Jehovah's Witnesses耶和华见证人

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Jehovah's Witnesses are a society of Christians who promote home study of the Bible, which they hold to be the complete Word of God. They believe that God's kingdom is an actual government now ruling in heaven that will soon restore the earth to its original paradisaic condition.耶和华见证会的社会的基督徒谁推动圣经在家学习的,而他们手中掌握的字的完整。他们相信上帝的王国是一个实际的政府现在天堂裁决,将尽快恢复地球到其原始paradisaic条件。 They expect an early end to the present world system in a "great tribulation" from God that will rid the earth of wickedness and suffering.他们希望早日结束在一个“大灾难”目前,从神的世界体系将摆脱地球的邪恶和苦难。 Following Armageddon will come a millennial reign over the earth by Jesus. The gaining of eternal life depends on complete obedience to Jehovah God and faith in the provision of Jesus Christ's ransom sacrifice.继世界末日来统治,由耶稣会在地球上一千年。 生命获得永恒的信念完全取决于服从耶和华上帝和耶稣基督的牺牲提供的赎金。

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The Witnesses encourage adherence to the Bible's moral standards.证人鼓励遵守圣经的道德标准。Because of their neutrality as to affairs of secular government, their refusal to salute any flag, and their rejection of the practice of blood transfusion (which they believe is forbidden by the Bible), the Witnesses have been the subject of controversy.因为他们是政府的世俗事务的中立性,他们拒绝任何国旗敬礼,以及他们对输血(他们认为这是由圣经禁止的)的做法拒绝,证人一直是争论的主题。

The activities of Jehovah's Witnesses are coordinated by a governing body at international headquarters in Brooklyn, New York.耶和华见证会的活动是由一个协调在布鲁克林,纽约的国际总部的管理机构。In the more than 63,000 congregations worldwide, elders, male members meeting certain scriptural qualifications, preside as a body.在全球范围内超过63,000教会,长老,满足某些圣经的男性成员的资格,作为一个机构主持。 Instruction and training are provided for all at five meetings a week, held primarily in "Kingdom Halls."教学和培训提供每周五次会议举行的为主,“王国之作巡回展览。”人人享有The Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania and the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc., are the legal agencies of Jehovah's Witnesses.守望台圣经和呼吸道协会和宾夕法尼亚守望台圣经书社纽约的公司,是耶和华见证会的法律机构。They print and distribute the Bible.它们打印和分发圣经。Their principal periodical, The Watchtower, has a circulation of 15,290,000 copies in more than 100 languages.他们的主要期刊,在了望塔,在全球超过100种语言的1529.0万份发行量。

The Witnesses acknowledge Jehovah God as their founder.证人在承认耶和华神为他们的创始人。The modern movement was organized in the 1870s by Charles Taze Russell.现代运动举办了由查尔斯Taze罗素1870。By 1990, Jehovah's Witnesses numbered 4.2 million in more than 200 lands.到1990年,耶和华见证人人数为200余土地420万。

FW Franz又一弗兰兹

Bibliography 参考书目
J Bergman, Jehovah's Witnesses and Kindred Groups (1984); MJ Penton, Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses (1988); Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses (annual). Ĵ伯格曼,耶和华见证会和金德里德小组(1984年);兆焦耳聚氯,启示延迟:耶和华的见证人的故事(1988);守望台圣经书社,耶和华见证人年鉴(年刊)。


Jehovah's Witnesses耶和华见证会

Advanced Information先进的信息

This name was adopted in 1931 by the movement founded by Charles Taze Russell in the 1870s.这个名字是在1931年通过了由查尔斯Taze罗素创立于19世纪70年代的运动。Russell was born in 1852 in Pittsburgh, Pa. His family were Congregationalists but Russell reacted strongly against his religious upbringing.罗素出生在匹兹堡,宾夕法尼亚州,他的家人是公理,但罗素反应强烈反对他的宗教仪轨于1852年。At the age of eighteen he started a Bible class in Pittsburgh, and this group grew into the organization which we now know as the Jehovah's Witnesses.在十八岁的他开始在匹兹堡一个圣经班,这一组加入世界贸易组织,我们现在的耶和华见证会知道的增长。In 1876 Russell became the group's pastor, and in 1879 he started a magazine, Zion's Watchtower, the forerunner of today's Watchtower.罗素在1876年成为本集团的牧师,并于1879年,他开始一本杂志,锡安的守望台,今天的了望塔的前身。 Russell's organization became the Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society in 1884.罗素的组织在1884年成为锡安的守望台书社。 In 1908 Russell moved the headquarters of his organization to Brooklyn, New York.1908年罗素提出他的组织总部纽约布鲁克林。 The organization has been based in Brooklyn ever since.该组织一直设在布鲁克林区至今。

