Jehovah耶和华

yēhéhuį

General Information一般资料

Jehovah is another name given to God or YAHWEH .耶和华是另一个名字,或给耶和华神。

Many religious scholars believe that the word Jehovah was originally created in ancient times from a combining of YHWH (the original name for God) and the vowels from Adonai (a variant form of ancient reference to God as "the Father").许多宗教学者认为,这个词最初是在耶和华古代创建的一个结合耶和华(即原来的名称为神)和阿多奈元音(一种古老的参考为“父亲”神变体形式)。 This "Yahowahi" would apparently be pronounced like the modern name Jehovah.这种“Yahowahi”会明显的发音类似现代名称耶和华。Please see our entry on the Names of God .请参阅我们的入世对神的名称

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Jehovah耶和华

Advanced Information先进的信息

Jehovah is the special and significant name (not merely an appellative title such as Lord) by which God revealed himself to the ancient Hebrews (Ex. 6:2, 3).耶和华是特殊和重要的名称(不只是一种称谓,如主标题),其中上帝发现自己的古代希伯来人(出6:2,3)。This name, the Tetragrammaton of the Greeks, was held by the later Jews to be so sacred that it was never pronounced except by the high priest on the great Day of Atonement, when he entered into the most holy place.这个名字,对希腊人Tetragrammaton,被后来的犹太人认为是如此神圣,这是从来没有的,除非在赎罪,当他成为最神圣的地方进入大日大祭司明显。 Whenever this name occurred in the sacred books they pronounced it, as they still do, "Adonai" (ie, Lord), thus using another word in its stead.每当这个名字出现在神圣的书籍,他们突出了,因为他们仍然这样做,“阿多乃”(即上帝),因此使用它的另一个词代替。 The Massorets gave to it the vowel-points appropriate to this word.该Massorets给它的元音点适合这个词。This Jewish practice was founded on a false interpretation of Lev.这个犹太人的做法是建立在一个错误的解释列夫。24:16.24:16。The meaning of the word appears from Ex.这个词的含义似乎从惠。3:14 to be "the unchanging, eternal, self-existent God," the "I am that I am," a convenant-keeping God. 3:14是“不变的,永恒的,独立存在的上帝”的“我就是我,”一convenant维持神。(Comp. Mal. 3:6; Hos. 12: 5; Rev. 1:4, 8.)(可比玛3:6;居屋12:5。;启示录1:4,8。。)

The Hebrew name "Jehovah" is generally translated in the Authorized Version (and the Revised Version has not departed from this rule) by the word LORD printed in small capitals, to distinguish it from the rendering of the Hebrew Adonai and the Greek Kurios, which are also rendered Lord, but printed in the usual type. The Hebrew word is translated "Jehovah" only in Ex. 希伯来文的名字“耶和华”,一般翻译授权版本(修订版本还没有偏离上述规则)由首都字印在小耶和华,以区分,它从希伯来文呈现的阿多奈和希腊Kurios其中也呈现主,但类型打印在平时。希伯来文的字是翻译成“耶和华”只有在特惠。 6:3; Ps.6:3;诗。83:18; Isa.83:18;伊萨。 12:2; 26:4, and in the compound names mentioned below.12:2,26:4,并在下面提到的复合名称。It is worthy of notice that this name is never used in the LXX., the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Apocrypha, or in the New Testament.这是值得我们注意这个名字是永远值得用在lxx。,撒玛利亚五,伪经,或在新约。It is found, however, on the "Moabite stone" (qv), and consequently it must have been in the days of Mesba so commonly pronounced by the Hebrews as to be familiar to their heathen neighbours.它是发现,然而,在“摩押的石头”(请参阅​​),因此它必须在Mesba所谓普遍采用的希伯来宣判,以熟悉他们的异教徒被邻居天。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Jehovah (Yahweh)耶和华(耶和华)

Catholic Information天主教新闻

The proper name of God in the Old Testament; hence the Jews called it the name by excellence, the great name, the only name, the glorious and terrible name, the hidden and mysterious name, the name of the substance, the proper name, and most frequently shem hammephorash, ie the explicit or the separated name, though the precise meaning of this last expression is a matter of discussion (cf. Buxtorf, "Lexicon", Basle, 1639, col. 2432 sqq.).上帝的专有名称在旧约,因此称其为犹太人所卓越的名字,伟大的名字,唯一的名字,光荣的和可怕的名字,隐藏和神秘的名称,物质的名称,正确的名称,和最频繁的闪hammephorash,即明确或分隔的名称,尽管这最后表达的确切含义是一个讨论的问题(参见布克斯托夫,“词典”,巴塞尔,1639年,山口。2432 sqq。)。

Jehovah occurs more frequently than any other Divine name.耶和华更频繁地发生,比任何其他神圣的名字。 The Concordances of Furst ("Vet. Test. Concordantiae", Leipzig, 1840) and Mandelkern ("Vet. Test. Concordantiae", Leipzig, 1896) do not exactly agree as to the number of its occurrences; but in round numbers it is found in the Old Testament 6000 times, either alone or in conjunction with another Divine name. (“。。兽医试验Concordantiae”,莱比锡,1840)(“。。兽医试验Concordantiae”,莱比锡,1896年)的弗斯特检索与Mandelkern不完全同意,以它的出现的次数,但在第二轮号码是发现在旧约6000次,单独或与其他神圣的名字一起。 The Septuagint and the Vulgate render the name generally by "Lord" (Kyrios, Dominus), a translation of Adonai - usually substituted for Jehovah in reading.该译本和武加大使一般由“主”(Kyrios,Dominus),一个阿多奈翻译的名字 - 通常为耶和华取代阅读。

