Jesuits, Society of Jesus耶稣会

General Information一般资料

The Society of Jesus, the largest Roman Catholic religious order, whose members are called Jesuits, was founded by Saint Ignatius Loyola. Noted for its discipline, based on the Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius, and for its lengthy training period of as much as 15 years, the society is governed by a general who lives in Rome. 耶稣会的,最大的罗马天主教的宗教秩序,其成员被称为耶稣,是由圣依纳爵罗耀拉。伊格指出,为运动训练纪律,精神的基础上,并为其15年的漫长培训期间尽可能多,社会是由一个一般谁在罗马的生活。 Jesuits do not wear a special habit and are not subject to local ecclesiastical authority.耶稣会不穿特殊的习惯,不符合当地教会的权威。Professed members are bound by a vow of obedience to the pope.自称成员的约束,服从教宗的誓言。

The Jesuits began as a group of seven men who as students in Paris took (1534) vows of poverty and chastity.耶稣会开始是一个由七名男子谁在巴黎的学生参加(1534)贫穷和贞节的誓言组。Ordained as priests, they placed themselves at the disposal of the pope, Paul III, who gave formal approval to the society in 1540.出家为牧师,他们把在教皇保罗三,谁在1540年正式批准了向社会出售自己。Ignatius became (1541) its first general.伊格成为(1541)第一次一般。The order grew so rapidly that at Ignatius's death (1556) the little band had expanded to nearly a thousand persons.该命令的增长如此之快,在伊格的死亡(1556年)的小乐队已经扩大到近一千人。

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From the first, the Jesuits concentrated on foreign missions, education, and scholarship.从第一,耶稣会集中在外国使团,教育和奖学金。Saint Francis Xavier, one of the original seven, was the first Jesuit to open the East to missionaries; Matteo Ricci and others followed at the court of China.圣芳济,原七分之一,是第一个耶稣会打开东传教士,利玛窦和在中国法庭遵循别人。Jesuits established missions throughout Latin America and founded a model commune for Paraguayan Indians.耶稣会建立了遍布拉美使团和印第安人建立了一个模型,为巴拉圭公社。A remarkable account of the Jesuit mission to North America can be found in the Jesuit Relations (1632 - 73).阿的耶稣会使命北美卓越帐户可以发现,在耶稣会的关系(1632 - 73)。

When the Counter Reformation was launched, the Jesuit order was its driving force.当计数器改革展开后,耶稣会是它的动力。During the Council of Trent, several Jesuits, notably Diego Lainez, served as theologians.在安理会的遄达,一些耶稣会士,尤其是迭戈科莱内斯,作为神学家担任。The English mission, a bold attempt to reclaim England for Catholicism during the reign (1558 - 1603) of Elizabeth I, was led by Edmund Campion and included the poet Robert Southwell.英语的使命,大胆尝试回收为天主教在英国统治时期(1558至1603年),伊丽莎白一世的,由Edmund坎皮恩为首,并包括诗人罗伯特绍斯韦尔。 Jesuits established schools in almost every important European city and were leaders in education until the 18th century.耶稣会成立于几乎所有重要的欧洲城市的学校,并直到18世纪教育的领导者。Members of the society taught the sons of leading families and served as spiritual advisors to kings.社会成员的领导讲授家庭的儿子和精神上的顾问服务为王。

Because of the extent of the Jesuits' influence, powerful forces opposed them - forces composed of such unlikely allies as Blaise Pascal and the Jansenists, Voltaire, the Bourbon monarchs of France and Spain, and certain cardinals at the Vatican.由于耶稣会的影响程度,强大的力量反对他们 - 为布莱斯帕斯卡和詹森主义者,伏尔泰,法国和西班牙的波旁王朝君主,和某些枢机主教在梵蒂冈这样不可能的盟友组成的部队。These forces were instrumental in bringing about the suppression of the society (1773) by Pope Clement XIV.这些部队在对乐器的教皇克莱门特十四社会(1773年)镇压使。Among the members of the order at that time was John Carroll, who later became the first Roman Catholic bishop in the United States.在这之间的时间顺序的成员是约翰卡罗尔,谁后来成为第一位罗马天主教在美国的主教。

. The Jesuit order was reestablished (1814) by Pope Pius VII and resumed its work.耶稣会秩序重建(1814年)由教皇庇护七世和恢复工作。 Jesuit schools and universities, such as Georgetown, Fordham, and Saint Louis in the United States, were opened. In Europe, Jesuit traditions of learning were continued by the Bollandists, who were charged with compiling the lives of the saints; the Jesuits also published several periodicals and journals.耶稣会学校和大学的国家,如乔治敦大学,福德姆,并在美国圣路易斯,也了。 在欧洲传统的,耶稣会继续学习的人所bollandists,谁是生命的负责编制圣人耶稣会还出版几个期刊和杂志。Members of the order were in the forefront of many social and theological movements; several others undertook scientific pursuits, such as the study of earthquakes.该命令的成员在许多社会和神学运动的前列;几个人进行了科学的追求,如地震的研究。Among noted modern Jesuits are the poet Gerard Manley Hopkins, the paleontologist Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, John LaFarge (1880 - 1963), who worked for interracial justice, and the theologian John Courtney Murray.其中指出耶稣是现代诗人杰拉德曼利霍普金斯,皮埃尔古生物学家德日进,约翰拉法基(1880至1963年),谁对于异族司法工作,和神学家约翰考特尼默里。

Cyprian Davis塞浦路斯戴维斯

Bibliography 参考书目
W Bangert, A History of the Society of Jesus (1986); M Barthel, The Jesuits (1984); C Hollis, The Jesuits (1968).W班格特,一个耶稣会(1986年)历史〔M巴特尔,耶稣会士(1984); ç霍利斯,耶稣会士(1968年)。

Jesuits - The Society of Jesus耶稣会士 - 耶稣会

Advanced Information先进的信息

The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) are a monastic order founded by Ignatius of Loyola and approved as a Roman Catholic religious order in 1540.耶稣会(耶稣)是一所创立的寺院秩序和洛约拉伊格作为一个罗马天主教于1540年批准的宗教秩序。The Jesuits are classified as mendicant clerks regular.耶稣会士被列为定期乞讨办事员。Unlike most earlier orders there is no parallel branch for women.不像以前的大多数订单是没有妇女并行分支。

In 1534 Loyola and six companions, all students of theology at the University of Paris, took vows of poverty and chastity and promised to devote their lives to missionary work in Palestine if that were possible.在1534洛约拉和六个同伴,在巴黎大学的所有的神学学生,把贫穷和贞节的誓言和承诺投入自己的生命在巴勒斯坦传教工作,如果说是可能的。 Since war between Venice and the Ottoman Empire kept them from Palestine, they began preaching, teaching catechism, and doing various charitable works in the cities of northern Italy.以后,双方威尼斯和奥斯曼帝国战争不断从巴勒斯坦他们,他们开始说教,教学问答,并做在意大利北部城市的各种慈善工作。 Gradually they gathered new recruits, and since they wished to give permanent structure to their way of life, they sought approval from Pope Paul III as a religious order.渐渐地,他们聚集的新聘人员,由于他们想给常设机构,以自己的生活方式,他们向教宗保禄三世批准作为一个宗教秩序。Initially membership was restricted to sixty professed priests, but this was soon lifted, and the popes conferred many privileges on the new order and relied on it for many special tasks, including diplomatic missions to Ireland, Sweden, and Russia.最初的成员​​仅限于六十自称神父,但这种情况很快解除,和教皇赋予了许多新秩序的特权,向它依靠许多特殊任务,包括爱尔兰,瑞典和俄罗斯的外交任务。 Jesuit - professed fathers take a special vow of obedience to the pope.耶稣会 - 自称父亲从一个特殊的服从教宗的誓言。

Loyola was elected the first superior general in 1540 and spent his remaining years directing the new order and writing its Constitutions.罗耀拉于1540年被选为第一优于一般,度过晚年指导写作的新秩序和宪法。The new order had several distinctive features.新订单有几个鲜明的特点。The superior general is elected for life and appoints all subordinate superiors, hence the Jesuits are highly centralized.上级一般是当选为生命,并任命所有下属的上司,因此耶稣是高度集中。Obedience is especially stressed.服从是特别强调。There is no distinctive religious habit or uniform, such as earlier orders had, no special fasts or bodily austerities, no common singing of the divine office.没有独特的宗教习惯或制服,如较早接到的订单,没有特殊的斋戒或身体苦行,没有共同的神圣办公室唱歌。Loyola demanded that recruits be carefully selected and trained and that those who did not measure up be dismissed.洛约拉要求新兵经过精心挑选和训练,而那些谁没有达到被开除。Later the training normally lasted fifteen years.后来,培训通常历时十五年。Two years at the beginning (novitiate) and a year at the end of the training (tertianship) were devoted to the spiritual development of the members in contrast to a one year novitiate in the old orders.两个在开始(见习期),并在培训结束一年年(tertianship)专门向相反的成员的精神发展中的一个旧订单一年见习期。

Since the Jesuits were to be active in working with outsiders, monastic discipline had to be interiorized by vigorous training.由于耶稣会士将在与外界的工作积极,寺院纪律必须由有力的培训内化。 Loyola's Spiritual Exercises shaped the Jesuits' interior life, and one hour's private meditation daily has been mandatory for most of the order's history. Loyola的神操塑造了耶稣会内心生活,和一个小时的私人冥想每天已经为订单的历史上最具有强制性。The Jesuits were in the forefront in spreading systematic meditation, a characteristic of Counter Reformation piety.而耶稣会士在传播中名列前茅系统冥想,一个虔诚的反宗教改革的特点。For the Jesuit, prayer and activity were to be mutually reinforcing.对于耶稣会,祈祷和活性是相辅相成的。Popularization of the Spiritual Exercises in the retreat movement has been a major contemporary Jesuit apostolate; as many as five million Catholics annually make retreats.大众化的神操运动中的撤退已经成为当代重大耶稣的使徒;多达五百万天主教徒每年使务虚会。

Loyola stressed quality rather than quantity, but the Society of Jesus grew rapidly.洛约拉强调质量而不是数量,而是耶稣会迅速增长。There were about a thousand Jesuits by the founder's death in 1556, mainly in Spain, Italy, and Portugal, but also in France, Germany, and Belgium, as well as missionaries in India, Africa, and Latin America.大约有一千由创始人去世耶稣会在1556年,主要在西班牙,意大利和葡萄牙,而且在法国,德国和比利时,以及在印度,非洲和拉丁美洲的传教士。 By 1626 there were 15,544 Jesuits.到1626年有15,544耶稣会士。Growth was steady but somewhat slower until 1773 when Clement XIV, under pressure from the Bourbon monarchs of France, Spain, and Naples, suppressed the society.增长稳定,但有些慢,直到1773年克莱门特十四时,受到来自法国,西班牙和那不勒斯的波旁王朝君主的压力,抑制了社会。 A few Jesuit houses survived in Prussia and Russia where the monarchs refused to promulgate the suppression.一些幸存下来的房子耶稣会在普鲁士和俄罗斯拒绝那里的君主颁布的抑制。In 1814 Pius VII restored the Jesuits worldwide.1814年恢复了庇护七耶稣全世界。Despite being exiled from most European Catholic countries at one time or another, the Jesuits grew steadily in numbers during the next hundred years and peaked at 36,038 in 1964.尽管被大多数欧洲天主教国家流亡在同一时间或其他,耶稣会士在数量稳步增长,在未来百年,在1964年达到高峰时36038。 Membership declined after the Second Vatican Council, reaching 27,027 in 1981 with roughly one third in Europe, one third in the United States and Canada, and one third in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.会员拒绝后,第二次梵蒂冈会议,达到了一个在欧洲,大约有三分之一在1981年27027,一个在美国和加拿大的三分之一,一个在亚洲,非洲和拉丁美洲的三分之一。

Education quickly became the largest single Jesuit apostolate.教育迅速成为最大的单一耶稣使徒。Loyola supervised the founding of a dozen colleges in the order's first decade.洛约拉监督了十几个院校订单的第一个十年成立。 By 1626 the Jesuits directed five hundred colleges or seminaries, a number which nearly doubled by the mideighteenth century.由1626年的耶稣会学院或定向五百神学院,一个数字,由mideighteenth世纪近一倍。Most of the Jesuit colleges approximated modern prep schools, but some were full fledged universities.大多数的耶稣会学院近似现代的预备学校,但有些人完全成熟的大学。During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries a high percentage of educated Catholic males, particularly the nobility, were graduates of these schools.在十七和十八世纪天主教一个受过教育的男性,尤其是贵族,高比例是这些学校的毕业生。The basic charter of these schools was the Ratio Studiorum (the Plan of Studies) of 1599, which tried to purify and simplify Renaissance humanism.这些学校的基本宪章是比Studiorum(即研究计划)1599年,原想是文艺复兴时期的人文主义净化和简化。 Classical languages and literatures and religion provided the core curriculum with Aristotelian philosophy for advanced students.古典语言和文学,宗教提供了先进的学生亚里士多德哲学的核心课程。Attendance was compulsory and a planned curriculum carried students forward step by step in rod was largely replaced by friendly rivalry as a stimulus to study.出席是强制性的和学生进行有计划的课程有杆向前一步一步,主要是通过友好的竞争取代了刺激学习。

The Jesuit schools used drama, often with lush pageantry, to inculcate moral and religious values.耶稣会学校的戏剧,往往生长着茂盛的盛况,灌输道德和宗教价值观。Education remains a major Jesuit apostolate today; the Jesuits run some four thousand schools worldwide, mainly in mission countries, as well as eighteen American universities.教育仍然是一个重大耶稣使徒今天耶稣会运行一些全球四千学校,主要任务的国家,以及十八个美国大学之一。 The Jesuits adopted Thomas Aquinas as their official theologian but freely modified his system, as in the theology of Francisco Suarez (1548 - 1617).耶稣会通过他们的神学家托马斯阿奎那,但官方任意修改自己的系统,如在旧金山苏亚雷斯神学(1548年至1617年)。 Generally they stressed human action in the process of salvation in contrast to the Dominicans, who put more emphasis on the primacy of grace.一般人相反,他们强调在拯救过程中采取行动的多米尼加人,谁放在首要地位更加强调的宽限期。 Blaise Pascal attacked their casuistry as laxist.帕斯卡攻击他们作为laxist诡辩。The Jesuits overwhelmingly rejected the principle that the end justifies the means, which was often attributed to them.耶稣会以压倒多数否决的原则,目的正当的手段,这通常归因于他们。Prominent among recent Jesuit theologians are Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Karl Rahner, and Bernard Lonergan.在最近的耶稣会神学家,突出的是皮埃尔德日进,卡尔拉内,和郎尼根。The Jesuits presently edit some one thousand periodicals, including NT Abstracts, Theology Digest, and Theological Studies.耶稣会编辑一些千目前包括NT文摘,文摘神学和神学研究期刊。

Traditionally the Jesuits have reserved their highest regard for missionary work.传统上,耶稣曾经保留其传教工作致以崇高的敬意。Francis Xavier (1506 - 52), the first and greatest Jesuit missionary, laid the basis for Jesuit activity in India, Indonesia, and Japan.弗朗西斯泽维尔(1506 - 52),第一个和最伟大的耶稣会传教士,奠定了耶稣会在印度,印度尼西亚,日本活动的基础。The Japanese mission particularly flourished until it was wiped out by savage persecution in the early seventeenth century.日本代表团特别兴旺,直到它被摧毁了野蛮的迫害了在17世纪初的世纪。In China Matteo Ricci (1552 - 1610) founded the Jesuit mission where he and his successors won the protection of the Ming emperors by introducing Western scientific and technical knowledge to court circles at Peking.利玛窦在中国(1652至10年)创立了耶稣会的使命,他和他的继任者赢得了在北京通过引进西方的科学和技术知识,法院学界关于明代皇帝的保护。 They pioneered the adaptation of the gospel to Chinese traditions and thought forms, although in this many Catholic critics felt that they had gone too far.他们开创了对中华传统和思想形态福音适应,虽然在这许多天主教评论家认为,他们已经走得太远。Their writings introduced China to the West.他们的著作中介绍了中国向西方。

The goal of the Peking mission was the conversion of the emperor, but the Jesuits never found their Chinese Constantine.京剧团的目标是皇帝的转换,但从未发现他们中耶稣康斯坦丁。Ricci's idea of adapting Christianity to local culture was applied to India by Robert De Nobili (1577 - 1658).利玛窦的基督教思想适应当地文化是适用于印度的罗伯特德诺比利(1577年至1658年)。Jesuits such as Jacques Marquette and Issac Jogues worked among the Indians of North America.如雅克马凯特和伊萨克Jogues耶稣会士曾在北美的印第安人。Eusebio Kino (1644 - 1711) established a string of mission stations which introduced the Indians of northern Mexico and the present southwestern United States to advanced agriculture.尤西比奥基诺(1644 - 1711)建立了任务车站介绍了墨西哥北部和美国西南部目前,以先进的农业印第安人字符串。The Jesuits Christianized and civilized the Indians of Paraguay and Brazil in organized towns (reductions), which flourished for more than a century until the Jesuits were suppressed.耶稣会士在有组织的基督教和文明镇(减少),这对于一个多世纪蓬勃发展,直到耶稣被压制了巴拉圭和巴西的印第安人。

Although the Jesuits were not founded to combat Protestantism, they were quickly drawn into the struggle.虽然耶稣会士新教不成立打击,他们很快就被卷入了斗争。Many Jesuits published controversial works, for instance, Peter Canisius and Robert Bellarmine, both of whom also wrote catechisms that enjoyed wide use for three centuries.例如,许多有争议的耶稣会发表作品,彼得卡尼修斯和罗伯特贝拉,他们两人也说要理问答的享受了三个世纪广泛使用。 Other Jesuits influenced policy as court preachers or as confessors to the emperor; the kings of France, Spain, and Poland; and the dukes of Bavaria.其他耶稣会传教士的影响作为法院或作为皇帝的confessors政策的法国,西班牙和波兰的国王,以及巴伐利亚公爵。 Well over a thousand Jesuits died as martyrs both in Europe and in the missions.远超过一千元耶稣死于无论是在欧洲和任务烈士。 The Roman Catholic Church has canonized thirty eight Jesuits, including twenty two martyrs.罗马天主教会册封三八包括二十二烈士耶稣会士。

JP Donnelly太平绅士唐纳利
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
J Brodrick, The Origins of the Jesuits; W Bangert, A History of the Society of Jesus; D Mitchell, The Jesuits; J de Guibert, The Jesuits: Their Spiritual Doctrine and Practice.Ĵ布罗德里克,耶稣会士的起源; W班格特,一个耶稣会史; ð米切尔,耶稣会士; Ĵ德吉伯特,耶稣会士:理论和实践的精神。


General Information一般资料

The Bollandists are a group of Belgian Jesuits who publish the Acta Sanctorum, a critical edition of the lives of the saints.该bollandists比利时耶稣会士是谁发布学报Sanctorum,即对圣人们的生命关键版组。Named after their first editor, Jean Bolland (1596-1665), they also publish a quarterly review, the Analecta Bollandiana.命名后的第一个编辑器,让博兰(1596年至1665年),他们也出版一季度检讨后,Analecta Bollandiana。

Society of Jesus耶稣会

Additional Information附加信息

Currently, there are around 16,500 Jesuit Priests worldwide, and about 3,000 in the United States.目前,大约有16,500耶稣会士世界各地,在美国大约3000人。This is around half of their numbers in the 1960s.这是围绕着他们的人数在20世纪60年代的一半。

The Society of Jesus耶稣会

Catholic Information天主教新闻

(Company of Jesus, Jesuits)(公司的耶稣,耶稣)

See also DISTINGUISHED JESUITS, JESUIT APOLOGETIC, EARLY JESUIT GENERALS, and four articles on the history of the Society: PRE-1750, 1750-1773, 1773-1814, and 1814-1912.另见杰出耶稣会士,耶稣会道歉,早期耶稣会将军和四份关于社会历史的文章:预- 1750,一七五〇年至1773年,1773年至1814年,和1814年至1912年。