In 1886 Russell published the first of a series of seven books entitled Studies in the Scriptures.1886年罗素出版了七本书题为圣经研究系列的第一。Volume 6 appeared in 1904 and the seventh volume in 1917, a year after Russell's death.第6卷出现在1904年和1917年第七卷,在罗素去世一年。The publication of Volume 7 of Studies in the Scriptures led to a schism in the organization.该卷中的圣经研究7刊物导致了该组织的分裂。The majority of members followed JF Rutherford, while a smaller group formed itself into the Dawn Bible Student's Association.大多数成员随后怡富卢瑟福,而规模较小的集团形成了黎明的圣经学生协会本身。This group is still in existence and publishes the Dawn magazine, which has a circulation of about 30,000 copies.这个小组仍然存在,并出版了曙光杂志,其中有大约3万份发行量。The larger group following Rutherford became today's Jehovah's Witnesses.规模较大的集团继卢瑟福成为今天的耶和华见证会。Their magazine, The Watchtower, has a circulation of over 64 million worldwide.他们的杂志,在了望塔,拥有超过6400万的全球流通。

Following Russell's death in 1916 Judge Joseph Franklin Rutherford became the leader of the organization.继罗素在1916年法官约瑟夫富兰克林卢瑟福的死成为该组织的领导人。An able organizer, he developed the group into its present organization.一个能干的组织者,他发展成为该集团目前的组织。Rutherford wrote over a hundred books and fundamentally shaped the group's theology.卢瑟福写了一百本英文书籍,从根本上形成了集团的神学。He increased its hostility toward organized religion and developed a variety of highly successful missionary methods.他增加了对有组织的宗教的敌意,并制定了非常成功的传教士的各种方法。Rutherford, who was born in 1869, died in 1942, leaving behind an organization which has continued to grow at a remarkable rate.卢瑟福,谁是在1869年出生,1942年去世,留下一个已经持续以惊人的速度增长,离开组织。

In 1981 the Jehovah's Witnesses were shaken by a series of schisms which led to a large number leaving the organization.1981年,耶和华见证人被震撼了一系列的分裂而导致大量离开该组织。 The leader of the opposition to the Brooklyn headquarters group was Professor James Penton, a Canadian, whose family had been among Russell's earliest converts.该集团总部的布鲁克林反对党领袖詹姆斯彭顿教授是加拿大,他的家人已经在罗素最早被转换。Penton and those who sided with him sought to reemphasize the doctrine of justification by faith and return the group to its original interest in Bible study.彭顿和那些谁站在他那边寻求再次强调因信称义的教义,并返回该小组在研究圣经原有的兴趣。The intention of Penton and other Witnesses who shared his ideas appears to have been to reform the group from within.作者:彭顿和其他证人的意图谁分享他的想法似乎是从内部改革的集团。The Brooklyn leadership strongly rejected their arguments and expelled anyone who supported their views.布鲁克林领导坚决拒绝了他们的论点和被驱逐的人谁支持他们的意见。Although this division was a serious one, it appears that the majority of Witnesses remained within the official organization, which retained control over all of the group's assets.虽然这是一个严重的分裂,它看来,大多数证人在官方组织,它保留了本集团的全部资产控制之下。

As a religious organization the Jehovah's Witnesses are typical of many nineteenth century groups.作为一个宗教组织的耶和华见证会是许多十九世纪的群体典型。Although their theology bears some resemblance to that of the Arians in early church history, they are essentially a modern group strongly influenced by rationalism.虽然他们的神学负有一些在早期教会历史相似的白羊座的是,他们基本上是一个理性的现代集团的强烈影响。Like many other new religions in the nineteenth century the Witnesses represent a strong reaction to the scientific world view.像其他许多在十九世纪的新宗教的目击者表示,以科学的世界观的强烈反应。The rationalism of the group can be seen in their rejection of Trinitarian doctrines and traditional teachings about the person and work of Jesus Christ.该小组的理性可以看出,在他们的三位一体的教义和有关的人,耶稣基督工作的传统教义的拒绝。Their rationalistic attitude toward the Bible comes out in their literal interpretation of prophecy and failure to appreciate the symbolic character of biblical language.他们对圣经​​的理性态度出来,在他们的预言并没有体会到圣经的语言符号字符的字面解释。Their rejection of blood transfusions reflects this rejection of modern science as well as the extreme literalism of their exegesis.他们拒绝输血,反映了现代科学以及其注释极端写实主义的拒绝。