I. PRONUNCIATION OF JEHOVAH一,发音耶和华

The Fathers and the Rabbinic writers agree in representing Jehovah as an ineffable name.父亲和拉比作家代表同意作为一个无法形容的名称耶和华。As to the Fathers, we only need draw attention to the following expressions: onoma arreton, aphraston, alekton, aphthegkton, anekphoneton, aporreton kai hrethenai me dynamenon, mystikon.至于父亲,我们只需要提请注意下列词语:onoma阿里顿,aphraston,alekton,aphthegkton,anekphoneton,aporreton启hrethenai我dynamenon,mystikon。 Leusden could not induce a certain Jew, in spite of his poverty, to pronounce the real name of God, though he held out the most alluring promises. Leusden不能诱导尽管在他的贫困在一定犹太人,念神的真实姓名,但他举行了最诱人的承诺。The Jew's compliance with Leusden's wishes would not indeed have been of any real advantage to the latter; for the modern Jews are as uncertain of the real pronunciation of the Sacred name as their Christian contemporaries.犹太人与Leusden的意愿不会遵守任何确实已经真正的优势,后者;为现代犹太人是作为他们的基督教,作为同时代的圣名,实际发音的不确定性。 According to a Rabbinic tradition the real pronunciation of Jehovah ceased to be used at the time of Simeon the Just, who was, according to Maimonides, a contemporary of Alexander the Great.据一位拉比传统耶和华的真正发音不再是在西缅时的正义,谁使用,根据迈蒙尼德,一个当代的亚历山大大帝。At any rate, it appears that the name was no longer pronounced after the destruction of the Temple.无论如何,看来这个名字已不再后,圣殿被毁明显。The Mishna refers to our question more than once: Berachoth, ix, 5, allows the use of the Divine name by way of salutation; in Sanhedrin, x, 1, Abba Shaul refuses any share in the future world to those who pronounce it as it is written; according to Thamid, vii, 2, the priests in the Temple (or perhaps in Jerusalem) might employ the true Divine name, while the priests in the country (outside Jerusalem) had to be contented with the name Adonai; according to Maimonides ("More Neb.", i, 61, and "Yad chasaka", xiv, 10) the true Divine name was used only by the priests in the sanctuary who imparted the blessing, and by the high-priest on the Day of Atonement.弥指的是我们的问题不止一次:Berachoth,九,五,允许通过的称呼方式使用神圣的名字,在公会中,x,1,阿爸扫罗拒绝在未来的世界任何股份为那些谁发音它是写,据Thamid,七,2,在圣殿祭司(或在耶路撒冷也许)可能采用真正的神的名字,同时在国内(外耶路撒冷)祭司必须与名称阿多奈心满意足,据迈蒙尼德(“更多内布拉斯”,我,61岁,和“亚chasaka”,十四,10)真正的神的名字是仅由祭司在圣所传授谁的祝福,并经高牧师之日赎罪。 Phil ["De mut. nom.", n.菲尔[“德物。额定值。”全2 (ed. Marg., i, 580); "Vita Mos.", iii, 25 (ii, 166)] seems to maintain that even on these occasions the priests had to speak in a low voice. 2(编辑马尔格,我,580。);“。简历摩斯”,三,25(二,166)]似乎认为,即使在这些场合发言的祭司用低沉的声音。Thus far we have followed the post-Christian Jewish tradition concerning the attitude of the Jews before Simeon the Just.迄今为止,我们已跟随后基督教犹太传统的犹太人的前缅态度公正。

As to the earlier tradition, Josephus (Antiq., II, xii, 4) declares that he is not allowed to treat of the Divine name; in another place (Antiq., XII, v, 5) he says that the Samaritans erected on Mt.至于较早的传统,约瑟夫(Antiq.,二,十二,4)宣称,他是不能把神圣的名字,在另一个地方(Antiq.,十二,五,五),他说,建于撒玛利亚吨。 Garizim an anonymon ieron. Garizim一anonymon ieron。This extreme veneration for the Divine name must have generally prevailed at the time when the Septuagint version was made, for the translators always substitute Kyrios (Lord) for Jehovah.这为极端崇拜神圣的名字必须在普遍盛行的时候七十版本是,对于翻译总是代替耶和华Kyrios(主)。Ecclesiasticus 23:10, appears to prohibit only a wanton use of the Divine name, though it cannot be denied that Jehovah is not employed as frequently in the more recent canonical books of the Old Testament as in the older books.Ecclesiasticus 23:10,似乎只禁止了神圣的名义肆意使用,虽然不能否认,耶和华是不是受雇于旧如旧的书籍约典型的书籍,最近频繁。

It would be hard to determine at what time this reverence for the Divine name originated among the Hebrews.这将是很难判断在什么时候这间希伯来人起源于神圣的名字崇敬。Rabbinic writers derive the prohibition of pronouncing the Tetragrammaton, as the name of Jehovah is called, from Leviticus 24:16: "And he that blasphemeth the name of the Lord, dying let him die".拉比作家推导Tetragrammaton的读禁止,因为耶和华的名字叫,从利未记24:16:“他说,blasphemeth主的姓名,死亡让他死。” The Hebrew participle noqedh, here rendered "blasphemeth", is translated honomazon in the Septuagint, and appears to have the meaning "to determine", "to denote" (by means of its proper vowels) in Genesis 30:28; Numbers 1:17; Isaiah 62:2.希伯来文词noqedh,这里呈现的“blasphemeth”,是翻译的译本honomazon,并似乎已意“来决定”,“表示”(通过其适当的元音手段)在创世纪30:28;号码1: 17,以赛亚书62:2。Still, the context of Leviticus 24:16 (cf. verses 11 and 15), favours the meaning "to blaspheme".尽管如此,利未记24:16(见11和15节)的范围内,有利于意思是“亵渎”。Rabbinic exegetes derive the prohibition also from Exodus 3:15; but this argument cannot stand the test of the laws of sober hermeneutics (cf. Drusius, "Tetragrammaton", 8-10, in "Critici Sacri", Amsterdam, 1698, I, p. ii, col. 339-42; "De nomine divino", ibid., 512-16; Drach, "Harmonic entre l'Eglise et la Synagogue", I, Paris, 1844, pp. 350-53, and Note 30, pp. 512-16).拉比解经家推导出埃及记3:15从禁令也,但这种说法经不起清醒诠释学的法律(参见Drusius,“Tetragrammaton”,8月10日,在“Critici Sacri”,阿姆斯特丹,1698年,我测试,第二,彩色339-42。“德nomine迪维努”,同上,512-16。德劳奇,“调和恩特雷里奥斯欧莱雅埃格斯等香格里拉犹太教堂”,我,巴黎,1844年,第350-53,并注30,第512-16)。