The Society of Jesus is a religious order founded by Saint Ignatius Loyola.耶稣会是一个宗教秩序的圣依纳爵罗耀拉成立。Designated by him "The Company of Jesus" to indicate its true leader and its soldier spirit, the title was Latinized into "Societas Jesu" in the Bull of Paul III approving its formation and the first formula of its Institute ("Regimini militantis ecclesia", 27 Sept., 1540).他说:“耶稣的公司”指定要显示其真正的领导者和士兵的精神,是拉丁化的标题为“Societas耶稣”保罗的审批其形成三斗牛和它的第一个公式研究所(“Regimini militantis教会” ,1540年9月27日)。The term "Jesuit" (of fifteenth-century origin, meaning one who used too frequently or appropriated the name of Jesus), was first applied to the society in reproach (1544-52), and was never employed by its founder, though members and friends of the society in time accepted the name in its good sense.所谓“耶稣”(第十五次世纪的起源,即一个谁使用过于频繁或侵占耶稣的名字),最早是应用在责备社会(1544年至1552年),和它的创始人从来没有得到聘用,虽然议员在时间和社会的朋友接受了它的良好意识的名字。 The Society ranks among religious institutes as a mendicant order of clerks regular, that is, a body of priests organized for apostolic work, following a religious rule, and relying on alms for their support [Bulls of Pius V, "Dum indefessae", 7 July, 1571; Gregory XIII, "Ascendente Domino", 25 May, 1585].作为一间普通的文员乞讨的订单,就是一个有组织的使徒工作的祭司机构,宗教统治之后,宗教机构的社会队伍,依靠施舍的支持[公牛队的比约五,“道姆indefessae”,7七月,1571年,格雷戈里十三,“Ascendente多米诺”,1585年5月25日]。

As has been explained under the title "Ignatius Loyola", the founder began his self-reform, and the enlistment of followers, entirely prepossessed with the idea of the imitation of Christ, and without any plan for a religious order or purpose of attending to the needs of the days.正如人们,题目是“伊格洛约拉解释说:”公司的创始人开始了他的自我改革和追随者,完全符合基督的模仿思想好感入伍,没有任何计划,并为宗教秩序或抓的目的天的需求。 Unexpectedly prevented from carrying out this idea, he offered his services and those of this followers to the pope, "Christ upon Earth", who at once employed him in such works as were most pressing at the moment.没想到这个主意,从贯彻预防,他提出了他的服务和本追随者那些教宗,“基督在地球上”,谁在这些工程一旦受聘于他,因为目前最迫切的。 It was only after this and just before the first companions broke to go at the pope's command to various countries, that the resolution to found an order was taken, and that Ignatius was commissioned to draw up Constitutions.只是在这一点,只是爆发前的第一同伴走在教皇的命令到各国,认为找到了一个决议,命令采取的,这是伊格委托起草宪法。 This he did slowly and methodically; first introducing rules and customs and seeing how they worked.这一点,他也慢慢地,有条不紊;首先介绍规则和习惯,看他们如何工作。He did not codify them for the first six years.他没有编撰首六年他们。Then three years were given to formulating laws the wisdom of which had been proven by experiment.然后,三年分别给予法律的制定,其中已通过实验证明智慧。In the last six years of the Saint's life the Constitutions so composed were finally revised and put into practice everywhere.在过去的六圣的生命年的宪法修正等组成,并终于付诸实施随处可见。This sequence of events explains at once how the society, though devoted to the following of Christ, as though there were nothing else in the world to care for, is also excellently adapted to the needs of the day.这一系列事件说明了如何在一次社会,虽然致力于基督以下,仿佛在世界上有照顾别的,也很好地适应当今的需要。It began to attend to them before it began to legislate; and its legislation was the codification of those measures which had been proved by experience to be apt to preserve its preliminary religious principle among men actually devoted to the requirements of the Church in days not unlike our own.它开始为他们诊治才开始立法,而且它的立法是对那些已被经验证明是容易维护其实际投入之间的初步天教会的要求不象男人编纂宗教原则措施我们自己的。

The Society was not founded with the avowed intention of opposing Protestantism.该协会是不成立的反新教宣称的意图。Neither the papal letters of approbation nor the Constitutions of the order mention this as the object of the new foundation.既不赞许教皇的信件,也没有提到宪法的命令,作为新的基础对象的。When Ignatius began to devote himself to the service of the Church, he had probably not even heard of the names of the Protestant Reformers.当伊格开始投身教会服务,他可能连的新教改革者的名字听到。His early plan was rather the conversion of Mohammedans, an idea which, a few decades after the final triumph of the Christians over the Moors in Spain, must have strongly appealed to the chivalrous Spaniards.他早期的计划是相当的伊斯兰教,一其中,后在西班牙的基督徒在摩尔人的最后胜利了几十年必须有强烈呼吁侠义西班牙人观念的转换。

The name "Societas Jesu" had been born by a military order approved and recommended by Pius II in 1450, the purpose of which was to fight against the Turks and aid in spreading the Christian faith.命名为“Societas耶稣”已被批准并在1450年比约二,推荐一个军令状出生,其目的是对土耳其人和援助争取在传播基督教的信仰。 The early Jesuits were sent by Ignatius first to pagan lands or to Catholic countries; to Protestant countries only at the special request of the pope and to Germany, the cradle-land of the Reformation, at the urgent solicitation of the imperial ambassador.早期耶稣会士先派出伊格土地或异教徒的天主教国家;在新教国家只在特殊要求的教皇和德国,从摇篮土地的改革,在帝国大使紧急请求。 From the very beginning the missionary labours of the Jesuits among the pagans of India, Japan, China, Canada, Central and South America were as important as their activity in Christian countries.从一开始在印度,日本,中国,加拿大,中美洲和南美洲的异教徒传教的耶稣会像他们的辛勤劳动是在基督教国家重要活动。 As the object of the society was the propagation and strengthening of the Catholic faith everywhere, the Jesuits naturally endeavored to counteract the spread of Protestantism.随着社会的目的是传播和加强世界各地的天主教信仰,耶稣会自然竭力抵制新教的传播。They became the main instruments of the Counter-Reformation; the re-conquest of southern and western Germany and Austria for the Church, and the preservation of the Catholic faith in France and other countries were due chiefly to their exertions.他们成为反宗教改革的主要手段;重新南部和西部的德国和奥地利为教会征服,以及在法国和其他国家的天主教信仰,主要是由于保存他们的卖力。


The official publication which constitutes all the regulations of the Society, its codex legum, is entitled "Institutum Societas Jesu" of which the latest edition was issued at Rome and Florence 1869-91 (for full biography see Sommervogel, V, 75-115; IX, 609-611; for commentators see X, 705-710).官方刊物,构成所有的社会,其食品法典委员会专攻法规,题为“Institutum Societas耶稣”,其中最新的版本是在罗马和佛罗伦萨发出1869至91年(全传记见Sommervogel,五,75-115;九,609-611;为评论员参阅X,705-710)。 The Institute contains:该研究所包含:

(1) The special Bulls and other pontifical documents approving the Society and canonically determining or regulating its various works, and its ecclesiastical standing and relations.(1)特殊公牛和其他社会和canonically批准确定或调整其各项工作,宗座文件,其宗教地位和关系。

Besides those already mentioned, other important Bulls are those of: Paul III, "Injunctum nobis", 14 March, 1543; Julius III, "Exposcit debitum", 21 July, 1550; Pius V, "Æquum reputamus", 17 January, 1565; Pius VII, "Solicitudo omnium ecclesiarum", 7 August, 1814, Leo XIII, "Dolemus inter alia", 13 July, 1880.除了已经提到的,其他重要的是那些公牛队:保罗三,“Injunctum nobis”,1543年3月14日,戏剧三,“Exposcit debitum”,1550年7月21日,比约五,“Æquum reputamus”,1565年1月17日;比约七,“Solicitudo Omnium公司ecclesiarum”,1814年8月7日,利奥十三世,“Dolemus除其他外”,1880年7月13日。(2) The Examen Generale and Constitutions.(2)Examen兴业和宪法。The Examen contains subjects to be explained to postulants and points on which they are to be examined.该Examen包含科目解释给postulants和点上,他们将被审查。The Constitutions are divided into ten parts:宪法分为十个部分:

admission; dismissal; novitiate; scholastic training; profession and other grades of membership; religious vows and other obligations as observed by the Society; missions and other ministries; congregations, local and general assemblies as a means of union and uniformity; the general and chief superiors; the preservation of the spirit of the Society.入场;解雇;见习,学术培训界及其他等级的成员,宗教和其他义务的誓言,由社会观察;特派团和其他部委;毕业典礼,并作为当地工会和统一的手段一般的集会,一般及行政上级;了对社会的精神保存。

Thus far in the Institute all is by Saint Ignatius, who has also added "Declarations" of various obscure parts.迄今在该研究所都是由圣依纳爵,谁也增加了各种模糊的部分“声明”。Then come:接着来:

Decrees of General Congregations, which have equal authority with the Constitutions;法令一般的毕业典礼,这与宪法平等权力;

Rules, general and particular, etc.;规则,一般和特殊等;

Formulae or order of business for the congregations;公式或经营秩序的教会;

Ordinations of generals, which have the same authority as rules;祝将军,它们具有相同的规则的权力;

Instructions, some for superiors, others for those engaged in the missions or other works of the Society;指令,上级一些,在任务或从事其他社会工作的人;

Industriae, or special counsels for superiors;Industriae,为上级或特殊的律师;

The Book of the Spiritual; and书的精神;及

the Ratio Studiorum, which have directive force only.倍率Studiorum,这只是有一定的指导力量。

The Constitutions as drafted by Ignatius and adopted finally by the first congregation of the Society, 1558, have never been altered.宪法的起草伊格并通过了该协会,1558年第一众最后,从来没有改变。Ill-informed writers have stated that Lainez, the second general, made considerable changes in the saint's conception of the order; but Ignatius' own later recension of the Constitutions, lately reproduced in facsimile (Rome, 1908), exactly agree with the text of the Constitutions now in force, and contains no word by Lainez, not even in the declarations, or glosses added to the text, which are all the work of Ignatius.消息不灵通的作家都表示,科莱内斯第二次大会,在圣人的概念的秩序相当大的变化,但伊格自己的宪法后校订本,最近在传真(罗马,1908年)转载,正是同意的文本现已生效的宪法,并且不包含由科莱内斯字,甚至在发表的声明,或掩盖添加到文本,这是所有的伊格工作。 The text in use in the Society is a Latin version prepared under the direction of the third congregation, and subjected to a minute comparison with the Spanish original preserved in the Society's archives, during the fourth congregation (1581).在社会使用中的文字是拉丁文版本下的第三众方向准备,并受到一分钟的比较与西班牙原保存在该协会的档案,在第四众(1581)。

These Constitutions were written after long deliberation between Ignatius and his companions in the founding of the Society, as at first it seemed to them that they might continue their work without the aid of a special Rule.这些宪法后写成伊格和他的同伴之间的长期酝酿在协会成立以来,截至首先它似乎他们,他们可能会继续没有一个特别规则帮助他们的工作。 They were the fruit of long experience and of serious meditation and prayer.他们是长期的经验和严重的冥想和祈祷的果实。Throughout they are inspired by an exalted spirit of charity and zeal for souls.纵观他们灵感来自一种慈善的热情和崇高的精神灵魂。

They contain nothing unreasonable.它们仅仅包含不合理的。To appreciate them, however, requires a knowledge of canon law applied to monastic life and also of their history in the light of the times for which they were framed.为了感谢他们,但是,需要应用在他们被诬陷为倍光寺院的生活,也教会法,他们的历史知识。Usually those who find fault with them either have never read them or else have misinterpreted them.通常是那些谁找到故障或者与他们从来没有读过他们,否则他们有误解。Monod, for instance, in his introduction to Böhmer's essay on the Jesuits ("Les jesuites", Paris, 1910, p. 13, 14) recalls how Michelet mistranslated the words of the Constitutions, p.莫诺,例如在介绍博默对耶稣会士的文章,(“莱斯jesuites”,巴黎,1910年,第13页,14)回忆米什莱错译的章程,P的话 VI, c.六角5, obligationem ad peccatum, and made it appear that they require obedience even to the commission of sin, as if the text were obligatio ad peccandum, where the obvious meaning and purpose of the text is precisely to show that the transgression of the rules is not in itself sinful. 5,obligationem广告peccatum,并使其看来,他们需要服从甚至罪恶的佣金,如果文本是作为广告peccandum为己任,其中明显的意义和文本的目的就是要表明,该规则的罪过本身并不是罪恶。 Monod enumerates such men as Arnauld, Wolf, Lange, Ranke in the first edition of his "History", Hausser and Droysen, Philippson and Charbonnel, as having repeated the same error, although it has been refuted frequently since 1824, particularly by Gieseler, and corrected by Ranke in his second edition.莫诺列举了他的“史”第一版,如阿尔诺,狼,兰芝,兰克男子,豪塞尔和德罗伊森,Philippson先生和Charbonnel,为具有重复同样的错误,尽管它已经驳斥了1824年以来特别是频繁基氏,与修正兰克在他的第二版。 Whenever the Constitutions enjoin what is already a serious moral obligation, or superiors, by virtue of their authority, impose a grave obligation, transgression is sinful; but this is true of such transgressions not only in the society but out of it.每当宪法责成什么已经是一个严重的道德义务,或由于其上级机关的规定,处以严重的义务,罪过罪过,但这样的罪过,这是真实的,不仅在社会,但在它外面。 Moreover such commands are rarely given by the superiors and only when the good of the individual member or the common good imperatively demands it.而且这样的命令是上级给予的很少,只有当个别成员或共同利益势在必行要求它好。 The rule throughout is one of love inspired by wisdom, and must be interpreted in the spirit of charity which animates it.整个规则是用智慧启发爱的人,必须在慈善精神,蓬勃生机解释。This is especially true of its provisions for the affectionate relations of members with superiors and with one another, by the manifestation of conscience, more or less practiced in every religious order, and by mutual correction when this may be necessary.这是特别为成员的深情与上级的关系,彼此真实的规定,由良心或多或少表现在每一个宗教秩序的实践,并通过相互校正,当这可能是必要的。 It also applies to the methods employed to ascertain the qualification of members for various offices or ministries.它也适用于聘用,以确定对各办事处或各部委的成员资格的方法。

The chief authorityis vested in the general congregation, which elects the general, and could, for certain grave causes, depose him.行政权力属于一般众,其中一般选举,并可能为某些严重的原因,推翻他。This body could also (although there has never yet been an occasion for so doing) add new Constitutions and abrogate old ones.这个机构还可以(虽然从未有没有被这样的场合)添加新宪法,废除旧的。Usually this congregation is convened on the occasion of the death of a general, in order to elect a successor, and to make provisions for the government and welfare of the Society.通常,这个教会是召开了一个总的死亡之际,以选出一位继任者,并为政府和社会福利的规定。It may also be called at other times for grave reasons.它也可能被要求一其他时间严重的原因。It consists of the general, when alive, and his assistants, the provincials, and two deputies from each province or territorial division of the society elected by the superiors and older professed members.它的一般,在生前,他的助手,外省人,两个从每个省或由上级和旧社会的民选代表组成宣称的领土划分的成员。

Thus authority in the Society eventually rests on a democratic basis.因此,在社会的权威,最终建立在一个民主的基础。But as there is no definite time for calling the general congregation - which in fact rarely occurs except to elect a new general - the exercise of authority is usually in the hands of the general, in whom is vested the fullness of administrative power, and of spiritual authority.不过,由于没有明确的要求一般聚集时间 - 这在实际上极少发生,除了选举新干事 - 行使职权通常是在广大的手中,他心里是行政权力赋予的丰满,和精神权威。He can do anything within the scope of the Constitutions, and can even dispense with them for good causes, though he cannot change them.他可以做在宪法范围内的任何东西,甚至可以免除他们为公益事业,虽然他不能改变的。He resides at Rome, and has a council of assistants, five in number at present, one each for Italy, France, Spain, and the countries of Spanish origin, one for Germany, Austria, Poland, Belgium, Hungary, Holland, and one for English-speaking countries - England, Ireland, United States, Canada, and British colonies (except India).他居住在罗马,并拥有一批助手会,目前排名第五,一个是意大利,法国,西班牙各一位,西班牙原籍国,一个是德国,奥地利,波兰,比利时,匈牙利,荷兰和一英语为母语的国家 - 英国,爱尔兰,美国,加拿大,以及(除印度)英国殖民地。These usually hold office until the death of the general.这些通常坚持到了一般死亡的办公室。Should the general through age or infirmity become incapacitated for governing the Society, a vicar is chosen by a general congregation to act for him.如果通过一般的年龄或身体虚弱的治会成为残废,一个牧师选择由一般众对他采取行动。At his death he names one so to act until the congregation can meet and elect his successor.在他死后,他的名字之一如此行事,直至能满足众,并选举他的继任者。

Next to him in order of authority comes the provincials, the heads of the Society, whether for an entire country, as England, Ireland, Canada, Belgium, Mexico, or, where these units are too large or too small to make convenient provinces they may be subdivided or joined together.下一个以他的权力而来的外省人,无论是整个国家的公​​会负责人,如英国,爱尔兰,加拿大,比利时,墨西哥,或在这些单位过大或过小,使他们方便的省份可细分或结合在一起。 Thus there are now four provinces in the United States: California, Maryland-New York, Missouri, New Orleans.因此,现在有四个省在美国:加利福尼亚州,马里兰州,纽约,密苏里州,新奥尔良。In all there are now twenty-seven provinces.在所有目前有27个省。The provincial is appointed by the general, with ample administrative faculties.省级一般是委任的,有充分的行政学院。 He too has a council of "counselors" and an "admonitor" appointed by the general.他也有一个“辅导员”会和“admonitor”,由秘书长任命。Under the provincial come the local superiors.根据省当地的上司来了。Of these, rectors of colleges, provosts of professed houses, and masters of novices are appointed by the general; the rest by the provincial.其中,高校,房屋provosts的自称,而新手的主人是校长任命的报告;由省级休息。 To enable the general to make and control so many appointments, a free and ample correspondence is kept up, and everyone has the right of private communication with him.为了使广大制造和控制,使许多约会,自由和充足的信件保存起来,每个人都有与他的私人通信的权利。No superior, except the general, is named for life.无上级,除一般,被命名为生命。Usually provincials and rectors of colleges hold office for three years.通常provincials和高校校长办公室举行了三年。

Members of the society fall into four classes:成员分为四个阶级社会的下降:

Novices (whether received as lay brothers for the domestic and temporal services of the order, or as aspirants to the priesthood), who are trained in the spirit and discipline of the order, prior to making the religious vows.新手(不论收到的订单奠定了国内兄弟和时间服务,或作为神职人员有志),谁是在精神和纪律训练的命令之前,使宗教誓言。

At the end of two years the novices make simple vows, and, if aspirants to the priesthood, become formed scholastics; they remain in this grade as a rule from two to fifteen years, in which time they will have completed all their studies, pass (generally) a certain period in teaching, receive the priesthood, and go through a third year of novitiate or probation (the tertianship).在两年后,新手做简单的誓言,并且,如果有志于铎,成为形成院哲学家,他们留在这个档次,从两个规则至15年,届时他们将在完成所有学业,通过(一般)在教学一段时间,接受圣职,并经过一个见习期或试用期(即tertianship)第三个​​年头。 According to the degree of discipline and virtue, and to the talents they display (the latter are normally tested by the examination for the Degree of Doctor of Theology) they may now become formed coadjutors or professed members of the order.根据纪律和美德,程度,并显示他们的才能(后者通常用于测试由神学博士学位的考试),他们可能成为形成coadjutors或自称成员的命令。

Formed coadjutors, whether formed lay brothers or priests, make vows which, though not solemn, are perpetual on their part; while the Society, on its side binds itself to them, unless they should commit some grave offense.形成coadjutors,是否形成奠定兄弟或神职人员,使发誓,虽然不是庄严的,是对他们的一部分永久,而社会上,结合自身的一面给他们,除非他们应该犯一些严重罪行。 The professed are all priests, who make, besides the three usual solemn vows of religion, a fourth, of special obedience to the pope in the matter of missions, undertaking to go wherever they are sent, without even requiring money for the journey.所有的自称是牧师,谁做,除了三种常用庄严的宗教誓言,一个第四,在特别服从教宗的使命问题,承诺向他们要去的地方,甚至没有被送到需要的盘缠。 They also make certain additional, but non-essential, simple vows, in the matter of poverty, and the refusal of external honours.他们还作出一些补充,但非必要的,简单的誓言,在贫困问题,以及外部荣誉拒绝。