In attempting to justify their interpretation of Christianity and rejection of orthodoxy the Witnesses produced their own translation of the Bible, The New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures and The New World Translation of the Hebrew Scriptures, in 1950.在试图证明自己的解释排斥正统基督教和证人制作了他们的圣经,新世界希腊翻译的基督教圣经和新世界翻译希伯来文圣经于1950年,自己的翻译​​。 Although this work claims to be a translation, the Witnesses have yet to name the translators or prove their credentials as competent scholars.这项工作虽然声称自己是一个翻译,证人尚未命名的翻译或证明作为主管的学者他们的凭据。What one finds in fact is a rendering of the Bible in terms of the theology of the organization.什么是一个事实认定的圣经在神学方面的组织呈现。

Probably the best introduction to the theology of the Jehovah's Witnesses is their book Let God Be True.也许是最好的地介绍了耶和华见证会的神学是他们的书,让神是真实的。In addition to their rejection of the Christian doctrine of the Trinity they teach a number of distinct doctrines.除了他们对基督教教义的三位一体拒绝他们独特的教义教数。In their view the atonement is a ransom paid to the God Jehovah by Jesus Christ which removes the effects of Adam's sin, laying the foundation for a new righteousness and enabling men to save themselves by their good works.他们认为,赎罪是耶稣基督的支付消除了亚当的罪的影响,奠定了新的正义的基础和有利的男子,以节省他们的好作品本身的上帝耶和华赎金。 They teach that Jesus was resurrected a divine spirit after offering this ransom to God.他们教导说,耶稣复活后提供这种赎金神,神的精神。At death humans either sleep until the resurrection or, if they are evil, suffer annihilation.在死亡之前,人类无论是睡眠或复活,如果他们是邪恶的,遭受毁灭。

In their view Jesus Christ returned to earth spiritually in 1914 and is now proceeding to overthrow Satan's worldly organization and to establish a theocratic millennial kingdom. This kingdom will arrive in the near future with the battle of Armageddon. 他们认为耶稣基督精神上返回地球在1914年,现已着手推翻撒旦的世俗组织,并建立一个神权政治的千年王国。这个王国将在世界末日的到来不久的未来战场的。 After Armageddon true believers will be resurrected to a life on earth while a select group of 144,000 will rule in heaven with Christ.后世界末日真正的信徒将复活到地球上的生命而选择的144,000统治集团将在与基督的天堂。 In addition to holding these doctrines Jehovah's Witnesses reject a professional ministry and, until recently, the idea of church buildings.除了举办这些学说耶和华见证人拒绝专业部,直到最近,在教堂建筑的想法。They are pacifists and call upon their members to have nothing to do with worldly politics.他们是和平主义者,并呼吁其成员呼吁无关,与世俗的政治。

Today there are over three million Witnesses worldwide.今天,有超过三百万证人全世界。They have an extensive missionary network throughout the world and operate in most countries.他们有一个传教士在世界各地广泛的网络和经营大多数国家。In some places, particularly in Africa, the Witnesses have suffered severe persecution.在一些地方,特别是在非洲,证人遭受严重迫害。In others, especially North America, they are rapidly coming to resemble a religious denomination.在其他国家,特别是北美,他们正在迅速到来类似于一个宗教派别。

I Hexham余赫克瑟姆
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
WR Martin and N Klawn, Jehovah of the Watch Tower; T Dencher, The Watch Tower versus the Bible; J Penton, The End Delayed; A Hoekema, The Four Major Cults.西铁马丁和N Klawn,耶和华的监视塔和t Dencher,与圣经的观赏塔; Ĵ,结束延迟彭顿,一个赫克玛,四大邪教。


Charles Taze Russell查尔斯Taze罗素

General Information一般资料

Charles Taze Russell, b.查尔斯Taze罗素湾Pittsburgh, Pa., Feb. 16, 1852, d.匹兹堡,宾夕法尼亚州,1852年2月16日,四Oct. 31, 1916, called Pastor Russell, was the first president of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania, the legal agency of Jehovah's Witnesses. 1916年10月31日,被称为牧师罗素,是该守望台圣经书社宾夕法尼亚,耶和华见证法律机构第一任总统。In 1870, at the age of 18, Russell began a systematic study of the Bible with a small group of associates. 1870年,在18岁以下,罗素开始与一小群联营公司的圣经系统的研究。Becoming convinced of the imminence of Christ's millennial reign, he began to preach and spread his teachings, and in 1879 he founded the Watch Tower journal.基督的千年统治成为迫切相信,他开始公开传教和传播他的教义,并于1879年,他创办了观赏塔杂志。In 1884 he established the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, of which he was president until his death. 1884年他成立了守望塔圣经书社,而他是总统,直到他去世。Notable among Russell's writings is a 6 volume collection, Millennial Dawn (1886 - 1904).在罗素的著作值得注意的是6卷集,千年曙光(1886 - 1904)。

Frederick W Franz弗雷德里克W弗兰兹


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