What has been said explains the so-called qeri perpetuum, according to which the consonants of Jehovah are always accompanied in the Hebrew text by the vowels of Adonai except in the cases in which Adonai stands in apposition to Jehovah: in these cases the vowels of Elohim are substituted.什么有人说,解释了所谓的qeri Perpetuum公司,根据该耶和华的辅音总是在由阿多奈元音希伯来文的陪同下,除了在案件中,为耶和华阿多奈同位代表:在这些情况下,元音罗欣被替换。 The use of a simple shewa in the first syllable of Jehovah, instead of the compound shewa in the corresponding syllable of Adonai and Elohim, is required by the rules of Hebrew grammar governing the use of shewa.一个在耶和华的第一个音节,而不是简单的shewa使用中的阿多奈和相应的音节复合shewa耶洛因,是需要由希伯来文语法管shewa使用规则。 Hence the question: What are the true vowels of the word Jehovah?因此,问题:什么是真正的元音字耶和华?

It has been maintained by some recent scholars that the word Jehovah dates only from the year 1520 (cf. Hastings, "Dictionary of the Bible", II, 1899, p. 199: Gesenius-Buhl, "Handwörterbuch", 13th ed., 1899, p. 311).它一直保持最近的一些学者认为这个词耶和华日期只能从1520年(参见黑斯廷斯,第一,二,1899年,第199页的“圣经辞典”:。格泽纽斯-的Buhl,“Handwörterbuch”,13版, 1899年,第311页)。Drusius (loc. cit., 344) represents Peter Galatinus as the inventor of the word Jehovah, and Fagius as it propagator in the world of scholars and commentators. Drusius(如上。,34​​4)代表这个词的发明者耶和华彼得Galatinus,并Fagius因为它是在世界的传播学者和评论家。But the writers of the sixteenth century, Catholic and Protestant (eg Cajetan and Théodore de Bèze), are perfectly familiar with the word.但是,十六世纪,天主教和新教(如接cajetan和西奥多德Bèze)的作家,是完全熟悉的单词。Galatinus himself ("Areana cathol. veritatis", I, Bari, 1516, a, p. 77) represents the form as known and received in his time.Galatinus自己(“Areana cathol。真理的”,我,巴里,1516年,一,第77页)的形式表示,在他被称为时间收到。Besides, Drusius (loc. cit., 351) discovered it in Porchetus, a theologian of the fourteenth century.此外,Drusius(如上。,351)发现Porchetus,十四世纪的神学家了。Finally, the word is found even in the "Pugio fidei" of Raymund Martin, a work written about 1270 (ed. Paris, 1651, pt. III, dist. ii, cap. iii, p. 448, and Note, p. 745).最后,这个词是发现即使在“Pugio fidei”的raymund的马丁,约1270书面(编辑巴黎,1651年,角。三,区。二,帽。三,第448页的工作,并注意,第745)。 Probably the introduction of the name Jehovah antedates even R. Martin.大概是名称介绍耶和华antedates甚至河马丁。

No wonder then that this form has been regarded as the true pronunciation of the Divine name by such scholars as Michaelis ("Supplementa ad lexica hebraica", I, 1792, p. 524), Drach (loc. cit., I, 469-98), Stier (Lehrgebäude der hebr. Sprache, 327), and others.难怪这种形式一直被视为神圣的名字等学者作为米氏视为真正的发音(“Supplementa广告lexica hebraica”,我,1792年,第524页),德劳奇(如上,我,469。 - 98),Stier(Lehrgebäude明镜黑布尔。Sprache,327),及其他。

Jehovah is composed of the abbreviated forms of the imperfect, the participle, and the perfect of the Hebrew verb "to be" (ye=yehi; ho=howeh; wa=hawah).耶和华组成的不完善,词的缩写形式,和完美的希伯来语动词“是”(叶= yehi;浩= howeh;华= hawah)。According to this explanation, the meaning of Jehovah would be "he who will be, is, and has been".根据这一解释,耶和华的意思是“谁是他,现在是,而且已”。But such a word-formation has no analogy in the Hebrew language.但这种构词没有在希伯来语的比喻。

The abbreviated form Jeho supposes the full form Jehovah.缩写形式Jeho设完整形式耶和华。But the form Jehovah cannot account for the abbreviations Jahu and Jah, while the abbreviation Jeho may be derived from another word.但形式耶和华无法解释的缩写Jahu和扎哈,而缩写Jeho可能来自另一字而得。

The Divine name is said to be paraphrased in Apocalypse 1:4, and 4:8, by the expression ho on kai ho en kai ho erchomenos, in which ho erchomenos is regard as equivalent to ho eromenos, "the one that will be"; but it really means "the coming one", so that after the coming of the Lord, Apocalypse 11:17, retains only ho on kai ho en.神圣的名字被认为是转述的启示1:4,4:8的表达对启启豪恩豪erchomenos议员,其中豪erchomenos是等同于浩eromenos方面,“一将”但它确实意味着“未来一”,这样经过主,启示11:17,只保留启豪恩豪的到来。

the comparison of Jehovah with the Latin Jupiter, Jovis.木星与拉丁美洲,Jovis比较耶和华。But it wholly neglects the fuller forms of the Latin names Diespiter, Diovis.但它完全忽视了Diespiter,Diovis拉丁名称的更全面的形式。Any connection of Jehovah with the Egyptian Divine name consisting of the seven Greek vowels has been rejected by Hengstenberg (Beitrage zur Einleiung ins Alte Testament, II, 204 sqq.) and Tholuck (Vermischte Schriften, I, 349 sqq.).任何耶和华与埃及希腊神圣的七个母音组成的名称连接已经拒绝了亨斯(Beiträge楚Einleiung插件阿尔特遗嘱,二,204 sqq。)和Tholuck(Vermischte文集,我,349 sqq。)。

To take up the ancient writers:采取了古代作家:

