Jesus Christ耶稣基督

yēsū jīdūGeneral / Advanced Information一般/先进的信息

Jesus, or Jeshua ben Joseph, as he was known to his contemporaries, was a Jew who appeared as a prophet, a teacher, and a sage in Palestine about AD 30.耶稣,或本约瑟夫耶书亚,因为他知道他的同时代人,是一个犹太人谁表现为30先知,教师,和AD圣人在巴 ​​勒斯坦有关。His followers believed him to be the Messiah of Israel, the one in whom God had acted definitively for the salvation of his people (hence, the title Christ, a Greek rendition of the Hebrew Meshiah, meaning "anointed one").他的追随者相信他是以色列的弥赛亚,神在其中明确地采取了行动为拯救他的人(因此,标题基督,希腊文,希伯来文Meshiah移交,意思是“受膏者”)之一。 This belief took distinctive form when, after the execution of Jesus by the Romans (acting on the recommendation of the Jewish authorities), he reportedly presented himself alive to some of his followers.这种信念形成了鲜明的时后,耶稣被罗马人(对犹太当局的建议采取行动)的执行,据说他介绍自己活着就他的一些追随者。

The Resurrection of Jesus became a fundamental tenet of the religion that would soon be called Christianity.耶稣的复活成为了,并很快被称为基督教信仰的根本宗旨。According to Christian belief, Jesus was God made man (he was called both "Son of God" and "Son of Man" and identified as the second person of the Trinity); his life and his death by crucifixion are understood to have restored the relationship between God and humankind - which had been broken by the latter's sinfulness (Atonement; Original Sin); and his resurrection (the event celebrated by Easter) affirms God's total sovereignty over his creation and offers humankind the hope of Salvation.根据基督教的信仰, 耶稣是上帝造人(他同时被称为“上帝的儿子”和“人子”,并确定为三位一体的第二人),他的生活和他在十字架上的死亡被理解为恢复了上帝和人类的关系-这已被打破,由后者的罪孽(赎罪;原罪)和他的复活(复活节庆祝活动)确认他的创作神主权的整体,并提供拯救人类的希望。

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These core beliefs about Jesus are summed up in the words of the Nicene Creed: "I believe in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only - begotten Son of God, Begotten of his Father before all worlds, God of God, Light of Light, Very God of very God, Begotten, not made, Being of one substance with the Father, By whom all things were made: Who for us men, and for our salvation came down from heaven, And was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, And was made man, And was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate. He suffered and was buried, And the third day he rose again according to the Scriptures, And Ascended into heaven, And sitteth on the right hand of the Father. And he shall come again with glory to judge both the quick and the dead: Whose kingdom shall have no end."这些核心信仰耶稣的信条是总结在尼西亚的话了:“我信唯一的主耶稣基督,唯一的-神的独生子,独生子,他在所有的世界,神的神,光,非常,神很神,造物主没有作出,父亲是在一个物质与中,谁所有事情发了言:谁为了我们人类,和我们的拯救下来,从天上,玛丽的化身,是由维尔京的圣灵,并取得了男人,而我们也被钉在十字架下本丢彼拉多。他遭受痛苦和被埋葬,第三天,他再次上升,根据圣经,升天成,和父亲对坐在右边的手。他就要来死里复活与荣耀来判断双方的快速和:国度永无穷尽。谁的“

The Historical Jesus历史上的耶稣

The Christ - myth school of the early 20th century held that Jesus never lived but was invented as a peg on which to hang the myth of a dying and rising God. Yet the evidence for the historical existence of Jesus is good.基督- 20世纪初的神话学派认为,耶稣从来没有住,但上帝发明了挂挂在其上增加一个垂死的神话和良好的然而,历史的存在的证据为耶稣。

Non - Christian Sources非 - 基督教的来源

Among Roman historians, Tacitus (Annals 15.44) records that the Christian movement began with Jesus, who was sentenced to death by Pontius Pilate.其中罗马历史学家塔西佗(15.44志)记载,基督教运动的兴起与耶稣,谁是本丢彼拉多判处死刑。Suetonius (Claudius 25.4) refers to the expulsion of the Jews from Rome because of a riot instigated by one "Chrestus" in AD c.苏埃托尼乌斯(克劳狄斯25.4)是指从罗马驱逐的犹太人因为暴乱一个“Chrestus”煽动公元三48, and this is usually taken to be a confused reference to the Christians and their founder. 48,这是通常采取的是一个困惑参考基督徒和他们的创始人。Pliny the Younger (Epistles 10.96), writing to Emperor Trajan, says that the early Christians sang a hymn to Christ as God.小普林尼(书信10.96),书面向图拉真皇帝说,早期的基督徒作为神唱圣歌基督。Most of the Jewish evidence is late and anti Christian propaganda, but an early reference in the Babylonian Talmud says that Jeshu ha - Nocri was a false prophet who was hanged on the eve of the Passover for sorcery and false teaching.对犹太人的大部分证据都迟到,反基督教的宣传,而是早在巴比伦塔木德说,Jeshu参考公顷 - Nocri是假先知谁是对的巫术和虚假教学逾越节前夕被处以绞刑。The evidence from the historian Josephus is problematical.从历史学家约瑟夫的证据是有问题的。He recounts (Antiquities 20.9.1) the martyrdom of James, "the brother of Jesus called the Christ," in AD 62.他叙述(古物20.9.1)殉道的詹姆斯,“耶稣的兄弟叫基督”,在公元62。

Another passage in the Antiquities (18.3.3) gives an extended account of Jesus and his career, but some features of it are clearly Christian interpolations.另一个古物(18.3.3)通过叙述了耶稣和他的职业生涯延长帐户,但它的一些特点显然是基督教插补。 Whether this passage has an authentic nucleus is debated.这段话是否有一个真正的细胞核进行辩论。Thus the Roman sources show a vague awareness that Jesus was a historical figure as well as the object of a cult; the reliable Jewish sources tell us that he was a Jewish teacher who was put to death for sorcery and false prophecy and that he had a brother named James.因此,罗马的消息显示模糊认识耶稣是一个历史人物,以及邪教的对象;犹太可靠消息来源告诉我们,他是一个犹太人的老师谁被处死的巫术和虚假的预言,他有一个弟弟名叫詹姆斯。 The Jewish evidence is especially valuable because of the hostility between Jews and Christians at the time: it would have been easy for the Jewish side to question the existence of Jesus, but this they never did.犹太人的证据,特别是宝贵的,因为之间的敌意,犹太人和基督徒在: 这本来是很容易的犹太人方耶稣存在的问题,但是这一点,他们从来没有。

The Gospels福音

The Gospels According to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, the first four books of the New Testament of the Bible, are the principal sources for the life of Jesus.福音据马太,马克,路加,和约翰,前四个圣经的新约书,是为耶稣生活的主要来源。These works are primarily testimonies to the faith of the early Christian community, however, and have to be used critically as evidence for the historical Jesus.这些作品主要是早期基督教社会信仰的证词,但是,都必须用来为耶稣的历史证据伤势严重。The methods include source, form, and redaction criticism.该方法包括来源,形式和节录批评。Source criticism studies the literary relationships between the Gospels, and the generally accepted view is that Mark was written prior to and was used by Matthew and Luke, and that Matthew and Luke also had another source in common, unknown to Mark, which consisted mostly of sayings of Jesus.来源批评研究文学与福音的关系,并普遍接受的观点是,马克写之前,被马修和卢克使用,马修和卢克也有共同的另一个来源,默默无闻地大关,这主要是由熟语的耶稣。

Some would add two other primary sources, the material peculiar to Matthew and that peculiar to Luke.有些人会加入其他两个主要的来源,材料特有的马修和特有的卢克。There is a growing consensus that the fourth Gospel, despite a heavy overlay of Johannine theology in the arrangement of the episodes and in the discourses, also enshrines useful historical information and authentic sayings of Jesus.人们越来越一致认为,第四福音,尽管对johannine神学中的情节安排和话语,也体现了有益的历史资料和真实熟语耶稣重覆盖。 Form criticism investigates the history of the oral traditions behind the written Gospels and their sources, whereas redaction criticism isolates and studies the theology of the editorial work of the evangelists.形式批评调查背后的书面福音及其来源的口头传统的历史,而编撰的批评分离和研究的编辑工作的福音神学。

These methods provide criteria to sift through the redaction and tradition and reconstruct the message and the mission of the historical Jesus.这些方法提供准则,以筛选和传统的节录和重建的消息和历史上的耶稣的使命。The criteria of authenticity are dissimilarity both to contemporary Judaism and to the teachings of the post Easter church; coherence; multiple attestation; and linguistic and environmental factors.真实性的标准是既相异当代犹太教和复活节后的教堂的教义;一致性;多种认证;以及语言和环境因素。The criterion of dissimilarity establishes a primary nucleus of material unique to Jesus.该标准相异建立了一个独特的核材料主要耶稣。The criterion of coherence adds other materials consistent with this nucleus.标准添加的连贯一致的其他与此核材料。Multiple attestation - material attested by more than one primary source or in more than one of the forms of oral tradition established by form criticism - provides evidence for the primitivity of the Jesus tradition.多重认证 - 由一个以上的主要来源或超过所建立的口头传统形式批评的一种形式证明材料 - 提供了耶稣的传统纯朴的证据。Palestinian cultural background and Aramaic speech forms provide an additional test.巴勒斯坦文化背景和阿拉姆语言形式提供额外的测试。

The Life of Jesus耶稣的生命

Application of the critical methods described above reveals that the gospel tradition apparently started originally with Jesus' baptism by John the Baptist (Matt. 3:13 - 17; Mark 1:9 - 11; Luke 3:21 - 22; John 1:29 - 34).上述的批评方法的应用表明,传统显然开始福音与耶稣的洗礼最初由施洗约翰(太3:13 - 17;马克1:9 - 11;路加福音15:21 - 22;约翰福音1:29 - 34)。The stories concerning the birth of Jesus were probably later additions.有关的故事,耶稣诞生的人可能是后来补充。These stories - the annunciations to Mary and Joseph, their journey to Bethlehem for the Roman census, and Jesus' birth there (Luke 2:1 - 7); the visits of the shepherds (Luke 2:8 - 20) and the three Magi from the East (Matt. 2:1 - 12); and the flight of the family to Egypt to escape the massacre of young boys that had been ordered by King Herod (Matt. 2:13 - 23) - may be characterized conveniently, if loosely, as "Christological midrash," expressions of Christological faith cast into narrative form.这些故事 - 玛丽和约瑟夫,他们的旅程为罗马人口普查,伯利恒状态指示,和耶稣的出生在那里(路加福音2:1 - 7);的牧羊人(路加福音2:8 - 20)和三个贤士访问从东(太2:1 - 12)和家庭逃往埃及,以躲避了被希律王ordered男孩大屠杀(太2:13 - 23) - 5月的特点方便,如果松散,如“基督米德拉士,”叙事形式进入基督信仰的演员表现。

If there are any factual elements in them, these will be found among the items on which Matthew and Luke agree: the names of Mary, Joseph, and Jesus; the dating of Jesus' birth toward the end of the reign of Herod the Great (d. 4 BC); and, less certainly, the Bethlehem location of the birth.如果在其中任何事实要素,这些会被发现的项目中,马修和卢克上同意:圣母玛利亚,约瑟夫和耶稣的名称;耶稣的朝向大希律王(完出生约会四4年);和不太肯定的诞生伯利恒的位置。 Some would add the conception of Jesus between the first and second stages of the marriage rites between Mary and Joseph; Christians interpreted this in terms of a conception through the Holy Spirit.有些人会添加之间玛丽和约瑟夫之间的婚姻仪式的第一和第二阶段耶稣的概念;基督徒解释的概念术语,通过圣灵的。

Following his baptism by John the Baptist, Jesus embarked on a ministry of possibly three years duration, primarily in Galilee (he had grown up in the Galilean town of Nazareth).在他若翰的洗礼,耶稣开始了为期三年的可能主要是在加利利部,(他生长在加利利的拿撒勒城上)。The Gospels record his choosing of 12 disciples, and he preached both to them and to the population at large, often attracting great crowds (as when he delivered the Sermon on the Mount, Matt. 4:25 - 7:29; cf. Luke 6:17 - 49).福音书记录他选择的12个门徒,他讲道都向他们和广大民众,往往吸引人潮大(当他发表的山上宝训,马特4:25 - 7:29。。比照卢克6:17 - 49)。He proclaimed the kingdom of God - the inbreaking of God's final saving act through his own word and work (Mark 1:14; Matt. 12:28).他宣扬神的国度 - 神的拯​​救行动最终通过自己的文字和工作inbreaking(马可福音1:14;马特12:28)。。He confronted his contemporaries with the challenge of this inbreaking reign of God in his parables of the kingdom (Mark 4).他面临着这样的神inbreaking在王国(马克4)他的比喻统治挑战他的同时代人。He laid down God's radical demand of obedience (Matt. 5:21 - 48).他定下神的顺服激进需求(太5:21 - 48)。

In prayer Jesus addressed God uniquely as "Abba" (the intimate address of the child to his earthly father in the family), not "my" or "our" Father as in Judaism, and he invited his disciples in the Lord's Prayer to share the privilege of addressing God thus (Luke 11:2).在祈祷耶稣解决神独特的“阿爸”(这是对他的家人在地上的父亲的孩子亲密地址),而不是“我”或“我们”父亲在犹太教,他邀请了主祷文分享他的弟子神的特权,从而解决(路加福音11:2)。 He ate with the outcasts, such as tax collectors and prostitutes, and interpreted his conduct as the activity of God, seeking and saving the lost (as in the parables of the lost sheep, the lost coin, and the prodigal son, Luke 15).他吃了,如税吏和妓女的弃儿,并解释为自己的行为神的活动,寻求救国的损失(如丢失的羊,失去的硬币,和浪子的比喻,路加福音15) 。He performed exorcisms and healings as signs of the inbreaking of God's final reign, in triumph over the powers of evil (Matt. 11:4 - 6; 12:28).他的表现,作为上帝的最终统治inbreaking驱魔仪式和愈合的迹象,在权力的邪恶的胜利(太11:4 - 6; 12:28)。

Finally, Jesus went up to Jerusalem at the time of the Passover to deliver his challenge of imminent judgment and salvation at the heart and center of his people's life.最后,耶稣就上耶路撒冷在逾越节期间提供的核心和他的人民的生活中心即将他的判断和救赎的挑战。One of the actions attributed to him there was the expulsion of the money changers from the Temple (Matt. 21:12 - 17; Mark 11:15 - 19; Luke 19:45 - 46).的行动之一归咎于他身上存在着从庙货币兑换驱逐(太21:12 - 17;马克11:15 - 19;路加福音19:45 - 46)。Earlier, Jesus had incurred the hostility of the Pharisees, who attacked him for breaking the Law and whom he denounced for their formalistic precepts and self righteousness (Matt. 23:13 - 36; Luke 18:9 - 14).此前,耶稣曾引起了法利赛,谁违法攻击他和形式主义的人,他为他们的戒律和自我谴责敌对义(太23:13 - 36;路加福音18:9 - 14)。In Jerusalem his opponents were the other principal Jewish religious party, the Sadducees, who included the priestly authorities of the Temple.在耶路撒冷他的对手是其他主要犹太宗教党,撒,谁包括圣殿祭司当局。Aided by one of the disciples, Judas Iscariot, the authorities arrested Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane.计算机辅助一的弟子,加略人犹大,逮捕在客西马尼园耶稣的当局。He was examined by the Sanhedrin and handed over to the Roman governor, Pontius Pilate, who sentenced him to crucifixion.他进行了检查,公会并移交给罗马总督,本丢彼拉多,谁判处他受难。

At a time of considerable political unrest in Palestine and high messianic expectations among certain Jewish groups (for example, the revolutionary Zealots), Jesus and his following undoubtedly appeared to represent some political threat.在一个相当大的政治动乱,在巴勒斯坦和高救世主在某些犹太团体的期望(例如,革命狂热者)的时间,无疑是耶稣和他的下面似乎代表某种政治威胁。 The passion narratives of the Gospels contain major theological motifs.激情的福音神学叙事包含的主要图案。First Jesus' sufferings and death are presented as the fulfillment of God's will announced in the Old Testament writings.首先耶稣的苦难和死亡是作为神的旨意中宣布提出履行旧约著作。Second, the accounts of the Last Supper, a farewell meal held before Jesus' arrest, proclaim the atoning significance of Jesus' death in the words over the bread and wine.第二,在最后的晚餐,告别餐之前,耶稣举行的账户被逮捕,宣告耶稣赎罪的意义,在对面包和酒的话死亡。Third, great emphasis is placed on the statement that Jesus died as Messiah or king.第三,高度重视,是摆在声明中说,耶稣是弥赛亚或国王去世。Fourth, some of the events described contain theological symbolism, for example, the rending of the Temple veil.第四,一些事件描述包含神学象征意义,例如,在殿里的幔子裂开。

.