The professed of the four vows constitute the kernel of the Society; the other grades are regarded as preparatory, or as subsidiary to this.四个自称的誓言构成了社会的核心,其他等级被视为准备,或附属于这一点。The chief offices can be held by the professed alone; and though they may be dismissed, they must be received back, if willing to comply with the conditions that may be prescribed.行政办公室都可以自称持有的单独,虽然他们可能被开除,他们必须在收到后,如果愿意遵守规定的条件可能。Otherwise they enjoy no privileges, and many posts of importance, such as the government of colleges, may be held by members of other grades.否则,他们享受不到的特权,许多职位的重要性,如高校政府,可能是由其他职系举行。 For special reasons some are occasionally professed of three vows and they have certain but not all the privileges of the other professed.对于一些特殊原因偶尔自称三个誓言,他们有一定的,但并非所有自称的其他特权。

All live in community alike, as regards food, apparel, lodging, recreation, and all are alike bound by the rules of the Society.所有生活在社区一样,至于食品,服装,住宿,娱乐,都一样受到社会规则的约束。

There are no secret Jesuits.耶稣有什么秘密。Like other orders, the Society can, if it will, make its friends participators in its prayers, and in the merits of its good works; but it cannot make them members of the order, unless they live the life of the order.像其他的订单,该协会可以,如果会,在其祈祷它的朋友参与者,并在其良好的作品的优点,但它不能使他们的命令成员,除非他们生活的秩序的生活。 There is indeed the case of St. Francis Borgia, who made some of the probations in an unusual way, outside the houses of the order.确实存在的圣弗朗西斯波吉亚,谁在一个不寻常的方式对probations一些外部的命令,房子为例。But this was in order that he might be able to conclude certain business matters and other affairs of state, and thus appear the sooner in public as a Jesuit, not that he might remain permanently outside the common life.但是,这是为了使他可以结束某些业务事项及其他国家的事务,从而出现在公众面前为耶稣会越快,而不是他可能会留在外边永久共同生活。

Novitiate and Training见习和培训

Candidates for admission come not only from the colleges conducted by the Society, but from other schools.入学考生不仅来自该协会进行的院校,而是来自其他学校。Frequently post-graduate or professional students, and those who have already begun their career in business or professional life, or even in the priesthood, apply for admission.常见研究生或专业的学生,​​和那些谁已经开始了在商业或专业终身事业,甚至神职人员,申请入学。Usually the candidate applies in person to the provincial, and if he considers him a likely subject he refers him for examination to four of the more experienced fathers.通常适用于候选人亲自到省,地,如果他认为他有可能受到审查,他指的四个较有经验的他的父亲。They question him about the age, health, position, occupation of his parents, their religion and good character, their dependence on his services; about his own health, obligations such as debts, or other contractual relations; his studies, qualifications, moral character, personal motives as well as the external influences that may have lead him to seek admission.这些问题是关于年龄,健康,地位,他的父母,他们的宗教和良好的品格,在他的职业服务的依赖他,对自己的健康,义务,如债务,或其他契约关系,他的研究,资历,品德,个人的动机以及外部影响,可能已导致他要寻求入场。 The results of their questioning and of their own observation they report severally to the provincial, who weighs their opinions carefully before deciding for or against the applicant.他们的质疑和自己的观察结果,他们的报告个别省,谁重前申请人或反对的意见慎重决定。Any notable bodily or mental defect in the candidate, serious indebtedness or other obligation, previous membership in another religious order even for a day, indicating instability of vocation, unqualifies for admission.任何明显的身体或精神上的缺陷在候选,严重债务或其他义务,以前在另一成员的宗教秩序,甚至一天,这说明职业不稳定,unqualifies入学。 Undue influence, particularly if exercised by members of the order, would occasion stricter scrutiny than usual into the personal motives of the applicant.不正当的影响,特别是如果该命令的成员行使,有时会到申请人的个人动机比平常更严格的审查。

Candidates may enter at any time, but usually there is a fixed day each years for their admission, toward the close of the summer holidays, in order that all may begin their training, or probation, together.考生可在任何时间进入,但通常有一个固定的每一天他们的入学年,朝暑假结束,为了使所有可能会开始他们的培训,或缓刑,在一起。 They spend the first ten days considering the manner of life they are to adopt, and its difficulties, the rules of the order, the obedience required of its members.他们先花十天考虑他们的生活将要通过的方式,它的困难,规则的命令,其成员所要求的服从。They then make a brief retreat, meditating on what they have learned about the Society and examining their own motives and hopes for perserverance in the new mode of life.然后,他们作简短的撤退,在他们所了解和研究协会在新的生活模式perserverance他们自己的动机和希望打坐。 If all be satisfactory to them and to the superior or director who has charge of them, they are admitted as novices, wear the clerical costume (as there is no special Jesuit habit) and begin in earnest the life of members in the Society.如果一切满意,对他们向上级或主管谁拥有它们,但是他们却接纳为新手,穿上服装文书(如没有特殊的耶稣会习惯),并开始认真地在社会成员的生活。 They rise early, make a brief visit to the chapel, a meditation on some subject selected the night before, assist at Mass, review their meditation, breakfast, and then prepare for the day's routine.他们早起,进行简短访问了教堂,就一些主题冥想选择了前一天晚上,在群众协助,审查其冥想,早餐,然后准备当天的例行。 This consists of manual labor in or out of doors, reading books on spiritual topics, ecclesiastical history, biography, particularly of men or women distinguished for zeal and enterprise in missionary or educational fields.这包括体力劳动​​或走出门,阅读精神的主题,教会历史,传记,尤其是男性还是女性的热情和传教或教育领域的著名企业,书籍。 There is a daily conference by the master of the novices on some detail of the Institute, notes of which all are required to make, so as to be ready, when asked, to repeat the salient points.有一个由新手掌握的一些研究所,所有这些都是需要作出记录的详细daily会议,以便做好准备,当记者问,重复的要点。

Wherever it is possible some are submitted to certain tests of their vocation or usefulness; to teaching catechism in the village churches; to attendance on the sick in hospitals; to going about on a pilgrimage or missionary journey without money or other provision.只要有可能有些是提交给他们的职业或实用性某些测试;在教学中的乡村教堂教义;在医院带病出席;到会在一个没有钱或其他条文朝圣或传教之旅约。 As soon as possible, all make the spiritual exercises for 30 days.只要可能,所有的精神使30天演习。This is really the chief test of a vocation, as it is also in epitome the main work of the two years of the novitiate, and for that matter of the entire life of a Jesuit.这真的是一职的首席试飞,因为它也是对的缩影见习两年的主要工作,为此,耶稣会的整个生命的问题。On these exercises the Constitutions, the life, and activity of the Society are based, so they are really the chief factor in forming the character of a Jesuit.在这些演习的宪法,生活,和社会活动的基础,所以他们真的是在形成一个耶稣会性质的主要因素。

In accordance with the ideals set forth in these exercises, of disinterested conformity with God's will, and of personal love of Jesus Christ, the novice is trained diligently in the meditative study of the truths of religion, in the habit of self-knowledge, in the constant scrutiny of his motives and of the actions inspired by them, in the correction of every form of self-deceit, illusion, plausible pretext, and in the education of his will, particularly in making choice of what seems best after careful deliberation and without self-seeking.按照规定在这些演习无私的整合,与神的旨意的理想,和耶稣基督的个人爱好,新手进行训练努力,在宗教的真理静心学习,在自我认识习惯,他的动机和激励他们在每一个自我欺骗,幻想,形成合理的借口改正的,行动,并在他的意志,教育经常检查,特别是在制作什么似乎经过慎重考虑和选择最好的没有自我追求。 Deeds, not words, are insisted upon as proof of genuine service, and a mechanical, emotional, or fanciful piety is not tolerated.契约,而不是言辞,是坚持的证明,作为真正的服务,以及机械,情感,或幻想的虔诚是不容许的。As the novice gradually thus becomes master of his will, he grows more and more capable of offering to God the reasonable service enjoined by St. Paul, and seeks to follow the divine will, as manifested in Jesus Christ, by His vicar on earth, by the bishops appointed to rule His Church, by his more immediate or religious superiors, and by the civil powers rightfully exercising authority.因此,作为新手逐渐成为他的意志的主人,他长大越来越多的提供给神的合理的服务由圣保禄责成能力更强,并力求按照神的意志,体现在由他的耶稣基督在世上的代表,由委任统治他的上司更直接或宗教他的教会,主教,以及由权力正当行使民事权力。 This is what is meant by Jesuit obedience, the characteristic virtue of the order, such a sincere respect for authority as to accept its decisions and comply with them, not merely by outward performance but in all sincerity with the conviction that compliance is best, and that the command expresses for the time the will of God, as nearly as it can be ascertained.这是什么意思是由耶稣会服从,凭借该命令的特点,这样的权威,接受其决定,并遵守他们的外观性能,但在所有与真诚的信念不仅符合最真诚的尊重,该命令的时间为神的旨意,因为它几乎能够确定,表示。

The noviceship lasts two years.该noviceship为期两年。On its completion the novice makes the usual vows of religion, the simple vow of chastity in the Society having the force of a diriment impediment to matrimony.在其完成新手使得通常的誓言宗教,学会简单的贞洁誓言有一个diriment阻碍婚姻的力量。During the noviceship but a brief time daily is devoted to reviewing previous studies.在noviceship但短暂的时间每天是专门审查以往的研究。The noviceship over, the scholastic members, ie, those who are to become priests in the Society, follow a special course in classics and mathematics lasting two years, usually in the same house with the novices.该noviceship结束后,学校的成员,即那些谁是成为社会的祭司,在遵循经典和数学特殊课程通常为期两年的新手,在同一所房子里。 Then, in another house and neighbourhood, three years are given to the study of philosophy, about five years to teaching in one or other of the public colleges of the Society, four years to the study of theology, priestly orders being conferred after the third, and finally, one year more to another probation or noviceship, intended to help the young priest renew his spirit of piety and to learn how to utilize to the best of his ability all the learning and experience he has required.然后,在另一家和邻里,三年是考虑到学习哲学,大约五年教学中的一个或协会内的公立大学,四年的神学研究中,祭司的订单被其他授予之后的第三,最后,一年多到另一个缓刑或noviceship,旨在帮助年轻的牧师重申他的虔诚精神,并学习如何利用他的能力的所有学习和经验最好的,他已要求。 In exceptional cases, as in that of a priest who has finished his studies before entering the order, allowance is made and the training periods need not last over ten years, a good part of which is spent in active ministry.在特殊情况下,如在一个谁已完成,然后进入命令他的研究祭司,津贴提出,而不是最后的训练时间需要十几年,其中很大一部分是在Active部度过的。

The object of the order is not limited to practicing any one class of good works, however laudable (as preaching, chanting office, doing penance, etc.), but to study, in the manner of the Spiritual, what Christ would have done, if He were living in our circumstances, and to carry out that ideal.该订单的对象并不局限于任何实践的优秀作品,但值得称赞的(如说教,诵经办公室,做忏悔,等等)一类,而是要研究在精神,基督会做什么的方式,如果他是生活在我们的情况,并进行这一理想。 Hence elevation and largeness of aim.因此,海拔和广大的宗旨。Hence the motto of the Society, "Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam".因此,该协会的座右铭,“广告Majorem棣Gloriam”。Hence the selection of the virtue of obedience as the characteristic of the order, to be ready for any call, and to keep unity in every variety of work.因此,对服从命令为特征的美德,选择要准备好对任何电话,并保持在每一个多种工作的统一。Hence, by easy sequence, the omission of office in choir, of a special distinctive habit, of unusual penances.因此,通过简单的序列,在合唱团遗漏的事务所特别鲜明的习惯,不寻常的修行。Where the Protestant reformers aimed at reorganizing the church at large according to their particular conceptions, Ignatius began with interior self-reform; and after that had been thoroughly established, then the earnest preaching of self-reform to others.凡在重组在逃根据其具体构想旨在教会新教改革者,伊格开始内部自身改革和后,已被彻底成立的话,自我改革,以人认真的说教。 That done, the church would not, and did not, fail to reform herself.上述工作完成后,教会没有,没有,没有改革自己。Many religious distinguished themselves as educators before the Jesuits; but the Society was the first order which enjoined by its very Constitutions devotion to the cause of education.许多宗教区分为前,耶稣会教育者自身,但该会是第一个秩序,就其宪法献身教育事业责成。It was, in this sense, the first "teaching order".正是在这个意义上说,首届“教学秩序”。

The ministry of the Society consists chiefly in preaching; teaching catechism, especially to children; administering the sacraments especially penance and the Eucharist; conducting missions in the parishes on the lines of the Spiritual; directing those who wish to follow those exercises in houses of retreat, seminaries or convents; taking care of parishes or collegiate churches; organizing pious confraternities, sodalities, unions of prayer, Bona Mors associations in their own and other parishes; teaching in schools of every grade - academic; seminary, university; writing books, pamphlets, periodical articles; going on foreign missions among uncivilized peoples.该部由该协会主要是在说教,教学问答,特别是儿童;管理圣礼,尤其是忏悔和圣体,在对灵线教区进行任务,指导那些谁愿意跟随这些演习的房子退,修道院或修道院;采取合议教会的教区或照顾,组织虔诚confraternities,sodalities,祈祷,博纳Mors协会在自己和其他教区工会;在各年级学校教学 - 学术,神学院,大学,写作的书籍,小册子,期刊文章;在人民之间的不文明的外国使团去。

In liturgical functions the Roman Rite is followed.在罗马的仪式礼仪功能后面。The proper exercise of all these functions is provided for by rules carefully framed by the general congregations or by the generals.所有这些功能提供了适当的运动是通过仔细地由一般教会或由将军框架规则。All these regulations command the greatest respect on the part of every member.所有这些法规命令在每个成员的一部分,最大的尊重。In practice the superior for the time being is the living rule - not that he can alter or abrogate any rule, but because he must interpret and determine its application.在实践中,暂时是优越的生活规则 - 不,他可以改变或废除任何规则,而是因为他必须解释并确定其应用。In this fact and in its consequences, the Society differs from every religious order antecedent to its foundation; to this principally, it owes its life, activity, and power to adapt its Institutes to modern conditions without need of change in that instrument or of reform in the body itself.这个事实,并在其后果,学会从每一个不同的宗教秩序先行,以它的基础,这主要是,它欠它的生命,活动和权力,以适应变化的需要而在该文书或机构改革在现代条件在身体本身。

The story of the foundation of the Society is told in the article Ignatius Loyola.该公会的基础故事是说,在依纳爵罗耀拉的文章。Briefly, after having inspired his companions Peter Faber, Francis Xavier, James Lainez, Alonso Salmerón, Nicolas Bobadilla, Simon Rodriquez, Claude Le Jay, Jean Codure, and Paschase Brouet with a desire to dwell in the Holy Land imitating the life of Christ, they first made vows of poverty and chastity at Montmartre, Paris, on 15 August, 1534, adding a vow to go to the Holy Land after two years.简单地说,之后他的灵感与渴望同伴彼得费伯,弗朗西斯泽维尔,詹姆斯科莱内斯,阿隆索Salmerón,尼古拉博瓦迪利亚,西蒙罗德里格斯,克劳德乐杰,让Codure和Paschase Brouet向住在圣地模仿基督的生命,他们首先由贫困和贞洁的誓言在蒙马特高地,巴黎8月15日,1534年,加入去许愿两年后的圣地。When this was found to be inpracticable, after waiting another year, they offered their services to the pope, Paul III.当这个被认为是再等一年后inpracticable,他们提供了服务,教皇保罗三。Fully another year was passed by some in university towns in Italy, by others at Rome, where, after encountering much opposition and slander, all met together to agree on a mode of life by which they might advance in evangelical perfection and help others in the same task.一年全是通过在大学城的一些人在意大利,在罗马,在那里,在遇到很多人反对和诬蔑,全部达到共同研究各种模式的生活,使他们可能提前在福音完善,并帮助其他人同意相同的任务。 The first formula of the Institute was submitted to the pope and approved of viva voce, 3 September 1539, and formally, 27 September, 1540.该研究所的第一个公式已提交给教皇和口试,1539年9月3日批准,并正式,1540年9月27日。

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Jesuit Apologetic Distinguished Jesuits History of the Jesuits Before the Suppression Jesuit Generals Prior to the Suppression History of the Jesuits During the Suppression (1750-1773) History of the Jesuits During the Interim (1773-1814) History of the Jesuits After the Restoration (1814-1912) Publication information Written by John Hungerford Pollen.耶稣会耶稣会致歉杰出历史在耶稣会制止将军前在抑制(1750年至1773年)历史的耶稣会士在过渡时期(1773至1814年)历史的耶稣会士在还原后制止历史的耶稣会士(1814年耶稣会士-1912)出版信息的书面约翰亨格福德花粉。 Transcribed by Michael Donahue.转录由迈克尔多纳休。In gratitude for four years of Jesuit education at Loyola University of Chicago.在四年的耶稣会教育年在美国芝加哥罗耀拉大学的感激之情。AMDG.AMDG。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.天主教百科全书,体积十四。Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


Constitutions.--Corpus institutorum Societatis Jesu (Antwerp, Prague, Rome, 1635, 1702, 1705, 1707, 1709, 1869-70; Paris, partial edition, 1827-38); Gagliardi, De cognitione instituti (1841); Lancicius, De praestantia instit.宪法.--语料库institutorum Societatis耶稣(安特卫普,布拉格,罗马,1635年,1702年,1705年,1707年,1709年,1869年至1870年,巴黎,偏版,1827年至1838年); Gagliardi,德cognitione instituti(1841年); Lancicius,德praestantia instit。 Soc.芯片。Jesu (1644); Nadal, Scholia in constitutiones (1883); Suarez, Tract.耶稣(1644);纳达尔在constitutiones Scholia(1883年);苏亚雷斯道。de religione Soc.德religione芯片。Jesu (1625); Humphrey, The Religious State (London, 1889), a digest of the treatise of Suarez; Oswald, Comment.耶稣(1625),汉弗莱,宗教的国家(伦敦,1889年),一个消化的苏亚雷斯论文,奥斯瓦德,评论。in decem partes consit.在decem各方之间consit。Soc.芯片。Jesu (3rd ed., Brussels, 1901); Rules of the Society of Jesus (Washington, 1939; London 1863).耶稣(第3版,布鲁塞尔,1901年。)耶稣的社会规则(华盛顿,1939年,伦敦1863年)。

The Bollandists该bollandists

Catholic Information天主教新闻

An association of ecclesiastical scholars engaged in editing the Acta Sanctorum.一个在编辑学报Sanctorum从事宗教学者联谊会。This work is a great hagiographical collection begun during the first years of the seventeenth century, and continued to our own day.这项工作是一个伟大的hagiographical集合在十七世纪的头几年开始,并持续到我们自己的一天。The collaborators are called Bollandists, as being successors of Bolland, the editor of the first volume.被称为Bollandists的合作者,为是Bolland表示,在第一册的编辑接班人。The collection now numbers sixty-three volumes in folio, to which must be added a supplementary volume, published in 1875 by a French priest, and containing chiefly certain tables and directions facilitating research in the volumes.收集数量已六十三在对开卷,还必须加上一个补充量,出版于1875年由法国神父,并含有某些表和方向主要是促进在册的研究。 Although Bolland has given his name to the work, he is not to be regarded as its founder.虽然他的名字给了博兰的工作,他不是作为其奠基人。The idea was first conceived by Heribert Rosweyde (b. at Utrecht, 1569; d. at Antwerp, 1629).这个想法最初设想是由Heribert Rosweyde(b.在乌得勒支,1569年,在安特卫普,1629年四)。 He entered the Society of Jesus in 1588.他于1588年耶稣会。