Diodorus Siculus writes Jao (I, 94); Irenaeus ("Adv. Haer.", II, xxxv, 3, in PG, VII, col. 840), Jaoth; the Valentinian heretics (Irenaeus, "Adv. Haer.", I, iv, 1, in PG, VII, col. 481), Jao; Clement of Alexandria ("Strom.", V, 6, in PG, IX, col. 60), Jaou; Origen ("in Joh.", II, 1, in PG, XIV, col. 105), Jao; Porphyry (Eusebius, "Praep. evang", I, ix, in PG, XXI, col. 72), Jeuo; Epiphanius ("Adv. Haer.", I, iii, 40, in PG, XLI, col. 685), Ja or Jabe; Pseudo-Jerome ("Breviarium in Pss.", in PL, XXVI, 828), Jaho; the Samaritans (Theodoret, in "Ex. quaest.", xv, in PG, LXXX, col. 244), Jabe; James of Edessa (cf. Lamy, "La science catholique", 1891, p. 196), Jehjeh; Jerome ("Ep. xxv ad Marcell.", in PL, XXII, col. 429) speaks of certain ignorant Greek writers who transcribed the Hebrew Divine name II I II I.狄奥的宫殿写道饶(一,94);爱任纽(“。高级Haer。”第一,二,三十五,三,在编号,七,彩色840。)Jaoth;瓦伦蒂安异教徒(依,“副Haer。。”一,四,1,在编号,七,中校481),饶。克莱门特亚历山大(“斯特罗姆。”,五,六,在编号,第九,彩色60),Jaou。奥利(“。在约”第一,二,一,在编号,第十四条,彩色105),饶。“。Praep埃旺”斑岩(尤西比乌斯,我,九,在编号,21,彩色72),Jeuo。埃皮法尼乌斯(“副Haer。。 “一,三,40,在编号,四十一,中校685),JA或Jabe。伪杰罗姆(”在PSS Breviarium“,在临时立法会,26,828),Jaho;撒玛利亚(Theodoret,在”。前quaest“,十五,在编号,LXXX,彩色244),Jabe。詹姆斯的edessa(参见拉米,”。。香格里拉天主教科学“,1891年,第196页),Jehjeh;杰罗姆(”的EP二十五的广告。马塞尔。“,在临时立法会,22,彩色。429)讲谁神圣的名字,希伯来文抄写一二二一,某些无知的希腊作家

The judicious reader will perceive that the Samaritan pronunciation Jabe probably approaches the real sound of the Divine name closest; the other early writers transmit only abbreviations or corruptions of the sacred name.在明智的读者会察觉到撒玛利亚发音Jabe可能接近神圣的名字最接近真实的声音,而其他的作家只传输缩写或神圣的名字腐败。 Inserting the vowels of Jabe into the original Hebrew consonant text, we obtain the form Jahveh (Yahweh), which has been generally accepted by modern scholars as the true pronunciation of the Divine name.插入到原来的希伯来文的Jabe辅音元音,我们得到的表格Jahveh(耶和华),已普遍为真正的神的名字发音现代学者所接受。 It is not merely closely connected with the pronunciation of the ancient synagogue by means of the Samaritan tradition, but it also allows the legitimate derivation of all the abbreviations of the sacred name in the Old Testament.它不仅是紧密联系在一起的古犹太教堂由撒玛利亚传统手段的发音,而且还允许在旧约的所有神圣的名字缩写合法的推导。

II.二。MEANING OF THE DIVINE NAME所指的神的名字

Jahveh (Yahweh) is one of the archaic Hebrew nouns, such as Jacob, Joseph, Israel, etc. (cf. Ewald, "Lehrbuch der hebr. Sprache", 7th ed., 1863, p. 664), derived from the third person imperfect in such a way as to attribute to a person or a thing the action of the quality expressed by the verb after the manner of a verbal adjective or a participle. Jahveh(耶和华)是古代希伯来文名词,例如雅各,约瑟,以色列等,一(参见埃瓦尔德,“Lehrbuch明镜黑布尔。Sprache”,第七版。,1863年,页664),来自第三人在这样一种方式,以属性为一个人或一件事情由一个后的口头方式形容词或过去分词动词所表达动作的质量缺陷。 Furst has collected most of these nouns, and calls the form forma participialis imperfectiva.弗斯特已经收集了大部分这些名词,并调用形式备考participialis imperfectiva。 As the Divine name is an imperfect form of the archaic Hebrew verb "to be", Jahveh means "He Who is", Whose characteristic note consists in being, or The Being simply.因为神的名字是一个古老的希伯来文动词的形式不完美“是”,Jahveh意味着“谁是”,其特点在于被注意到,或者被简单。 Here we are confronted with the question, whether Jahveh is the imperfect hiphil or the imperfect qal.在这里,我们所面临的问题,无论是不完善hiphil Jahveh或不完善萨利赫。Calmet and Le Clere believe that the Divine name is a hiphil form; hence it signifies, according to Schrader (Die Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament, 2nd ed., p. 25), He Who brings into existence, the Creator; and according to Lagarde (Psalterium Hieronymi, 153), He Who causes to arrive, Who realizes His promises, the God of Providence.卡尔梅特和勒克莱尔认为,神圣的名字是一个hiphil的形式,因此它意味着,根据施拉德(。模具Keilinschriften有限公司DAS的阿尔特约,第二版,第25页),他的人带入存在,造物者,并根据拉加德(Psalterium Hieronymi,153),他是谁造成的到来,谁实现他​​的诺言,普罗维登斯的上帝。But this opinion is not in keeping with Exodus 3:14, nor is there any trace in Hebrew of a hiphil form of the verb meaning "to be"; moreover, this hiphil form is supplied in the cognate languages by the pi'el form, except in Syriac where the hiphil is rare and of late occurrence.但是,这种看法是不符合出埃及记3:14保持一致,也没有任何痕迹的希伯来文的动词意义hiphil形式“是”,而且,这hiphil形式是在同源语言的形式提供的pi'el除了在叙利亚那里hiphil是罕见的晚发生。

