我们发现,他是受愤怒反对的罪人(马可福音3:5)心失明;害怕(马克14:33);在悲伤(马太26:37):希望明智的感情欲望,和喜悦。 These likes and dislikes were under the complete will-control of Christ.这些好恶,并根据完整的意志基督的控制。The fomes peccati, the kindling-wood of sin--that is, those likes and dislikes that are not under full and absolute control of right reason and strong will-power--could not, as a matter of course, have been in Christ.在腐peccati,火种,罪木 - 即那些喜欢和不喜欢的是在全面和绝对权的理由和强大的意志力无法控制 - 由于不能理所当然,已经在基督。He could not have been tempted by such likes and dislikes to sin.他可能不会有这样的诱惑好恶犯罪。 To have taken upon Himself this penalty of sin would not have been in keeping with the absolute and substantial holiness which is implied by the grace of union in the Logos.已采取对自己这个罪的刑罚不会有实质性的绝对和圣洁这是由工会在标识一直保持优雅暗示。

C. On the God-Man (Deus-Homo, theanthroposC.在神人(杀出,智人,theanthropos

One of the most important effects of the union of the Divine nature and human nature in One Person is a mutual interchange of attributes, Divine and human, between God and man, the Communicatio Idiomatum.对在神圣的性质和集中于一人人性联盟最重要的影响之一,是一个属性,神与人之间的交际Idiomatum神和人,相互交流。 The God-Man is one Person, and to Him in the concrete may be applied the predicates that refer to the Divinity as well as those that refer to the Humanity of Christ.神人是一人,并在具体的他可能会采用的谓词是指神性,以及那些指的是基督的人性。We may say God is man, was born, died, was buried.我们可以说,上帝是人,出生,死亡,被埋葬。These predicates refer to the Person Whose nature is human, as well as Divine; to the Person Who is man, as well as God.这些谓词是指人的本质是人,以及神圣;的人,谁是人,以及上帝。We do not mean to say that God, as God, was born; but God, Who is man, was born.我们并不是说,上帝,为上帝,出生,但上帝,谁是人,就诞生了。We may not predicate the abstract Divinity of the abstract humanity, nor the abstract Divinity of the concrete man, nor vice versa; nor the concrete God of the abstract humanity, nor vice versa.我们可能不谓词抽象的抽象人性的神,也不是抽象的神的具体的人,反之亦然;也不是抽象的人类具体的神,反之亦然。We predicate the concrete of the concrete: Jesus is God; Jesus is man; the God-Man was sad; the Man-God was killed.我们上游的水泥混凝土:耶稣是神,耶稣是人,神人是可悲的,是满神死亡。Some ways of speaking should not be used, not that they may not be rightly explained, but that they may easily be misunderstood in an heretical sense.发言的一些方法不应该被使用,而不是他们可能不正确地解释,但他们可以很容易地在邪教意识误解。


The human nature of Christ, united hypostatically with the Divine nature, is adored with the same worship as the Divine nature (see ADORATION).基督的人性,团结与神性hypostatically,是崇拜与作为神圣的性质(见朝拜)相同的崇拜。We adore the Word when we adore Christ the Man; but the Word is God.我们喜欢这个词时,我们崇拜基督的人,但这个词是上帝。The human nature of Christ is not at all the reason of our adoration of Him; that reason is only the Divine nature.基督的人性是不是所有的原因,我们对他的崇拜,这理由是只有神性。The entire term of our adoration is the Incarnate Word; the motive of the adoration is the Divinity of the Incarnate Word.我们的整个任期内,是朝拜圣道;的崇拜动机是圣道神。The partial term of our adoration may be the human nature of Christ: the motive of the adoration is the same as the motive of the adoration that reaches the entire term.我们崇拜的部分术语可能成为基督的人性:对崇拜的动机是一样的崇拜,到达整个任期的动机一样。Hence, the act of adoration of the Word Incarnate is the same absolute act of adoration that reaches the human nature.因此,肉身崇拜的行为是绝对相同的崇拜行为,达到了人类的本性。The Person of Christ is Iadored with the cult called latria.基督的人是Iadored与所谓latria邪教。But the cult that is due to a person is due in like manner to the whole nature of that Person and to all its parts.但是,邪教,是由于一个人在喜欢的方式来的那个人整个的性质及其所有部件到期。Hence, since the human nature is the real and true nature of Christ, that human nature and all its parts are the object of the cult called latria, ie, adoration.因此,是因为人性的基督真实本质,即人的本性和其所有部件都是邪教所谓latria,也就是说,崇拜的对象。 We shall not here enter into the question of the adoration of the Sacred Heart of Jesus.我们不会在这里进入了耶稣的圣心崇拜的问题。(For the Adoration of the Cross, CROSS AND CRUCIFIX, THE, subtitle II.)(对于崇拜的十字架,十字架和十字架的,字幕二)。


The effects of the incarnation on the Blessed Mother and us, will be found treated under the respective special subjects.关于我们的圣母化身的影响,会被发现,根据各自的特殊主体对待。(See GRACE; JUSTIFICATION; IMMACULATE CONCEPTION; THE BLESSED VIRGIN MARY.)(见宽限期;理由;完美无暇的概念;圣母。)

Publication information Written by Walter Drum.出版信息的书面由Walter鼓。Transcribed by Mary Ann Grelinger.转录由玛丽安Grelinger。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.天主教百科全书,体积七。Published 1910.1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年6月1号。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


Fathers of the Church: ST.教会的教父:圣。IRENAEUS, Adversus Haer.; ST.依,Adversus Haer。圣。ATHANASIUS, De Incarnatione Verbi; IDEM, Contra Arianos; ST.亚他那修,德incarnatione Verbi;同上,魂斗罗Arianos;圣。 AMBROSE, De Incarnatione; ST.刘汉铨,德incarnatione;圣。GREGORY OF NYSSA, Antirrheticus adversus Apollinarium; IDEM, Tractatus ad Theophilum contra Apollinarium; the writings of ST.格利的果树,Antirrheticus adversus Apollinarium;同上,维特根斯坦广告Theophilum禁忌Apollinarium;圣保罗的著作。GREGORY NAZIANZEN, ST.格雷戈里nazianzen,意。CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA, and others who attacked the Arians, Nestorians, Monophysites, and Monothelites.利罗亚历山大,和其他人谁袭击了白羊座,Nestorians,Monophysites和Monothelites。 Scholastics: ST.经院:圣。 THOMAS, Summa Theologica, III, QQ.托马斯,神学大全,三,QQ号。1-59; ST.1-59;圣。BONAVENTURE, Brevil., IV; IDEM, in III Sent.; BELLARMINE, De Christo Capite Tolius Ecclesia, Controversiae., 1619; SUAREZ, De Incarnatione, DE LUGO, De Incarnatione, III; PETAVIUS, De incarn.文德,Brevil,四;。同上,在III发送的;。贝拉明,德克里斯托Capite Tolius Ecclesia的,Controversiae,1619。苏亚雷斯,德incarnatione,德卢戈,德incarnatione,三; PETAVIUS,德incarn。Verbi: Theologia Dogmatica, IV. Verbi:神学Dogmatica,四。

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