An indefatigable worker and a fearless but judicious investigator, notwithstanding his duties as professor of philosophy in the Jesuit college at Douai during the last years of the sixteenth century, Rosweyde devoted the leisure of his vacations and holidays to explore the libraries of the numerous monasteries scattered through Hainault and French Flanders.一个不知疲倦的工作者和研究者无所畏惧,但明智的,尽管由于在耶稣会大学的哲学教授杜埃在十六世纪的最后几年职务时,Rosweyde投入了他的休假和节假日休闲,探索分散的众多寺庙库通过艾诺和法国佛兰德。 He copied with his own hand a vast number of documents relating to church history in general, and to hagiography in particular, and found in the old texts contained in the manuscripts coming under his observation quite a different flavour from that of the revisions to which many editors, notably Lippomano and Surius, then the latest and most celebrated, had believed it necessary to subject them.他用自己的手复制了有关历史文献资料的一般教会广大,特别是对hagiography,并在今后根据他的观察相当多的修改,从不同风味的旧文本手稿中发现,许多编辑,尤其是Lippomano和Surius,那么最新,最有名的,曾认为有必要对他们。 Rosweyde thought it would be a useful work to publish the texts in their original form. Rosweyde认为这将是一个有益的工作在其原来的形式公布的文本。His superiors, to whom he submitted his plan in 1603, gave it their hearty approval, and allowed him to prepare the projected edition, without, however, relieving him of any of the occupations on which he was expending his prodigious activity.他的上司,向他提交的1603年他的计划,给了他们爽朗的​​批准,并让他准备预计版,如果没有,然而,缓解了对他的职业是他的惊人的活动的任何花费了他。 So, for the time being, he was allowed merely the privilege of devoting his spare moments to the preparation of the work.因此,暂时,他被允许仅仅是他的空闲时间投入到准备工作的特权。Rosweyde did not cease to pursue his project, which he announced publicly in 1607, as well as the plan he proposed to follow.Rosweyde没有停止追求自己的项目,这是他在1607年公开宣布,以及计划,他建议跟随。Under the title: "Fasti sanctorum quorum vitae in belgicis bibliothecis manuscriptiae", he gave in a little volume in 16mo., published by the Plantin press at Antwerp, an alphabetical list of the names of the saints whose acts had been either found by him or called to his attention in old manuscript collections.的标题下:“Fasti sanctorum在belgicis bibliothecis manuscriptiae法定人数简历”,他给​​了在一个小体积16mo,由在安特卫普,一个圣人,其行为已不是他所发现的名称字母顺序排列普朗坦出版社出版。或者叫他在旧手稿收藏的关注。 This list filled fifty pages; the prefatory notice in which he indicates the character and arrangement of his work, as he had conceived it, takes up fourteen.这充满五十页的清单;通知的序言中,他表示他的工作性质和安排,因为他曾设想它,拿起十四。Finally, the work contains an appendix of twenty-six pages containing the unpublished acts of the passion of the holy Cilician martyrs, Tharsacus, Probus, and Andronicus, which Rosweyde regarded -- wrongly -- as the authentic official report from the pen of a clerk of the court of the Roman tribunal.最后,工作包含一个二六页附录载有烈士的神圣Cilician热情未发表的行为,Tharsacus,普罗比斯和洛尼克斯,认为这Rosweyde - 为从一枝笔正宗的官方报告 - 错误书记罗马法庭的法院。According to this programme the collection was to comprise sixteen volumes, besides two volumes of explanations and tables.根据这一方案的集合,是包括除二的解释和表卷十六卷。The first volume was to present documents concerning the life of Jesus Christ and the feasts established in honour of the special events of His life; the second volume would be devoted to the life and the feasts of the Blessed Virgin, and the third to the feasts of the Saints honoured with a more special cult.第一册是关于本文件耶稣基督并在他生活中的特殊活动荣誉设立的节日生活,第二卷将专门的生命和圣母的节日,以及对第三的节日圣人荣获更特殊的邪教。 The twelve succeeding volumes were to give the lives of the saints whose feasts are celebrated respectively in the twelve months of the year, one volume for each month.成功的十二卷要奉献的圣人的节日是庆祝一年的十二个月内分别的生活,每月一量。This calendar arrangement had been prescribed by his superiors, in preference to the chronological order Rosweyde himself favoured.这个日程安排已经由他的上级规定优先于按时间顺序,Rosweyde自己青睐。But this presented, especially at that time, formidable difficulties.但是,这提出,特别是在那个时候,各种困难。Lastly, the sixteenth volume was to set forth the succession of martyrologies which had been in use at different periods and in the various Churches of Christendom.最后,第十六卷,是阐述了其中已使用了在不同时期和不同的基督教教会martyrologies继承。The first of the two supplementary volumes was to contain notes and commentaries bearing on the lives divided into eight books treating respectively of the following subjects:这两个补充量首先是包含注释和评论的书籍分为八个分别处理以下科目的生活轴承:

The authors of the lives;对生活的作者;

the sufferings of the martyrs;这些烈士的苦难;

the images of the saints;众圣徒的形象;

liturgical rites and customs mentioned in hagiographical documents;礼拜仪式和hagiographical文件中提到的风俗;

profane customs to which allusions had been made;对于这些典故已经作出亵渎习俗;

questions of chronology;问题的年表;

names of places encountered in these same documents;地名中遇到这些相同的文件;

barbarous or obscure terms which might puzzle the readers.野蛮或含糊不清的条款,可能拼图的读者。

The other supplement was to present a series of copious tables giving: the names of the saints whose lives had been published in the preceding volumes;另外补充,是目前提供的丰富的表系列:圣人,其已在前面的卷载生活的姓名;

the same names followed by notes indicating the place of the saint's birth, his station in life, his title to sanctity, the time and place in which he had lived, and the author of his life;通过指示圣人的诞生,他人生的车站,他的所有权神圣不可侵犯,时间和地点,他还活着,和他生活的地方笔者注意到遵循同样的名称;

the state of life of the various saints (religious, priest, virgin, widow, etc.);是的(宗教,牧师,处女,寡妇等),各种圣人的生活状态;

their position in the Church (apostle, bishop, abbot, etc.);他们的立场在教会(使徒,主教,住持等);

the nomenclature of the saints according to the countries made illustrious by their birth, apostolate, sojourn, burial;对按国家名称由圣人出生,传道,逗留,埋藏显赫;

nomenclature of the places in which they are honoured with a special cult;命名在其中,他们是有特殊邪教荣幸的地方;

enumeration of the maladies for the cure of which they are especially invoked;为枚举,在它们所固化的弊端,特别是调用;

the professions placed under their patronage;根据他们的赞助放在专业界;

the proper names of persons and places encountered in the published lives;人在生活中遇到的地方出版的正确名称;

the passages of Holy Scripture there explained;圣经的段落有解释;

points which may be of use in religious controversies;点,可能是在宗教争议的使用;

those applicable in the teaching of Christian doctrine;那些在基督教的教义教适用;

a general table of words and things in alphabetical order.一个字和按字母顺序排列的东西总表。

"And others still," adds the author, "if anything of importance presents itself, of which our readers may give us an idea." “而另一些人补充说:”笔者,“如果什么礼物本身的重要性,而我们的读者可以给我们一个想法。”

Cardinal Bellarmine, to whom Rosweyde sent a copy of his little volume, could not forbear exclaiming after he had read this programme: "This man counts, then, on living two hundred years longer!"红衣主教贝拉明,谁Rosweyde派出他的小批量复制,忍不住感叹后,他读了这一计划:“这个人的罪名,然后再住二百年!” He addressed to the author a letter, the original of which is preserved in the present library of the Bollandists, signed, but not written by the hand of Bellarmine, in which he intimates in polished but perfectly plain language that he regarded the plan as chimerical.他给笔者的一封信,原来这是在目前的所bollandists库保存,签署,但不是由贝拉明手,其中他在粗糙,但绝对简单的语言暗示,就是他认为该计划的书面嵌合。 Rosweyde was nowise disconcerted by this.Rosweyde是毫不本惶恐不安。From various other sources he received encouragement, enthusiastic praise, and valuable assistance.他从其他各种来源得到的鼓励,热情赞美,宝贵的援助。The new enterprise found an especial protector, as generous as he was zealous and enlightened, in Antoine de Wynghe, abbot of the celebrated monastery of Liessies in Hainault.新企业找到了一个特殊的保护,因为他的慷慨热心,开明的安托万德Wynghe,对Liessies在埃诺著名寺院的住持。 Venerable Louis of Blois, whose third successor de Wynghe was, seemed to have bequeathed to him his affectionate devotion to the sons of St. Ignatius of Loyola.尊者路易布卢瓦,其第三代接班人Wynghe是,似乎已经留给他的深情奉献的圣依纳爵罗耀拉的儿子。The large sympathy of this religious Maecenas manifested itself in every way; in letters of recommendation to the heads of the various houses of the great Benedictine Order which opened to Rosweyde and his associates monastic libraries; in loans and gifts of books, of manuscripts, and of copies of manuscripts; and in pecuniary assistance.这种宗教的保护者大同情表现在各个方面,它表现在推荐信中的伟大笃订购的开放Rosweyde和他的同伙各种房屋寺院的图书馆的负​​责人,在贷款和馈赠的书籍手稿,以及作者:手稿本,并在金钱上的援助。 Rosweyde quite counted on completing by his own efforts the monument of which he had dreamed, and on bringing it to a worthy end.Rosweyde相当指望由他自己的努力,他曾梦想的纪念碑,完成和将它带到一个值得结束。As a matter of fact, he did not get beyond the first stages of the structure.由于事实上,他没有得到超出了结构的第一阶段。

His literary activity was expended on a multitude of historical works, both religious and polemical, some of which, it is true, would have later formed a part of the great hagiographical compilation.他的文学活动上花费了作品的历史,宗教和争论,其中一些,这是真的,会后形成了许多伟大的hagiographical编译的一部分。 The majority, however, bear no relation whatever to the work.大多数人,但是,不承担任何相关的工作。The writings which would have been available are: the edition of the Little Roman Martyrology, in which Rosweyde believed he recognized the collection mentioned by St. Gregory the Great in his letter to Eulogius of Alexandria; the edition of the martyrology of Ado of Vienne (1613); the ten books of the Lives of the Fathers of the Desert, which he first published in Latin (1615 in fol.), dedicating the work to the Abbot of Liessies, and later in Flemish (1617) in fol., with an inscription to Jeanne de Bailliencourt, Abbess of Messines.哪些人本来可以得到的著作有:小罗马martyrology版,其中Rosweyde相信他承认,由圣高利大的信中提到的亚历山大Eulogius的收集,对腺苷的维埃纳省martyrology版( 1613),对各沙漠,这是他第一次发表在拉丁美洲的父亲生活的十本书(1615在FOL),奉献的工作的Liessies住持,后来在佛兰芒语(1617)在FOL中,在。。一到珍妮德Bailliencourt,对梅西恩斯住持题词。 The rest, however, as for instance the Flemish edition of Ribadeneira's "Flowers of the Saints" (1619, two folio volumes), the "General History of the Church" (1623), to which he added as an appendix the detailed history of the Church in the Netherlands, both in Flemish; the Flemish lives of St. Ignatius and St. Philip Neri; the Flemish translation of the first part of the "Treatise on Perfection", drew his attention completely from what he should have regarded as his principal task.其余的,但是,作为实例中Ribadeneira的“花的圣人”(1619年,两个对开册)弗拉芒语版,(1623)“教会通史”,其中,他说:作为附录的详细历史在荷兰的教会,在佛兰芒两者;圣依纳爵和圣菲内里的佛兰芒生命,在对“关于完善论”的第一部分弗拉芒语翻译,引起了他应该有他的注意力完全被视为他的主要任务。 It is due to him, however, to say that for several years his superiors, without ceasing to encourage him in the pursuit of his project, were forced through the necessity of filling vacant offices, to lay upon him duties which did not leave him the absolutely indispensable leisure.正是由于他,不过,说了好几年他的上级,不住地鼓励了他的项目的追求他,是通过填补空缺办事处的必要性被强迫,在他身上打下税,没有离开他绝对不可缺少的休闲。

He set this forth clearly himself in the memorandum addressed to them in 1611, in response to their inquiry as to how he was progressing with the preparation of his volumes.他把这个规定明确自己在解决他们在1611年的备忘录回应他们的询问,至于他是如何与他的卷的编写工作进展。But it is not less true that nearly all his publications, the most important of which have been mentioned above, are of a later date than this, and undoubtedly Rosweyde himself was chiefly to blame for the delay, which, however, may be called a fortunate one, since it resulted in advantageous modifications of the plan of the work. But这是真实的而不是更少,几乎所有的出版物,其中最重要的有上面提到的,是一个比这以后,无疑Rosweyde本人也主要应归咎于延误,其中,然而,可能被要求一幸运的那一个,因为它在工作计划的有利的修改结果。 At the time of Rosweyde's death, then, which took place in Antwerp in 1629, not a page was ready for the printer.截至Rosweyde的死亡,那么,发生在1629年在安特卫普举行,时间不是一个页面是为打印机准备。Moreover, the superiors of the order, on their part, hesitated to have the work carried on by another.此外,该命令的上级,对他们而言,毫不犹豫地要把这项工作进行再研究。For more than twenty years, however, Rosweyde had been extremely active; he had secured access to a quantity of manuscripts and had enlisted the co-operation of many learned men who had manifested the keenest interest in his undertaking; thanks to their assistance, he had collected many manuscripts and books relating to the lives of the saints; in a word, he had aroused an eager interest in his compilation, so great and so universal that it was necessary to satisfy it.超过二十多年,但是,Rosweyde一直十分活跃,他已确保获得了手稿的数量,并邀请了共同不少有识之士谁曾在他的事业表现最激烈的兴趣男子运作;感谢他们的帮助,他收集了许多手稿和书籍有关的圣人的生活,在一个字,他引起了他的编译,那么大,所以普遍认为,有必要去满足它渴望的兴趣。

Father John van Bolland (b. at Julemont, in Limburg, 1596; d. at Antwerp, 12 September, 1665) was at this time prefect of studies in the college of Mechlin, and had charge of a congregation composed of the principal people of the city.父亲约翰面包车博兰(b.在Julemont,在林堡,1596年,在安特卫普博士,1665年9月12日)是在这个大学的学习时间梅克林知府,而且已经对主要负责人组成的众城市。 It was called the "Latin Congregation", because all the exercises, sermons included, were conducted in that language.这就是所谓的“拉丁众”,因为所有的练习,包括布道,在该语言进行。His family either took their name from, or gave it to, the village of Bolland, near Julemont.他的家庭要么把他们的名字的,或把它给了,村里的Bolland表示,近Julemont。Before making his theological studies he had taught belles-lettres with distinction in the three higher classes of the humanities at Ruremonde, Mechlin, Brussels, and Antwerp.之前,他曾教他与三个更高在Ruremonde,梅克林,布鲁塞尔,安特卫普和人文类的区分纯文学神学研究。The superior of the Belgian province of the Society of Jesus bade him examine the papers left by Rosweyde, and report to him his opinion as to what it was advisable to do with them.作者对耶稣会比利时省优叫他留下的审查Rosweyde文件和报告,以什么明智的做法是与他们做对他自己的观点。Bolland went to Antwerp, familiarized himself with the manuscripts, and, while admitting that the work was still merely a rough and faulty draft, gave reasons for believing that without an undue expenditure of labour it might be brought to a successful completion.博兰去安特卫普,熟悉自己的手稿,并同时承认,这项工作仍然只是一个粗略的和错误的草案,给相信,没有过分的劳工支出可能是圆满地完成的原因。 He even showed himself disposed to take charge of the work, but only under two conditions: first, that he should be left free to modify the plan of Rosweyde as he understood it; second, that the copies, notes, and books which had been collected by Rosweyde should be removed from the library of the Professed House, where they were interspersed among the books in common use, and set apart in a place of their own for the exclusive use of the new director of the undertaking.他甚至表明自己倾向于采取负责这项工作,但只有在两个条件:第一,他应该自由地修改Rosweyde计划按照他的理解,二是复印件,笔记,并已书籍由Rosweyde收集应删除从自称房子,在那里他们穿插其中常用的书籍,并设置一个属于自己的事业的新导演的独家使用的地方,除了库。 The provincial, Jacques van Straten, accepted with alacrity both offer and conditions.省,雅克面包车Straten,轻松愉快都提供了和条件接受。

Bolland was removed from the college of Mechlin and attached to the Professed House at Antwerp, to be director of the Latin Congregation and confessor in the church, and with the charge of preparing, in his leisure hours (horis subsecivis) the Acta Sanctorum for publication.博兰被删除从梅克林学院和附着在安特卫普声称房子,在教会主任拉丁众和忏悔,并与负责编制,在他的闲暇时间(horis subsecivis)出版的学报Sanctorum 。Happily, he had not the least idea, any more than had the provincial, of all the undertaking involved.令人高兴的是,他没有最少的想法,任何超过了省,所有有关承诺。He fancied that he could finish it by his own unaided efforts, and that after the completion of the work proper and the preparation of historical, chronological, geographical, and other tables, as announced by Rosweyde, he could complete the publication by adding to it a comprehensive collection of notices of holy persons who flourished in the Church subsequent to the fifteenth century, but have not been honoured with a public cult.他觉得,他可以由他自己完成外援的努力,并且知道后,工作的适当和历史,按时间顺序,地利,人和其他表编制由Rosweyde宣布后,他完全可以通过增加它的出版一个蓬勃发展的神圣的人谁在教会后,在十五世纪,但尚未与公共邪教荣幸通知全面收集。 "And after all that is done", he wrote in his general preface, at the beginning of the first volume of January, "if I still have any time to live, I shall lend a charm to the leisure hours of my old age by gathering the ascetical doctrine found in the teachings of the saints recorded in this work." “而且毕竟做到这一点”,他写了总序,在一月的第一册开始,“如果我仍然有时间去生活,我会伸出我的魅力年老的闲暇时间收集苦修的教义中发现在这项工作中记录的圣人的教诲。“ And nevertheless, he began by outlining a plan of quite another vastness from that of Rosweyde, whose programme had already appalled Bellarmine.而尽管如此,他首先概述了从Rosweyde完全是另一回事,其方案已经震惊贝拉明是浩瀚的计划。Rosweyde had confined his quest of original texts to the libraries of Belgium and the neighbouring regions. Rosweyde了他的原文局限于追求的比利时库及周边地区。He had not gone beyond Paris to the south, or Cologne and Trier to the east.他有没有超越巴黎南方,科隆和特里尔的东部。 Bolland made appeal to collaborators, either Jesuits or others, residing in all the different countries of Europe.博兰合作者作出呼吁,无论是耶稣会士或其他人,在所有欧洲不同国家居住。Then Rosweyde had proposed to publish at first only the original texts, without commentaries or annotations, relegating to the last volumes the studies intended to enable one to appreciate their value and to throw light on their difficulties.然后Rosweyde已建议在第一只发布原文,不评论或说明,贬谪到最后一册的目的是使研究,以了解他们的价值,并扔在他们的难点。

Bolland recognized at once how defective this plan was.博兰立即认出这个计划是有缺陷的如何。 So he decided to give in connection with each saint and his cult all the information he had been able to find, from whatever sources; to preface each text with a preliminary study destined to determine its author and its historical value, and to append to each notes of explanation for the purpose of clearing away difficulties.于是,他决定为每个圣和他的邪教所有他能够找到,从任何来源的信息连接;在前面加上注定要确定它的作者,其历史价值的初步研究每个文本,并追加到每个注意到为清热困难目的的解释。 The duties of the various offices filled by Bolland, added to the formidable correspondence imposed on him by his research into documents and other sources of information concerning the life and cult of the saints to be treated in the work, together with the answers to the numerous letters of consultation addressed to him from all parts, concerning matters of ecclesiastical learning, left him no leisure for the discharge of his duties as hagiographer.由博兰填补了各办公室的职责,加上强大的信件,对他实行他的文件和有关的生命和圣徒的邪教其他信息来源的研究与治疗的答案是在工作中,共同的无数咨询信给他的来自全国各地,涉及教会的学习问题,他没有离开,作为hagiographer休闲履行职责。 Thus, after five years at Antwerp, he was forced to admit that the work was almost where Rosweyde had left it, except that the mass of material which the latter had begun to classify was notably augmented; as a matter of fact it was more than quadrupled.因此,在安特卫普年五年后,他不得不承认,这项工作几乎是在Rosweyde离开时,除了物质而后者已开始进行分类肿块明显增加,这样一来,事实上它比翻了两番。 Meanwhile, eager desire for the appearance of the hagiographical monument announced by Rosweyde almost thirty years previously grew apace in the learned and the religious world.同时,对于出现的hagiographical纪念碑的迫切愿望宣布Rosweyde将近三年前增长了教训和宗教世界迅速发展。 There was nothing left for Bolland but to admit that the undertaking was beyond his individual strength and to ask for an assistant.有没有什么好说的博兰,但承认该承诺是超出了他个人的力量,并要求助理。