On the other hand, Jehveh may be an imperfect qal from a grammatical point of view, and the traditional exegesis of Exodus 3:6-16, seems to necessitate the form Jahveh.另一方面,Jehveh可以从一个角度看语法不完善萨利赫,以及传统的注释出埃及记3:6-16,似乎有必要把表格J​​ahveh。 Moses asks God: "If they should say to me: What is his [God's] name? What shall I say to them?"摩西问上帝:“如果他们对我说:什么是他的[神]的名字我该怎么对他们说”In reply, God returns three times to the determination of His name.在答复中,神返回三次到他的名字的决心。

First, He uses the first person imperfect of the Hebrew verb "to be"; here the Vulgate, the Septuagint, Aquila, Theodotion, and the Arabic version suppose that God uses the imperfect qal; only the Targums of Jonathan and of Jerusalem imply the imperfect hiphil.首先,他用第一人称的希伯来语动词“是”不完美的,这里的武加大,七十,雕,Theodotion和阿拉伯语版本假设神使用不完善的萨利赫,只有乔纳森Targums和耶路撒冷意味着不完善hiphil。 Hence we have the renderings: "I am who am" (Vulgate), "I am who is" (Septuagint), "I shall be [who] shall be" (Aquila, Theodotion), "the Eternal who does not cease" (Ar.); only the above-mentioned Targums see any reference to the creation of the world.因此,我们有渲染:“我是谁时”(武加大),“我是谁”(七十),“我会[谁]应”(雕,Theodotion),“永恒谁不停止” (Ar.),只有上述Targums看到任何对创造世界的参考。

The second time, God uses again the first person imperfect of the Hebrew verb "to be"; here the Syriac, the Samaritan, the Persian versions, and the Targums of Onkelos and Jerusalem retain the Hebrew, so that one cannot tell whether they regard the imperfect as a qal or a hiphil form; the Arabic version omits the whole clause; but the Septuagint, the Vulgate, and the Targum of Jonathan suppose here the imperfect qal: "He Who Is, hath sent me to you" instead of "I Am, hath sent me to you: (Vulgate); "ho on sent me to you" (Septuagint); "I am who am, and who shall be, hath sent me to you" (Targ. Jon.).第二次,神再利用的第一人,希伯来文动词“是”不完善;在这里,叙利亚文,撒玛利亚,波斯版本,以及Onkelos和耶路撒冷保留希伯来Targums,这样就可以不知道他们是否考虑阿拉伯语版本忽略了整个条款;;作为萨利赫或hiphil形式不完善,但七十,武加大,以及乔纳森根假设这里的不完善萨利赫说:“他是谁,差遣我到你”而不是“我,打发我到你们这里:(武加大),“濠派我到你”(译本),“我是谁时,谁应,差遣我到你”(Targ.乔恩。)。

Finally, the third time, God uses the third person of the imperfect, or the form of the sacred name itself; here the Samaritan version and the Targum of Onkelos retain the Hebrew form; the Septuagint, the Vulgate, and the Syriac version render "Lord", though, according to the analogy of the former two passages, they should have translated, "He Is, the God of your fathers, . . . hath sent me to you"; the Arabic version substitutes "God".最后,第三次,神使用了不完善的第三人,或神圣的名字本身的形式,这里的撒玛利亚版本和Onkelos根留住希伯来文的形式,七十,武加大,以及叙利亚版本呈现“ 。。。主“,不过,根据前两个通道的比喻,他们应该有翻译,”他是,你列祖的神,差遣我到你“;的阿拉伯文版本的替代品”上帝“。Classical exegesis, therefore, regards Jahveh as the imperfect qal of the Hebrew verb "to be".经典的注释,因此,视Jahveh作为不完善萨利赫希伯来动词“是”。Here another question presents itself: Is the being predicated of God in His name, the metaphysical being denoting nothing but existence itself, or is it an historical being, a passing manifestation of God in time?在这里,另一个问题提出了自己:是被上帝的前提在他的名字,形而上学是denoting只是存在本身,抑或是一种历史的存在,是神的传递时间的表现?

Most Protestant writers regard the being implied in the name Jahveh as an historical one, though some do not wholly exclude such metaphysical ideas as God's independence, absolute constancy, and fidelity to His promises, and immutability in His plans (cf. Driver, "Hebrew Tenses", 1892, p. 17).大多数新教作家把被隐含在名称Jahveh作为一个历史的,尽管有些并不完全排除,因为神的独立,绝对稳定性,且忠实于他的诺言,在他的计划和不变性(见司机,“希伯来这种形而上学的观点时态“,1892年,第17页)。 The following are the reasons alleged for the historical meaning of the "being" implied in the Divine name:以下是对“存在”在神圣的名字暗示的历史意义所指称的原因:

The metaphysical sense of being was too abstruse a concept for the primitive times.因为,作为一个太深奥的原始时代的概念形而上的意义。Still, some of the Egyptian speculations of the early times are almost as abstruse; besides, it was not necessary that the Jews of the time of Moses should fully understand the meaning implied in God's name.尽管如此,在早期​​的埃及猜测一些几乎一样深奥,再说,这不是必要的时候,摩西犹太人应该充分明白它的意思在上帝的名义暗示。 The scientific development of its sense might be left to the future Christian theologians.其意义的科学发展可能留给未来的基督教神学家。The Hebrew verb hayah means rather "to become" than "to be" permanently.希伯来文动词hayah手段,而“成为”比“是”永久。But good authorities deny that the Hebrew verb denotes being in motion rather than being in a permanent condition.不过,好当局否认在希伯来文动词表示的运动而不是在一个永久的条件是。It is true that the participle would have expressed a permanent state more clearly; but then, the participle of the verb hayah is found only in Exodus 9:3, and few proper names in Hebrew are derived from the participle.这是事实的词表达了将永久状态更清楚,但届时,动词hayah词是发现,只有在出埃及记9:3,和希伯来文几个专有名词是从派生词。

The imperfect mainly expresses the action of one who enters anew on the scene.不完善主要表现在重新进入一个动作谁在现场。But this is not always the case; the Hebrew imperfect is a true aorist, prescinding from time and, therefore, best adapted for general principles (Driver, p. 38).但是,这并不总是如此;希伯来不完善是一个真正的不定过去时,从时间,因此最好的(驱动程序,第38页)的一般原则改编,prescinding。