Jesus' Self Understanding耶稣的自我认识

Since titles of majesty were used only by the post - Easter church to proclaim Jesus, these titles cannot, by the criterion of dissimilarity, be used as firm evidence for the self understanding of Jesus during his earthly ministry. That self understanding has to be inferred indirectly from his words and works. 自陛下职称的人使用一只有通过-复活节教堂宣告耶稣,这些称呼不能由标准相异的,被用来作为确凿证据为耶稣的自我认识在他的俗世部的推断。,自我认识,必须间接地从他的话和作品。 In all of them Jesus confronts his contemporaries with a great sense of authority (Mark 2:27; 11:27 - 33).在所有这些耶稣面临的权力与他同时代的伟大意义(马可福音2:27; 11:27 - 33)。This quality in Jesus evoked messianic hopes in his followers and messianic fears in his enemies.这在耶稣质量诱发救世主的希望在他的追随者和救世主,他的敌人的恐惧。The hopes of his friends were shattered by the arrest and crucifixion of Jesus but restored and reinforced by the Easter event, faith in his resurrection on the third day following death and entombment.他的朋友的希望破灭了逮捕和十字架上的耶稣,但恢复和复活节活动,在他的第三天复活的信仰以下死亡和冢加强。

During his earthly life Jesus was addressed as rabbi and was regarded as a prophet. Some of his words, too, place him in the category of sage. 在他的俗世生活,耶稣被称呼拉比,被视为先知。他的一些话,也发生在他圣人的类别。A title of respect for a rabbi would be "my Lord."拉比的一个方面的名称是“我的上帝。”Already before Easter his followers, impressed by his authority, would mean something more than usual when they addressed him as "my Lord."他的追随者已经在复活节前,他的权威的影响,将意味着什么,他们比平常更多的时候称呼他“我的上帝。”Jesus apparently refused to be called Messiah because of its political associations (Mark 8:27 - 30; Matt. 26:64, correcting Mark 14:62). Yet the inscription on the cross, "The King of the Jews," provides irrefutable evidence that he was crucified as a messianic pretender (Mark 15:26).耶稣显然拒绝被称为协会弥赛亚,因为它的政治(马克8:27 - 30;马特14:62。26:64,纠正马克) 不可辩驳的然而,碑文上的十字架,“犹太人的国王,”提供证据表明,他是)钉在十字架上为救世主觊觎(马克15:26。

Although it is possible that Jesus' family claimed to be of Davidic descent, it is unlikely that the title "Son of David" was ascribed to him or accepted by him during his earthly ministry.虽然它可能是耶稣的家庭声称自己是大卫后裔,这是不可能的标题是“大卫之子”是归因于他或他接受在他的俗世部。 "Son of God," in former times a title of the Hebrew kings (Psa. 2:7), was first adopted in the post Easter church as an equivalent of Messiah and had no metaphysical connotations (Rom. 1:4). Jesus was conscious of a unique filial relationship with God, but it is uncertain whether the Father / Son language (Mark 18:32; Matt. 11:25 - 27 par.; John passim) goes back to Jesus himself. “上帝的儿子”,在从前一)标题希伯来国王(诗2:7,首次采用救世主教堂复活节后作为一个等效,也没有形而上的内涵(罗马书1:4)。 耶稣是上帝意识的关系具有独特的孝顺,但目前尚不能确定是否父亲/儿子语言(马克18:32;。马特11:25 - 27杆。约翰各处)可以追溯到耶稣自己。

Most problematical of all is the title "Son of Man." This is the only title used repeatedly by Jesus as a self designation, and there is no clear evidence that it was used as a title of majesty by the post Easter church.大部分都成问题的是,题目是“人子了。” 这是唯一的标题中使用耶稣多次被指定为一个自我,也没有明确的证据,这是复活节教堂作为标题威严的职位。Hence it is held by many to be authentic, since it passes the criterion of dissimilarity.因此,它被许多人持有真实,因为它传递标准相异。Those who regard it as unauthentic see in it the post Easter church's identification of Jesus with the "Son of Man" either of Dan.这些谁认为它不真实看到它后复活节教会与“人子”耶稣的身份任丹。7:13 or - if the title really existed there before Jesus - in Jewish apocalyptic tradition.7:13或 - 如果标题确实存在之前,耶稣那里 - 在犹太世界末日的传统。One possible view, based on the distinction Jesus makes between himself and the coming "Son of Man" (Luke 12: 8 - 12; Mark 8:38), is that he invoked this figure to underline the finality of his own word and work - this finality would be vindicated by the "Son of Man" at the end.一个可能的观点的基础上,区分自己与耶稣来了“人子”使(路加福音12:8 - 12;马克8:38),是他援引这个数字要强调他自己的话和工作的终结 - 这终局会平反,由“人子”结尾。

In that case the post Easter church was able to identify Jesus with that "Son of Man" because the Easter event was the vindication of his word and work. 在这种情况下,邮政复活节教会能够确定“耶稣有着这样的”儿子的人,因为复活节事件平反的工作和他的字。The post Easter church then formed further "Son of Man" sayings, some speaking in highly apocalyptic terms of his return in the Second Coming (for example, Mark 14:62); others expressing the authority exercised during the earthly ministry (for example, Mark 2:10, 28); and still others expressing his impending suffering and certainty of vindication (Mark 8:31; 9:31; 10:33). 复活节后的教堂,然后再形成“人子”的说法,一些人)说,马克14:62在高回报的条款世界末日他在第二次来(例如,有些人表示,例如(管理局行使的地上部,马克2:10,28);还有人表示他即将苦难和平反确定性(马克8:31,9:31,10:33)。

Christology基督

Although it is true that there was a basic difference between Jesus' message of the kingdom and the post Easter church's message of him as the saving act of God, all of Jesus' words and work imply a Christology.虽然这是事实之间存在着耶稣的信息王国和邮政复活节教会的口信给他为神,耶稣的所有储蓄行为的话,工作意味着基督的根本区别。 Thus the critical quest for the historical Jesus yields a sufficient basis for the message of the post Easter church and is therefore necessary to legitimate it.因此,为追求产量的关键历史上的耶稣为教会的消息后复活节足够的基础,因此有必要把它合法化了。

Message of the Post Easter Church消息邮政复活节教会

The Christology of the earliest Palestinian Christian community apparently had two focuses.最早的巴勒斯坦基督徒社区基督显然有两个重点。It looked backward to the earthly life of Jesus as prophet and servant of God and forward to his final return as Messiah (Acts 3:21).它看起来落后到作为先知和仆人的上帝和着他是弥赛亚(徒3:21)耶稣最后返回人间生活。 Meanwhile Jesus was thought of as waiting inactively in heaven, to which he was believed to have ascended after the resurrection (Acts 1:9).与此同时,耶稣被认为是等待inactively在天上,而他被认为是后复活(徒1:9)上升。

Soon their experience of the Holy Spirit, whose descent is recorded in Acts 2, led the early Christians to think in terms of a two stage Christology: the first stage was the earthly ministry and the second stage his active ruling in heaven.不久,他们的圣灵,其后裔在行为2记录,经验导致早期基督徒认为在一个两阶段的基督条件:第一阶段是地上部和第二阶段,他在天上的活动作出裁决。 This two stage Christology, in which Jesus is exalted as Messiah, Lord, and Son of God (Acts 2:36; Rom. 1:4), is often called adoptionist.这两个阶段的基督,在耶稣是弥赛亚,耶和华高举,儿子的神(徒2:36;。罗1:4),通常被称为adoptionist。 It is not the Adoptionism of later heresy, however, for it thinks in terms of function rather than being.这不是后来异端Adoptionism,但是,对于它在功能上,而不是想法。At his exaltation to heaven Jesus began to function as he had not previously.在他的提升,耶稣升天开始运作,因为他以前没有。Another primitive Christological affirmation associates the birth of Jesus with his Davidic descent, thus qualifying him for the messianic office at his exaltation (for example, Rom. 1:3).另一种原始的基督耶稣肯定联营公司和他的大卫的后裔的诞生,从而为排位赛在他的办公室里提高救世主(例如,光盘。1:3)。 This introduced the birth of Jesus as a Christologically significant moment.这介绍了作为一个重要时刻Christologically耶稣的诞生。

As Christianity spread to the Greek speaking world between AD 35 and 50, further Christological perspectives were developed.随着基督教的传播,在公元35和50至希腊来说世界,基督前景进行了进一步的发展。The sending - of - the - Son pattern was one of them.派遣 - 中 - 的 - 儿子的模式是其中之一。This pattern is threefold: (1) God sent (2) his Son (3) in order to .这种格局是三个方面:(1)神发送(2)他的儿子(3)为了。..(with a statement of the saving purpose - for example, Galatians 4:4 - 5).(有目的的储蓄声明 - 例如,加拉太书4:4 - 5)。 The birth narratives of Matthew and Luke combine the Davidic descent with the sending - of - the - Son Christology.马修和卢克的出生的叙述与发送相结合的davidic后裔 - 对 - 的 - 儿子基督。Another major development of this period is the identification of Jesus as the incarnation of the heavenly wisdom of Jewish speculation (Prov. 8:22 - 31; Sir. 24:1 - 12; Wisd. 7:24 - 30).这一时期的另一重大发展是耶稣是天上的犹太投机智慧化身识别(箴8:22 - 31;爵士24:1 - 12;。Wisd 7:24 - 30。)。

Hence a three stage Christology emerges: the preexistent wisdom or Logos (Word), who was the agent of creation and of general revela - tion and also of the special revelation of Israel, becomes incarnate in the life and death of Jesus of Nazareth, and then in the resurrection and exaltation returns to heaven (Php. 2:6 - 11; Col. 1:15 - 20; Heb. 1:1 - 3; John 1:1 - 14).因此,出现了一个三阶段的基督:智慧或标志的preexistent(字),谁是创造剂和一般revela - tion和以色列也特别的启示,成为在生活和死亡的拿撒勒的耶稣的化身,和然后在复活和提高效益上天堂(Php. 2时06分 - 11;上校1:15 - 20;希伯来书1:1 - 3;。约翰1:1 - 14)。With this three stage Christology there is a shift from purely functional interpretation to the question of the being or person of Jesus.有了这三个阶段的基督有一个转变,从单纯的功能解释到正在或耶稣的人的问题。Thus the later phases of the New Testament lay the ground for the Christological controversies of the Patristic Age.因此,新约以后各阶段奠定了教父时代的基督论的争论在地上。

Christological Controversies of the Patristic Age教父时代的基督之争

The rise of Gnosticism as a Christian deviation began in the 2d century and led to the development of Docetism, the view that the humanity of Jesus was apparent rather than real.的诺斯替主义作为一个基督徒的偏差上升开始在二维世纪,并导致了Docetism,视图的发展,人类的耶稣显然不是真实的。 Catholic Christianity insisted on his true humanity - hence the statement in the Apostles' Creed, "conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary."天主教基督教坚持他的真正的人性 - 因此,在使徒们的信条声明“,由圣灵的圣母马利亚所生,怀了孕。”

In the 3d and 4th centuries there were some who continued to question the full humanity of Jesus and others who questioned his full deity.在3D和第四世纪有一些谁继续追问,耶稣和其他充满人性谁质疑他充满神。When Arius denied that the preexistent Son, or Word, was fully God, the Council of Nicea (325) formulated a creed (the Nicene Creed) containing the phrases "of one substance with the Father" and "was made man."当阿里乌斯否认先在儿子,或一句话,是完全的神,尼西亚会议(325)制定的一个信条(尼西亚信条),包含“与父同在一个物质”的短语和“而成为人。” Next, Apollinarius, anxious to assert the Son's deity, taught that the Logos replaced the human spirit in the earthly Jesus (Apollinarianism).下一步,Apollinarius,急于断言儿子的神,告诉我们,理性取代了俗世的耶稣(亚波里拿留派)的人文精神。 This teaching was condemned at the Council of Constantinople (381).这种教学,是谴责在安理会的君士坦丁堡(381)。Next, the theologians of the school of Antioch were so anxious to maintain the reality of Jesus' humanity that they seemed to compromise his deity.接着,把学校的神学家安提如此渴望能够维持的耶稣的人性现实,他的神似乎妥协。Thus Theodore of Mopsuestia and his pupil Nestorius (Nestorianism) separated the deity from the humanity almost to the point of denying the unity of his person.因此,西奥多和他的学生的Mopsuestia涅斯(景教)分开了人类神几乎到了否定他的人团结点。

To preserve this unity the Council of Ephesus (431) affirmed that Mary was the "God - bearer" (Theotokos, later popularly rendered as "Mother of God").为了维护这种团结的安理会的以弗所(431)申明,玛丽是“上帝 - 旗手”(圣母,后来普遍呈现为“上帝之母”)。 Eutyches from the Alexandrian school then claimed that the two natures of Christ were, at the incarnation, fused into one.欧迪奇从亚历山大学校则声称,基督的两个性质是在为一个融合的化身,。This view was ruled out at the Council of Chalcedon (451), which insisted that Christ was one person in two natures (divine and human) "without confusion, without change, without division and without separation."这种观点被排除在安理会的chalcedon(451),其中坚持认为基督是一个人在两个性质(神和人)了“没有混乱,没有改变没有分裂也不会分离。”

Modern Christologies generally start "from below" rather than "from above," finding Jesus first to be truly human, and then discovering his divinity in and through his humanity: "God was in Christ, reconciling the world to himself" (2 Cor. 5:19).现代Christologies普遍开始“从下面”,而不是“从上面”,首先要找到耶稣真正的人,然后发现他,并通过了他的人性的神性:“上帝在基督里,调和了世界,以自己”(2肺心病。 5:19)。

Reginald H Fuller雷金纳德ħ富勒

Bibliography 参考书目
R Augstein, Jesus Son of Man (1977); G Aulen, Jesus in Contemporary Historical Research (1976); CK Barrett, Jesus and the Gospel Tradition (1967); G Bornkamm, Jesus of Nazareth (1960); R Bultmann, Jesus and the Word (1954); and Jesus Christ and Mythology (1958); Congar, Yves, Jesus Christ (1966); CM Connick, Jesus: The Man, the Mission, and the Message (1974); H Conzelmann, Jesus (1973); P Fredericksen, From Jesus to Christ (1988); RH Fuller, The Foundations of New Testament Christology (1965); EJ Goodspeed, A Life of Jesus (1950); M Grant, Jesus: An Historian's Review of the Gospels (1977);ř Augstein,人的耶稣之子(1977)100 Aulen,在当代历史研究耶稣(1976年);对照巴雷特,耶稣和福音的传统(1967)100博恩卡姆​​,拿撒勒(1960年)耶稣与r布特曼,耶稣和字(1954);和耶稣基督与神话(1958年);琼加尔,伊夫,耶稣基督(1966年);厘米康尼克,耶稣:他的为人,特派团,消息(1974年),高h Conzelmann,耶稣(1973) ; P Fredericksen从耶稣,基督(1988年),相对湿度富勒,新约圣经christology(1965年)的基础; EJ古德斯皮德,耶稣的(1950)生命〔M格兰特,耶稣:一个历史学家的审查福音(1977) ;

F Hahn, The Titles of Jesus in Christology (1969); AT Hanson, Grace and Truth (1975); M Hengel, The Son of God (1976); J Hick, ed., The Myth of God Incarnate (1976); J Jeremias, The Parables of Jesus (1971); W Kasper, Jesus the Christ (1976); LE Keck, A Future for the Historical Jesus (1971); HC Kee, Jesus in History (1977) and What Can We Know about Jesus (1990); J Klausner, Jesus of Nazareth, His Life, Times and Teaching (1925); JL Mays, ed., Interpreting the Gospels (1981); W Pannenberg, Jesus: God and Man (1977); F哈恩,在基督耶稣(1969年)的标题;在汉森,恩宠和真理(1975年);米亨格尔,上帝的儿子(1976年);。Ĵ希克,海关,上帝道成肉身神话(1976年); Ĵ赫雷米亚斯,耶稣的比喻(1971年); W卡斯帕,耶稣基督(1976年);乐凯克,为未来历史的耶稣(1971年);高等法院记,耶稣在历史(1977年),什么我们能认识耶稣( 1990); Ĵ克劳斯内尔,拿撒勒的耶稣,他的生活,时代和教学(1925);巨浪玉米,教育署,解释福音(1981年); W潘内伯格,耶稣:。神人(1977年);

J Pelikan, Jesus Through the Centuries (1987); P Perkins, Jesus as Teacher (1990); JM Robinson, The New Quest of the Historical Jesus (1959); JAT Robinson, The Human Face of God (1973); F Schleiermache, Life of Jesus (1974); P Schoonenberg, The Christ (1971); A Schweitzer, The Quest of the Historical Jesus (1910) and The Mystery of the Kingdom of God (1985); G Vermes, Jesus and the Jew: A Historian's Reading of the Gospels (1974); AN Wilder, Eschatology and Ethics in the Teaching of Jesus (1950).Ĵ伯利坎,经过几个世纪耶稣(1987年); P帕金斯,为教师耶稣(1990年); JM罗宾逊,在(1959年)的历史耶稣的新追求;李祖泽罗宾逊,神人脸(1973),女Schleiermache,耶稣的生命(1974); P Schoonenberg,基督(1971年);,本(1910年)历史的耶稣的追求和对上帝的王国(1985)神秘施魏策尔; Ğ Vermes,耶稣和犹太人:一个历史学家的读福音(1974年),一个狂放,末世,在基督的教导(1950)道德。


Jesus耶稣

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Jesus is the proper, as Christ is the official, name of our Lord.耶稣是正确的,因为基督是正式的,我们的主的名字。To distinguish him from others so called, he is spoken of as "Jesus of Nazareth" (John 18:7), and "Jesus the son of Joseph" (John 6:42).为了区别他从所谓的别人,他是口语的,因为“拿撒勒的耶稣”(约翰18:7)和“耶稣是约瑟的儿子”(约06:42)。 This is the Greek form of the Hebrew name Joshua, which was originally Hoshea (Num. 13:8, 16), but changed by Moses into Jehoshua (Num. 13:16; 1 Chr. 7:27), or Joshua.这是希伯来文的名字希腊形式约书亚,原本是何细亚(民数记13:8,16),但到Jehoshua摩西(民数记13:16。1染色体7:27)更改或约书亚。 After the Exile it assumed the form Jeshua, whence the Greek form Jesus.它假定后,流亡国外的形式耶书亚,何时希腊​​的形式耶稣。 It was given to our Lord to denote the object of his mission, to save (Matt. 1:21).它给我们的主来表示他的任务对象,保存(太1:21)。

The life of Jesus on earth may be divided into two great periods, (1) that of his private life, till he was about thirty years of age; and (2) that of his public life, which lasted about three years.地球上的耶稣的生命可分为两个大的时期,(1)表示,他的私人生活,直到他30岁左右;及(2)他的公共生活,持续了大约三年的。