The generous Abbot of Liessies, Antoine de Wynghe, effectually supported his demand by volunteering to defray the living expenses of the associate who should be assigned to Bolland, as the Professed House at Antwerp, which depended on the alms of the faithful for its support, could not pay a man to do work which was not strictly in the field of its ministrations.对Liessies,安托万德Wynghe,大方住持有效地支持志愿服务,以支付该谁应该被分配到博兰关联生活费自称他的需求为楼,在安特卫普,这对忠实的支持施舍的依赖,付不起一个人做工作,并没有在其ministrations领域严格。 The assistant chosen, doubtless at Bolland's suggestion, for he had been one of his most brilliant pupils in the humanities, was Godfrey Henschen (b. at Venray in Limburg, 1601; d. 1681), who had entered the Society of Jesus in 1619.助手选择,无疑在博兰德的建议,因为他曾经是他最辉煌的一个学生在人文,是戈弗雷亨舍琴(在Venray b.在林堡,1601; 4,1681),谁曾在1619年进入耶稣会。He was assigned to his former master in 1635 and laboured at the publication of the Acts Sanctorum up to the time of his death in 1681, forty-six years later.他被分配到他的前主人在1635年和辛劳,在行为Sanctorum出版至1681年他去世时,四十六年后。Twenty-four volumes had then appeared, of which the last was the seventh volume of May.第二十四卷当时已出现了,其中最后是5月7卷。He had, moreover, prepared a great amount of material and many commentaries for June.他有,而且,准备六月的材料和大量许多评论。It may be safely said that the Bollandist work owes its final form to Henschen.它可以安全地说,Bollandist工作欠它的最后形式亨舍琴。When he arrived at Antwerp, Bolland had succeeded in putting into good order the documents relating to the saints of January, and had found a publisher in the person of John van Meurs.当他抵达安特卫普,博兰德成功地进入良好的秩序有关的文件将一月的圣人,并已找到了在约翰面包车米尔斯人的出版商。Doubtless for the purpose of trying Henschen, he bade him study the acts of the February saints, leaving him every latitude as to the choice of his first subjects and the manner of treating them.毫无疑问,对于试图亨舍琴的目的,他吩咐他的二圣人研究的行为,让他以他的第一个科目的选择和方式对待他们每一纬度。Bolland then gave himself entirely to the printing of the volumes for January.博兰然后给自己完全是一月份的印刷量。

It was well under way when Henschen brought to Bolland the first fruits of his activity in the field of hagiography.这是在顺利时亨舍琴提请博兰的他在hagiography领域活动的第一批成果。They were studies for the history of St. Vaast and that of St. Amand, printed later in the first volume of February under date of February sixth.他们是为圣Vaast历史和圣阿芒研究,印在二月第一册后根据二月第六次约会。 Bolland was absolutely astonished, and possibly somewhat abashed, by the great scope and solidity of the work which his disciple had to show him.博兰是绝对感到惊讶,并且可能有点羞愧,由伟大的范围和工作,他的弟子已经向他出示牢固。He himself had not dared to dream of anything like it.他本人也不敢梦想这样的事情。His preliminary commentaries on the acts of the various saints of January were practically confined to designating the manuscript where the texts he was publishing had been found, to annotations, and a list of the variants in the various copies and the previous editions.关于一月的各种圣人的行为实际上是他的初步评论只限于指定的地方,他出版的文本已发现的手稿,以注解,以及在各个副本变异与以前的版本的列表。 The commentaries and annotations of Henschen solved, or at least tried to solve, every problem to which the text of the Acts could give rise, in the matter of chronology, geography, history, or philological interpretation, and all these questions were treated with an erudition and a method which could be called absolutely unknown hitherto.亨舍琴的评论和注解的解决,或者至少尝试解决,每一个问题,该文作者的行为可能导致的年表,地理,历史,或语言学解释问题,而所有这些问题均与治疗博学和一种被称为绝对迄今未知的方法。 Modest and judicious savant that he was, Bolland at once admitted the superiority of the new method and desired Henschen, despite the reluctance occasioned by his humility and the profound respect in which he held his master, to review the copy already in press.谦虚和明智的学者,他,博兰就承认了新方法的优越性和期望亨舍琴,尽管他的谦逊和深深的敬意,他举行了他的主人而引起的不情愿,审查按复制已经。 He held it back for a considerable time to enable his colleague to make the additions and corrections he judged necessary or advantageous.他认为在相当长的时间回来,让他的同事,使他判断的增加和必要或有利的更正。

The pages containing the material for the first six days of January had already come from the press; the pages which seemed most defective to Henschen were replaced by revises.该网页载有一月天前六的材料已经来了记者,大部分的网页似乎弱智亨舍琴被修改取代。His hand is more clearly apparent in the following pages, although he persisted in employing a reserve and watchfulness which sometimes seems to have cost him an effort, in order to avoid too marked a difference between Bolland's commentaries and his own.更清楚他的手在下面的页面明显,尽管他坚持雇用储备,为了警惕有时似乎已经花了他的努力,以避免太多标志着之间博兰的评论和他自己的差异。 Papebroch, in his notice on Henschen printed at the beginning of the seventh volume of May, points out as particularly his the toil expended on the acts of St. Wittikind, St. Canute, and St. Raymond of Pennafort on the seventh of January; of St. Atticus of Constantinople and Blessed Laurence Justinian on the eighth; of Sts. Papebroch,点在他的通知在5月7卷的开始印上亨舍琴,指出他的辛劳是特别花费上一月的第七圣Wittikind,克努特圣和圣彭纳福特雷蒙德行为;圣阿提库斯君士坦丁堡和第八届劳伦斯查士丁尼有福;的街。 Julian and Basilissa on the ninth.Julian和Basilissa在第九。"But from this day on", he adds, "Bolland left to Henschen the Greek and Oriental saints, as well as the majority of those of France and of Italy, reserving for himself only those of Germany, Spain, Britain, and Ireland". “但是从今天起,”他补充说,“博兰德留给亨舍琴希腊和东方圣人,以及法国和意大利的多数,只为自己保留了德国,西班牙,英国和爱尔兰的” 。He still desired to associate the name of Henschen with his own on the title-page of the various volumes, but the humble religious would not allow it to appear except as his assistant and subordinate.他仍然希望与他关联的标题,各册页自己的亨舍琴的名字,但简陋的宗教不会允许它出现,除非他的助手和部下。 Meanwhile Bolland, in his general preface to the first volume of January, did not fail to tell what he owed to his excellent collaborator.与此同时Bolland表示,在他的总序一月的第一册,没有忘记告诉他欠他出色的合作者。 He then insisted that in the volumes of February and the following ones, Henschen's name should be on the title-page as prominently as his own and, moreover, that in the course of these volumes all commentaries from the pen of Henschen should be signed with his initials, claiming, doubtless not without some foundation, that he received a great number of letters relating to articles written by his colleague, which caused him difficulty.然后,他坚持认为,在二月量及以下的,亨舍琴的名字应当在标题页的显着为他自己和,此外,在这些卷中从亨舍琴钢笔所有评论应签订他的首字母,声称,毫无疑问,并非没有一些基础,他收到了有关他的同事,写文章,使他难以大量信件。 The two volumes of January, containing respectively, if we take into account the various tables and preliminary articles, the first, 1,300 pages, the second, more than 1,250, appeared in the course of the same year, 1643. 1月份的两册,分别含有,如果我们考虑到各种表格和初步的文章,第一,1300页,第二个1250多,在同一年,1643年中出现的需要。

They aroused in the learned world positive enthusiasm, which is easily understood when we consider how far the new publication surpassed anything of the kind known up to that time -- the Golden Legend, Guido Bernardus, Vincent of Beauvais, St. Antoninus of Florence, Peter de Natali, Mombritius, Lippomano, and Surius.他们在学习世界上的正面的积极性,这是很容易理解,当我们考虑如何超越目前已知的新的出版物了类似的话,到那时引起 - 的黄金传奇,圭多Bernardus,波维,佛罗伦萨圣安东尼文森特,彼得德纳塔利,Mombritius,Lippomano和Surius。 There was another marked difference when, fifteen years later, in 1658, the three volumes for February were published, showing a notable improvement over those for January.另外有显着差异时,十五年后的1658年的2月出版了三册,呈现出较一月份的显着改善。Congratulations and warm encomiums came from every side to testify to Bolland and his companion the admiration aroused by their work.祝贺和热烈encomiums来自四面八方作证Bolland和他的同伴到他们的工作引起了钦佩。The encouragement was not only from Catholics.的鼓励不仅从天主教徒。Learned Protestants of the foremost rank did not hesitate to praise highly the truly scientific spirit which marked the new collection.吸取了第一级新教徒毫不犹豫地推崇真正的科学精神,这标志着新的集合。Among others who had been heard from even before the publication of the February volumes, was the celebrated Gerard Vossius.在谁听说过,甚至已经从之前的二月的出版人,是著名的杰拉德Vossius。The editors had the satisfaction of seeing added to all these approbations that of Alexander VII, who publicly testified that there had never been undertaken a work more useful and glorious to the Church.的编辑们在看到添加到所有这些approbations认为亚历山大七,谁公开作证说,从未有过的工作进行了有益和更加光荣的教会满意。 The same pontiff and, at his suggestion, the General of the Society of Jesus, Goswin Nickel, immediately invited Bolland to Rome, promising him a rich harvest of materials.同样的教宗,并在他的建议,对耶稣,Goswin镍,社会将军立即邀请博兰到罗马,希望他的材料丰富的收获。 The invitation was equivalent to a command, though for that matter this literary journey was of too great advantage to the work in hand for Bolland to do anything but gladly accept it.这项邀请相当于一个命令,但为此事这种文学之旅太大的优势,携手并进,博兰做什么,但很高兴地接受它的工作。Finding, however, that he was too much enfeebled by recent illness to stand the fatigues of the journey, and that, moreover, it was necessary for one of the editors to remain in Antwerp, the centre of correspondence, he easily obtained permission from the Father General to send in his place Henschen, who was already favourably known through his collaboration in volumes published.查找,但是,他太虚弱了最近生病站的旅程的疲劳,而且,而且,它是为编辑之一,要留在安特卫普,函授中心,他轻松地获得了许可父亲一般送他的位置亨舍琴,谁是已经通过他在积极册出版合作而闻名。

At this time, the hagiographers were joined by a new companion, who was to accompany Henschen on his journey, and who later was to shed as glory on the work as had his two predecessors.在这个时候,hagiographers也加入了一个新的同伴,谁是陪他的旅程亨舍琴,谁后来为荣耀的工作,阐明了他的两位前任。 This was Father Daniel von Papenbroeck, better known under the slightly altered form of Papebroch (b. Antwerp, 1628; d. 28 June, 1714).这是父亲丹尼尔冯Papenbroeck,更好的形式下,稍微改变已知的Papebroch(生于安特卫普,1628; 4,1714年6月28日)。He entered the Society in 1646, after having been, like Henschen, a brilliant pupil of Bolland's in the course of the humanities.他于1646年,学会后,被像亨舍琴,一博兰公司在灿烂的人文课程的学生。He had just completed his thirty-first year when he was called on, in 1659, to give himself entirely to the work of hagiography, in which he was to have a remarkably long and fruitful career, for it lasted till his death, which occurred in the eighty-seventh year of his age, and the fifty-fifth of his work in this field.他刚刚完成了他的第三十一年,他是在被称为在1659年,给自己完全的hagiography工作,他在其中是有一个非常长的和富有成果的职业生涯中,为它,直到他去世后,发生持续在他的年龄,和五十他在这个领域的工作第五第八十七一年。 At the same time that they appointed Papebroch a collaborator to Bolland and Henschen, the superiors of the order, at the instance of important persons who wished the publication of the "Acta Sanctorum" hastened as much as possible, relieved the Fathers in charge of the work of every other regular occupation, in order that they might thenceforth devote their entire time to the hagiographical work.在同一时间,他们任命Papebroch谁,希望在对“学报Sanctorum”尽可能赶紧发表重要人物实例协作者Bolland和亨舍琴,上级的命令,解除在负责的父亲工作的每一个其他的日常工作​​,以便使他们能贡献自己的全部时间此后的hagiographical工作。

They were not obliged to fulfil any duties of the sacred ministry except for the distraction and rest that men of such great intellectual activity might find in a change of occupation.他们没有义务履行除分心,其余是如此之大的智力活动的人可能会发现在一个神圣的职业变更部任何职务。About the same time they were granted another favour.大约在同一时间,他们被授予一个忙。We have seen that Bolland, in accepting the succession to Rosweyde's post, had obtained that a special place should be set apart for the manuscript copies and books collected by Rosweyde, which had hitherto been scattered among the books belonging to the general library of the Professed House.我们已经看到,Bolland表示,在接受继承Rosweyde的帖子,已获得一个特殊的地方,应设置份手稿和Rosweyde,其中有迄今为止之间属于宣称的一般图书分散藏书除了房子。 This embryo of the Bollandist Museum consisted of two small mansard rooms, lighted by dormer windows so narrow that in the corners it was impossible to clearly enough to read the titles of the books, even at noonday.这种胚胎的Bollandist博物馆包括两个小芒萨尔的客房,老虎窗灯,在如此狭窄的角落里,是不可能的不够清楚,即使在正午阅读的书籍的标题。 Moreover, the walls were not fitted with shelves where the books could be arranged.此外,墙壁上没有这些书在哪里可以安排货架安装。They were merely piled one above the other without any attempt at order.他们只是为了堆放在没有任何其他企图之一以上。It required Bolland's wonderful local memory to find anything in this chaos.它要求博兰的精彩本地内存在这种混乱找到任何东西。 About 1660, he had the satisfaction of having a spacious hall on the first floor placed at his disposal, where books and manuscripts could be placed on shelves in methodical order.关于1660年,他有他有一对出售,其中的书籍和手稿可能是为了在有条不紊地放在货架上摆放在一楼宽敞的大厅表示满意。 The library or the "Hagiographical Museum", as it became customary to call it, had already received, and continued to receive daily, thanks to the gifts of generous benefactors and judicious purchases, many acquisitions, so that Henschen during the course of his literary journey was able to say that he found very few libraries, public or private, that could compare with the Hagiographical Museum" of Antwerp. This library was greatly enriched some years later when Papebroch, through the death of his father, a rich merchant of Antwerp, was enabled to apply to the work on which he was engaged his large inheritance.该库或“Hagiographical博物馆”,因为它成为习惯称呼它,已经收到,并继续每天收到,到慷慨捐助和明智的采购,许多收购感谢的礼物,让亨舍琴在他的文学课程旅程可以说,他发现很少有图书馆,公共或私人的,这可能会比较与Hagiographical博物馆“的安特卫普。该库,极大地丰富了一些年后,当Papebroch,通过他的父亲,一个富有的商人死亡的安特卫普,已启用适用于对他所从事他的大笔遗产的工作。

Bolland's two companions began their journey on the feast of St. Mary Magdalen, 22 July, 1660.博兰的两个同伴开始在圣玛丽马格达伦,1660年7月22日盛宴他们的旅程。Their old master accompanied them as far as Cologne, where they left him after a week's stay.他们的老主人陪同他们尽可能科隆,在那里他们离开后一个星期的逗留了他。An almost daily correspondence kept up with him, and preserved nearly entire at Brussels, partly at the Royal Library and partly at the Library of the Bollandists, allows us to follow each step of the learned pilgrimage through Germany, Italy, and France.几乎每天与他保持书信,并保存在布鲁塞尔几乎全,部分在皇家图书馆和部分在所bollandists图书馆,使我们能够按照每个朝圣的教训,通过德国,意大利和法国的一步。 In Germany, they visited successively Coblenz, Mainz, Worms, Speyer, Frankfort, Aschaffenburg, Würzburg, Bamberg, Nuremberg, Eichstädt, Ingolstadt, Augsburg Munich, and Innsbruck.在德国,他们先后访问了Coblenz,美因茨,蠕虫,斯派尔,法兰克福,阿沙芬堡,维尔茨堡,班贝格,纽伦堡,Eichstädt,因戈尔施塔特,奥格斯堡慕尼黑,因斯布鲁克。 Everywhere the name of Bolland ensured them an enthusiastic welcome and opened every library to them; everywhere they found precious material to take with them for use in the succeeding volumes of the "Acta".到处是博兰名称确保他们的热情欢迎,打开每个图书馆的人;他们发现到处都是珍贵的材料与他们采取的“学报”的成功卷使用。 A reception no less friendly and a harvest even more abundant awaited the travellers in Italy, at Verona, Vicenza, Padua, Venice, Ferrara, Imola, Florence, Ravenna, Forlì, Rimini, Pesaro, Fano, Sinigaglia, Ancona, Osimo, Loreto, Assisi, Perugia, Foligno, and Spoleto.一个不那么友好接待和等待收获更丰富旅客在意大利,在维罗纳,维琴察,帕多瓦,威尼斯,费拉拉,伊莫拉,佛罗伦萨,拉文纳,弗利,里米尼,佩萨罗,法诺,Sinigaglia,安科纳,Osimo,洛雷托,阿西西,佩鲁贾,福利尼奥,和斯波莱托。 They arrived in Rome the day before the Vigil of Christmas, and remained there until 3 October of the following year, 1661.他们到达的前一天在罗马的圣诞晚会,并持续至10月3日到下一年,1661年那里。During all this time they were overwhelmed with attentions and favours by Alexander VII, who in person did the honours of his rich Chigi library and commanded by special Briefs that all libraries should be opened to them, and especially that they should be allowed access to the manuscripts of the Vatican.在这期间,他们被淹没的关注和亚历山大七,谁在他那富有的人做基吉库的荣誉和所有的库应该向他们开放,特别是他们应该被允许进入特别简报吩咐青睐手稿梵蒂冈。

They were received with no less courtesy by the cardinals, the heads of the various orders, the savants Allatius, Aringhi, Ughelli, Ciampini, and others, then shining lights in the capital of the Christian world.他们没有礼貌的枢机主教收到少,各订单的头,学者Allatius,Aringhi,Ughelli,Ciampini,和其他人,然后闪耀在基督教世界的首都灯。 The five or six copyists placed at their disposal were kept constantly busy during the nine months they were in Rome in transcribing manuscripts according to their directions, and this occupation was continued by them a long time after the Bollandists departure.的五,六名被其支配的抄写员一直在不断地忙碌,他们在罗马九个月抄写手稿是在根据自己的方向,这种占领是继续由他们出发后所bollandists很长一段时间。 As for the Bollandists themselves, their time was principally employed in collecting Greek manuscripts, in which they were diligently assisted by the celebrated Hellenist, Laurentius Porcius, and the abbot Francesco Albani, later cardinal, and pope under the name of Clement XI.至于所bollandists自己,他们的时间主要在收集就业下的克莱门特十一名希腊手稿,其中他们努力协助著名Hellenist,Laurentius Porcius和弗朗切斯科Albani住持,后来枢机主教,和教皇。The learned Maronite, Abraham of Eckel, who had just brought to Rome a great number of Syriac manuscripts, was willing to make extracts and translate for them the Acts of the Saints found therein.有学问的龙族,埃克尔亚伯拉罕的,谁把它从叙利亚到罗马的大量手稿,是一位愿意作出摘录并翻译为他们的圣人发现其中的行为。 Ughelli gave them two volumes in folio of notes which he had collected for the completion of his "Italia Sacra". Ughelli给了他们,其中他为他的“意大利萨克拉”完成收集笔记对开两册。The Oratorians put them in touch with the manuscripts of Baronius, and a large collection of lives of the saints which they had intended to publish themselves.该Oratorians把接触到的巴若尼手稿,以及对他们所打算发表自己的圣人大集合他们的生活。On leaving Rome they visited Naples, Grotta-Ferrata, and Monte Casino, then Florence, where they remained for four months, and lastly Milan.在离开罗马,他们访问了那不勒斯,Grotta - Ferrata,和蒙特卡罗赌场,然后佛罗伦萨,在那里他们仍然四个月,最后米兰。Everywhere, as at Rome, they left behind them copyists who continued for years the work of transcribing which had been marked out for them.每到一处,于罗马,他们留下了他们的抄写谁延续了多年抄录已被标记为他们开展工作。