"I am who am" appears to refer to "I will be with thee" of verse 12; both texts seems to be alluded to in Hosea 1:9, "I will not be yours". “我是谁时”似乎是指“我将与你同在”的12节;两种文本似乎暗示在何西阿书1:9,“我将不属于你。”But if this be true, "I am who am" must be considered as an ellipse: "I am who am with you", or "I am who am faithful to my promises".但如果这是真的,“我是谁时”必须作为一个椭圆认为:“我是谁与你同在”,或“我是谁我忠于我的诺言”。 This is harsh enough; but it becomes quite inadmissible in the clause, "I am who am, hath sent me".这是不够严厉,但它变得非常不可接受的条款,“我是谁时,差遣我。”

Since then the Hebrew imperfect is admittedly not to be considered as a future, and since the nature of the language does not force us to see in it the expression of transition or of becoming, and since, moreover, early tradition is quite fixed and the absolute character of the verb hayah has induced even the most ardent patrons of its historical sense to admit in the texts a description of God's nature, the rules of hermeneutics urge us to take the expressions in Exodus 3:13-15, for what they are worth.自那时以来,希伯来语不完善固然是不被视为一个未来,因为语言的性质并不强迫我们也看到了转型成为或表达,而此后,而且,早期的传统是相当固定的,动词的hayah绝对性诱导,即使是最热心的历史感茶客在文本承认了上帝的性质的描述,解释学的规则要求我们采取在出埃及记3:13-15的表达,因为它们是什么值得。 Jahveh is He Who Is, ie, His nature is best characterized by Being, if indeed it must be designated by a personal proper name distinct from the term God (Revue biblique, 1893, p. 338). Jahveh是谁是他的,即,他自然是最好的特点是存在,如果确实必须由个人适当的名称从长远神不同的(杂志biblique,1893年,第338页)的指定。 The scholastic theories as to the depth of meaning latent in Yahveh (Yahweh) rest, therefore, on a solid foundation.至于潜在的意义,耶和华(耶和华)休息,因此在坚实的基础,深入的学术理论。Finite beings are defined by their essence: God can be defined only by being, pure and simple, nothing less and nothing more; not be abstract being common to everything, and characteristic of nothing in particular, but by concrete being, absolute being, the ocean of all substantial being, independent of any cause, incapable of change, exceeding all duration, because He is infinite: "Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, . . . who is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty" (Revelation 1:8).有限的生命,指的是以实质:只有上帝可以被定义,单纯,无所不及,仅此而已,不能是抽象的是公用的一切,并没有什么特别的特点,但具体的存在,绝对的福祉,海洋中所有的任何事业,不能超过所有时间变化,因为他是无限的大量存在,独立的:。。。“亚尔发和奥米加,开始和结束,谁是,谁是,谁是来,全能“(启示录1:8)。 Cf.比照。St. Thomas, I, qu.圣托马斯,我,曲。xiii, a.十三,甲14; Franzelin, "De Deo Uno" (3rd ed., 1883, thesis XXIII, pp. 279-86.第14条; Franzelin“德迪奥乌诺”(第三版,1883年,论文二十三,第279-86。。

III.三。ORIGIN OF THE NAME JAHVEH (YAHWEH)原产地的名称JAHVEH(耶和华)

The opinion that the name Jahveh was adopted by the Jews from the Chanaanites, has been defended by von Bohlen (Genesis, 1835, p. civ), Von der Alm (Theol. Briefe, I, 1862, pp. 524-27), Colenso (The Pentateuch, V, 1865, pp. 269-84), Goldziher (Der Mythus bei den Hebräern, 1867, p. 327), but has been rejected by Kuenen ("De Godsdienst van Israel", I, Haarlem, 1869, pp. 379-401) and Baudissin (Studien, I, pp. 213-18).认为这个名字Jahveh是由犹太人从Chanaanites通过舆论,一直捍卫的冯波伦(创,1835年,第持续输注),冯明镜阿尔姆(Theol. Briefe,我,1862年,第524-27),科伦索(在五,五,1865年,第269-84),Goldziher(明镜Mythus北巢穴Hebräern,1867年,第327页),但一直拒绝Kuenen(“德Godsdienst面包车以色列”,我,哈莱姆,1869 ,第379-401)和Baudissin(Studien与我,第213-18)。It is antecedently improbable that Jahveh, the irreconcilable enemy of the Chanaanites, should be originally a Chanaanite god.这是不可能的Jahveh先行,对不可调和的敌人Chanaanites,本来应该是一个Chanaanite神。It has been said by Vatke (Die Religion des Alten Test., 1835, p. 672) and JG Müller (Die Semiten in ihrem Verhältniss zu Chamiten und Japhetiten, 1872, p. 163) that the name Jahveh is of Indo-European origin.它已经被Vatke说(宗教万老模具试验。,1835年,页672)和JG米勒(模具Semiten在ihrem Verhältniss祖Chamiten有限公司Japhetiten,1872年,第163页)的名称Jahveh的印欧语系的起源。But the transition of the Sanscrit root, div-the Latin Jupiter-Jovis (Diovis), the Greek Zeus-Dios, the Indo-European Dyaus into the Hebrew form Jahveh has never been satisfactorily explained.但是,在Sanscrit根过渡,分区,拉丁木星Jovis(Diovis),希腊宙斯-特德迪奥斯,希伯来文的形式进入了印欧语Dyaus Jahveh从来没有令人满意的解释。Hitzig's contention (Vorlesungen über bibl. Theol., p. 38) that the Indo-Europeans furnished at least the idea contained in the name Jahveh, even if they did not originate the name itself, is without any value.希齐格的论点(Vorlesungen黚bibl。Theol。,第38页)表示,印欧提供至少在名称中包含Jahveh的想法,即使他们并非来自这个名字本身,是没有任何价值。