In the "fulness of time" he was born at Bethlehem, in the reign of the emperor Augustus, of Mary, who was betrothed to Joseph, a carpenter (Matt. 1:1; Luke 3:23; comp. John 7:42).在“时间充满”他出生在伯利恒,在皇帝奥古斯都,玛利亚,谁是许配了约瑟,一个木匠(太1:1统治;路加福音3:23;比赛约翰7:42。 )。His birth was announced to the shepherds (Luke 2:8-20).他的出生是宣布牧羊人(路加福音2:8-20)。 Wise men from the east came to Bethlehem to see him who was born "King of the Jews," bringing gifts with them (Matt. 2:1-12).智者从东方来到伯利恒,看看谁是他出生的“犹太人的王”,带着他们(太2:1-12)的礼物。Herod's cruel jealousy led to Joseph's flight into Egypt with Mary and the infant Jesus, where they tarried till the death of this king (Matt. 2:13-23), when they returned and settled in Nazareth, in Lower Galilee (2:23; comp. Luke 4:16; John 1:46, etc.).希律王的残酷嫉妒导致了约瑟夫的飞行到埃及与玛丽和耶稣的婴儿,他们直到这个国王(太2:13-23),当他们返回并定居在拿撒勒,在低加利利(2:23死亡守侯;比赛路加福音4:16;。约翰1:46,等等)。 At the age of twelve years he went up to Jerusalem to the Passover with his parents.在十二岁,他上耶路撒冷去与他的父母逾越节。There, in the temple, "in the midst of the doctors," all that heard him were "astonished at his understanding and answers" (Luke 2:41, etc.).在那里,在寺庙中,“在医生,中间”凡听见他的人“惊讶于他的理解和答案”(路加福音2:41等)。Eighteen years pass, of which we have no record beyond this, that he returned to Nazareth and "increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man" (Luke 2:52).经过十八年,其中我们并没有超越这个纪录,他回到拿撒勒和“增加智慧和身量,并神和人赞成”(路加福音2:52)。

He entered on his public ministry when he was about thirty years of age. It is generally reckoned to have extended to about three years. 他走进他的公共事务部时,他三十岁左右岁以下。一般估计已延长至三年左右。

Each of these years had peculiar features of its own. 这些年,每年都有自己独特的特点。

  1. The first year may be called the year of obscurity, both because the records of it which we possess are very scanty, and because he seems during it to have been only slowly emerging into public notice.第一年可称为默默无闻的一年,既是因为它的记录,我们拥有非常微薄的,因为他似乎在这一直只是慢慢地进入新兴的公告。 It was spent for the most part in Judea.这是在犹太花费大部分。

  2. The second year was the year of public favour, during which the country had become thoroughly aware of him; his activity was incessant, and his fame rang through the length and breadth of the land.第二年,是民众的青睐,在该国已成为彻底了解他一年,他的活动是持续不断的,他的名气通过从深度和广度的土地范围。 It was almost wholly passed in Galilee.这是几乎完全通过加利利。

  3. The third was the year of opposition, when the public favour ebbed away.第三是反对的,当公众赞成消退了一年。His enemies multiplied and assailed him with more and more pertinacity, and at last he fell a victim to their hatred.他的敌人成倍增加,并越来越多的抨击顽固他,最后他倒下的受害者,他们的仇恨。The first six months of this final year were passed in Galilee, and the last six in other parts of the land.上半年这最后一年内获得通过,在加利利,在土地的其他地区在过去六年。


(from Stalker's Life of Jesus Christ, p. 45).(从Stalker的耶稣基督的生命,第45页)。

The only reliable sources of information regarding the life of Christ on earth are the Gospels, which present in historical detail the words and the work of Christ in so many different aspects.唯一可靠的信息来源关于地球上的生命是基督福音,这在目前的历史细节的话和基督在这么多不同方面的工作。(See the presentation on Christ.)(见基督的介绍。)

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Other Biblical People Named Jesus其他圣经的人名叫耶稣

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(1.) Joshua, the son of Nun (Acts 7:45; Heb. 4:8; RV, "Joshua"). (1。)约书亚,嫩的儿子(徒7:45,希伯来书4:8。风疹病毒,“约书亚”)。(2.) A Jewish Christian surnamed Justus (Col. 4:11).(2。)一个犹太基督教(歌4:11)姓贾斯特斯。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Jesus Christ耶稣基督

Advanced Information先进的信息

The expression is a combination of a name, "Jesus" (of Nazareth), and the title "Messiah" (Hebrew) or "Christ" (Greek), which means "anointed."该表达式是一个名称的组合,“耶稣”(拿撒勒人),并授予的“弥赛亚”(希伯来文)或“基督”(希腊),意思是“受膏者。” In Acts 5:42, where we read of "preaching Jesus the Christ," this combination of the name and the title is still apparent.在行为5:42,在那里我们读到的“传耶稣基督”这个名称的组合和标题仍是显而易见的。As time progressed, however, the title became so closely associated with the name that the combination soon was transformed from the confession, Jesus (who is) the Christ, to a confessional name, Jesus Christ.随着时间的进展,但是,题目变得如此密切相关的名称的组合很快被从忏悔,耶稣(是谁)的基督,一个教派的名字,耶稣基督改变。 The appropriateness of this title for Jesus was such that even Jewish Christian writers quickly referred to Jesus Christ rather than Jesus the Christ (Cf. Matt. 1:1; Rom. 1:7; Heb. 13:8; James 1:1; I Pet. 1:1).此为耶稣标题是否恰当是这样的,甚至犹太基督教作家,而不是迅速提到耶稣基督(参见马特1:1耶稣基督。罗马书1:7;。希伯来书13:8;。詹姆斯1:1;我的宠物。1:1)。

Sources of Information信息来源

The sources for our knowledge of Jesus Christ can be divided into two main groups: non-Christian and Christian.耶稣基督为我们的知识的来源可分为两大类:非基督徒和基督教。

Non-Christian Sources非基督教的来源

These sources can be divided again into two groups: pagan and Jewish.这些来源可分为再分为两组:异教徒和犹太人。Both are limited in their value.两者都是有限的价值。There are essentially only three pagan sources of importance: Pliny (Epistles x.96); Tacitus (Annals xv.44); and Suetonius (Lives xxv.4).基本上有三个重要的异教徒只有来源:普林尼(书信x.96);塔西佗(志xv.44)和苏埃托尼乌斯(生命xxv.4)。 All these date from the second decade of the second century.所有这些日期从第二世纪第二个十年。The main Jewish sources are Josephus (Antiquities xviii.3.3 and xx.9.1) and the Talmud.主要来源是犹太人约瑟夫(古物xviii.3.3和xx.9.1)和犹太法典。The non-Christian sources provide meager information about Jesus, but they do establish the fact that he truly lived, that he gathered disciples, performed healings, and that he was condemned to death by Pontius Pilate.非基督教的来源提供微薄的有关耶稣的信息,但他们建立真正的事实,他住,他收集的弟子,进行医治,他谴责了本丢彼拉多死刑。

Christian Sources基督教的来源

The nonbiblical Christian sources consist for the most part of the apocryphal gospels (AD 150-350) and the "agrapha" ("unwritten sayings" of Jesus, ie, supposedly authentic sayings of Jesus not found in the canonical Gospels).The nonbiblical基督教来源包括对于大部分的猜测福音(公元150-350)和“agrapha”(“不成文的说法”耶稣的,即所谓的耶稣真实的说法不典型福音找到)。 Their value is quite dubious in that what is not utterly fantastic (cf. Infancy Gospel of Thomas) or heretical (cf. Gospel of Truth) is at best only possible and not provable (cf. Gospel of Thomas 31, 47).他们的价值是相当可疑的,什么是不完全神奇(参见婴儿福音托马斯)或异端邪说(参见真理福音)是唯一可能的,而不是最好的可证明(参见托马斯31日,47福音)。

The biblical materials can be divided into the Gospels and Acts through Revelation.圣经中的材料可分为福音,并通过行为的启示。The information we can learn from Acts through Revelation is essentially as follows: Jesus was born a Jew (Gal. 4:4) and was a descendant of David (Rom. 1:3); he was gentle (II Cor. 10:1), righteous (I Pet. 3:18), sinless (II Cor. 5:21), humble (Phil. 2:6), and was tempted (Heb. 2:18; 4:15); he instituted the Lord's Supper (I Cor. 11:23-26), was transfigured (II Pet. 1:17-18), was betrayed (I Cor. 11:23), was crucified (I Cor. 1:23), rose from the dead (I Cor. 15:3ff), and ascended to heaven (Eph. 4:8).该信息,我们可以从行为学基本上是通过如下的启示:耶稣出生的犹太人(加4:4),并且是大卫(罗马书1:3)的后代,他是温柔(二肺心病10:1。 ),正义的(我的宠物3:18),无罪(二肺心病5:21),谦虚(腓2:6),并引诱(希伯来书2:18。。4:15),他提起主晚餐(我肺心病。11:23-26),被变形的(二宠物。1:17-18),被出卖的(我肺心病。11:23),被钉在十字架上(我肺心病。1:23),从玫瑰死(我肺心病。15:3几段),并升天(弗4:8)。 Certain specific sayings of Jesus are known (cf. I Cor. 7:10; 9:14; Acts 20:35), and possible allusions to his sayings are also found (eg, Rom. 12:14, 17; 13:7, 8-10; 14:10).耶稣的某些特定说法是已知的(参见林前7:10。9:14,徒20:35),和他的说法可能的典故也发现(如光盘12:14,17;。13:7 8-10; 14:10)。

The major sources for our knowledge of Jesus are the canonical Gospels.我们对耶稣的认识的主要来源是典型福音。These Gospels are divided generally into two groups: the Synoptic Gospels (the "look-alike" Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke) and John.这些福音,是一般分为两组:在天气福音(“外观相似”福音马太,马克,路加)和约翰。 The former are generally understood to "look alike" due to their having a literary relationship.前者是一般的理解,“看起来很像”,由于其具有文学的关系。The most common explanation of this literary relationship is that Mark wrote first and that Matthew and Luke used Mark and another source, now lost, which contained mostly teachings of Jesus (called "Q") and that they used other materials as well ("M"= the materials found only in Matthew; "L" = the materials found only in Luke).这个文学的关系最常见的解释是,马克写了第一和马修和卢克用马克和其他来源,现在失去了,其中包含主要是耶稣教诲(所谓的“Q”),他们使用的其他材料,以及(“联“=的材料,发现只有在马太的”L“=材料的发现,只有在路加)。

Jesus of Nazareth拿撒勒的耶稣

In Matthew and Luke we find accounts of the birth of Jesus.在马修和卢克,我们找到了耶稣诞生的帐户。Both accounts point out that Jesus was born of a virgin by the name of Mary in the city of Bethlehem (Matt. 1:18-2:12; Luke 1:26-2:7; attempts to find allusions to the virgin birth in Gal. 4:4 and John 8:41 are quite forced).两个帐户指出,耶稣诞生的处女由玛丽在伯利恒市(太1:18-2:12名称;卢克1:26-2:7,试图找到典故,以维尔京出生半乳糖。4:4和约翰8:41相当强迫)。 Attempts to explain these accounts as parallels to Greek myths stumble on the lack of any really substantial parallels in Greek literature and above all by the Jewish nature of these accounts.试图解释,以希腊神话的相似之处对这些帐户在希腊文学及以上由这些帐户的所有犹太人的性质缺乏任何真正实质相似之处绊倒。

The ministry of Jesus began with his baptism by John (Mark 1:1-15; Acts 1:21-22; 10:37) and his temptation by Satan.耶稣的部开始由约翰的洗礼与他(马克1:1-15,徒1:21-22,10:37)和他的撒旦的诱惑。His ministry involved the selection of twelve disciples (Mark 3:13-19), which symbolized the regathering of the twelve tribes of Israel; the preaching of the need of repentance (Mark 1:15) and the arrival of the kingdom of God in his ministry (Luke 11:20); the offer of salvation to the outcasts of society (Mark 2:15-17; Luke 15; 19:10); the healing of the sick and demon-possessed (which are referred to in the Jewish Talmud); and his glorious return to consummate the kingdom.他的部门所涉及的十二门徒(马克3:13-19),这标志着以色列的十二支派regathering选择;了悔改的需要(马可福音1:15)和神的国度在抵达说教他的部(路11:20);要约的救赎社会的弃儿(马可福音2:15-17,路加福音15; 19:10),在医治病人和恶魔拥有(这是指在对犹太法典)和他的光辉返回完善的王国。

The turning point in Jesus' ministry came at Caesarea Philippi when, after being confessed as the Christ by Peter, he acknowledged the correctness of this confession and proceeded to tell the disciples of his forthcoming death (Mark 8:27-31; Matt. 16:13-21).在耶稣的转折点出现在教育部撒利亚腓时,在被作为基督的彼得承认,他承认这一供词的正确性,并着手告诉他即将死亡的门徒(马克8:27-31;。马特16 :13 - 21)。Advancing toward Jerusalem, Jesus cleansed the temple and in so doing judged the religion of Israel (note Mark's placement of the account between 11:12-14 and 11: 20-21 as well as the contents of the following two chapters).推进面向耶路撒冷,耶稣洁净圣殿,在这样做判断宗教的以色列(注马克的安置的帐户之间11:12-14和11:20-21以及以下两章的内容)。 On the night in which he was betrayed he instituted the ordinance of the Lord's Supper, which refers to the new covenant sealed by his sacrificial blood and the victorious regathering in the kingdom of God (Mark 14:25; Matt. 26:29; Luke 22:18; I Cor. 11:26).关于他被出卖他提起主的晚餐,这是指新约由他牺牲的血和在神的国度(马克14:25获胜regathering密封条例的夜晚;马特26:29。卢克22:18,我肺心病11:26)。。 Thereupon he was arrested in the Garden of Gethsemane, tried before the Sanhedrin, Herod Antipas, and finally Pontius Pilate, who condemned him to death on political charges for claiming to be the Messiah (Mark 15:26; John 19:19).于是他被逮捕在客西马尼园之前,公会,希律安提帕,最后丢彼拉多,谁谴责政治罪名他死刑,自称是弥赛亚审判,(马克15:26,约翰福音19:19)。 On the eve of the sabbath Jesus was crucified for the sins of the world (Mark 10:45) outside the city of Jerusalem (John 19:20) at a place called Golgotha (Mark 15:22) between two thieves who may have been revolutionaries (Matt. 27:38).在耶稣的安息日前夕,在一个叫各各他钉在十字架上的地方(马可福音15:22),为世界(马克10:45)外的耶路撒冷(约19:20)城市之间的两个小偷的罪谁可能已被革命者(太27:38)。

He gave up his life before the sabbath came, so that there was no need to hasten his death by crurifragium, ie, the breaking of his legs (John 19:31-34).他放弃了在安息日前的生活来了,所以,没有必要急忙通过crurifragium,即他死后,他的腿断(约19:31-34)。 He was buried in the tomb of Joseph of Arimathea (Mark 15:43; John 19:38) on the eve of the sabbath.他被安葬在亚利马太的约瑟夫墓(马克15:43,约翰福音19:38)在安息日的前夕。On the first day of the week, which was the third day (Friday to 6 PM = day 1; Friday 6 PM to Saturday 6 PM = day 2; Saturday 6 PM to Sunday AM = day 3), he rose from the dead, the empty tomb was discovered, and he appeared to his followers (Mark 16; Matt. 28; Luke 24; John 20-21).本星期,这是第三天的第一天(周五至下午6点= 1天,周五下午6点到周六每天下午6点= 2;星期六晚上6时至周日上午= 3天),他从死里复活,空墓被发现后,他出现在他的追随者(马克16;马特28;。路加福音24;约翰20-21)。He abode forty days with the disciples and then ascended into heaven (Acts 1:1-11).他的门徒同住了四十天,然后升天(徒1:1-11)。

So ended the three-year ministry (John 2:13; 5:1; 6:4; 13:1) of Jesus of Nazareth.所以,结束了为期三年的部(约翰2:13; 5:1; 6:4; 13:1)的拿撒勒的耶稣。

The Christ of Faith基督的信仰

The unique self-understanding of Jesus can be ascertained by two means: the implicit Christology revealed by his actions and words, and the explicit Christology revealed by the titles he chose to describe himself.独特的自我确定耶稣的理解,可通过两种方式:隐基督由他的行动和文字显示,并明确由基督的标题来形容他选择了自己的发现。

Implicit Christology隐基督

Jesus during his ministry clearly acted as one who possessed a unique authority.在他的部耶稣清楚地充当一个谁拥有一个独一无二的权威。 He assumed for himself the prerogative of cleansing the temple (Mark 11:27-33), of bringing the outcasts into the kingdom of God (Luke 15), and of having divine authority to forgive sins (Mark 2:5-7; Luke 7:48-49).他承担了自己是洁净圣殿(马克11:27-33),将其纳入的神(卢克15),王国的弃儿和有神圣的权力宽恕罪孽(马克2:5-7,特权;卢克7:48-49)。

Jesus also spoke as one who possessed authority greater than the OT (Matt. 5:31-32, 38-39), than Abraham (John 8:53), Jacob (John 4:12), and the temple (Matt. 12:6).耶稣还谈到作为一个谁拥有的权力比催产素(太5:31-32,38-39),比亚伯拉罕(约翰8:53),雅各布(约翰4:12),寺(太十二大:6)。 He claimed to be Lord of the Sabbath (Mark 2:28).他自称是上帝的安息日(马克2:28)。He even claimed that the destiny of all people depended on how they responded to him (Matt. 10:32-33; 11:6; Mark 8: 34-38).他甚至声称,所有的人的命运取决于他们如何回应他(太10:32-33; 11:6;马克8:34-38)。

Explicit Christology明确的基督

Along with the implicit Christology of his behavior Jesus also made certain Christological claims by means of the various titles he used for himself.随着他的行为隐含的基督耶稣也发了言,他为自己所使用的各种头衔意味着一定基督索赔。He referred to himself as the Messiah or Christ (Mark 8:27-30; 14:61-62), and his formal sentence of death on political grounds (note the superscription on the cross) only makes sense on the basis of Jesus' having acknowledged that he was the Messiah.他称弥赛亚或基督自己(马克8:27-30; 14:61-62),和他判处死刑的正式政治理由(注意superscription的在十字架上)不仅使耶稣的'基础意识有承认他是弥赛亚。He referred to himself also as the Son of God (Mark 12:1-9; Matt. 11:25-27), and a passage such as Mark 13:32 in which he clearly distinguished between himself and others must be authentic, for no one in the church would have created a saying such as this in which the Son of God claims to be ignorant as to the time of the end.他提到自己也作为神的儿子(马克12:1-9;。马特11:25-27),以及如马克13:32的通道中,他清楚自己和他人之间的区别,必须是真实的,因为教会中没有人会产生这样一种说法,如在其中声称自己是神的儿子,以无知的结束时间。 Jesus' favorite self-designation, due to its concealing as well as revealing nature, was the title Son of man.耶稣最喜爱的自我称号,由于其隐蔽以及揭示性质,是所有权人的儿子。Jesus in using this title clearly had in mind the Son of man of Dan.在使用过这个称号耶稣清楚地铭记丹人子。7:13, as is evident from Mark 8:38; 13:26; 14:62; Matt.7:13,这是显而易见马克20:38,13:26,14:62;马特。10:23; 19:28; 25:31. 10:23,19:28,25:31。Therefore, rather than being a title which stresses humility, it is clear that this title reveals the divine authority Jesus possesses as the Son of man to judge the world and his sense of having come from the Father (cf. here also Mark 2:17; 10:45; Matt. 5:17; 10:34).因此,而不是一个头衔,其中强调谦卑,很显然,这一标题揭示了神圣的权力耶稣作为人来判断世界和他的儿子在从父来(参见这里还拥有马克2:17意义; 10:45;马特5:17。10:34)。Many attempts have been made to deny the authenticity of some or all of the Son of man sayings, but such attempts founder on the fact that this title is found in all the Gospel strata (Mark, Q, M, L, and John) and satisfies perfectly the "criterion of dissimilarity," which states that if a saying or title like this could not have arisen out of Judaism or out of the early church, it must be authentic.许多尝试已作出否认部分或所有子人的说法的真实性,但这样的企图founder上,这一标题是在所有阶层的福音(马克,问,男,L和约翰),发现事实完全满足了“不同,规范”的规定,如果这样的话,或标题可能不会出现了犹太教或早期教会的,它必须是真实的。 The denial of the authenticity of this title is therefore based not so much on exegetical issues as upon rationalistic presuppositions which a priori deny that Jesus of Nazareth could have spoken of himself in this way.对这个称号的真实性,因此拒绝在理性基础作为前提的先验否认拿撒勒的耶稣可能有自己的发言中这样训诂问题上没有这么多。