They then spent more than six months in travelling through France, where they halted successively at the Grande Chartreuse of Grenoble, at Lyons, at the monasteries of Cluny and Cîteaux, at Dijon, Auxerre, Sens, and lastly at Paris.然后,他们花了半年多通过法国,在那里他们停止先后在格勒诺布尔兰德黄绿,在里昂,在克鲁尼和Cîteaux,在第戎,欧塞尔,桑斯,寺院和最后在巴黎旅行。 They arrived in the great capital, 11 August, 1662, and were immediately put in touch with whatever distinguished savants Paris could then boast of.他们来到了伟大的首都,1662年8月11日,当即进行了接触任何杰出的学者巴黎然后可以夸耀的表决。They found at their command, with unrestricted leave to copy whatever served their purpose, the wealth of hagiographical matter contained in the rich libraries of Saint-Germain-des-Prés and St. Victor, as well as those of the Celestines and Feuillants, of Wion d'Hérouval, de Thou, de Séguier, and lastly the Mazarine and the Royal Library.他们发现在他们的指挥,不受限制地复制给任何达到其目的,物质财富的hagiographical在圣日耳曼的DES -德培和圣维克多丰富的库中,以及在Celestines和Feuillants,这些Wion德Hérouval,去你,德Séguier,最后是深蓝色和皇家图书馆。 Their stay at Paris extended over three months, every moment of which time they spent in transcribing and collating, besides enlisting the services of several copyists during the entire time.他们在巴黎逗留的三个月以上,其中每一刻时间,他们在抄写和整理,除了争取在整个时间数抄写员的服务,度过的。

They left Paris 9 November and turned their steps toward Rouen, then went through Eu, Abbeville, and Arras, omitting, to their great regret, the city of Amiens, because of the impassable roads, and the impossibility of securing means of transportation.他们离开巴黎11月9日转向鲁昂的步骤,然后通过欧盟,阿布维尔,和阿拉斯去,省略,对他们非常遗憾,在亚眠市,由于道路不通,以及安全的交通工具是不可能的。 They reached Antwerp 21 December, 1662, after an absence of twenty-nine months.他们到达后的二十九个月缺席安特卫普1662年12月21日。They not only brought back with them an enormous mass of documents transcribed by themselves and by the copyists they had been obliged to engage, but they found awaiting them at Antwerp a like number from the copyists they had employed in the principal cities they had visited (notably, Rome, Florence, Milan, and Paris) and who were still carrying on with the labour with which they had been charged.他们不仅带回了一个由他们自己和他们所从事抄写员被迫转录一大堆文件,但他们发现在安特卫普等待他们从他们在他们已经访问了抄写员的主要城市如雇用人数(值得注意的是,罗马,佛罗伦萨,米兰和巴黎),谁仍然携带与使用,他们已被起诉的劳动。 This long journey caused little delay in the progress of the work, for which, on the other hand, it was so productive of good results.这漫长的旅途造成了工作,为此,另一方面,它是如此的好成绩生产力进步一延迟。Thanks to the incredible activity of the three eminent hagiographers, the three volumes for March were given to the public in 1668.到了令人难以置信的三名杰出hagiographers活动感谢,三月至三卷分别向广大市民在1668年。 They bore only the name of Henschen and Papebroch, as Bolland had passed to a better life, 12 September, 1665, thirty-six years after succeeding Rosweyde in the preparation of the "Acta Sanctorum".他们只亨舍琴孔和Papebroch的名称,如博兰已经过去了一个更好的生活,1665年9月12日,三十六年成功后在“学报Sanctorum”的准备Rosweyde。

Seven years later, in 1675, the three volumes for April appeared, preceded by preliminary treatises, the subjects of which were respective: in the first volume, the two most ancient collections of notices on the popes (catalogues of Liberius, and Felix) and the date of St. Ambrose's death, both by Henschen; in the second, the attempt at a diplomatical treatise by Papebroch, "whose chief merit", as the author himself was fond of saying with as much sincerity as modesty, "was that it inspired Mabillon to write his excellent work: "De re diplomatica"; in the third, a new revised edition of the new revised edition of the "Diatribi de tribus Dagobertis", which had made the name of Henschen celebrated twenty years previously. The custom of having these "Parerga" was kept up in the succeeding volumes; there was even an entire volume, the "Propylaeum ad tomos Maii", filled with notes of Papebroch on the chronology and history of the popes from St. Peter to Innocent XI. Another happy thought first carried out at that time was the publication of the Greek acts in their original text; previously, only Latin versions had been given. The Greek texts were still relegated to the end of the volumes in the form of appendices; it was only in the fourth volume of May that they were first printed in the body of the work. The first three volumes of May were published in 1688. Besides the names of Henschen and Papebroch, the title-page bore those of Conrad Janninck and François Baert, who had been appointed to the work, the former in 1679; the latter in 1681, at the same time as Father Daniel Cardon, who was carried off by a premature death the second year after his appointment.七年后,1675年,四月份出现了三册,初步论文之前,其中的主题分别:第一册中,这两个最古老的收藏品上的教皇(附利比里奥目录,和Felix)和通告圣刘汉铨去世的用亨舍琴,日期,在第二,在由Papebroch“,其主要优点”diplomatical论文尝试,如作者本人一样的谦虚与多少诚意喜欢说:“是,它马毕伦灵感写他出色的工作:。“德重diplomatica”,在第三,一个新的新修订版的“Diatribi德tribus Dagobertis”,这使著名的亨舍琴名称的二十年以前的修订版自定义有这些“Parerga”被关在随后的数量最多,甚至出现了一整卷的“Propylaeum广告tomos Maii”,充满了Papebroch说明关于年表和从圣彼得教皇英诺森十一历史。首先进行的另一个好主意,当时出来的是在他们的希腊原文出版物的行为;此前,只有拉丁美洲的版本中被赋予希腊文本仍降级到在册的附录的形式结束。这是仅在五月的第四卷,他们第一次印刷的机构的工作。前三册分别于1688年五月出版除了亨舍琴和Papebroch的名字。,标题页孔康拉德Janninck和弗朗索瓦Baert那些,谁被任命为工作,在1679年以前,在1681年后在丹尼尔卡敦作为父亲,谁是被抬下场后,他过早地去世,第二年获委任同一时间。

Up to this time Bolland and his first two companions had met with nothing but encouragement.到这个时候Bolland和他的两个同伴第一次会见了只是鼓励。A severe storm was soon to burst on the one who was now head of the undertaking and on the work itself.一场严重的风暴很快就一个头谁是现在的事业,对工作本身的破裂。In the first volume of April Papebroch had occasion to treat, under date of the eighth, the Acta of St. Albert Patriarch of Jerusalem, and author of the Carmelite rule.在四月Papebroch第一卷已根据第八次治疗日期,主教的圣伟业耶路撒冷学报,以及笔者的carmelite规则。 In his preliminary commentary he had combated, as insufficiently grounded, the tradition universally received by the Carmelites, that the origin of the order dated back to the prophet Elias, who was regarded as its founder.在他的初步评论,他打击,因为没有充分接地,传统普遍收到的carmelites,认为可追溯到先知埃利亚斯,谁是它的创始人把订单来源。 This was the signal for an outburst of wrath on the part of these religious.这是一个愤怒的对这些宗教的一部分突出的信号。From 1681 to 1693 there appeared no less than twenty or thirty pamphlets filled with abusive language against the unfortunate critic, and adorned with titles often ludicrous through their very efforts at violence:从1681年至1693年出现了有评论家对不幸粗言秽语充满不低于二,三十小册子,并饰以暴力职称通过在其本身的努力往往可笑:

"Novus Ismaël, cuius manus contra omnes et manus omnium contm eum, sive P. Daniel Papebrochius . . . ; Amyclae Jesuiticae, sive Papebrochius scriptis Carmeliticis convictus . . . . ; "Jesuiticum Nihil .“诺伟司伊斯梅尔,cuius马努斯等禁忌适用的马努斯Omnium公司contm eum,sive体育丹尼尔Papebrochius。。。Amyclae Jesuiticae,sive Papebrochius scriptis Carmeliticis convictus。。。。”Jesuiticum Nihil。.."; "Hercules Commodianus Johannes Launoius redivivus in P Daniele Papebrochio . 。“;”大力士Commodianus约翰内斯Launoius在P丹尼尔Papebrochio redivivus。.."; "RP Papebrochius Historicus Conjecturalis Bombardizans S.Lucam et Sanctos Patres", etc. The series culminated in the large quarto volume signed with the name of Father Sebastian of St. Paul, provincial of the Flemish-Belgian province of the Carmelite Order, and entitled: "Exhibitio errorum quos P. Daniel Papebrochius Societatis Jesu suis in notis ad Acta Sanctorum commisit contra Christi Domini Paupertatem, Aetatem, etc. Summorum Pontificum Acta et Gesta, Bullas, Brevia et Decreta; Concilia; S. Scripturam; Ecclesiae Capitis Primatum et Unitatem; SRE Cardinalium Dignitatem et authoritatem; Sanctos ipsos, eorum cultum, Reliquias, Acta et Scripta;“;”反相Papebrochius Historicus Conjecturalis Bombardizans学Lucam等Sanctos Patres“等,在四开大与父亲塞巴斯蒂安圣保罗,在弗拉芒语区的carmelite秩序,比利时省省名签署货量达到高潮的系列, ,题为:“博会errorum quos体育丹尼尔Papebrochius Societatis猪耶稣在notis广告兽类Sanctorum commisit禁忌斯蒂多米尼Paupertatem,Aetatem等Summorum Pontificum兽类等Gesta,Bullas,Brevia等Decreta; Concilia;学Scripturam;,该书头癣Primatum等Unitatem; SRE的Cardinalium Dignitatem等authoritatem; Sanctos益普索,eorum cultum,Reliquias,兽类等Scripta;

Indulgentiarum Antiquitatem; Historias Sacras; Breviaria, Missalia, Maryrologia, Kalendaria, receptasque in Ecclesia traditiones ac revelationes, nec non alia quaevis antiqua Monumenta Regnorum, Regionum, Civitatum, ac omnium fere Ordinum; idque nonnisi ex meris conjecturis, argutiis negativis, insolentibus censuris, satyris ac sarcasmis, cum Aethnicis, Haeresiarchis, Haereticis aliisque Auctoribus ab Ecclesia damnatis.Indulgentiarum Antiquitatem; Historias Sacras; Breviaria,Missalia,Maryrologia,Kalendaria,在神召receptasque traditiones交流revelationes,NEC公司不包括quaevis安蒂奎古迹遗址Regnorum,Regionum,Civitatum,交流Omnium公司fere Ordinum; idque nonnisi前的MERIS conje​​cturis,argutiis negativis,insolentibus censuris, satyris交流sarcasmis,兼Aethnicis,Haeresiarchis,Haereticis aliisque Auctoribus从头神召damnatis。Oblata Sanctissimo Domino Nostro lnnocentio XII .紫丁香Sanctissimo多米诺Nostro lnnocentio十二。..Coloniae Agrippinae, 1693." Papebroch, who was receiving at the same time from the most distinguished scholars lively protests against the attacks of which he was made the object, met them at first merely with a silence which perhaps seemed disdainful. But learning that active steps were being taken at Rome to obtain a condemnation of the collection of the Acta Sanctorum or of some of its volumes, he and his companions decided that the time for silence had passed.Coloniae Agrippinae,1693年。“Papebroch,谁是在从最杰出的学者,他对这些攻击的对象作了生动的抗议,同时接收,起初他们只是遇到了沉默这也许似乎不屑一顾。但学习的活动在罗马的步骤正在采取取得了兽类Sanctorum或收集其体积的谴责,他和他的同伴决定,为沉默的时间已经过去了。

It was Father Janninck who entered the lists in an open letter to the author of the "Exhibitio Errorum", followed soon afterwards by another in which he replied to a new little book published in support of the work of Father Sebastian of St. Paul.这是父亲Janninck谁进入了一封公开信的“博会Errorum”作者的名单,随后很快就被另一个他回答到一个新的小书在圣保罗的父亲塞巴斯蒂安出版工作的支持之后。 The two letters were printed in 1693.这两个字母被印在1693年。They were followed by a more extended apology for the "Acta", published by the same Janninck in 1695; and lastly there appeared in 1696, 1697, and 1698 the three volumes of the "Responsio Danielis Papebrochii ad Exhibitionem Errorum", in which the valiant hagiographer takes up one by one the charges hurled against him by Father Sebastian and confutes each with an answer as solid in argument as it was temperate in tone.其次是为“学报”的发表在1695年同Janninck,更延长道歉;最后还有1696年出现,1697年和1698年的“Responsio Danielis Papebrochii广告Exhibitionem Errorum”的三册,其中英勇hagiographer占用逐一对他投掷由父亲塞巴斯蒂安费和confutes作为论据与固体因为它是在回答每个音温带。 The adversaries of Papebroch, fearing lest they should not be able to obtain from the Court of Rome the condemnation for which they were begging, addressed themselves, with the utmost secrecy, to the tribunal of the Spanish Inquisition, where they won over to their side the most powerful influences.对Papebroch的对手,怕以免他们无法获得从罗马法院的谴责而他们乞讨,解决自己,以最大的秘密,到西班牙宗教裁判所,在那里他们争取到自己身边庭最有力的影响。 Before the writers of Antwerp had any suspicion of what was being plotted against them, there was issued, in November, 1695, a decree of this tribunal condemning the fourteen volumes of the Acta Sanctorum published up to that time, under the most rigorous qualifications, even going so far as to brand the work with the mark of heresy.前安特卫普的作家有任何怀疑的东西对他们正在策划,有发行,11月,1695年,这个谴责出版到那个时候,兽类Sanctorum十四卷法庭的法令,按照最严格的资格,甚至发展为以品牌与异端的标记工作。

Papebroch was painfully and deeply moved by the blow.Papebroch是痛苦的打击,深受感动。 He could submit to all the other insults heaped upon him, but he was obliged to refute the charge of heresy.他可以向所有其他侮辱堆在他身上,但他不得不驳斥异端的费用。He made the most vehement entreaties and had all his friends in Spain on the alert to let him know which propositions the Holy Office of Spain had regarded as heretical, in order that he might retract them, if he was unable to furnish satisfactory explanations, or secure the correction of the sentence, if his explanations were acceptable.他提出了最强烈的恳求,并提高警觉他所有的朋友在西班牙,让他知道这命题的西班牙圣厅已为异端邪说,认为,为了使他可能收回他们,如果他无法提供令人满意的解释,或确保句子的修正,如果他的解释是可以接受的。 His efforts proved fruitless.他的努力徒劳无功。Having fallen seriously ill in 1701, and believing himself at the point of death, immediately after receiving the last sacraments he had a notary-public draw up in his presence and before witnesses a solemn protest which shows how greatly he was affected by the condemnation levelled at his head by the Spanish Inquisition.跌倒在1701年得了重病,相信在自己的死亡点后,立即接受了他的最后圣礼公证公开的画在他面前之前看到了一个严正抗议足见他被大大影响了平整的谴责在他的头部被西班牙宗教裁判所。 "After forty two years of assiduous toil, devoted to the elucidation of the Acts of the Saints, hoping to go to the enjoyment of their society, I ask only one thing on earth, and it is that His Holiness Clement XI be immediately implored to grant me after death what in life I have sought in vain from Innocent XII. I have lived a Catholic, and I die a Catholic, by the grace of God. “经过刻苦辛劳42种,致力于行为的圣人澄清,希望能去享受他们的社会里,我只问一个地球上的东西,那就是他老人家克莱门特十一立即恳求死后授予我在生活中有什么要求无辜的第十二徒劳的。我已经活了天主教的我,我死在一个天主教神的恩典。

I have also the right of dying a Catholic in the eyes of men, which is not possible so long as the decree of the Spanish Inquisition shall appear justly issued and published, and so long as people read that I have taught in my books heretical propositions for which I have been condemned.我也死在了人们眼前,这是不可能的一个天主教的权利,只要在西班牙宗教裁判公正的法令应出现,出版发行等为已读,我在我的书上教的邪教人民长期命题为此我一直谴责。 Papebroch had accepted without appeal or murmur the decision of the Roman Congregation of 22 December, 1700, placing on the Index his chronological and historical Essay on the Popes, published in the "Propylaeum Maii", a decree issued, as was expressly stated, on account of the sections bearing on certain conclaves and requiring merely the correction of the passages in question. Papebroch已经接受了没有上诉或杂音的1700年12月22日罗马众的决定,从而给他的教皇索引顺序和历史散文,在“Propylaeum Maii”发表,发表了一项法令,正如明文规定,在考虑轴承某些秘密会议,并要求仅仅是有问题的通道校正部分。But he did not cease working during the twelve years and a half that he still lived, both by his own efforts and those of his friends, not only to prevent the confirmation by Rome of the decree of the Spanish Inquisition, but also to secure the retraction of the decree.但他没有停止在十二岁半,他还住都通过自己的努力和他的朋友们,工作,不仅要防止罗马的西班牙宗教裁判所确认的法令,而且还保证回缩的法令。 Father Janninck was even sent to Rome with this end in view and remained there for over two years and a half, from the end of October, 1697, till June, 1700.父亲Janninck甚至送往罗马与这个目的,并在那里停留了两年半,从10月底,1697年底,到六月,1700。He was completely successful with respect to the first object of his mission, as in December, 1697, he received the assurance that no censure would be passed against the volumes condemned in Spain.他完全尊重他的使命成功的第一个对象在12月,1697年,他收到了没有谴责在西班牙是反对通过谴责量的保证。

The persecutors of Papebroch were compelled to sue for an injunction to silence for both parties, which was accorded them by a Brief of 25 November, 1698, gratefully accepted by Papebroch.Papebroch迫害者的起诉被迫为双方的,而被给予了25参考资料十一月,1698 Papebroch感激地接受,他们沉默禁令。More time was necessary, however, to bring about a final decision in the second matter.更多的时间是必要的,但是,要实现在第二此事作出最后决定。Whether it was judged prudent in Rome not to enter into conflict with the Spanish tribunal, or whether the latter prolonged the affair by passive resistance, the decree of condemnation made in 1695 was not revoked until 1715, the year following the death of Papebroch.无论是在罗马谨慎判断不进入冲突与西班牙法庭,还是后者延长了消极抵抗的事情,在1695年作出的判决不是谴责,直到1715年撤销,一年之后,Papebroch死亡。 As for the "Propylaeum Maii", it was not withdrawn from the Index of Forbidden Books until the last edition (1900); but this did not prevent the French editor, Victor Palmé, from publishing it in his reprint of the Acta Sanctorum, which he undertook about 1860.至于“Propylaeum Maii”,它不是撤出禁书索引,直到最后版(1900年),但这并不妨碍他的出版学报Sanctorum,它的法国编辑转载,维克多帕尔梅,这他承诺到1860年。