The theory that Jahveh is of Egyptian origin may have a certain amount of a priori probability, as Moses was educated in Egypt.该理论认为,Jahveh起源于埃及,是可能有一定量的先验概率,正如摩西在埃及的教育。Still, the proofs are not convincing:然而,证据并不令人信服:

Röth (Die Aegypt. und die Zoroastr. Glaubenslehre, 1846, p. 175) derives the Hebrew name from the ancient moon-god Ih or Ioh.罗斯(模具Aegypt。und模具Zoroastr。Glaubenslehre,1846年,第175页)源自古代月亮神意诚或IOH必须希伯来文的名字。 But there is no connection between the Hebrew Jahveh and the moon (cf. Pierret, "Vocabul. Hiérogl.", 1875, p. 44).但是,两者之间没有希伯来Jahveh和月亮连接(参见Pierret所著“Vocabul。Hiérogl。”,1875年,第44页)。

Plutarch (De Iside, 9) tells us that a statue of Athene (Neith) in Sais bore the inscription: "I am all that has been, is, and will be".普鲁塔克(德Iside,9)告诉我们,一个雅典娜(Neith)雕像在最高审计机关负有题词:“我所有的过去,现在和将”。 But Tholuck (op. cit., 1867, pp. 189-205) shows that the meaning of this inscription is wholly different from that of the name Jahveh.但Tholuck(同前。,1867年,第189-205)显示,该碑文的含义是完全从名称Jahveh不同。

The patrons of the Egyptian origin of the sacred name appeal to the common Egyptian formula, Nuk pu nuk but though its literal signification is "I am I", its real meaning is "It is I who" (cf. Le Page Renouf, "Hibbert Lectures for 1879", p. 244).神圣的名义呼吁埃及埃及的原产地的共同的公式,Nuk浦nuk但是,尽管它的字面意义的惠顾是“我就是我”,其真正的含义是:“这是我谁”(见莱佩奇雷诺夫“希伯特讲座为1879年“,第244页)。

As to the theory that Jahveh has a Chaldean or an Accadian origin, its foundation is not very solid:至于理论Jahveh有加尔丁或亚加底亚的起源,它的基础并不十分稳固:

Jahveh is said to be a merely artificial form introduced to put meaning into the name of the national god (Delitzsch, "Wo lag das Paradies", 1881, pp. 158-64); the common and popular name of God is said to have been Yahu or Yah, the letter I being the essential Divine element in the name. Jahveh被认为是一个纯粹的形式介绍了人工投入全国神的名字的含义(德里,“禾滞后之paradies”,1881年,第158-64)神的常见和常用的名字,据说已被亚虎或对阿,我信神的作为基本元素的名称。 The contention, if true, does not prove the Chaldean or Accadian origin of the Hebrew Divine name; besides the form Yah is rare and exclusively poetic; Yahu never appears in the Bible, while the ordinary full form of the Divine name is found even in the inscription of Mesa (line 18) dating from the ninth century BC Yahu and Yah were known outside Israel; the forms enter into the composition of foreign proper names; besides, the variation of the name of a certain King of Hammath shows that Ilu is equivalent to Yau, and that Yau is the name of a god (Schrader, "Bibl. Bl.", II, p. 42, 56; Sargon, "Cylinder", xxv; Keil, "Fastes", I. 33).的论点,如果属实,并不能证明的希伯来文或亚加底亚加尔丁神圣的名字起源,除了形式对阿是罕见的,并且只能诗意;鸭湖从来没有出现在圣经,而普通的神圣名的完整形式被发现,即使在碑文的梅萨(18行)可以追溯到公元前9世纪鸭湖,被称为对阿以色列境外;形式进入的外国专名的组成;此外,某国王Hammath显示的名称是变化的Ilu相当于油,这油是一个神的名字(施拉德,,二,第42页,56“Bibl基本法。。”;萨尔贡,“缸”,二十五,Keil公司,“Fastes”,一33)。 But foreign proper names containing Yah or Yahu are extremely rare and doubtful, and may be explained without admitting gods in foreign nations, bearing the sacred name.不过,外国对阿或含雅狐正确名称是极为罕见和值得怀疑,原因可能是在外国国家不承认神,承载着神圣的名字。Again, the Babylonian pantheon is fairly well known at present, but the god Yau does not appear in it.同样,巴比伦神殿差不多是人所共知的,目前,神油,但不会出现在它。

Among the pre-Semitic Babylonians, I is a synonym of Ilu, the supreme god; now I with the Assyrian nominative ending added becomes Yau (cf. Delitzsch, "Lesestücke", 3rd ed., 1885, p. 42, Syllab. A, col. I, 13-16).在预闪米特巴比伦人,我公司是一家Ilu代名词,至高无上的神,现在与亚述人主格结束我将成为油(参见德里,“Lesestücke”,第3版,1885年,第42页,Syllab一个。。山口。我,13-16)。 Hommel (Altisrael. Ueberlieferung, 1897, pp. 144, 225) feels sure that he has discovered this Chaldean god Yau.霍梅尔(Altisrael. Ueberlieferung,1897年,第144,225)感觉肯定,他发现这加尔丁神油。 It is the god who is represented ideographically (ilu) Aa, but ordinarily pronounced Malik, though the expression should be read Ai or Ia (Ya).这是谁的代表ideographically(ilu)机管局,但通常明显马利克,但应予以表达爱或IA(雅)神。The patriarchal family employed this name, and Moses borrowed and transformed it.父权家庭就业这个名字,和摩西借来的和改造。 But Lagrange points out that the Jews did not believe that they offered their children to Jahveh, when they sacrificed them to Malik (Religion semitique, 1905, pp. 100 sqq.).但指出,犹太人拉格朗日点不相信,他们提供自己的孩子Jahveh,当他们牺牲他们马利克(宗教semitique,1905年,第100 sqq。)。Jeremiah 32:35, and Zephaniah 1:5, distinguish between Malik and the Hebrew God.耶利米32:35,和西番雅书1:5,区分Malik和希伯来上帝。