The Christology of the NT基督的新台币

Within the NT numerous claims are made concerning Jesus Christ.在众多的索赔新台币作出关于耶稣基督。Through his resurrection Jesus has been exalted and given lordship over all creation (Col. 1:16-17; Phil. 2:9-11; I Cor. 15:27).通过他的复活的耶稣被高举并给予超过所有的创造领主(西1:16-17;。菲尔2:9-11。我肺心病15:27)。 The use of the title "Lord" for Jesus quickly resulted in the association of the person and work of Jesus with the Lord of the OT, ie, Yahweh.标题中的“主”的耶稣用快速导致了人与耶稣工作的催产素,即耶和华上帝会。 (Cf. Rom. 10:9-13 with Joel 2:32; II Thess. 1:7-10, I Cor. 5:5 with Isa. 2:10-19; II Thess. 1:12 with Isa. 66:5; I Cor. 16:22 and Rev. 22:20; Phil 2:11.) His preexistence is referred to (II Cor. 8:9; Phil. 2:6; Col. 1:15-16); he is referred to as creator (Col. 1:16); he is said to possess the "form" of God (Phil. 2:6) and be the "image" of God (Col. 1:15; cf. also II Cor. 4:4).(参罗10:9-13与Joel 2:32。。第二帖1:7-10,我肺心病5:5与伊萨2:10-19。。第二帖伊萨1:12 66。。 :。。。5,我肺心病16:22和启示录22:20;菲尔2:11)他的前世是指(二肺心病8:9;菲尔2:6;上校1:15-16)。他被称为造物主(歌1:16),他是说,拥有“形式”的神(腓2:6),并成为“形象”的神(西1:15;。比照也二肺心病。4:4)。 He is even referred to explicitly in a number of places as "God" (Rom. 9:5; II Thess. 1:12; Titus 2:13; Heb. 1:5-8; I John 5:20; John 1:1; 20:28; although the exegesis of some of these passages is debated, it is clear that some of them clearly refer to Jesus as "God").他甚至明确地提到了为“神”(罗马书9:5名额;第二帖1:12。提多书2:13,希伯来书1:5-8。约翰5:20,约翰一:1; 20:28;虽然这些通道进行辩论的一些注释,很明显,其中一些显然是指耶稣为“上帝”)。

The Quest for the Historical Jesus为追求历史的耶稣

The beginning of the quest for the historical Jesus can be dated to 1774-78 when the poet Lessing published posthumously the lecture notes of Hermann Samuel Reimarus.作者:耶稣的历史性任务的开端可以追溯到1774年至1778年当诗人莱辛死后出版的赫尔曼塞缪尔赖马鲁斯讲义。 These notes challenged the traditional portrait of Jesus found in the NT and the church.这些说明挑战传统的耶稣画像新台币和教堂发现。For Reimarus, Jesus never made any messianic claim, never instituted any sacraments, never predicted his death nor rose from the dead.对于赖马鲁斯,耶稣从来没有救世主索赔,从来没有提起任何圣礼,从来没有预测他的死,是从死里复活。 The story of Jesus was in fact a deliberate imposture of the disciples.耶稣的故事,其实是故意冒用的弟子。In so portraying Jesus, Reimarus raised the question, "What was Jesus of Nazareth really like?" And so the quest to find the "real" Jesus arose.在这样描绘耶稣,赖马鲁斯提出的问题,“什么是拿撒勒的耶稣真的想要吗?”等等寻求找到“真正的”耶稣出现了。 During the earliest part of the nineteenth century the dominating method of research in the quest was rationalism, and attempts were made to explain "rationally" the life of Christ (cf. KH Venturini's A Non-Supernatural History of the Great Prophet of Nazareth).在十九世纪最早的一部分支配的研究方法是理性主义的追求,并试图作了解释,“合理”基督的生命(参见因次周波数kh里尼是一个非超自然的拿撒勒伟大先知史)。

A major turning point came when DF Strauss's The Life of Christ was published in 1835, for Strauss in pointing out the futility of the rationalistic approach argued that the miraculous in the Gospels was to be understood as nonhistorical "myths."一个重要的转折点来到时,东风施特劳斯的基督的生命发表于1835年,在指出了理性主义的做法是徒劳的施特劳斯认为,在福音神奇的是,作为非历史的理解“的神话。” This new approach was in turn succeeded by the liberal interpretation of the life of Jesus, which minimized and neglected the miraculous dimension of the Gospels and viewed it as "husk" which had to be eliminated in order to concentrate on the teachings of Jesus.这种新方法是由耶稣的,它最小化,忽略了福音的神奇维和被视为“糠”,这不得不取消,以专注于耶稣的教诲它生命自由的解释成功转向。 Not surprisingly, this approach found in the teachings of Jesus such liberal doctrines as the fatherhood of God, the brotherhood of man, and the infinite value of the human soul.毫不奇怪,这种方法发现在耶稣如神,人的兄弟情谊,以及人的灵魂自由无限价值学说父亲的教诲。

The "death" of the quest came about for several reasons.“死亡”的追求是约几个原因。For one, it became apparent, through the work of Albert Schweitzer, that the liberal Jesus never existed but was simply a creation of liberal wishfulness.其一,很明显,通过史怀哲工作,即自由耶稣从未存在,但只是一个自由wishfulness创作。Another factor that helped end the quest was the realization that the Gospels were not simple objective biographies which could easily be mined for historical information.另一个因素是帮助结束了追求的是实现了福音,不是简单的,容易开采的历史信息是客观的传记。This was the result of the work of William Wrede and the form critics.这是对威廉wrede和批评的形式工作的结果。Still another reason for the death of the quest was the realization that the object of faith for the church throughout the centuries had never been the historical Jesus of theological liberalism but the Christ of faith, ie, the supernatural Christ proclaimed in the Scriptures.还有一个对于追求死亡的原因是认为信仰对整个世纪教堂对象从未神学自由主义,但历史上的耶稣的信念,即基督的实现,宣布超自然基督在圣经。 Martin kahler was especially influential in this regard.马丁卡勒尤其在这方面的影响力。

During the period between the two World Wars, the quest lay dormant for the most part due to disinterest and doubt as to its possibility.在两次世界大战之间的时期,追求奠定最感兴趣的部分原因,并怀疑其可能处于休眠状态。In 1953 a new quest arose at the instigation of Ernst Kasemann.1953年,一个新的任务出现在恩斯特凯士曼煽动。Kasemann feared that the discontinuity in both theory and practice between the Jesus of history and the Christ of faith was very much like the early docetic heresy, which denied the humanity of the Son of God.凯士曼担心,在理论和历史之间的耶稣和基督信仰的做法非常喜欢间断初docetic异端,它否认人类是神的儿子了。 As a result he argued that it was necessary to establish a continuity between the historical Jesus and the Christ of faith.因此,他认为,有必要建立一个与历史上的耶稣和基督信仰的连续性。Furthermore he pointed out that the present historical skepticism about the historical Jesus was unwarranted because some historical data were available and undeniable.此外,他指出,目前关于历史上的耶稣的历史持怀疑态度是没有道理,因为一些历史资料可以和不可否认的。The results of this new quest have been somewhat disappointing, and the enthusiasm that greeted it can be said, for the most part, to have disappeared.这一新的任务的结果已经有点令人失望,热情迎接,可以说在大多数情况下,已经消失。New tools have been honed during this period, however, which can assist in this historical task.新的工具已经被磨练在此期间,然而,它可以协助这一历史任务。

The major problem that faces any attempt to arrive at the "historical Jesus" involves the definition of the term "historical."所面临的主要问题达成任何企图在“历史的耶稣”,涉及到这个名词的定义“的历史。”In critical circles the term is generally understood as "the product of the historical-critical method."在批评界的期限一般理解为“的历史批判方法的产品。”This method for many assumes a closed continuum of time and space in which divine intervention, ie, the miraculous, cannot intrude.这对于许多方法假定时间和空间,使神的干预,即神奇的,不能关闭的连续侵入。Such a definition will, of course, always have a problem seeking to find continuity between the supernatural Christ and the Jesus of history, who by such a definition cannot be supernatural.这样一个定义,当然,总是有一个问题寻求超自然之间找到基督和历史,谁这样的定义不能超自然耶稣的连续性。

If "historical" means nonsupernatural, there can never be a real continuity between the Jesus of historical research and the Christ of faith.如果“历史”是指nonsupernatural,但不可能是一个历史研究之间的耶稣和基督信仰真正的连续性。It is becoming clear, therefore, that this definition of "historical" must be challenged, and even in Germany spokesmen are arising who speak of the need for the historical-critical method to assume an openness to transcendence, ie, openness to the possibility of the miraculous.越来越明显,因此,这种“历史”的定义必须受到挑战,甚至出现在德国的代言人是谁在历史的关键方法需要假设一个开放的超越性,即开放的发言的可能性化腐朽为神奇。 Only in this way can there ever be hope of establishing a continuity between the Jesus of historical research and the Christ of faith.只有这样,才能永远不会有之间建立历史研究耶稣和基督信仰的连续性希望。

RH Stein铑施泰因
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
FF Bruce, Jesus and Christian Origins Outside the NT; D. Guthrie, A Shorter Life of Christ; EF Harrison, A Short Life of Christ; JG Machen, The Virgin Birth of Christ; GE Ladd, I Believe in the Resurrection of Jesus; TW Manson, The Teaching of Jesus; J. Jeremias, The Parables of Jesus and The Problem of the Historical Jesus; RH Stein, The Method and Message of Jesus' Teachings and An Introduction to the Parables of Jesus; IH Marshall, The Origins of NT Christology and I Believe in the Historical Jesus; RN Longenecker, The Christology of Early Jewish Christianity; A. Schweitzer, The Quest of the Historical Jesus; M. Kahler, The So-Called Historical Jesus and the Historic, Biblical Christ; H. Anderson, Jesus and Christian Origins; RH Stein, "The 'Criteria' for Authenticity," in Gospel Perspectives, I; DE Aune, Jesus and the Synoptic Gospels.法郎布鲁斯,耶稣和基督教的起源新台币外,伽丝瑞,寿命较短的基督;英哈里森,一个基督的短生命; JG麦,维尔京基督诞生;葛雷德,我相信在耶稣的复活;荃湾曼森,基督的教导的J. jeremias,耶稣的比喻和耶稣的历史问题;铑施泰因,方法和耶稣的教导消息和对耶稣的比喻介绍;中转马歇尔由来新台币基督,我相信在历史的耶稣;护士朗格内克,早期犹太基督教基督的A.施魏策尔,在追求历史的耶稣;米卡勒,所谓历史的耶稣及其历史,圣经基督阁下;安德森,耶稣和基督教的起源;铑施泰因说:“'标准'的真实性,”在福音的角度,我;德Aune,耶稣和天气福音。


Jesus of Nazareth拿撒勒的耶稣

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观资料

-In History:在历史:

Founder of Christianity; born at Nazareth about 2 BC (according to Luke iii. 23); executed at Jerusalem 14th of Nisan, 3789 (March or April, 29 CE).基督教创始人;出生在拿撒勒约2年(路加福音三23。);执行尼散在耶路撒冷,3789(三月或四月,公元29)第14位。 His life, though indirectly of so critical a character, had very little direct influence on the course of Jewish history or thought.他的一生,虽然非常关键的角色,间接地对犹太人的历史或思想进程的直接影响很小。In contemporary Jewish literature his career is referred to only in the (interpolated) passage of Josephus, "Ant."在当代犹太文学生涯是指只有在约瑟夫,(插值)通过的“蚂蚁”。xviii.十八。3, § 3, while the references in the Talmud are for the most part as legendary as those in the apocryphal gospels, though in an opposite direction (see Jesus in Jewish Legend).3,§ 3,而在犹太法典中的引用部分为最传奇的是那些在猜测福音,但在相反的方向(见犹太传说中耶稣)。Under these circumstances it is not necessary in this place to do more than to give a sketch of the main historical events in the public career of Jesus, with an attempt to ascertain his personal relations to contemporary Judaism; for the theological superstructure based upon his life and death, and certain mythological conceptions associated with them, see Jew.在这种情况下是不会在这个地方做的多给一个在耶稣的公共事业的主要历史事件,试图勾画当代犹太教,以确定他的个人关系,必不可少的,因为在他的神学生活为基础的上层建筑和死亡,以及与他们有关的一些神话观念,见犹太人。 Encyc.Encyc。iv.四。50a, sv Christianity. 50A条,希沃特基督教。

Sources of Life.生命之源。

In the New Testament there are four "Gospels" professing to deal with the life of Jesus independently; but it is now almost universally agreed that the first three of these, known by the names of "Matthew," "Mark," and "Luke," are interdependent, corresponding to the various forms of contemporary Baraitot, while the fourth, the Gospel of John, is what the Germans call a "Tendenz-Roman," practically a work of religious imagination intended to modify opinion in a certain direction.在新约中还有4个“福音”自称对付耶稣的生活独立,但它现在几乎普遍认为,这些前三,以“马太”,“马克的名字称为”和“卢克,“是相互依存的,对应于当代Baraitot的各种形式,而第四,约翰福音,正是德国人称之为”Tendenz罗马“,实际上是旨在修改意见,在一定方向宗教的想象的工作。 The supernatural claims made on behalf of Jesus are based almost exclusively on statements of the fourth Gospel.对耶稣的名义所作的超自然声称几乎完全是基于对第四福音发言。Of the first three or synoptic Gospels the consensus of contemporary opinion regards that of Mark as the earliest and as being the main source of the historic statements of the other two.前三个或天气福音当代共识问候,对马克的最早,因为这是对其他两个历史性陈述的主要来源。This Gospel will, therefore, be used in the following account almost exclusively, references to chapter and verse, when the name of the Gospel is not given, being to this source.这福音,因此,将用在以下帐户几乎完全参照章节和诗句,当福音的名字是不是给予,而这个来源。Beside the original of the Gospel of Mark, there was another source used in common by both Matthew and Luke, namely the "logia," or detached sayings, of Matthew and Luke; and besides these two documents the apocryphal "Gospel According to the Hebrews" has preserved, in the opinion of the critics, a few statements of Jesus which often throw vivid light upon his motives and opinions.旁边的原来的马克福音,有共同的使用都马修和卢克,即另一个来源“logia”,或超脱熟语,马修和卢克,而除了这两个文件的猜测“福音根据希伯来人“有保留,在批评,耶稣经常地扑到他的动机和意见生动轻一些报表的意见。 Much industry and ingenuity have been devoted by A. Resch to the collection of extracanonical statements of Jesus, known as "agrapha" (Leipsic, 1889).许多行业和创造力一直致力于由A.雷希到extracanonical报表的耶稣“agrapha”(普西克,1889年)已知的集合。

The earliest of all these sources, the original of Mark's Gospel, contains references which show that it was written shortly before or soon after the destruction of Jerusalem in the year 70; in other words, forty years after the death of Jesus.所有这些来源最早,马克的福音原始,包含引用这表明,这是书面后不​​久,耶路撒冷,在70年之前或尽快销毁;换句话说,在耶稣的死四十年。 Like the other Gospels, it was originally written in Greek, whereas the sayings of Jesus were uttered in Aramaic.像其他福音,它最初是写在希腊,而耶稣的说法是在阿拉姆了一声。It is therefore impossible to lay much stress upon the perfect accuracy of the records of events and statements written down forty years after they occurred or were made, and then in a language other than that in which such statements were originally uttered (even the Lord's Prayer was retained in variant versions; comp. Matt. vi. 10-13; Luke xi. 2-4); yet it is upon this slender basis that some of the most stupendous claims have been raised.因此,不能躺在了对活动和声明向下forty年前就完成了后发生或发了言,然后语言不是在这些陈述最初发出的(甚至是主祷文其他记录完美的准确性大的压力在变种版本保留;比赛马特六10-13;。。。路加福音十一2-4)。然而,在这个细长的基础是最惊人的部分已提出索赔。 For the processes by which the traditions as to the life of Jesus were converted into proofs of his super-natural character, see Jew.对于其中以耶稣的生活传统,进了他的超级本性证明转换过程中,看到犹太人。Encyc.Encyc。iv.四。51-52, sv51-52,希沃特