A grievous trial of another sort was visited on Papebroch during the last years of the seventeenth century.另一个严重的审判是那种Papebroch期间访问了十七世纪的最后几年。A cataract affecting both eyes reduced him for about five years to a state of total blindness, which compelled him to give up all literary composition.一个双眼白内障影响减少了约五年的完全失明,迫使他放弃他的所有国家的文学作品。The sight of his left eye was restored in 1702 by a successful operation.他的左眼视力恢复了1702年由一个成功的手术。He immediately took up his work again and continued the Acta Sanctorum as far as the fifth volume of June, the twenty-fourth of the whole collection, which appeared in 1709.他立刻又拿起他的工作,并继续为六月十五卷的兽类Sanctorum远,第二十整个集合,它在1709年出现的第四位。 The weight of age -- he was then eighty-one -- compelled him to abandon the more arduous work of the Bollandist museum.体重的年龄 - 他当时八一 - 迫使他放弃了Bollandist博物馆更艰巨的工作。He lived for almost five years, which he devoted to editing the "Annales Antverpienses" from the foundation of Antwerp down to the year 1700.他住了将近五年,他专门编辑“年鉴Antverpienses”从安特卫普下来的基础,1700年。The manuscript of this work comprised eleven volumes in folio, seven of which are at the Royal Library of Brussels, the others probably having been lost.这项工作包括十一卷的手稿在开本,其中七个在布鲁塞尔皇家图书馆是,有可能失去了其他人。An edition of the volumes which have been preserved to us was published at Antwerp, 1845-48, in five volumes in octavo.作者已经给我们册保存版出版了在安特卫普,1845年至1848年,在五个八开册。

We shall not pursue further the history of the Bollandist work during the eighteenth century up to the suppression of the Society of Jesus, in 1773.我们不会采取进一步在十八世纪到了耶稣会,在1773年镇压了Bollandist工作的历史。The publication continued regularly, though with more or less unevenness as to the value of the commentaries, up to the third volume of October, which appeared in 1770.该刊物继续定期,虽然有或多或少至于评值,截至十月第三卷,在1770年出现的不平衡。The suppression of the Society brought about a crisis in which the work nearly foundered.公会的镇压带来了危机中,几乎沉没的工作。The Bollandists then in office were Cornelius De Bye, James De Bue, and Ignatius Hubens.然后在办公室该bollandists哥尼流德再见了,詹姆斯德积屑瘤和伊格Hubens。The Fathers Jean Clé and Joseph Ghesquière had but recently been transferred from the work. CLE的父亲让约瑟夫盖斯基埃被转移了,但是从最近的工作。The former, at the time of the suppression of the Society, was superior of the Flemish-Belgian province; the latter was in charge of the projected publication of the "Analecta Belgica", a collection of documents relating to the history of Belgium, a work for which the funds of the Musée Bellarmine were appropriated.在协会的抑制时间前,被佛兰芒,比利时省优,后者在对“Analecta Belgica”,一个收集有关的文件,比利时,预计出版的历史掌管工作哪个博物馆贝拉明资金被挪用。This Museum was established at Mechlin at the beginning of the eighteenth century, for the purpose of opposing the Jansenists, but was afterwards transferred to the Professed House at Antwerp.该博物馆成立于梅克林在十八世纪初,为反对詹森教徒的目的,但后来被转移到安特卫普自称府。On 20 September, 1773, commissaries of the Government presented themselves at the residence of the professed Jesuit Fathers at Antwerp, and before the assembled community read the Bull of suppression of Clement XIV and the imperial letters patent empowering them to execute it. 9月20日1773年,政府提出的小卖部在宣称耶稣会神父居住在安特卫普自己,组装前的社会阅读克莱门特十四和帝国英皇制诰使他们能够执行它抑制了公牛。 They then affixed seals to the entrances of the archives, libraries, and any rooms of the Fathers which contained money or objects of value.然后,他们贴封条的档案馆,图书馆,和父亲存放现金价值的物品或任何房间的入口处。A like proceeding took place on the same day in all the houses of the Society then existing in Belgium.像此案发生在同一天的所有公会然后在比利时现有住房的地方。Nevertheless a special order was issued enjoining the members of the commission charged with executing the decree on the Professed House at Antwerp "to summon the ci-devant Jesuits employed in the publication of the 'Acta Sanctorum' and to announce to them that the government, satisfied with their labours, was disposed to exercise special consideration in their regard".然而有一个特殊的命令发出责令该委员会与众议院上执行自称在安特卫普的法令被控成员“召唤往昔的在'兽类Sanctorum'出版雇用耶稣会士,并宣布向他们表示,政府,与他们的劳动表示满意,被弃置在其行使方面特别考虑“。 Father Ghesquière and his collaborators in the "Analecta Belgica" were included in this indulgence granted to the Bollandists.父亲盖斯基埃并在“Analecta Belgica”他的合作者包括在此授予所bollandists放纵。

This favourable attitude of the Government resulted, after various tiresome conferences, in the removal, in 1778, of the Bollandists and the historiographers of Belgium, together with their libraries, to the abbey of Caudenberg, at Brussels.政府这种良好的态度,导致后,各种烦人的会议,在拆除,于1778年,对所bollandists和比利时的史官,连同自己的音乐库,到Caudenberg修道院在布鲁塞尔。 Each of the, Bollandists was to receive an annual pension of 800 florins, besides the 500 florins to be given to the community of Caudenberg in payment for their board and lodging.对每一个人,Bollandists将得到800金币每年的退休金,除了500金币,要考虑到社区的Caudenberg其食宿费。 The same indulgence was accorded to Ghesquière in consideration of his office of historian.同样的放纵是给予盖斯基埃历史学家在他的办公室审议。The results of the sale of the volumes were to be divided between the abbey and the editors on condition that the abbey should take charge of the matter on hand, and provide a copyist to make fair copies of manuscripts for the printers, as well as religious who should be trained under the direction or the elder Bollandists for the continuation of the work.该卷的出售结果将分为修道院和修道院的前提下,应考虑到对眼前的问题负责,并提供一个抄写员为使打印机公平份手稿的编辑,以及宗教谁应该接受培训的指导下或工作的延续老Bollandists。 The other half of the profits was to be divided in equal portions among the writers.利润的另一半是在作家之间的等分划分。 The four hagiographers took up their residence at the Abbey of Caudenberg, and with the consent of the abbot adopted two young religious assistants.四hagiographers拿起在其居住的Caudenberg修道院,并与住持同意的方式通过了两个年轻的宗教助理。 One of these soon left them to pursue his scientific studies, feeling that he had not the vocation for this work; the other was John-Baptist Fonson, at that time (1788) twenty-two years of age, whose name soon afterwards appeared on the title page as editor.其中一个很快就离开他们去追求他的科学的研究,觉得他不适合这项工作的职业,另一方面是约翰,施洗Fonson,当时(1788)第二十两岁,不久,他的名字出现在年作为编辑器的扉页。 Under this new condition of things there appeared in 1780 Volume IV of October under the names of Constantine Suyskens (d. 1771), Cornelius De Bye, John De Bue, Joseph Ghesquière, and Ignatius Hubens, all former Jesuits.根据这一新事物的状态似乎有在1780年第四卷十下,康斯坦丁Suyskens(草1771),科尼利厄斯德再见,约翰,德积屑瘤,约瑟夫盖斯基埃和伊格Hubens,所有前耶稣的名字。 In 1786, Volume V appeared, signed with the names of De Bye, De Bue, and Fonson. 1786年,第五卷出现,与德细则,德积屑瘤,并Fonson的名字签署。In the interval between these two volumes the corps of hagiographers had lost, in 1782, the youngest of the Antwerp members, Ignatius Hubens.在这两者之间的时间间隔的hagiographers卷军团已经失去了,在1782年,在安特卫普的成员,伊格Hubens最小的。 He was replaced in October, 1784, by a French Benedictine, Dom Anselm Berthod, who voluntarily resigned the high positions he held in his order and those for which he was intended, so that he might devote himself to the learned work which the Imperial Government of Vienna requested him to take up.接替他的是十月份,1784年,由法国笃,大教堂安瑟伦Berthod,谁主动辞职,他举行了他的命令和那些为他的目的是高位,所以,他可能投身到学习工作,帝国政府维也纳要求他承担。 He was to be engaged upon it only a little more than three years, for he died at Brussels, in March, 1788.他是从事对它只有三年多一点,因为他死在布鲁塞尔三月,1788。

Two new volumes were issued from the royal press of Brussels, to which had been sent all the equipments of the printing establishment which the Bollandists had founded at Antwerp exclusively for their work.两个新的发行量从布鲁塞尔皇家新闻界,已被送往的所有印刷的成立,所bollandists曾在安特卫普成立专门为他们的工作设备。 The printing expenses as well an those of pensions and indemnities were largely made up to the public treasury by the confiscation of the capital through the sale of their volumes, the collective pension of 2,000 Brabant florins received from the government all through the eighteenth century up to the suppression of the Society, and the liberality of certain benefactors.印刷费用,以及对养老金和赔款的大部分是由市民通过他们的国库卷,2000布拉邦从政府获得的金币出售集体所有的退休金整个18世纪,但以资本没收公会的压制,以及某些恩人慷慨。 This capital had grown by 1773 to the sum of 130,000 florins ($47,166) yielding an annual revenue of 9,133 florins and 18 sous to which were added the results of the sale of the Acta Sanctorum which averaged 2,400 florins yearly.这种资本增长了1773年的13万金币(47166美元)的总和产生了9133金币和18个苏其中年收入增加了兽类Sanctorum销售平均为每年2400金币的结果。 The Empress Maria Theresa to the very last showed favour to the work of the Bollandists.皇后玛丽亚特里萨到最后的结果有利于对所bollandists工作。The same benevolence was not experienced from her successor, Joseph II.同样经历了从仁不是她的继任者约瑟夫二世。 The Bollandists now felt the consequences of one of the so-called reforms introduced into the ecclesiastical domain by this imperial philosopher.该bollandists现在觉得进入教会的领域介绍了这个帝国的哲学家所谓的改革决定的后果。Among the religious houses suppressed as useless was the Abbey of Caudenberg.其中作为无用镇压宗教房子是Caudenberg修道院。

The decree of suppression was enforced in May, 1786.该法令禁止在五月开始执行,1786年。The Bollandists were not at first involved in the catastrophe, as they were assigned a dwelling-place and library in a part of the buildings formerly occupied by the college of the Society of Jesus, and were allowed to retain the pensions and privileges granted them in 1778.该bollandists没有在第一个参与的灾难,因为他们被分配在一个建筑物的一部分居住场所和图书馆的前身由耶稣会大学的占领,并允许保留的养老金和特权授予他们1778。 This was only a short postponement, however, of the complete destruction of the work.这只是一个短暂推迟,但是,这项工作的彻底毁灭。Already, in 1784, the Prince von Kaunitz, minister of Joseph II and his chief counselor in the matter of religious reform, had intimated that the Emperor was not content with slow progress of the undertaking, and that for the future he would expect to see the publication of at least a volume a year, so that the work might be entirely finished in ten years.目前,在1784年,王子冯Kaunitz,约瑟夫二世和他在宗教问题首席顾问改革部长,曾明确表示,皇帝是不符合的承诺方面进展缓慢的内容,而且对未来他希望看到有至少一年的卷出版,使这项工作可能在十年内完全结束。 The minister even went so far as to send word to the municipality of Brussels that "he attributed the lack of activity on the part of the Bollandists to their desire to keep up forever [èterniser] the profits accruing from the work, and that if they did not give satisfaction there was nothing to do but suppress the establishment."这位部长竟然以送一句话,在布鲁塞尔市,“他归因于对所bollandists活动的一部分,他们希望永远没有跟上[èterniser]从工作的利润累积,而如果他们没有给出满意没什么好做,但抑制的建立。“ The accused had no difficulty in justifying themselves.被告没有在自己辩护的难度。But the Court of Vienna had fully decided to hear no explanation, and in 1788 asked for a report from the Court of Accounts concern the expenses entailed by the work of the Bollandists.但是,维也纳法院决定完全没有人解释,并在1788年就从会计关注法院对所bollandists工作带来的费用的报告要求。 The conclusion deduced from this report was that the suppression of this work and that of the historiographers would result in an annual gain to the treasury of two to three thousand florins.从这份报告中得出的结论是,这项工作的史官,而抑制将导致每年的增益,以两到三千金币国库。The Chamber, moreover, took it on itself to say that there was no advantage to be gained by continuing it.会议厅,此外,发生在本身可以说,没有被继续它获得了优势。The ecclesiastical commission and commission of studies (one and the same), consulted in its turn, gave a decision to the same effect (11 October, 1788).教会委员会和研究委员会(同一个),反过来协商,决定给予了同样的效果(1788年10月11日)。It said,它说,

The work of the Bollandists is far from completion, and we cannot flatter ourselves at the end is yet in sight.该所bollandists工作远远没有完成,我们不能在最后奉承自己就在眼前呢。This work has no merit but that of being an historical repertory, filled with an enormous quantity of details, which will always have but slight attraction for real savants.这项工作没有任何好处,但认为作为一个历史的剧目,具有数量巨大的细节,这将永远有轻微的,但真正的学者充满吸引力。 It is astonishing that at the time of the suppression of the Jesuit Order, they should have been successful in interesting the Government in such trash, and that it is such is proved by the scanty profit the Bollandists have derived from their labours.令人惊讶的是在对耶稣会抑制时间,他们应该在这种有趣的垃圾政府的成功,而且它是如此微薄的利润是由所bollandists从他们的劳动所得证明。 In business parlance.在商业用语。it is a very poor investment, and as it is not better, regarded from a scientific standpoint, it is quite time to put an end to it.这是一个非常糟糕的投资,当它是不是更好,从科学的角度认为,这是相当的时间来结束它。

Strengthened by this advice, the "Government Council" notified the Court of Accounts by a despatch dated 16 October, 1788, that it had decided to put a stop to the work of the "Acta Sanctorum", and that in consequence, beginning from that date, no more payments should be made to the Fathers De Bye, De Bue, Fonson, Ghesquière, and Cornelius Smet (a former Jesuit, associated first with Ghesquière in the publication of the "Analecta Belgica and later enrolled among the Bollandists) of the annual pension of 800 florins which had been assured them. It would be decided later what be done with the printing outfit and the other effects of the suppressed establishment. These spoils comprised the library of the Bollandists and the copies of the volumes already published which they had in stock. This involved no slight annoyance. Once the series was abandoned, it would be difficult to find a purchaser for these works, and they wished to realize as much money as possible from them. It was decided to ask the Bollandists themselves to undertake the sale of these effects for the benefit of the public treasury. The Bollandists willingly accepted the charge, hoping to keep intact the treasures of their library and thus to ensure, in a certain measure, the resumption of the work, if not at once, at least in the near future.这个建议得到加强,“政府会”通知日期1788年10月16日一发货,它已决定制止了“学报Sanctorum”工作的审计法院,而在后果,从这个开始到目前为止,没有更多的款项应作出细则的父亲德,德积屑瘤,Fonson,盖斯基埃和科尼利厄斯斯梅特(耶稣会前,先与相关盖斯基埃在“Analecta Belgica出版,后来在所bollandists登记)的每年的退休金800已被他们保证金币。后来这将是决定什么是与印刷装备和被抑制的其他影响进行编制。这些战利品包括了所bollandists图书馆和卷的副本已经出版了他们曾在股票。这项工作涉及任何轻微的烦恼。一旦该系列被放弃,这将是很难找到这些作品购买者,他们希望实现尽可能多的钱从他们身上。这是决定要求自己所bollandists承担着为公众利益国库这些影响销售。该bollandists乐意接受的费用,希望能完整保留其图书馆的宝藏,从而保证在一定的措施,恢复的工作,如果不是一次, ,至少在不久的将来。

Cornelius De Bye, who had been especially commissioned to conduct the sale, turned first to Martin Gerbert, the learned abbot of the monastery of St. Blasius in the Black Forest.科尼利厄斯德再见,谁已特别委托进行销售,它先对马丁尔贝特,对圣修斯在黑森林寺院住持教训。On behalf of the Government commissioners he named a purchase price for the library and such of the published volumes as remained unsold, and offered to come to St. Blasius for some months in order to train some of the young religious of the abbey for the work of publishing the Acta Sanctorum.论政府专员代表他命名为图书馆购买价格的出版量,如尚未出售,并提供了几个月来圣修斯,以培养对工作的一些年轻宗教修道院出版的学报Sanctorum。 His letter, dated 11 November, 1788, remained unanswered, whether as a result of dispositions little favourable to the Society of Jesus, such as had been more than once manifested by this famous abbot, or whether, already absorbed by many important works, he felt he could not think of undertaking yet another entirely new.他的信,日期为1788年11月11日,仍然没有答案,不论是气质​​小有利于社会的耶稣,如已不止一次地表现这个著名住持结果,或者是否已经吸收了许多重要著作,他觉得他想不出事业的又一全新的。 About the same time, ie in November and December, 1788, the Congregation of Benedictines of Saint-Maur, in France, of its own accord made advances to the officials of the Imperial Government of Vienna for the acquisition of the Bollandist library, with a view to continuing the publication.大约在同一时间,在十一月和十二月,1788年,在圣Maur,本笃在法国聚集,自行作出的Bollandist库收购贷款的维也纳帝国政府的官员,即与一为了继续出版。 This attempt was equally void of result.这一尝试的结果也同样无效。It was with the abbey of the Premonstratensians of Tongerloo that arrangements were finally concluded.正是有了对Tongerloo Premonstratensians修道院的安排终于完成。By a contract signed 11 May, 1789, the Government transferred to the abbey the Bollandist library and the Bellarmine Museum, together with the furnishings appertaining to them, and the volumes already printed and the printing equipment.由合同签订1789年5月11日,政府转移到修道院的Bollandist图书馆和博物馆贝拉明,连同附属于他们的家具,并已印制的数量和印刷设备。

In return, the abbey was to pay the government for the libraries 12,000 Brabant florins ($4,353.84) and for the other things 18,000 florins.作为回报,该修道院是支付布拉班特的库12000金币($ 4,353.84)和18000金币的其他事物的政府。 Half of the latter sum was turned over to the three hagiographers, De Bye, De Bue, and Fonson.后者总和的一半被移交给三个hagiographers,德再见,德积屑瘤,并Fonson。Moreover, the abbey agreed to pay a yearly salary to these three as well as to Ghesuière and Smet.此外,修道院同意支付以及这些年薪三至Ghesuière和斯梅特。The Bollandists were scarcely established in their new home when the Brabantine Revolution broke out.该bollandists,几乎都无法建立自己的新家时,Brabantine革命爆发了。Nevertheless, they continued their labours and in 1794 published the sixth volume of October, signed with the names of Cornelius De Bye and James De Bue, former Jesuits, John Baptist Fonson, ex-Canon of Caudenberg, Anselm Berthod the Benedictine, and Siard van Dyck, Cyprian van de Goor, and Matthias Stalz, Premonstratensian canons.不过,他们继续他们的劳动和在1794年十月出版了第六卷,科尼利厄斯德与德​​积屑瘤细则和詹姆斯,前耶稣,施洗的约翰Fonson,前佳能Caudenberg,安瑟伦Berthod本笃的名字签署,西亚德面包车戴克,塞浦路斯范德古尔,和马提亚Stalz,Premonstratensian大炮。 The same year Belgium was invaded by French troops and reunited to the great Republic.同年,比利时和法国军队入侵团聚的伟大共和国。Ecclesiastical goods were confiscated, priests and religious hunted like criminals, the Premonstratensians of Tongerloo and the Bollandists whom they harboured forced to disperse, and the work of the Bollandists actually suppressed.货物被没收的教会,牧师和宗教一样追捕罪犯,在Tongerloo和所bollandists人,他们被迫分散Premonstratensians窝藏,和实际镇压所bollandists工作。 Part of the treasures of the library were concealed in the homes of neighbouring peasants, and the rest, hastily piled into wagons, were taken to Westphalia.对图书馆的珍品被部分隐藏在邻近的农民家中,和休息,急忙到车厢堆放,被送到威斯特伐利亚州。When the storm of persecution had somewhat abated, an attempt was made to collect these scattered effects.当迫害风暴有所减弱,有人企图收集这些零散的影响。Naturally many of them were lost or destroyed.当然其中许多人遗失或被毁。The remainder were restored to the abbey of Tongerloo, where they were undisturbed until 1825.其余则恢复到Tongerloo,他们在那里,直到1825年原状修道院。Then, as all hope of resuming the Bollandist work seemed lost, the canons of Tongerloo disposed of a great number of the books and manuscripts by public sale.那么,作为恢复Bollandist所有希望都失去了工作,对Tongerloo一类的书籍和大量手稿公开出售处置大炮。