Cheyne (Traditions and Beliefs of Ancient Israel, 1907, pp. 63 sqq.) connects the origin of Jahveh with his Yerahme'el theory; but even the most advanced critics regard Cheyne's theory as a discredit to modern criticism.进益(。传统与古代以色列,1907年,第63 sqq信仰)相连,与他的Yerahme'el Jahveh理论渊源,但即使是最先进的批评看作是对现代批评抹黑进益的理论。Other singular opinions as to the origin of the sacred name may be safely omitted.至于其他的神圣名字的由来奇异的意见,可以安全地忽略。The view that Jahveh is of Hebrew origin is the most satisfactory.认为Jahveh源自希伯来文是最令人满意的。Arguing from Exodus 6:2-8, such commentators as Nicholas of Lyra, Tostatus, Cajetan, Bonfrère, etc., maintain that the name was revealed for the first time to Moses on Mount Horeb.从出埃及记6:2-8争论,如天琴座,Tostatus,接cajetan,邦弗雷雷等尼古拉斯,评论家认为,这样的名字是第一次对何烈山摩西显现。 God declares in this vision that he "appeared to Abraham . . . by the name of God Almighty; and my name Adonai [Jahveh] I did not shew them".上帝在此声明,远见,他“似乎亚伯拉罕全能的神的名字。。。和我的名字阿多奈[Jahveh]我没有指示他们”。But the phrase "to appear by a name" does not necessarily imply the first revelation of that name; it rather signifies the explanation of the name, or a manner of acting conformable to the meaning of the name (cf. Robion in "la Science cathol.", 1888, pp. 618-24; Delattre, ibid., 1892, pp. 673-87; van Kasteren, ibid., 1894, pp. 296-315; Robert in "Revue biblique", 1894, pp. 161-81).但是这句话“出现了一个名字”,并不一定意味着该名称的第一个启示,它标志着而这个名字的解释,或行事“香格里拉相适应的科学的名称(参见Robion意义的方式cathol。“,1888年,页618-24; Delattre,同上,1892年,页673-87。面包车Kasteren,同上,1894年,第296-315。罗伯特”杂志biblique“,1894年,第161-81)。 On Mt.山上。Horeb God told Moses that He had not acted with the Patriarchs as the God of the Covenant, Jahveh, but as God Almighty.何烈神告诉说,他没有作为的盟约,Jahveh,而是全能的神的始祖神行事摩西。

Perhaps it is preferable to say that the sacred name, though perhaps in a somewhat modified form, had been in use in the patriarchal family before the time of Moses.也许最好是说,神圣的名字,虽然在略加修改的形式或许,已在父权家庭使用前,摩西时间了。On Mt.山上。Horeb God revealed and explained the accurate form of His name, Jahveh.何烈上帝发现并解释了他的名字,Jahveh精确的形态。

The sacred name occurs in Genesis about 156 times; this frequent occurrence can hardly be a mere prolepsis.神圣的名字出现在约156倍成因;这些频繁发生,难以仅仅是一个prolepsis。Genesis 4:26, states that Enos "began to call upon the name of the Lord [Jahveh]", or as the Hebrew text suggests, "began to call himself after the name of Jahveh".创世纪4:26,各国有eNOS“开始呼吁主[Jahveh]名称”,或希伯来文建议说:“开始要求后Jahveh名自称”。

Jochabed, the mother of Moses, has in her name an abbreviated form Jo (Yo) of Jahveh. Jochabed,摩西的母亲,在她的名字的缩写形式乔(岁)的Jahveh。The pre-Mosaic existence of the Divine name among the Hebrews accounts for this fact more easily than the supposition that the Divine element was introduced after the revelation of the name.作者在对这一事实的希伯来帐户神圣的名字前花叶更容易生存的,神圣的元素后的名称提出假设的启示。

Among the 163 proper names which bear an element of the sacred name in their composition, 48 have yeho or yo at the beginning, and 115 have yahu or yah and the end, while the form Jahveh never occurs in any such composition.其中163而承受的神圣名义在其组成元素的恰当的名字,有48 yeho或溜溜在开始时,和115有雅狐或呀和结束,而从来没有在任何形式Jahveh等组成的发生。Perhaps it might be assumed that these shortened forms yeho, yo, yahu, yah, represent the Divine name as it existed among the Israelites before the full name Jahveh was revealed on Mt.也许它会假设这些缩短形式yeho哟,鸭湖,阿,代表神圣的名字,因为它以前存在以色列人之间的全名Jahveh于山透露。 Horeb.何烈山。On the other hand, Driver (Studia biblica, I, 5) has shown that these short forms are the regular abbreviations of the full name.另一方面,司机(成性格biblica,我,5)表明,这些短期的形式是正规的全名缩写。At any rate, while it is not certain that God revealed His sacred name to Moses for the first time, He surely revealed on Mt.无论如何,虽然不能肯定神第一次透露了他的神圣的名字,摩西,他一定会透露吨。Horeb that Jahveh is His incommunicable name, and explained its meaning.何烈山的Jahveh是他静默的名字,并解释其含义。

Publication information Written by AJ Maas.出版信息的书面由AJ马斯。Transcribed by Thomas M. Barrett.转录由托马斯M巴雷特。Dedicated to Mary Kathryn French Barrett The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.法国玛丽凯瑟琳专用巴雷特天主教百科全书,音量八。Published 1910.1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,十月一日,1910年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

Besides the works referred to in the text, the reader may consult: RELAND, Deeds Excreitationum (Utrecht, 1707); SCHRADER in SCHENKEL'S Bibel Lexicon, sv Jahve; PHAT, Dict.除了作品中提到的文字,读者可以查阅:雷兰,契约Excreitationum(乌得勒支,1707),在申克尔的Bibel词典施拉德,希沃特Jahve; PHAT的,快译通。de la Bible, sv Jehovah; ROBERTSON SMITH in Brit.德拉,希沃特耶和华圣经在英国人罗伯逊史密斯。and Foreign Evan.中外埃文。 Review (January, 1876), gives a summary of recent discussion of the subject; OEHLER, Real-Encyclopadie, SV Jehova.评论(一月,1876年),给出了最近讨论的主题摘要;奥勒尔,实时Encyclopadie,希沃特Jehova。


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