Christianity.基督教。Many incidents were actually invented (especially in Matthew) "in order that there might be fulfilled" in him prophecies relating to aMessiah of a character quite other than that of which Jesus either claimed or was represented by his disciples to be.其实很多事故发明“,以便有可能实现”(特别是在马太)在他的预言有关的字符,其中相当比耶稣要么声称或由他的弟子所代表的是其他aMessiah。 Yet the supernatural in the life of Jesus according to the Gospels is restricted to the smallest dimensions, consisting mainly of incidents and characteristics intended to support these prophecies and the dogmatic positions of Christianity.然而,在耶稣的生命据福音书超自然限制到最小尺寸,主要包括事件,并打算以支持这些预言和教条式的立场,基督教特征。 This applies especially to the story of the virgin-birth, a legend which is common to almost all folk-heroes as indicating their superiority to the rest of their people (see ES Hartland, "Legend of Perseus," vol. i.).这特别适用于美属维尔京出生的故事,传说这是共同的,几乎所有的民间英雄,以显示其优势,他们的其他人(见胚胎干哈特兰,第一卷。岛“的英仙座,传奇”)。 Combined with this is the inconsistent claim of Davidic descent through Joseph, two discrepant pedigrees being given (Matt. i., Luke iii.).结合这是大卫的后裔通过约瑟夫不一致的要求,正在考虑两个不符谱系(太岛,路加三。)。 Perhaps the most remarkable thing about the life of Jesus as presented in the Gospels is the utter silence about its earlier phases.也许对耶稣在福音介绍生活中最值得注意的是关于它的早期阶段完全沉默。He was one of a rather large family, having four brothers, Jacob, Jose, Simon, Judah, besides sisters.他是一个相当大的家族之一,有四个兄弟姐妹之外,雅各,圣何塞,西门,犹大。It is known that he earned his living by his father's trade, that of a carpenter; according to Justin Martyr, plows and yokes made by Jesus were still in existence at his (Justin's) time, about the year 120 ("Dial. cum Tryph." § 88).据了解,他靠他父亲的贸易他的生活,即一个木匠,据贾斯汀烈士,犁与轭由耶稣仍然存在,在他(Justin的)时间大约一年120(“拨号暨Tryph。 。“§ 88)。It is doubtful whether he received any definite intellectual training, the great system of Jewish education not being carried into effect till after the destruction of Jerusalem (see Education).这是令人怀疑他是否收到任何明确的知识产权培训,犹太教育大系统进行不生效,直至摧毁后,耶路撒冷(见教育)。 It is probable, however, that he could read; he was certainly acquainted, either by reading or by oral instruction, with much of the Old Testament; and his mode of argumentation often resembles that of the contemporary rabbis, implying that he had frequented their society.这是可能的,但是,他能读,他肯定是熟悉,无论是看书,或口头指示与大部分的旧约和他的论证模式往往类似于当代拉比,这意味着他经常光顾的社会。 In defending his infringement of the Sabbath he seems to have confused Abiathar with Ahimelech (ii. 25; comp. I Sam. xxi. 1), if this is not merely a copyist's blunder.在捍卫他的安息日侵权,他似乎已经混淆了亚希米勒亚比亚他(白介素25;。。比赛我心二十一,1。),如果这不仅是一个模仿者的失误。 It would appear from his interviews with the scribe (xii. 29-31; comp. Luke x. 27) and with the rich young man (x. 19) that he was acquainted with the Didache in its Jewish form, accepting its teachings as summing up the whole of Jewish doctrine.这样看来,从他的访谈与文士(xii. 29-31;。比赛路加福音十27),并与丰富的年轻男子(十19),他是熟悉的十二使徒遗训在其犹太形式,接受其教诲,总结整个犹太学说。Only a single incident of his early days is recorded: his behavior about the time of his bar miẓwah (or confirmation) in the Temple (Luke ii. 41-52).只有他早年单一事件被记录:他对他的酒吧miẓwah在庙(或确认)(。路加福音二41-52)时间的行为。It is strange that so masterful a character showed no signs of its exceptional qualities before the turning-point of Jesus' career.奇怪的是,如此高超的前一个字符显示转折点耶稣的职业生涯中的特殊素质的迹象。

Influence of John the Baptist.施洗约翰的影响。

The crisis in Jesus' life came with John the Baptist's preaching of repentance and of the nearness of the kingdom of God.在耶稣的生活危机来与施洗约翰的悔改的说教和对神的国度贴近。At first Jesus refused to submit to baptism by John.起初,耶稣拒绝提交由约翰的洗礼。According to a well-authenticated tradition of the "Gospel According to the Hebrews," he asked wherein he had sinned that it was necessary for him to be baptized by John.据一井验证的传统“福音根据希伯来人,”他问,其中他犯了罪,这是他必须由约翰洗礼。Nevertheless the sight of the marked influence exercised by the latter evidently made a profound impression on the character of Jesus: he probably then experienced for the first time the power of a great personality upon crowds of people.虽然如此,后者行使的显着影响视线显然作了关于耶稣的性格留下深刻的印象:他可能再经历了第一次的人群后,伟大人格力量。

It is at this moment of his life that Christian legend places what is known as the temptation, information concerning which, from the very nature of the case, could have been communicated only by Jesus himself.这是基督教传说中所谓的诱惑已知的地方,这些方面的相关资料,从案件的性质,可能已被耶稣亲自送交:只有在这人生的时刻。 In the "Gospel According to the Hebrews" account this is given in the form: "My mother, the Holy Spirit, took me just now by one of my hairs and carried me up to the great Mount Tabor" (which was in the neighborhood of his home).在“福音根据希伯来人”的帐户,这是在给定的形式:“我的母亲,圣灵,把我刚才我的头发,并进行了我一个向伟大的摩塔伯尔”(这是在附近他的家)。 As Jerome remarks (on Isa. xl. 9), the form of this saying implies a Hebrew (or rather Aramaic) original ("Ruḥa Ḳaddisha"); and for this reason, among others, the saying may be regarded as a genuine one.正如杰罗姆备注(。。xl的伊萨9),这种形式的说法意味着希伯来语(或更确切地说阿拉姆语)原来(“RuḥaḲaddisha”),以及基于这个原因,除其他外,可说是真正之一。 It is significant as implying two things: (1) the belief of Jesus in a special divine origin of his spirit, and (2) a tendency to ecstatic abstraction.这是意义重大,因为这意味着两件事情:(1)耶稣在一个特别神圣的,他的精神信仰的起源,以及(2)向欣喜若狂抽象的倾向。 This tendency is found in other great leaders of men, like Socrates, Mohammed, and Napoleon, being accompanied in their cases by hallucinations; auditory in the first case (the "demon" of Socrates), and visual in the last two (Mohammed's dove and Napoleon's star).这种倾向是存在于像苏格拉底,穆罕默德和拿破仑的人,其他伟大领袖,被他们的案件伴有幻觉,听觉在第一种情况(即“恶魔”的苏格拉底),并在最后两个视觉(穆罕默德的鸽子和拿破仑的明星)。 These periods of ecstasy would tend to confirm in Oriental minds the impression that the subject of them was inspired (comp. the original meaning of "nabi"; see Prophet), and would add to the attractive force of a magnetic personality.狂喜这些时期,往往会在东方心中确认印象是,他们受到的启发(可比的“彩蝶”的原意,见先知),并增加了一个磁性的人格吸引力。

In Jesus' family and among his neighbors the effect seems to have been different.在耶稣的家人和他的邻居之间的效应似乎有所不同。His own people regarded him even as being out of his mind (iii. 21), and they do not appear to have been associated with him or with the Christian movement until after his death.他自己的人认为即使是他的心灵(iii. 21)出了他,并且他们似乎并没有被他或在他死后,直到基督教运动有关。Jesus himself seems to have been greatly incensed at this (comp. vi. 4), refusing to recognize any special relationship even to his mother (iii. 33; comp. John ii. 4), and declaring that spiritual relationship exceeded a natural one (iii. 35).耶稣自己似乎已经在这个大大激怒,拒绝承认任何特殊关系,甚至对他的母亲(comp.六4。)(iii. 33;。可比约翰二世4。),并宣称精神超过了自然的关系(iii. 35)。He felt perforce driven out into public activity; and the feverish excitement of the succeeding epoch-making ten months implies a tension of spirit which must have confirmed the impression of inspiration.他觉得Perforce的公共活动陷入了;以及随后的划时代十个月意味着一种精神,必须有确定的灵感狂热兴奋紧张的印象。 On the whole subject see O. Holtzman, "War Jesus Ekstatiker?"在整个课题见澳霍尔茨曼,“战争耶稣Ekstatiker?”(Leipsic, 1902), who agrees that there must have been abnormal mental processes involved in the utterances and behavior of Jesus.(普西克,1902年),谁同意,必须已在耶稣的言论和行为涉及的不正常的心理过程。

His Belief in Demonology.他相信在恶魔。

Instead, however, of remaining in the wilderness like John, or like the Essenes, with whose tendencies his own show some affinity, he returned to his native district and sought out those whom he wished to influence.相反,然而,剩余的一样,约翰旷野,或像爱色尼,与他自己的倾向,表现出一定的亲和力,他回到他的家乡地区,追逐那些他希望的影响。 Incidentally he developed a remarkable power of healing; one sick of a fever (i. 29-34), a leper (i. 40-45), a paralytic (ii. 1-12), and an epileptic (ix. 15-29) being severally cured by him.顺便提一句,他制定了一个非凡的愈合能力;的一个发烧(一29-34),长了大麻疯(一40-45),生病一个瘫子(白介素1-12),以及癫痫(ix. 15 - 29)被个别治愈了他。But his activity in this regard was devoted especially to "casting out demons," ie, according to the folkmedicine of the time, healing nervous and mental diseases.但他在这方面的活动是专门尤其是“赶鬼”,即根据当时folkmedicine,治疗神经和精神疾病。It would appear that Jesus shared in the current belief of the Jews in the noumenal existence of demons or evil spirits; and most of his miraculous cures consisted in casting them out, which he did with "the finger of God" (Luke xi. 20), or with "the Spirit of God" (Matt. xii. 28).这样看来,在犹太人中的恶魔或邪灵当前存在的本体共用基督信仰,以及他最神奇的治疗方法包括铸造出来,他以“上帝的手指”(路加福音十一没有20。 ),或与“精神的上帝”(太十二。28)。It would seem also that he regarded diseases like fever to be due to the existence of demons (Luke iv. 39).这似乎也表示,他认为如发热性疾病是由于对魔(路四39。)的存在。One of the chief functions transmitted to his disciples was the "power over unclean spirits, to cast them out" (Matt. x. 1), and his superiority to his followers was shown by his casting out demons which they had failed to expel (ix. 14-29).转交给他的弟子的主要职能之一是“在不洁的精神力量,他们丢了”(太十1),和他的优势,他的追随者是由他的铸造显示出,他们没能驱逐恶魔(九。14-29)。 As regards the miracle in which Jesus cast out a demon or several demons whose name was "Legion" into some Gadarene swine (v. 1-21), it has recently been ingeniously suggested by T. Reinach that the name "Legion" given to the spirits was due to the popular confusion between the Tenth Legion (the sole Roman garrison of Palestine between the years 70 and 135) and the wild boar which appeared as the insignia on its standard ("REJ" xlvii. 177).至于耶稣的奇迹在投出到一些朝下猪(五1-21)一个或几个妖魔恶魔的名字是“军团”,最近被巧妙的建议由T.雷纳克即命名为“军团”送给精神是由于之间的第十军团(唯一的罗马驻军巴勒斯坦之间的70年和135)​​和野猪的标准作为其标志(“相互执行判决”四十七。177)流行出现混乱。 From this it would seem that the legend arose, at any rate in its present form, after the destruction of Jerusalem, at which time alone the confusion between the title "legion" and the insignia could have occurred.从这一点似乎是传说中产生的,可随时运用其目前的形式率,破坏后,耶路撒冷,当时仅标题之间的“军团”和徽章可能会发生混乱。 For a full account of the subject see FC Conybeare in "JQR" viii.对于一门学科的看到在“JQR”八财委会科尼比尔充分考虑。587-588, and compare Demonology. 587-588,并比较恶魔。It is difficult to estimate what amount of truth exists in the accounts of these cures, recorded about forty years after their occurrence; but doubtless the mental excitement due to the influence of Jesus was often efficacious in at least partial or temporary cures of mental illnesses.这是很难估计的金额的真理存在于这些治疗的帐目,其发生约四十年后记录,但毫无疑问,精神兴奋,由于耶稣的影响,至少在局部或暂时的精神疾病治疗方法往往有效。 This would tend to confirm the impression, both among those who witnessed the cures and among his disciples, of his possession of supernatural powers.这将有助于证实两者之间的那些谁见证了治疗和他的弟子们的印象中,他的神通藏。He himself occasionally deprecated the exaggeration to which such cures naturally led.他自己偶尔废弃的夸张自然导致此种疗法。 Thus in the case of Jairus' daughter (v. 35-43) he expressly declared: "She is not dead, but sleepeth" (39).因此,在睚鲁的女儿(五35-43)情况下,他明确宣布:“她是不是死了,是睡着了”(39)。

Notwithstanding this, her resuscitation was regarded as a miracle.尽管如此,她的复苏被视为一个奇迹。In essentials Jesus' teaching was that of John the Baptist, and it laid emphasis on two points: (1) repentance, and (2) the near approach of the kingdom of God.在必需品耶稣的教学是,施洗约翰,和它放在强调两点:(1)悔过书,及(2)神的国近的做法。One other point is noted by Christian theologians as part of his essential teaching, namely, insistence upon the fatherhood of God.另一点是由基督教神学家指出,作为他的基本的教学,即在神的父亲坚持的一部分。This is such a commonplace in the Jewish liturgy and in Jewish thought that it is scarcely necessary to point out its essentially Jewish character (see Father).这是这样一个在犹太礼拜仪式和犹太人的思想普遍,它是几乎没有必要指出它的主要犹太特性(见父亲)。As regards repentance, its specifically Jewish note has been recently emphasized by CG Montefiore ("JQR" Jan., 1904), who points out that Christianity lays less stress upon this side of religious life than Judaism; so that in this direction Jesus was certainly more Jewish than Christian.至于悔过书,其具体犹太说明是最近重心蒙特弗洛尔(“JQR”一月,1904年),谁规定指出,在这个基督教比犹太教宗教生活的压力更小方强调,因此,在这个方向无疑是耶稣更多的犹太人比基督教。

As regards the notion of the "kingdom of heaven," the title itself ("malkut shamayim") is specifically Jewish; and the content of the concept is equally so (see Kingdom of God).至于这一概念的“天国”的标题本身(“malkut shamayim”)是专门犹太人,以及这一概念的内容也同样如此(见上帝的王国)。Jesus seems to have shared in the belief of his contemporaries that some world-catastrophe was at hand in which this kingdom would be reinstated on the ruins of a fallen world (ix. 1; comp. xiii. 35-37 and Matt. x. 23).耶稣似乎在他同时代的一些世界大灾难中,在手将于本王国的堕落世界的废墟上恢复了信仰(ix. 1人分享;。训练班第十三,35 - 37和马特十。。 23)。

Jewish Characteristics.犹太特性。

Almost at the beginning of his evangelical career Jesus differentiated himself from John the Baptist in two directions: (1) comparative neglect of the Mosaic or rabbinic law; and (2) personal attitude toward infractions of it.几乎在他的职业生涯基督福音约翰开始区别自己浸在两个方向:(1)马赛克或拉比法比较忽视;(二)违规向它的个人态度。In many ways his attitude was specifically Jewish, even in directions which are usually regarded as signs of Judaic narrowness.在许多方面,他的态度是明确的犹太人,甚至在这些通常被视为标志的犹太狭隘的方向。Jesus appears to have preached regularly in the synagogue, which would not have been possible if his doctrines had been recognized as being essentially different from the current Pharisaic beliefs.耶稣似乎有鼓吹的犹太教堂,这将是可能的,如果没有他的学说是作为被本质的不同认识当前定期pharisaic的信念。 In his preaching he adopted the popular method of "mashal," or Parable, of which about thirty-one examples are instanced in the synoptic Gospels, forming indeed the larger portion of his recorded teachings.在他的说教,他通过了“火炬”,或寓言,其中约三十一个例子是在实例化的天气福音流行的方法,形成确实是他的教诲录得的较大部分。 It is obvious that such a method is liable to misunderstanding; and it is difficult in all cases to reconcile the various views that seem to underlie the parables.很显然,这种方法可被误解,而且很难在所有情况下调和的,似乎背后的比喻各方面的意见。One of these parables deserves special mention here, as it has obviously been changed, for dogmatic reasons, so as to have an anti-Jewish application.其中特别值得一提的一个比喻在这里,因为它显然已发生变更的,教条的原因,这样才能有一个反犹太人的申请。 There is little doubt that J. Halevy is right ("REJ" iv. 249-255) in suggesting that in the parable of the good Samaritan (Luke x. 17-37) the original contrast was between the priest, the Levite, and the ordinary Israelite-representing the three great classes into which Jews then and now were and are divided.毫无疑问,j的哈莱维是正确的(“相互执行判决”四。249-255)的建议,在好撒玛利亚人的比喻(路十17-37)原反差祭司,利未人同在,普通以色列人,代表三成,犹太人当时和现在是和是伟大的阶级划分。 The point of the parable is against the sacerdotal class, whose members indeed brought about the death of Jesus.该点的比喻是针对sacerdotal类,其确实对耶稣的死带来的成员。Later, "Israelite" or "Jew" was changed into "Samaritan," which introduces an element of inconsistency, since no Samaritan would have been found on the road between Jericho and Jerusalem (ib. 30).后来,“以色列人”或“犹太人”被改为“撒玛利亚”,它引入了一个不一致的内容,因为没有撒玛利亚会一直在杰里科和耶路撒冷之间(同上30)路找到。

While the aim of Jesus was to redeem those who had strayed from the beaten path of morality, he yet restricted his attention and that of his followers to the lost sons of Israel (vii. 24).尽管耶稣的目的是赎回那些谁从道德的老路偏离,他还限制了他的注意,而他的追随者对以色列(vii. 24)失去的儿子。He particularly forbade his disciples to seek heathens and Samaritans (x. 5), and for the same reason at first refused to heal the Syrophenician woman (vii. 24).他特别禁止他的弟子们寻求异教徒和撒马利亚(十5),并在第一次同样的理由拒绝医治Syrophenician女子(vii. 24)。His choice of twelve apostles had distinct reference to the tribes of Israel (iii. 13-16).他的十二使徒的选择具有明显的参考以色列(iii. 13-16)的部落。He regarded dogs and swine as unholy (Matt. vii. 6).他认为邪恶的狗和猪(太七。6)。His special prayer is merely a shortened form of the third, fifth, sixth, ninth, and fifteenth of the Eighteen Benedictions (see Lord's Prayer).他的特别祈祷,只是缩短形式的第三,第五,第六,第九,和十八祝福第十五届(见主祷文)。Jesus wore the Ẓiẓit (Matt. ix. 20); he went out of his way to pay the Temple tax of two drachmas (ib. xvii. 24-27); and his disciples offered sacrifice (ib. v. 23-24).耶稣穿着Ẓiẓit(太九20。),他去了他的方式支付两税出寺德拉克马(ib.十七24-27。)和他的弟子们提供了牺牲(ib.五23-24) 。In the Sermon on the Mount he expressly declared that he had come not to destroy the Law, but to fulfil it (ib. v. 17, quoted in Shab. 116b), and that not a jot or tittle of the Law should ever pass away (ib. v. 18; comp. Luke xvi. 17).在山上宝训,他明确宣称,他来不是要废掉律法,乃是要成全它(ib.诉17日,在沙巴引用。116B条),而不是一记或通过法律所应有的闲聊远离(ib.诉18人;。比赛路加福音十六17。)。 It would even appear that later tradition regarded him as scrupulous in keeping the whole Law (comp. John viii. 46).它甚至会出现,后来被视为传统,他一丝不苟,在保持整个法律(comp.约翰八。46)。