Such as remained were given to the government of the Netherlands, which hastened to incorporate the volumes into the Royal Library of The Hague.如仍给予到荷兰,赶紧将其纳入海牙的皇家图书馆的体积政府。The manuscripts seemed destined to a like fate, but as a result of earnest solicitations they were deposited in the Library of Bourgogne, Brussels, where they still remain.手稿似乎注定要像命运,但由于他们在勃艮第,布鲁塞尔,在那里他们仍然认真地招揽存放库的结果。Nevertheless, the idea of resuming the publication of the Acta Sanctorum had never been entirely abandoned in Belgium.然而,恢复出版的学报Sanctorum想法从来没有完全放弃在比利时。The prefect of the department of the Deux Nèthes (province of Antwerp), in 1801; the Institute of France, with the Minister of the Interior of the French Republic as a mediator, in 1802; and lastly, in 1810, the Baron de Tour du Pin, Prefect of the Department of the Dyle (Brussels), at the request of the incumbent of the same important office, then the Count de Montalivet, applied to such of the former Bollandists as were still living, to induce them to resume their task once more.法国研究所与作为调解人部长法兰西共和国内政部,在1802年,作者的德塞夫勒Nèthes(安特卫普省),在1801年部门知府,最后于1810年,该巡回赛男爵杜引脚,该Dyle(布鲁塞尔),部省长在相同的重要职务,那么,伯爵Montalivet现任要求,适用于前Bollandists如仍然生活,促使他们恢复任务一次。

But the attempts were futile.但是,企图是徒劳的。

Matters rested here until 1836.在这里休息,直到1836年的事项。It was then learned that a hagiographical society had been formed in France under the patronage of several bishops and of M. Guizot, Minister of Public Instruction, and that it especially proposed to itself the resumption of the work of the Bollandists.据悉,这是当时社会的一个hagiographical在法国已经形成了几个下M的主教和基佐,公共教育部长,乘客量和它本身的建议,特别是对所bollandists复工。 The chief promoter of the enterprise, Abbé Théodore Perrin, of Laval, came to Belgium the same year, 1836, to solicit the support of the Government and the collaboration of Belgian savants.企业的主要发起人,阿贝西奥多佩兰,拉瓦尔,来到比利时同年,1836年,征求各国政府的支持和比利时学者的合作。 He did not meet with the reception he had hoped for.他没有满足,他所希望的接收。On the contrary, it aroused indignation in Belgium that a work which had come to be regarded as a national glory should pass into the hands of the French.相反,它引起了愤怒,一个是比利时来的工作已被视为一个国家的荣耀应该传递到整个法国的手中把。The Abbé de Ram, Rector Magnificus of the University of Louvain and member of the Royal Commission of History, expressed this feeling in a letter addressed Count de Theux, Minister of the Interior, urgently imploring him to lose no time in securing for their native land of Belgium the honour of completing the great hagiographical collection, and engaged him to entrust the work to the Fathers of the Society of Jesus, by whom it had been begun and carried so far in the preceding centuries.神甫代拉姆,校长的鲁汶大学Magnificus和历史的皇家委员会的成员,在信中表达了这种感情处理伯爵Theux,内政部部长,迫切恳求他失去了在故土确保没有时间比利时的荣誉完成伟大hagiographical集合,并委托他从事的工作的耶稣会神父,谁它已开始,进行了几百年至今。 The Minister immediately took the field, and conducted negotiations with such energy that by January, 1837, he received from Father van Lil, Provincial of the Society in Belgium, assurance of the appointment by the Society of new Bollandists, with their residence at the College of Saint-Michel at Brussels.部长立即采取实地,并与这些能源,到一月,1837年,他从父亲范律,社会的省在比利时,由协会任命新的Bollandists保证,收到居住在学院进行的谈判圣米歇尔在布鲁塞尔。 These were Fathers Jean-Baptiste Boone, Joseph Van der Moere, and Prosper Coppens, to whom was added in the course of the same year, Father Joseph van Hecke.这些都是父亲让巴蒂斯特布恩,约瑟夫范德Moere,繁荣Coppens,向谁是在同一年,父亲约瑟夫凡赫克院校课程。 The provincial, in behalf of these Fathers, asked the privilege of taking home with them from the Library of Bourgogne and the Royal Library, such manuscripts and books as they would need for reference in the course of their work.省,在这些父亲的名义,要求采取从勃艮第图书馆,皇家图书馆,手稿和书籍等,因为他们需要在参考其工作过程中与他们家的特权。 Both requests were immediately granted.这两个请求立即获得批准。Moreover, an annual subsidy was promised, which was fixed in May, 1837, at 6,000 francs.此外,每年补贴的承诺,这是五月,1837年固定的,在6000法郎。This subsidy was continued from year to year under the different governments, both Catholic and Liberal, which succeeded to power, until the parliamentary session of 1868, in the course of which the Deputies cut it out of the budget.这种补贴是继续每年根据不同的政府,天主教和自由,这继承权,直到1868年议会会议在此过程中所代表的预算削减出来。 It has never been re-established.它从来没有被重新建立。

The new hagiographers began by drawing up a list of the saints whose acts or notices remained to be published, that is to say, those who are honoured in the Catholic Church on the various days of October, November, and December, beginning from 15 October, the day at which the work of their predecessors had been brought to a halt.新hagiographers首先制订一个圣人的行为或告示仍有待公布,也就是说,那些谁是在天主教教会兑现的十月,十一月,十二月各天的清单,从10月15日开始,在这一天,他们前任的工作已经陷入了停滞状态。 This list was published in the month of March, 1838, with an introduction containing a summary of the history of the Bollandist movement, the announcement of the resumption of the work, and an earnest appeal to all friends of religious learning, imploring their assistance in securing what was felt by the new workers as the most necessary thing for their success, namely, a hagiographical library.这份名单公布在三月,1838年的月份,一载有该Bollandist运动,恢复了工作报告,并认真地总结历史呼吁宗教学习所有朋友的介绍,恳求他们的援助什么是安全的新工人觉得自己最适合他们的成功,即一个hagiographical图书馆必要的事。 This was published under the title of "De prosecutione operis Bollandiani" (in octavo, 60 pp.).这是出版的标题下,“德prosecutione operis Bollandiani”(在八开本,60页)。The appeal was heard.上诉被听到。Most of the European governments, many societies of learned men, and several great publishers sent copies of the historical works undertaken by them; private individuals made generous donations of books, often precious and rare volumes that had adorned their libraries.大多数的欧洲各国政府,但许多社会的学问的人,和几大出版商发送他们所承担的历史作品的复制品;个人作出慷慨捐赠的书籍,往往珍贵和稀有,民政事务总署装饰自己的音乐库量。 Everywhere, also, on their literary journeys, the Bollandists were accorded the most enthusiastic and flattering receptions.无处不在,而且,在他们的文学旅程,所bollandists被给予最热情的接待和奉承。The first volume published after the resurrection of Bollandism, Volume VII of October, appeared in 1845, containing over 2,000 pages in folio.第一卷复活后的Bollandism出版,体积十月七,出现在1845年,超过2000对开页包含。There followed successively Volumes VIII to XIII of October, and I and II of November, besides the "Propylaeum Novembris", an edition of the Greek Synaxarion called "de Sirmond", with the variants of sixty manuscripts scattered through the various public libraries of Europe.随后先后有八册第十三十月,十一月第一和第二,除了“Propylaeum Novembris”,一个名为“德Sirmond”希腊Synaxarion版本,手稿与六十通过欧洲各公共图书馆分散变种。

The author of this article does not consider himself qualified to give an estimate of the work of these later Bollandists, having himself been a member of the body for too long a time.这篇文章的作者并不认为自己有资格给一个对这些后来Bollandists工作的估计,有自己太久的时间身体的成员。He is able, however, to cite the appreciations of the most distinguished and capable scholars in this field, who testify that the volumes published by the later Bollandists are in no wise inferior to those of their predecessors of the seventeenth an eighteenth centuries.他是能干,但是,举在这一领域最杰出的和有能力的学者,谁作证,到后来Bollandists发表在任何明智的卷逊色于他们的前辈在十七十八世纪的这些都是赞赏。 The reservations made by certain critics in their commendation are generally due to the prolixity of the commentaries, which they think is often excessive, and to the timidity of certain conclusions, which do not seem to them to correspond with what the discussions had led them to expect.在他们的赞许某些批评提出的保留一般是由于该评论罗唆,他们往往认为是过度,以及对某些结论,这似乎不符合他们的讨论以什么导致他们胆怯期望。 Another class of censors reproach the Bollandists for quite the reverse, accusing them of not showing sufficient respect towards what they call tradition, and of being too often hypercritical.另一检查员类责备恰恰相反所bollandists,指责不显示对他们所谓的传统充分尊重他们,常常被挑眼。 The present members of the body are firmly resolved to be on their guard against these contrary excesses, something, indeed, which becomes easier to them as time passes, owing to the constant progress of good scientific methods.身体的现任成员是下定决心要对他们与这些相反的过激行为,一些东西,事实上,这已经成为他们更容易随着时间的推移,由于良好的科学方法不断进步,掉以轻心。 We may be permitted one word, in conclusion, as to what has been done during these latter years towards keeping the work up to the high level of contemporary historical erudition.我们可能会允许有一个字,最后,在已经取得的工作对保持到当代的历史较高水平博学后者年完成。

It has been judged opportune, in the first place, to publish, besides the great volumes of the principal collection itself, which appear at undetermined intervals, a periodical review intended chiefly to make known to the learned public materials recently discovered by the Bollandists or their friends which go towards completing either the Acts published in the volumes already printed or the entire mass of the work.据判断时机,摆在首位,除了公布的主要集合本身,这在不确定的时间间隔出现的巨大体积,目的主要是一个定期检讨,使已知最近所bollandists或他们的发现所学的公共物品朋友这对无论是在已经完成的卷印刷或出版的整个工作质量的行为去。 This review was begun under the title of "Analecta Bollandiana" in 1882.该审查开始在“Analecta Bollandiana”称号,1882年。At the rate of one volume in octavo a year, it has reached in the present year (1907) the twenty-sixth volume.在八开的一个量的年增长率,这在目前已达到年(1907年)第二十六届音量。In volumes subsequent to the sixth there have been inserted, besides unedited documents, various notes bearing on hagiographical matters.在以后的卷已被插入另外有未经编辑的文件,对hagiographical事项轴承不同的记录,第六位。Since the publication of the tenth volume, each quarterly issue has contained a "Bulletin des publications hagiogphiques" in which are announcements and summary appreciations of recent works and articles in reviews which concern matters of hagiography.自第十第一卷出版,每季度问题已载有“出版物hagiogphiques公告德”,即是公告和近期的作品赞赏,并在评论中总结其中hagiography关心的问题的文章。 Other auxiliary works have exacted long years of laborious preparation.其他辅助工作已经准备付出的艰苦漫长的岁月。They are the "Bibliotheca Hagiographica Graeca" and the "Bibliotheca Hagiographica Latina", in which are enumerated under the name of each saint, following the alphabetical order of their names, all documents relating to his or her life and cult written in Greek or in Latin before the beginning of the sixteenth century, together with the indication of all collections and books where they can be found.他们是“书目Hagiographica Graeca”和“书目Hagiographica拉丁”,其中列举根据每个圣徒的名字,他们的名字后,按字母顺序排列的所有文件,他或她的生活和邪教希腊或书面拉丁前十六世纪开始生活在一起,在所有集合和在那里他们可以找到的书迹象。 The first of these collections, which appeared in 1895, numbers 143 pages.这些藏品,这在1895年出现,数字143页第一页。 (There is now in preparation a new edition notably enlarged.) The second, issued 1898-99, has 1,387 pages. (现在有一个新的版本做准备,特别是扩大。)第二,发行1898年至1899年,拥有1,387页。It is hoped that a "Bibliotheca Hagiographica Orientalis" will soon be printed.这是希望,“书目Hagiographica山东教育”将很快被打印出来。

Moreover, there is a third class of auxiliary works to which the Bollandists of the present generation are directing their activity, and that is the careful preparation of catalogues containing a systematic detailed description (if the Greek and Latin hagiographical manuscripts of various great libraries. A great many of these catalogues have been incorporated in the "Analecta". Such are the catalogues of the Greek manuscripts in the Roman libraries of the Barberini, the Chigi, and the Vatican; the National Library of Naples; the library of the University of Messina, and that of St. Mark's, in Venice; catalogues of the Latin manuscripts in the Royal Library of Brussels (2 vols. in octavo), in the libraries of the cities, or of the universities, of Bruges, Ghent, Liège, and Namur, in Belgium; of the municipal libraries of Chartres, Le Mans, Douai, and Rouen, in France; those of the Hague in Holland, and, in Italy, of Milan (the Ambrosian), as well as the various libraries of Rome; also in the private library of his Majesty the Emperor of Austria, at Vienna, and that of Alphonsus Wins at Nivelles; and lastly, of the Bollandist Library. Besides the "Analecta", there have appeared the catalogue of the old (before 1500) Latin manuscripts in the National Library of Paris (three octavo volumes, also the tables) and a list of the Greek manuscripts in the same library (compiled in collaboration with MH Omont). All these publications, although certainly delaying somewhat the appearance of succeeding volumes of the Acta Sanctorum, have gained for the Bollandists warm words of encouragement and commendation from the greatest scholars.此外,还有一类的辅助工作第三次将其与现在这一代所bollandists是指导他们的活动,这是含有一个系统的详细说明(如各种大型图书馆希腊和拉丁手稿目录hagiographical精心准备。阿。伟大的这些目录许多已被纳入“Analecta”这些都是在巴贝里尼的齐格,罗马和梵蒂冈图书馆的希腊手稿目录;那不勒斯的国家图书馆;的墨西拿大学图书馆,而圣马可在威尼斯;在布鲁塞尔皇家图书馆。(2卷中的八开)拉丁手稿目录,在该城市的图书馆,或布鲁日,根特,列日,和大学,在比利时那慕尔;的沙特尔,勒芒,杜埃和鲁昂,在法国的市级图书馆;那些在荷兰海牙,在意大利,米兰(安布罗西安),以及罗马的各图书馆, ;也是在陛下在维也纳奥地利皇帝,私人图书馆,而阿方在尼维尔冠军;。最后,在Bollandist图书馆除了“Analecta”,也有出现在1500年的旧(目录)拉丁手稿在巴黎国家图书馆(三八开册,也是表)和在同一库列表的希腊手稿(与氢Omont合作编制)。所有这些刊物,虽然的确有点拖延了成功的外观该学报Sanctorum卷,已获得了所bollandists温暖的​​鼓励和赞赏的话,从最伟大的学者。

There is a final detail which may not be without interest.有一个最后的细节,未必不计利息。The Bollandists had found themselves greatly hampered in the arrangement of their library at their residence in the Rue des Ursulines at Brussels which they had occupied since the resumption of the work in 1837.该bollandists大大发现自己在他们在德苏林街的住所安排在布鲁塞尔的图书馆,他们自1837年恢复工作,被占领而受到阻碍。 During the latter part of 1905 they were transferred to the new College of Saint-Michel on the Boulevard Militaire, where ample and convenient quarters for the library were assigned in the lofty buildings of the vast establishment.在1905年下半年,他们被转移到圣米歇尔大道上的新学院Militaire,那里丰富的图书馆,方便宿舍建立在广大的崇高建筑物分配。 The 150,000 volumes contained in their literary museum are most suitably arranged here.在15万册的文学博物馆中这里是最适当的安排。A large space was also set apart for historical and philological reviews (about 600), nearly all of which are sent regularly by learned societies, either gratuitously or in exchange for the "Analecta Bollandiana".空间大还选派历史和语言学的评语(约600),几乎所有这些都是定期派出学术团体,在免费或为“Analecta Bollandiana”交流。To class these according to the place of publication and the language chiefly employed in their preparation: 228 are French (a certain number of which are published in Belgium, Switzerland, and other countries than France); 135, German; 88, Italian; 55, English (of which ten are American); 13, Russian; 11, Dutch; 7, Flemish; 7, Spanish; 7, Croatian; 4, Swedish; 3, Portuguese; 2, Irish; 2, Hungarian; 1, Czech; 1, Polish; 1, Rumanian; 1, Dalmatian; and 1, Norwegian.根据这些来上课的出版和准备,主要是在其采用的语言的地方:228是法国(一定数量其中在比利时,瑞士和其他国家出版超过法国)135,德国,88,意大利; 55 ,英语(其中10是美国),13,俄罗斯,11,荷兰,7,佛兰芒,7,西班牙,7,克罗地亚,4,瑞典3,葡萄牙2,爱尔兰2,匈牙利,1,捷克; 1,波兰; 1,罗马尼亚,1,大麦町以及1,挪威人。Moreover, there are 9 printed in Greek, 6 in Latin, 4 in Armenian and 1 in Arabic.此外,有9个印在希腊,亚美尼亚和1 6个在拉丁美洲,4阿拉伯语。Finally, a large hall near the library has been set apart, and after October, 1907, it will be thrown open to foreign students who may wish to consult original sources of information likely to assist them in their researches.最后,附近的图书馆大厅,除了已经成立,并在十月,1907年,这将是向外国学生敞开谁不妨征询信息的原始来源,可能有助于他们在他们的研究。

The quotations of the Acta Sanctorum refer to three different editions.该学报Sanctorum的报价是指三个不同的版本。The first, the original one, commonly called the Antwerp edition, has been sufficiently described in the above article.第一,原一,俗称安特卫普版,已经充分说明了上述文章。The volumes of the Antwerp collection were first reprinted at Venice from 1764 to 1770.在安特卫普集合的数量首次重印在威尼斯1764年至1770年。They reached then to volume VI of September.然后他们到达量九月六。The main difference between this reimpression and the Antwerp edition lies in the fact that the supplementary additions to sundry commentaries printed by the Bollandists at the end of the single volumes, or of a set of volumes are transposed in the Venetian edition and joined to the commentary to which they refer; hence the contents of each volume are not in close correspondence in the volumes similarly marked in both editions.这之间的reimpression和安特卫普版的主要区别在于,以各式各样的评论所bollandists打印在单册结束,或者一个卷集的补充增加的转版,并在威尼斯加入到评论的事实它们所引用,因此,每卷的内容是不是在同样密切的对应关系在两种版本,标志着卷。 Moreover, many of the parerga or preliminary treatises scattered through the Antwerp collection have been brought together in three separate volumes.此外,在parerga或通过收集分散的初步安特卫普许多论文已汇集了在三个不同的卷。But the whole printing teems with typographical blunders.但是,与整个印刷排版失误盛产。Lastly another reprinting of the Antwerp publication was undertaken by the Parisian editor, Victor Palmé, from 1863 to 1869, and carried on to the tenth volume of October.最后再重印出版的安特卫普进行了编辑器的巴黎,维克多帕尔梅,1863年至1869年,并进行到十月十音量。This edition reproduces exactly, volume by volume, the original one, except for the months of January and June.正是这个版本重现,按量量,原来,除了一月和六月份。The two big volumes of January have been divided into three, and in the volumes of June also some changes have been made in the disposition of matter, in order to render the use of them easier to readers.一月的两个大体积被分为三,在6月的一些变化也一直在做的事情处理量,以使他们使用的方便读者。Besides, to each of the volumes of the first four months were added a few unpublished short notes (filling from one to six pages) of Daniel Papebroch, found in his papers and relating to the commentaries printed in the volume.此外,为对前四个月的每个卷都被添加了一些未发表的简短丹尼尔Papebroch笔记(一到六页填写),发现在他的论文和有关的数量印制的评注。

Publication information Written by Charles De Smedt.出版信息撰稿:查尔斯德Smedt。Transcribed by Michael C. Tinkler.转录由迈克尔廷克勒。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全书,第二卷。Published 1907.1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, 1907.Nihil Obstat,1907年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Also, see:此外,见:
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Benedictines benedictines
Cistercians cistercians
Trappists trappists
Christian Brothers基督教兄弟
Dominicans 多米尼加
Carmelites carmelites
Discalced Carmelitesdiscalced carmelites
Augustinians 奥古斯丁会士
Marist Brothers圣母兄弟

Monasticism 修道
Nuns 修女
Friars 方济各会士
Convent 修道院
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Major Orders大订单
Holy Orders神圣的订单

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