Attitude Toward the Law.对法律的态度。

Yet in several particulars Jesus declined to follow the directions of the Law, at least as it was interpreted by the Rabbis.然而,在一些细节耶稣拒绝按照该法的方向,至少它是由拉比解释。Where John's followers fasted, he refused to do so (ii. 18).而约翰的追随者禁食,但他拒绝这样做(白介素18)。He permitted his followers to gather corn on the Sabbath (ii. 23-28), and himself healed on that day (iii. 1-6), though the stricter rabbis allowed only the saving of life to excuse the slightest curtailment of the Sabbath rest (Shab. xxii. 6).他允许他的信徒们聚集在安息日(白介素23-28)玉米,和他自己治好了这一天(iii. 1-6),虽然严格的拉比只允许拯救生命为借口的安息日丝毫削减休息(Shab.二十二。6)。In minor points, such as the ablution after meals (vii. 2), he showed a freedom from traditional custom which implied a break with the stricter rule of the more rigorous adherents of the Law at that time.在小点,如沐浴后的餐(vii. 2),他表现出这意味着从传统习俗与当时的法的严格的规则更严格的信徒休息的自由。His attitude toward the Law is perhaps best expressed in an incident which, though recorded in only one manuscript of the Gospel of Luke (vi. 4, in the Codex Bezæ), bears internal signs of genuineness.他对法律的态度也许是最好的一个,虽然记录(在食品Bezæ vi. 4)在只有一个路加福音手稿事件表示,熊的真实性内部的迹象。He is there reported to have met a man laboring on the Sabbath-day-a sin deserving of death by stoning, according to the Mosaic law.他在那儿,据报道,一名男子在安息日天的死亡值得一石击罪劳动,根据摩西律法。Jesus said to the man: "Man, if thou knowest what thou doest, blessed art thou; but if thou knowest not, accursed art thou, and a transgressor of the Law."耶稣对那个人说:“男人,如果你知道你所做的是什么,你是有福的,但如果你不晓得,你诅咒的艺术,以及法律的罪人。”According to this, the Law should be obeyed unless a higher principle intervenes.根据这一理论,法律应当服从除非更高的原则进行干预。

While claiming not to infringe or curtail the Law, Jesus directed his followers to pay more attention to the intention and motive with which any act was done than to the deed itself.虽然声称不侵犯或削弱法律,耶稣指示他的追随者更注重的意图和动机,任何行为是与比自己做的契税。This was by no means a novelty in Jewish religious development: the Prophets and Rabbis had continuously and consistently insisted upon the inner motive with which pious deeds should be performed, as the well-known passages in Isa.这倒也不是在犹太人的宗教发展一个新事物:先知和拉比曾不断,始终在其中的内在动机与虔诚的事迹应该执行在伊萨著名的段落,坚持。 i.and Micah vi.弥迦六。sufficiently indicate.充分说明。Jesus contended that the application of this principle was practically equivalent to a revolution in spiritual life; and he laid stress upon the contrast between the old Law and the new one, especially in his Sermon on the Mount.耶稣争辩说,这一原则适用于几乎等同于精神生活的革命,他就摊开在旧法之间的和新的一,对比尤其是在他的山上宝训的压力。 In making these pretensions he was following a tendency which at the period of his career was especially marked in the Hasidæans and Essenes, though they associated it with views as to external purity and seclusion from the world, which differentiated them from Jesus.他在做这些伪装后,这是在他的职业生涯期间尤其在Hasidæans和essenes明显的倾向,尽管他们与外界的意见,以纯度和世界,他们从耶稣的区别隐居了。 He does not appear, however, to have contended that the new spirit would involve any particular change in the application of the Law.他没有出现,不过,有争辩说,新的精神,将涉及任何适用法律特定的变化。He appears to have suggested that marriages should be made permanent, and that divorce should not be allowed (x. 2-12).他似乎已暗示,婚姻应作出永久性的,离婚不应该被允许(十2-12)。In the Talmud it is even asserted that he threatened to change the old law of primogeniture into one by which sons and daughters should inherit alike (Shab. 116a); but there is no evidence for this utterance in Christian sources.在犹太法典,它甚至断言,他扬言要改变成一个旧法的长子,其中儿女都应该继承(Shab. 116a),但有没有这种话语在基督教来源的证据。Apart from these points, no change in the Law was indicated by Jesus; indeed, he insisted that the Jewish multitude whom he addressed should do what the Scribes and Pharisees commanded, even though they should not act as the Scribes acted (Matt. xxiii. 3).除了上述各点,没有法律的变化是由耶稣表示,事实上,他坚持认为,他所处理的许多犹太人应该做的文士和法利赛指挥的,即使他们不应该充当文士行事(太二十三。 3)。Jesus, however, does not appear to have taken into account the fact that the Halakah was at this period just becoming crystallized, and that much variation existed as to its definite form; the disputes of the Bet Hillel and Bet Shammai were occurring about the time of his maturity.耶稣,但是,似乎没有考虑到这一事实的Halakah仅为成为这一时期的结晶,而且会有很大的变化存在,以它的确切形式;希勒尔的投注和投注沙麦纠纷发生的时间大约他的成熟。

It is, however, exaggerated to regard these variations from current practises as exceptionally abnormal at the beginning of the first century.它是,但是,夸大视为极其不正常的这些变化,从目前的做法在本世纪初。The existence of a whole class of 'Am ha-Areẓ, whom Jesus may be taken to represent, shows that the rigor of the Law had not yet spread throughout the people.一类'上午公顷AREZ上空盘旋,是耶稣所可能采取的代表,全班同学的存在表明,该法还没有严谨的人散布各地。It is stated (iii. 7) that, owing to the opposition aroused by his action on the Sabbath, Jesus was obliged to flee into heathen parts with some of his followers, including two or three women who had attached themselves to his circle.据说(iii.七日)表示,由于他在安息日行动引起了反对派,耶稣不得不逃离到与他的追随者,包括两个或三个谁曾依附他的圈子有些妇女异教徒部分。 This does not seem at all probable, and is indeed contradicted by the Gospel accounts, which describe him, even after his seeming break with the rigid requirements of the traditional law, as lodging and feasting with the Pharisees (Luke xiv.), the very class that would have objected to his behavior.这似乎并不在所有可能的,确实是矛盾的福音帐户,这说明即使在他与传统法律的刚性需求似乎打破了他,为住宿和法利赛人(路加福音十四。)灯红酒绿,非常类,将反对他的行为。

Tone of Authority.音职权。

Nothing in all this insistence upon the spirit of the Law rather than upon the halakic development of it was necessarily or essentially anti-Jewish; but the tone adopted in recommending these variations was altogether novel in Jewish experience.在所有这一切后,坚持法律精神,而不是根据它的halakic发展没有必然或本质上是反犹太人,但在推荐这些变化中采取的基调是完全新颖的犹太经验。 The Prophets spoke with confidence in the truth of their message, but expressly on the ground that they were declaring the word of the Lord.先知们在谈到他们的讯息真理的信心,但在地面上明确宣布,他们的主的话。Jesus adopted equal confidence; but he emphasized his own authority apart from any vicarious or deputed power from on high.耶稣通过平等信任,但他强调,从任何高功率替代或为此指派除了他自己的权威。Yet in doing so he did not-at any rate publicly-ever lay claim to any authority as attaching to his position as Messiah.但在这样做,所以他没有在任何公开率有史以来任何权威自居作为附加为他的弥赛亚的地位。Indeed, the sole evidence in later times of any such claim seems to be based upon the statement of Peter, and was intimately connected with the personal demand of that apostle to be the head of the organization established by or in the name of Jesus.事实上,在任何此类索赔稍后的时间似乎是唯一的证据后,彼得的声明为基础,并密切与该使徒个人需求连接是由或在耶稣的名字设立的组织头目。 It is expressly stated (Matt. xvi. 20) that the disciples were admonished not to make public the claim, if it ever was made.这是明文规定(太十六20。)表示,被告诫弟子不要公开声称,如果它曾经写了。Peter's own pretensions to succession in the leadership appear to be based upon a half-humorous paronomasia made by Jesus, which finds a parallel in rabbinic literature (Matt. xvi. 18; comp. Yalḳ., Num. 766).要在领导继承彼得自己的野心似乎是耶稣一经半幽默的文字游戏,这拉比文献中发现了一个并行的(太十六18;。比赛Yalḳ,序号766。。。)。

Indeed, the most striking characteristics of the utterances of Jesus, regarded as a personality, were the tone of authority adopted by him and the claim that spiritual peace and salvation were to be found in the mere acceptance of his leadership.事实上,耶稣的话语作为一种个体性,最显着的特点是由他的威严的口吻要求和所采用的精神是和平和拯救将在他的领导仅仅验收发现。 Passages like: "Take my yoke upon you . . . and ye shall find rest unto your souls" (Matt. xi. 29); "whosoever shall lose his life for my sake . . . shall save it" (viii. 35); "Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me" (Matt. xxv. 40), indicate an assumption of power which is certainly unique in Jewish history, and indeed accounts for much of modern Jewish antipathy to Jesus, so far as it exists.段落这样的:“你们当我的轭,你们会发现平安给你们的灵魂。。。”,“凡为我的缘故失去了他的生活必救了。。。”(viii. 35)(太十一29。) (。太二十五40)“,因为你们这样做所不欲,对我这些弟兄中一个最小,你们对我都做到了”,表示一上台肯定是在犹太历史上独一无二的,确实占现代犹太人的反感很大的耶稣,只要它存在。 On the other hand, there is little in any of these utterances to show that they were meant by the speaker to apply to anything more than personal relations with him; and it might well be that in his experience he found that spiritual relief was often afforded by simple human trust in his good-will and power of direction.在另一方面,在这些言论是没有任何显示他们是由议长意味着更多的不是和他个人关系上适用于什么,并可能在他的经验是,他发现,经常给予救济的精神通过简单的在他的良好意愿和指示的权力人的信任。

This, however, raises the question whether Jesus regarded himself as in any sense a Messiah or spiritual ruler; and there is singularly little evidence in the synoptic Gospels to carry out this claim.然而,这提出了一个问题,是否耶稣视为在任何意义上的弥赛亚或精神统治者本人;并有奇在天气福音开展这项索赔的证据。 These assert only that the claim was made to some of the disciples, and then under a distinct pledge of secrecy.只是这些断言了这一声明,然后再根据不同的保密承诺的一些弟子。In the public utterances of Jesus there is absolutely no trace of the claim (except possibly in the use of the expression "Son of Man").在耶稣的公开言论,也绝对没有一丝(除了可能在表达“人子”的使用)的要求。 Yet it would almost appear that in one sense of the word Jesus regarded himself as fulfilling some of the prophecies which were taken among contemporary Jews as applying to the Messiah.然而,它几乎出现在一个意义上的字被视为履行耶稣有哪些在当代犹太人视为适用于一些自己的弥赛亚的预言。It is doubtful whether it was later tradition or his own statements that identified him with the servant of Yhwh represented in Isa.这是令人怀疑是否是后来的传统或他的确定与耶和华的仆人在伊萨表示自己的声明。liii.; but there appears to be no evidence of any Jewish conception of a Messiah suffering through and for his people, though there possibly was a conception of one suffering together with his people (see Messiah). liii。但似乎没有任何通过和他的人民的苦难弥赛亚犹太观的证据,虽然有可能是一个痛苦的一个概念,与他的人(见弥赛亚)在一起。Jesus himself never used the term "Messiah."耶稣自己从未使用过的术语“弥赛亚”。He chose for specific title "Son of Man," which may possibly have been connectedin his mind with the reference in Dan.他选择具体题目是“人子”,这可能已经与丹参考connectedin他的想法。vii.七。13, but which, according to modern theologians, means simply man in general.13日,但据现代神学家,也即是一般人。 In his own mind, too, this may have had some reference to his repudiation by his family.用他自己的头脑,也可能有这样一些人,由他的家人否认参考。In other words, Jesus regarded himself as typically human, and claimed authority and regard in that aspect.换句话说,耶稣把自己作为典型的人,并声称在这方面的权威和方面。He certainly disclaimed any application to himself of the ordinary conception of the Messiah, the Davidic descent of whom he argues against (xii. 35-57) entirely in the Talmudic manner.他当然否认的弥赛亚,其中大卫的后裔,他认为反对(xii. 35-57)普通观念对自己的申请完全在塔木德的方式。

No New Organization, Contemplated.没有新的组织,设想。

It is difficult to decide the question whether Jesus contemplated a permanent organization to carry out his ideals.这是很难决定的问题,是否耶稣设想一个常设机构来进行自己的理想。The whole tendency of his work was against the very idea of organization.他的整个工作的倾向是反对组织的想法。His practical acceptance of the Law would seem to imply an absence of any rival mode of life; and his evident belief in an almost immediate reconstruction of the whole social and religious order would tend to prevent any formal arrangements for a new religious organization.他对法律的实际接受似乎意味着对任何竞争对手的生活模式,没有和他在整个社会和宗教秩序明显重建信念,几乎立即就阻止了人们一个新的宗教组织的任何正式安排。 The opposition between his followers and the "world," or settled and organized conditions of society, would also seem to imply that those who were to work in his spirit could not make another "world" of their own with the same tendency to conventionality and spiritual red tape.也就是他的追随者和“世界”,或者定居的社会条件和有组织的反对,也似乎在暗示,那些谁是他的精神工作在不能作出具有相同的趋势的另一个“世界”自己来的传统性和精神繁文缛节。 On the whole, it may be said that he did not make general plans, but dealt with each spiritual problem as it arose.整体而言,可以说,他并没有总体规划的,但每个问题的处理,因为它的精神出现。"It would almost seem as if he had no consciousness of a mission of any definite sort, so content had he been to let things merely happen" (EP Gould, "St. Mark," p. lxxv.): that is certainly how his career strikes an outside observer. “这几乎看起来,他并没有任何明确的排序使命意识,所以内容如果他只是让事情发生”(选举程序古尔德,“圣马克”,第lxxv。):这当然是如何他的职业生涯打击旁观者。 He was content to let the influence of his own character work upon the persons immediately surrounding him, and that they should transmit this influence silently and without organization; working by way of leaven, as his parable puts it (Matt. xiii.).他的内容后,立即让他周围的人的自己性格的工作的影响力,他们应该传递这种影响力默默无组织,工作方式由酵他的寓言所说,它(太十三。)。 His chief work and that of his disciples consisted in the conscious attempt at "saving souls."他的主要工作和他的弟子包括在有意识的尝试“拯救灵魂”。Jesus was justified in thinking that this new departure would tend to bring dissension rather than peace into families, dividing sons and parents (ib. x. 53).耶稣是有道理的,以为这个新的出发,往往会使其家庭纠纷,而不是和平,分裂的儿子和父母(ib.十53)。

On the character which, whether designedly or otherwise, produced such momentous influence on the world's history, it is unnecessary in this place to dilate.论性质的,无论是特意或其他方式,产生这种对世界历史的重大影响,它是在这个地方扩张不必要的。The reverential admiration of the greater part of the civilized world has for a millennium and a half been directed toward the very human and sympathetic figure of the Galilean Jew as presented in the Gospels.作者:文明世界的大部份虔诚崇拜已为千禧年的伽利略对犹太人非常人性和同情的人物在福音介绍了导演的一半。For historic purposes, however, it is important to note that this aspect of him was shown only to his immediate circle.由于历史的目的,但是,重要的是要注意这方面的结果显示他只以他的切身循环。In almost all of his public utterances he was harsh, severe, and distinctly unjust in his attitude toward the ruling and well-to-do classes.几乎在他的公开言论,他自己就是苛刻,严重的,在他对执政党和富裕的明显不公正的态度做班。 After reading his diatribes against the Pharisees, the Scribes, and the rich, it is scarcely to be wondered at that these were concerned in helping to silence him.看完后对法利,文士,他的谩骂和丰富,这是几乎要问,在这些人帮助他的沉默表示关注。It must also be remembered that in his public utterances he rarely replied directly to any important question of principle, but evaded queries by counter-queries.还必须记住,在他的公开言论,他很少直接回答任何重要的原则问题,但回避了反查询查询。In considering his public career, to which attention must now be turned, these two qualities of his character have to be taken into account.在考虑他的公众生涯,对此关注现在必须转过身来,他的性格这两种品质都必须考虑。

During the ten months which elapsed between the ripening of the corn about June of the year 28 and his death in March or April of the following year Jesus appears to have wandered about the north-west shore of Lake Gennesaret, making excursions from time to time into the adjacent heathen territories, and devoting himself and his disciples to the spread of John the Baptist's message of the nearness of the kingdom of heaven and of the need of repentance in order to enter it.在经过十个之间的玉米成熟大约在今年六月28日,他在三月或四月次年耶稣似乎在革尼撒勒湖的西北部海岸死亡徘徊,不时个月的时间进行短途旅行到毗邻的异教徒领土,费尽心力和他的弟子对施洗约翰的是天国的贴近消息和悔改的需要,以输入蔓延。 The details of these wanderings are very obscure, and need not be discussed here (see Briggs, "New Light on the Life of Jesus," New York, 1904).这些流浪的细节很模糊,而无须在这里讨论(见布里格斯,“新上的耶稣的生命之光”,纽约,1904年)。

The antinomianism of Jesus became more evident to the rulers of the people; and many of the more religious classes avoided contact with him.耶稣的律法主义变得更加明显,给人民的统治者和宗教的许多类更避免与他接触。He had from the beginning laid stress upon the difficulty of associating sanctity with riches; and in this he adopted the quasi-socialistic views of the later Psalms, Ps.他从后,奠定了财富的神圣困难联系在一起的压力开始,而在这以后,他通过了诗篇,诗准社会主义的看法。ix., x., xxii., xxv., xxxv., xl., lxix., cix.九。,十,十二。,二十五。,三十五。,加大码。,lxix。,的CIX。(comp. I. Loeb, "La Littérature des Pauvres dans la Bible," Paris, 1894). (可比一,勒布,“香格里拉Littérature德Pauvres丹斯香格里拉圣经”,巴黎,1894年)。He insisted to the fullest extent on the view implied in those Psalms and in various utterances of the Prophets, that poverty and piety, riches and antisocial greed, were practically synonymous (comp. the form of the beatitudes given in Luke vi. 20, 24-26).他坚持在最大程度上隐含在这些诗篇中的看法和先知,贫困和虔诚,财富和反社会的贪婪,几乎是同义词(可比的真福的形式给予各种路加六话语。20,24 -26)。The parable of Lazarus and Dives and the interview with the rich young man show a distinct and one-sided tendency in this direction similar to that of the later Ebionites; though, on the other hand, Jesus was willing to lodge with Zaechæus, a rich publican (Luke xix. 2, 5).在拉撒路和财主与与丰富的年轻男子在接受采访的比喻表明这个方向不同的和片面的倾向相似,后来以便尼派的,但是,另一方面,耶稣愿意提出与Zaechæus,丰富的税吏(路十九。二,5)。 In the form of the interview with the rich young man given in the "Gospel According to the Hebrews," sympathy seems to be restricted to the poor of the Holy Land: "Behold, many of thy brethren, sons of Abraham, are clothed but in dung, and die for hunger, while thy house is full of many goods, and there goeth not forth aught from it unto them."在与丰富的年轻男子在给定的面试形式的“福音根据希伯来人,”同情似乎仅限于穷人的圣地:“看哪,你的兄弟很多,亚伯拉罕的儿子,是丰衣足食,但在粪,饥饿而死,而你的房子是许多商品的满了,而且就去不出来奥特从给他们。“

Jesus in Jerusalem.耶稣在耶路撒冷。

As the Passover of the year 29 approached, Jesus determined to carry out the injunction of the Law which made it incumbent to eat the sacrificial lamb at Jerusalem.由于今年接近29逾越节,耶稣决心贯彻的法律,使得现任吃在耶路撒冷的牺牲品禁令。In the later tradition attempts were made to convey the impression that Jesus was aware of the fate that awaited him at Jerusalem: but in the earliest forms (ix. 32, x. 32) it is recognized that the disciples did not understand the vague hints, if they were at all given; and there is little to show that his visit to Jerusalem was a case of sublime suicide.在后来的传统,也曾试图传达的印象是,耶稣的命运等待着他在耶路撒冷知道:但在最早的形式(ix. 32,十32)这是公认的门徒不明白的模糊提示如果他们在所有给定的,并且有一点要表明,他访问耶路撒冷是一个崇高的自杀案。At the last moment at Gethsemane he made an attempt to avoid arrest ("Rise up, let us go," xiv. 42).在最后的时刻,在客西马尼他企图逃避逮捕(“起来,让我们去,”十四。42)。Jerusalem at this time appears to have been in a very unsettled state.耶路撒冷在这个时候似乎已经在一个非常不稳定的状态一直。An attempted revolution seems to have broken out under one Jesus bar Abbas, who had been captured and was in prison at the time (xv. 7).企图革命似乎已经打破在一个酒吧阿巴斯耶稣,谁已被抓获,并在监狱当时(xv. 7)进行。It appears to have been the practise of Pontius Pilate to come up to Jerusalem each year at Passover for the purpose of checking any revolt that might break out at that period recalling the redemption of Israel.这似乎已经成为本丢彼拉多的做法,到了耶路撒冷逾越节每年用于制止任何反抗可能打破在这个回顾以色列赎回期限内迁出的目的。 It is indicative of the temper of the people that during the first half of the first century several risings occurred against the Romans: against Varus, 4 BC; under Judas against the Census, 6 CE; by the Samaritans against Pilate in 38; and by Theudas against Fadusin 45-all indicating the continuously unsettled condition of the people under Roman rule.这是人民的脾气的指示,在第一世纪上半叶出现几个起义反对罗马人:反对内翻,4年;根据政府反对,6行政长官的犹大;由撒玛利亚防止比拉多38;和塞乌达斯对Fadusin 45所有显示的不断罗马统治下人民的不稳定状况。

In the Temple.在寺庙。

As far as can be judged, his reception was as much a surprise to Jesus as it was to his followers and to the leaders of the people.至于可以判断,是尽可能多地接待了他一个惊喜,因为这是耶稣对他的追随者和人民的领袖。His reputation as a miracle-worker had preceded him; and when the little cavalcade of some twenty persons which formed his escort approached the Fountain Gate of Jerusalem he was greeted by many of the visitors to the city as if he were the long-hoped-for deliverer from bondage.他作为一个奇迹工作者名声preceded他,而当一些二十形成他的护卫队人士数目很少cavalcade接近了耶路撒冷泉门,他对许多greeted的游客到城市,如果他的久违从束缚救星。 This would appear to have been on the first day of the week and on the 10th of Nisan, when, according to the Law, it was necessary that the paschal lamb should be purchased.这似乎对一周的第一天,并在尼散的时候,根据该法,它是必要的,逾越的羔羊应purchased 10日被。 It is therefore probable that the entry into Jerusalem was for this purpose.因此,有可能的进入耶路撒冷为这个目的。In making the purchase of the lamb a dispute appears to have arisen between Jesus' followers and the money-changers who arranged for such purchases; and the latter were, at any rate for that day, driven from the Temple precincts.在作出这一争端的羔羊之间似乎有耶稣的追随者和货币兑换谁出现这种采购安排购买,以及后者,随时为当天率从寺院境内驱动。 It would appear from Talmudic references that this action had no lasting effect, if any, for Simon ben Gamaliel found much the same state of affairs much later (Ker. i. 7) and effected some reforms (see Derenbourg in "Histoire de la Palestine," p. 527).这样看来,从这一行动已经为西蒙本加马没有持久的影响,如果有的话,塔木德引用发现了很多的事务相同的状态更晚(Ker.一7),并影响了一些改革(见“历史学德拉巴勒斯坦德朗堡“,第527)。 The act drew public attention to Jesus, who during the next few days was asked to define his position toward the conflicting parties in Jerusalem.谁的行为提请在未来几天公众注意耶稣,被要求确定他在耶路撒冷向冲突各方的立场。It seemed especially to attack the emoluments of the priestly class, which accordingly asked him to declare by what authority he had interfered with the sacrosanct arrangements of the Temple.它似乎尤其攻击的僧侣阶层,这相应地要求他宣布由什么权威,他曾与圣殿的神圣干涉的薪酬安排。In a somewhat enigmatic reply he placed his own claims on a level with those of John the Baptist-in other words, he based them on popular support.在一个有点神秘的答复,他把那些与约翰施洗的,换句话说,他的民意支持他们的水平上了自己​​的主张。Other searching questions put to him by the Sadducces and the Scribes received somewhat more definite answers.其他搜索问题向他提出的Sadducces和文士收到较为明确的答案。On the former asking what evidence for immortality he derived from the Old Testament, he quoted Ex.就前者提出什么证据不死的他从旧约派生,他除息。iii.三。6, and deduced from it that as God is God of the living, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob must have been living after their death-a deduction quite in the spirit of Talmudic Asmakta (comp. Sanh. 90b). 6,推导出它作为上帝是上帝的生活,亚伯拉罕,以撒,雅各必须一直生活在他们死后给扣在塔木德Asmakta(可比葬身。90B型)的精神相当。

The Test of the Tribute.朝贡的试验。

To a scribe asking him (in the spirit of Hillel) to what single commandment the whole Law could be reduced, he quoted the doctrine of the Didache, which gives the two chief commandments as the Shema' (Deut. vi. 4) and "Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself" (Lev. xviii. 19), thus declaring the essential solidarity of his own views with those of the Old Testament and of current Judaism, But the most crucial test was put to him by certain of the adherents of Herod, who asked him whether it was lawful to pay tribute to Cæsar.对于一个文士,问他(在希勒尔精神)在何种单诫整个法律可以减少,他引述了十二使徒遗训,这使两国的架构'行政诫命学说(申命记六。四)和“你要爱如己“你的邻居(利未记十八。19),从而宣告与旧约和犹太教的电流在他自己的看法基本的团结,但最关键的考验是提出了一些对他的信徒希律王,谁问他是否是合法的敬意凯撒。 Here again he scarcely answered directly, but, asking for a denarius of tribute, deduced from the image and superscription thereon the conclusion that it ought to be returned unto Cæsar (Matt. xxii. 21).在这里,他又几乎没有直接回答,但是,对于一个从贡像和就此提出的结论推导银钱,要求它应该归到凯撒(太二十二。21)。 A very probable tradition, retained in Tatian's "Diatessaron," declares that the colloquy with Peter recorded in Matt.一个很可能的传统,在塔蒂安的保留“Diatessaron,”声明与彼得座谈会在马特记录。xvii.十七。24-26 occurred on this occasion. 24-26日发生在这个场合。Neither the original answer nor his further defense of it was satisfactory to the Zealots, who were anxious for an uprising against the Romans.无论是他原来的答案,也进一步防守满意的痴迷者,谁是罗马人的起义,反对焦虑。He had made it clear that he had no sympathy with the nationalistic aspirations of the common people, though they had welcomed him under the impression that he was about to realize their hopes.他曾明确表示,他没有与老百姓的民族主义诉求的同情,但他们欢迎的印象是,他要实现他自己的希望。It is only this incident which accounts historically for the contrast between the acclamations of Palm Sunday and the repudiation on the succeeding Friday.只有这个帐户的历史事件,为之间的棕榈周日欢呼和不可否认性对比上周五的成功。

This change of popular sentiment cleared the way for action by the priestly class, which had been offended in both pride and pocket by Jesus' action in clearing the purlieus of the Temple.这种流行的情绪变化所采取的行动扫清僧侣阶层,已被两自豪感和耶稣的清理圣殿的接触这个社会行动口袋得罪了道路。They may have also genuinely feared a rising under Jesus, having in view the manner in which he had been welcomed on the previous Sunday, though this was possibly brought forward merely as a pretext.他们也可能担心一个崛起的真正耶稣下,鉴于在其中有他一直在上周日的欢迎态度,尽管这可能是为借口,提出了而已。 It would appear that they determined to seize him before the Feast of the Passover, when the danger of an outbreak would be at its greatest height and when it would be impossible for them to hold a court (Yom-Ṭob v. 2).这样看来,他们决心抓住面前的逾越节,宴他当危险的爆发将在其最大高度时将不可能为他们举行一个法院(赎罪,尖五2)。

The Last Supper.最后的晚餐。

According to the synoptic Gospels, it would appear that on the Thursday evening of the last week of his life Jesus with his disciples entered Jerusalem in order to eat the Passover meal with them in the sacred city; if so, the wafer and the wine of the mass or the communion service then instituted by him as a memorial would be the unleavened bread and the unfermented wine of the Seder service (see Bickell, "Messe und Pascha," Leipsic, 1872).根据天气福音,这样看来,对他的生命耶稣与门徒进了耶路撒冷,以吃逾越节与他们在神圣的城市上周星期四晚上吃饭;若有,晶圆及酒共融的质量或服务,然后由他提起作为纪念,将无酵饼和葡萄酒发酵的seder服务(见Bickell,“展览有限公司逾越节”普西克,1872年)。 On the other hand, the Gospel of John, the author of which appears to have had access to some trustworthy traditions about the last days, represents the priests as hurrying on the trial in order to avoid taking action on the festival-which would, according to this, have begun on Friday evening-though this view may have been influenced by the desire to make the death of Jesus symbolize the sacrifice of the paschal lamb.另一方面,约翰福音,作者,这似乎已经获得了最近几天一些值得信赖的传统,代表于审判,以避免匆忙采取行动的祭司节,这将依据这一点,已经开始在星期五晚上,尽管这种看法可能已被欲望,使耶稣的死亡,象征着牺牲的逾越节羔羊的影响。 Chwolson ("Das Letzte Passahmal Christi," St. Petersburg, 1893) has ingeniously suggested that the priests were guided by the older Halakah, according to which the law of the Passover was regarded as superior to that of the Sabbath, so that the lamb could be sacrificed even on Friday night; whereas Jesus and his disciples would seem to have adopted the more rigorous view of the Pharisees by which the paschal lamb ought to be sacrificed on the eve of the 14th of Nisan when the 15th coincided with the Sabbath (see Bacher in "JQR" v. 683-686).Chwolson(“达斯Letzte Passahmal基督教,”圣彼得堡,1893年)的建议,巧妙的祭司是由旧Halakah的指导下,根据该法律的逾越节为优于安息日认为,这样的羔羊甚至可能会牺牲在星期五晚上;而耶稣和他的弟子似乎已经通过了更严格的观点法利其中逾越节羔羊应该对尼散月14日15时牺牲的前夕与安息日正值(看到在“JQR”五683-686)巴切尔。

It would seem that by this time Jesus had become aware of the intention of the high priests to do him harm; for after the Seder ceremony he secreted himself in the Garden of Gethsemane outside the city walls, where, however, his hiding-place was betrayed by one of his immediate followers, Judas, a man of Kerioth (see Judas Iscariot).这似乎是说这个时候,耶稣已经成为了高级神职人员意向知道做他的伤害;后分泌的s​​eder典礼上,他在客西马尼园外城墙,在那里,不过,他的藏身之位是他自己背叛了他的眼前追随者,犹大,一个人的Kerioth(见加略人犹大)之一。 On what grounds Jesus was arrested is not quite clear.基于什么理由,耶稣被逮捕的不太清楚。Even if he had claimed to be the Messiah, he would have committed no crime according to Jewish law.即使他声称自己是弥赛亚,他将没有犯罪根据犹太人的法律。It appears that he was taken first to the house of the high priest, probably Anan's, which was without the walls, and where in a hurried consultation the only evidence against him was apparently an assertion that he could overthrow the Temple and replace it with one made without hands-in other words, with aspiritual kingdom.看来,他首先采取的大祭司的房子,可能阿南的,这没有围墙的,并在在仓皇协商的唯一证据对他显然是一个断言,他可以推翻寺,换取一个在没有手,换句话说,与aspiritual王国。 This, according to Holtzmann ("Leben Jesu," p. 327), was equivalent to a claim to the Messiahship.为此,根据Holtzmann(“生活jesu”,页327),相当于一个向messiahship索赔。 Jesus is reported to have distinctly made this claim in answer to a direct question by the high priest; but the synoptic Gospels vary on this point, xiv.据报道,耶稣是明显在回答了这一个由高级神职人员直接的问题要求,但天气福音在这一点上有所不同,十四。62 making the claim, and Matt. 62使索赔,以及马特。xxvi.二十六。64 and Luke xxii. 64和路加福音二十二。69 representing an evasion, which was more in accord with the usual practise of Jesus when questioned by opponents.69较逃避,这是与耶稣的对手时的惯常做法给予更多的质疑。The rending of his clothes by the high priest seems rather to imply that the charge was one of "gidduf" or blasphemy (Sanh. vii. 10, 11).由大祭司,而他的衣服裂开,似乎在暗示那项收费是一种“gidduf”或亵渎(Sanh.七。10,11)。

There could be no question of anything corresponding to a trial taking place on this occasion before the Sanhedrin.不可能有什么相应的审判到在此之前,公会之际举行的问题。Whatever inquest was made must have occurred during the Thursday night and outside Jerusalem (for on entering the city a prisoner would have had to be given up to the Roman garrison), and can not have been held before a quorum of the seventy-one members of the Sanhedrin.无论作出研讯必须在星期四晚上耶路撒冷以外发生(上进入一个囚犯将不得不放弃以罗马驻军市),不能被之前的七十位议员的法定人数举行该公会。 It is more probable that the twenty-three members of the priestly section of the latter, who had most reason to be offended with Jesus' action in cleansing the Temple, met informally after he had been seized, and elicited sufficient to justify them in their own opinion in delivering him over to the Romans as likely to cause trouble by his claims or pretensions to the Messiahship, which, of course, would be regarded by them as rebellion against Rome.它更可能是后者的祭司节二十三名成员,谁最有理由在洁净圣殿与耶稣的行动冒犯,举行非正式会议后,他已被​​扣押,并引起足够的理由他们在在他自己的观点提供了可能引起的索赔或由他的弥赛亚,这当然会被他们视为反叛自命不凡对罗马的罗马人的麻烦。 Nothing corresponding to a Jewish trial took place, though it was by the action of the priests that Jesus was sent before Pontius Pilate (see Crucifixion).没有相应的一个犹太审判事件发生后,尽管它是由耶稣的祭司行动之前丢彼拉多(见受难)发送的。The Gospels speak in the plural of the high priests who condemned him-a seeming contradiction to Jewish law which might throw doubt upon their historic character.福音讲在谁谴责他,一个看似矛盾的犹太法律而可能引发质疑后,其历史风貌高级神职人员复数。Two, however, are mentioned, Joseph Caiaphas and Annas (Hanan), his father-in-law.二,然而,被提到,约瑟夫该亚法和安纳斯(哈南),他的岳父岳母。Hanan had been deposed from the high-priesthood by Valerius Gratus, but he clearly retained authority and some prerogatives of the high priest, as most of those who succeeded him were relatives of his; and he may well have intervened in a matter touching so nearly the power of the priests.哈南被废黜从高的Valerius Gratus神职人员,但他清楚地保留了某些权力和特权的大祭司,作为他最成功的那些谁,都是他的亲戚和他可能已经插手此事感人等近百祭司们的权力。 According to the Talmud, Hanan's bazaars were on the Mount of Olives, and probably therefore also his house; this would thus have become the appropriate place for the trial by the Sanhedrin, which indeed just about this time had moved its place of session thither (see Sanhedrin).根据犹太法典,哈南的集贸市场是在橄榄山,并可能因此也是他的家,这将因此而成为由公会,这的确只是这个时间已经搬到其会议上去的地方试验的适当位置(看到公会)。

The Crucifixion.在十字架上。

In handing over their prisoner to the procurator, Pontius Pilate, the Jewish officials refused to enter the pretorium as being ground forbidden to Jews.在他们的囚犯移交给检察长,本丢彼拉多,犹太官员拒绝进入地面被禁止作为犹太人的pretorium。They thereby at any rate showed their confidence in the condemnation of Jesus by the Roman power.无论如何,他们从而表明他们在耶稣被罗马权力谴责信心。Before Pilate the sole charge could be attempted rebellion against the emperor.彼拉多面前的唯一负责可以尝试对皇帝叛乱。In some way, it would appear, the claim to be king of the Jews (or possibly of a kingdom of heaven) was made before him by Jesus himself, as is shown by the inscription nailed up in derision on the cross.在某种程度上,它会出现,声称自己是在他面前作了耶稣自己的犹太人(或天国的可能),因为是在嘲笑钉在十字架上的铭文显示国王。 To Pilate the problem presented was somewhat similar to that which would present itself to an Indian official of to-day before whom a Mohammedan should be accused of claiming to be the Mahdi.要彼拉多问题提出有点相似,这将面前的人应该是一个穆罕默德自称是马赫迪被告本身的日常印度官员。If overt acts in a disturbed district had accompanied the claim, the official could scarcely avoid passing sentence of condemnation; and Pilate took the same course.如果在一个公开的行为感到不安区曾陪同索赔时,几乎无法避免将正式谴责判决;彼拉多了同样的课程。But he seems to have hesitated: while condemning Jesus, he gave him a chance of life.但他似乎犹豫:一方面谴责耶稣,他给了他生活的机会。It appears to have been the practise to grant to the Jewish populace the privilege of pardoning a prisoner on public holidays; and Pontius Pilate held out to the rabble surrounding the pretorium (for most responsible heads of families must have been at this time engaged in searching for leaven in their own homes) a choice between Jesus and the other Jesus (bar Abbas), who also had been accused of rebellion.这似乎已经成为惯例,授予犹太民众的赦免囚犯的公共假期特权;和彼拉多伸出的乌合之众周围的大多数家庭的负责人pretorium(必须在这段时间一直从事搜索对于在自己的家酵)之间耶稣和其他耶稣(酒吧阿巴斯),谁也被指控叛乱的选择。 The mob had naturally more sympathy for the avowed rebel than for the person who had recommended the payment of tribute.暴徒曾经为比对谁曾建议贡付款者宣称的反叛自然更同情。It chose Barabbas; and Jesus was left to undergo the Roman punishment of Crucifixion in company with two malefactors.它选择了巴拉巴;及耶稣被留下接受两个坏人罗马的十字架在公司的惩罚。He refused with some not overkindly words (Luke xxiii. 28-31) the deadening drink of frankincense, myrrh, and vinegar which the ladies of Jerusalem were accustomed to offer to condemned criminals in order that they might pass away in an unconscious state (Sanh. 43a).他拒绝了一些不overkindly字(路加福音二十三。28-31)的乳香,没药,醋的耶路撒冷,侍女们习惯于提供以谴责犯罪分子,他们可能在无意识状态下通过了隔音饮料(葬身。43A条)。 Whatever had been Jesus' anticipations, he bore the terrible tortures, due to the strain and cramping of the internal organs, with equanimity till almost the last, when he uttered the despairing and pathetic cry "Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?"不管了耶稣的预期,他无端背负到几乎最后,当他说出了绝望和悲哀哭了可怕的折磨,泰然处由于应变和内部器官痉挛,“埃洛伊,埃洛伊,喇嘛sabachthani?” (the Aramaic form of Ps. xxii. 1, "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?"), which showed that even his resolute spirit had been daunted by the ordeal. (阿拉姆形式的诗。二十二。1,“我的上帝,我的神,为什么离弃我?”),这表明,即使他的果断精神已被折磨吓倒。This last utterance was in all its implications itself a disproof of the exaggerated claims made for him after his death by his disciples.这最后一句话是在所有的影响本身就是对他提出由他的弟子后,他死亡的夸大反证。The very form of his punishment would disprove those claims in Jewish eyes.他的惩罚很形式将反驳这些说法,在犹太人的眼里。No Messiah that Jews could recognize could suffer such a death; for "He that is hanged is accursed of God" (Deut. xxi. 23), "an insult to God" (Targum, Rashi).没有弥赛亚犹太人可以承认可能遭受这种死亡;为“他说,是绞刑是上帝的诅咒”,“对上帝的侮辱”(根,赖希)(申命记二十一23。)。 How far in his own mind Jesus substituted another conception of the Messiah, and how far he regarded himself as fulfilling that ideal, still remain among the most obscure of historical problems (see Messiah).多远耶稣在他自己的想法取代另一个概念的弥赛亚,并有多远,他认为,实现这一理想的自己,仍然在历史问题最模糊(见弥赛亚)。

Bibliography: Of the enormous literature relating to Jesus it is unnecessary to refer in this place to more than a few of the more recent works, which give in most cases references to their predecessors.参考书目:有关的巨大耶稣文学没有必要在这个地方,是指一个较近期的作品,这在大多数情况下,参照他们的前辈给几个。 On the sources the best work, at any rate in English, still remains EA Abbott's Gospels in Encyc.的来源最好的工作在任何英文率,仍停留在Encyc电针雅培的福音。Brit.英国人。On the parallels with rabbinic sources:与拉比来源的相似之处:

Lightfoot, Horœ Talmudieœ; (best ed., Oxford, 1854); A. Wünsche, Neue Beiträge zur Erlduterung der Evangelien aus Talmud und Midrasch, Göttingen, 1878; GH Dalman, The Words of Jesus, Edinburgh, 1901.莱特富特,Horœ Talmudieœ;(。最佳版,牛津大学,1854年)的A. Wünsche,Neue Beiträge楚Erlduterung明镜Evangelien澳大利亚塔木德有限公司Midrasch,哥廷根,1878年,生长激素达尔曼,耶稣基督,爱丁堡,1901字。 On the life of Jesus the best and most critical recent work is that of O. Holtzmann, Leben Jesu, Leipsic, 1901 (Eng. transl. London, 1904).耶稣的生命中最好的和最关键的是,最近的工作澳Holtzmann,生活jesu,普西克,1901年(英译。伦敦,1904年)。 W. Sanday, in Hastings, Dict.瓦特桑迪,在黑斯廷斯,快译通。Bible, sv, presents a moderate and candid estimate of the various aspects of the life from the orthodox Christian standpoint, and gives a critical bibliography to each section.圣经sv,提出了一种从正统基督教的立场温和的生活的各个方面和坦诚的估计,并给出了一个关键的参考书目每个部分。 A similar critical view, with a fuller account of the literature attached to each section, is given by Zöckler in Herzog-Hauck, Real-Encyc.类似的批评的角度与一个连接到每个部分的文学更充分地考虑,是由Zöckler在赫尔佐格,克,实时encyc。 sv With regard to the relation of the Law to Jesus, the Christian view is expressed by: Bousset, Jesu Predigt in Ihrem Gegensatz zum Judentum, Göttingen, 1892; GH Dalman, Christianity and Judaism, London, 1901.关于耶稣的法律关系希沃特,基督教的看法是表示为:Bousset,耶稣Predigt在Ihrem Gegensatz zum Judentum,哥廷根,1892年,生长激素达尔曼,基督教和犹太教,伦敦,1901年。Of Jewish writers on Jesus may be mentioned: G. Solomon, The Jesus of History, London, 1880; H. Weinstock, Jesus the Jew, New York, 1902; J. Jacobs, As Others Saw Him, London, 1895.对耶稣的犹太作家,可能会提到:克所罗门,历史,伦敦,1880年耶稣阁下温斯托克,耶稣的犹太人,纽约,1902年的J.雅各布斯,正如其他人看到他,伦敦,1895年。

See also Polemics.J.另见Polemics.J。

-In Theology:在神学:

Because the Gospels, while containing valuable material, are all written in a polemical spirit and for the purpose of substantiating the claim of the Messianic and superhuman character of Jesus, it is difficult to present an impartial story of his life.因为福音,而含有有价值的材料,都是在一个论辩的精神,在充实的救世主耶稣和超人的性格索赔目的编写的,它是很难提出一个公正的,他的生活故事。 Nor is the composite picture ofJesus drawn from the synoptic Gospels, such as is presented by modern Christian writers and in which the miraculous is reduced to the minimum, an approximation to the real Jesus.也不是综合图片ofJesus从天气福音画,如演出由现代基督教作家,在这种神奇的是减少到最低限度,是对真正的耶稣逼近。 The Jesus of history was equally as remote from Paulinian antinomianism as from the antagonism to his own kinsmen which has been ascribed to him; the Pharisees having had no cause to hate and persecute him, nor had they given any cause for being hated by him even if their views differed from his (see New Testament).历史的耶稣也同样从圣保禄反律法遥远,从他已被归因于他自己的亲属拮抗作用;法利赛人有过任何事业仇恨和迫害他,他们也没有被给予任何理由,甚至恨他如果他们的意见不一,从他(见新约)。

It was not as the teacher of new religious principles nor as a new lawgiver, but as a wonder-worker, that Jesus won fame and influence among the simple inhabitants of Galilee in his lifetime; and it was due only to his frequent apparitions after his death to these Galilean followers that the belief in his resurrection and in his Messianic and divine character was accepted and spread.这不是作为新的宗教原则,也作为一个新的立法者的老师,但作为一个奇迹工作者,耶稣在加利利赢得了在他的一生简单居民的知名度和影响力,这是由于只有他后,他频繁的幻影这些加利利人死亡的追随者,在他的复活,并在他的救世主的信仰和神圣性质被接受和传播。 The thaumaturgic and eschatological views of the times must be fully considered, and the legendary lives of saints such as Onias, Ḥanina ben Dosa, Phinehas ben Jair, and Simeon ben Yoḥai in the Talmud, as well as the apocalyptic and other writings of the Essenes, must be compared before a true estimate of Jesus can be formed.时代thaumaturgic和eschatological意见,必须充分考虑和圣人的传说,如阿尼亚的生活,Ḥanina升入本,非尼哈贲jair,西缅本Yoḥai在犹太法典,以及爱色尼的世界末日和其他著作,必须加以比较,然后是耶稣真实的估计可形成。

However, a great historic movement of the character and importance of Christianity can not have arisen without a great personality to call it into existence and to give it shape and direction.然而,伟大的品格和基督教的历史运动的重要性,不能出现没有一个伟大的人格调入的存在,并给它的形状和方向。 Jesus of Nazareth had a mission from God (see Maimonides, "Yad," Melakim, xi. 4, and the other passages quoted in Jew. Encyc. iv. 56 et seq., sv Christianity); and he must have had the spiritual power and fitness to be chosen for it.拿撒勒的耶稣是上帝的使命(见迈蒙尼德,“亚”Melakim,十一4,在犹太人Encyc引述的其他段落四56起,希沃特基督教。。。。。);他必须有精神权力和健身选择它。 The very legends surrounding his life and his death furnish proofs of the greatness of his character, and of the depth of the impression which it left upon the people among whom he moved.周围的非常传说他的生活和他的死提供了他性格的伟大证明,以及它的印象留在其中的人,他搬到深度。

Legends Concerning His Birth.关于他的传说的诞生。

Some legends, however, are artificial rather than the natural product of popular fancy.一些传说,然而,人为的而不是流行的花式的必然产物。To this category belong those concerning Jesus' birthplace.这一类属于那些关于耶稣的诞生地。The fact that Nazareth was his native town-where as the oldest son he followed his father's trade of carpenter (Mark i. 9, vi. 3; comp. Matt. xiii. 55; John vii. 41)-seemed to be in conflict with the claim to the Messiahship, which, according to Micah v. 1 (AV 2) (comp. John vii. 42; Yer. Ber. ii. 5a; Lam. R. i. 15), called for Beth-lehem of Judah as the place of his origin; hence, the two different legends, one in Luke i.事实上,拿撒勒是他的家乡,那里是最古老的儿子,他跟着父亲的贸易木匠(马克一9,六3;。比赛马特十三55。。。。约翰七41),似乎是在冲突与向messiahship,索赔,据米卡诉1(影音2)(comp.约翰七42;。也门里亚尔苏贝二5A条。。。。林河岛15),伯利恒名为作为他的出身地犹大,因此,两种不同的传说,在路加一岛 26, ii.26,二。4, and the other in Matt. 4,和其他在马特。ii.二。1-22, where the parallel to Moses (comp. Ex. iv. 19) is characteristic. 1-22,其中,摩西(comp.前。四。19)并行的特点。In support of the Messianic claim, also, the two different genealogies were compiled: the one, in Matt.在救世主的索赔,同时,两种不同的族谱被编译:一,在马特。i.1-16, tracing Joseph's pedigree through forty-two generations back to Abraham, with a singular emphasis upon sinners and heathen ancestresses of the house of David (comp. Gen. R. xxiii., li., lxxxv.; Ruth R. iv. 7; Naz. 23b; Hor. 10b; Meg. 14b); the other, in Luke iii. 。。1-16,追查约瑟夫的通过四十二代系谱亚伯拉罕回一经罪人和大卫家(可比创传译二十三异教徒ancestresses奇强调,李捌拾伍。露丝河四。七;纳兹23B条。霍10B条。梅格14B条)。另一方面,在路加三。 23-38, tracing it back to Adam as "the son of God" in order to include also the non-Abrahamic world. 23-38,追踪回去,“神的儿子”,以亚当也包括非亚伯拉罕的世界。Incompatible with these genealogies, and of pagan origin (see Boeklen, "Die Verwandtschaft der Jüdisch-Christlichen mit der Parsichen Eschatologie," 1902, pp. 91-94; Holtzmann, "Hand-Commentar zum Neuen Testament," 1889, p. 32; Soltau, in "Vierteljahrschrift für Bibelkunde," 1903, pp. 36-40), is the story representing Jesus as the son of the Virgin Mary and of the Holy Ghost (taken as masculine, Matt. i. 20-23; Luke i. 27-35).不符合这些族谱​​,异教的起源(见Boeklen,“模具Verwandtschaft明镜Jüdisch - Christlichen麻省理工明镜Parsichen Eschatologie,”1902年,第91-94; Holtzmann,“手注的zum Neuen全书”,1889年,第32页;索尔铎,在“Vierteljahrschrift献给Bibelkunde”,1903年,页36-40),是故事,代表作为圣母玛利亚的儿子,耶稣的圣灵(如男性在内,马特一20-23;。卢克一27-35)。 So also the story of the angels and shepherds hailing the babe in the manger (Luke ii. 8-20) betrays the influence of the Mithra legend (Cumont, "Die Mysterien des Mithra," 1903, pp. 97, 147; "Zeitschrift für die Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft," 1902, p. 190), whereas the legend concerning the prophecy of the two Essene saints, Simeon and Anna, and the bar miẓwah story (Luke ii. 22-39, 40-50) have a decidedly Jewish character.因此,也是天使和牧羊人祝贺在马槽贝贝(。路加福音二8-20)的故事背叛的密特拉传奇(库蒙,“模具Mysterien德密特拉”,1903年,第97,147的影响;“杂志献给死去Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft,“1902年,第190页),而有关这两个厄圣人,西麦和安娜的预言传说,酒吧miẓwah故事(路加福音二。22-39,40-50)有一个坚决犹太字符。

From the "Gospel According to the Hebrews" (Jerome, commentary on Matt. iii. 13, 16), it seems that Jesus was induced by his mother and brothers to go to John to be baptized in order to obtain the forgiveness of his sins; his vision, too, is there described differently (comp. Justin, "Dial. cum Tryph." lxxxviii., ciii.; Usener, "Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen," 1889, pp. 1, 47; and Holy Spirit).从“福音根据希伯来人”(杰罗姆,评马特。三。13,16),似乎耶稣是诱发他的母亲和兄弟去约翰受洗,以获得宽恕他的罪过,他的远见,也有不同的描述(可比贾斯汀,“。。拨号暨Tryph”lxxxviii,ciii。。乌泽纳,“Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen,”1889年,第1,47和圣灵)。Genuinely Jewish also is the legend which depicts Jesus as spending forty days with God among the holy "ḥayyot" (not "wild beasts," as rendered in Mark i. 13) without eating and drinking (comp. Ex. xxxiv. 28; Deut. ix. 9); and his encounter with Satan is similar to the one which Moses had in heaven (Pesiḳ. R. xx., based upon Ps. lxviii. 19; comp. Zoroaster's encounter with Ahriman [Zend Avesta, Vend., Fargard, xix. 1-9]) and to Buddha's with Mara (Köppen, "Die Religion des Buddha," 1857, i. 88, and R. Seydel, "Das Evangelium von Jesu," 1882, p. 156).真正的犹太人也就是传说中描绘的消费与神之间的神圣的“活物”耶稣四十天没有进食和饮水(comp.前(而不是“野兽”,如提供的马克一13)三十四28;。。申。九9)。以及他与撒旦遇到类似的一个,摩西曾在天堂(pesiḳ.二传译二十,根据诗的lxviii 19;。。。。。比赛罗亚斯德与阿里曼[阿维斯陀,鬻相遇, Fargard,十九。1-9])和佛像,玛拉(科彭,的“死宗教德佛”,1857年,一88,和R. Seydel,“达斯Evangelium冯耶稣”,1882年,第156页)。

As Healer and Wonder-Worker.由于治疗师和神奇工。

When, after John's imprisonment, Jesus took up the work of his master, preaching repentance in view of the approach of the kingdom of God (Mark i. 14; Luke i. 79; comp. Matt. iii. 2, iv. 16-17), he chose as his field of operations the land around the beautiful lake of Gennesaret, with Capernaum as center, rather than the wilderness; and he had as followers Peter, Andrew, John, and others, his former companions (John i. 35-51; comp. Matt. iv. 18; Mark i. 16 with Luke v. 1).当后,约翰的监禁,耶稣拿起了他的主人工作,宣传在神的国度(马克一14的方法查看悔改;路加福音一79;。。。。比赛马特三二,四16 - 17),他选择了作为他的业务领域围绕革尼撒勒湖美丽的土地,与迦百农为中心,而不是旷野,并且他作为追随者彼得,安得烈,约翰,和其他人,他的前伴侣(约翰一35-51;比赛马特四18;。。。马克I.与卢克诉1)16。 His chief activity consisted in healing those possessed with unclean spirits who gathered at the synagogues at the close of the Sabbath (Mark i. 32-34; Luke iv. 40).他的主要活动包括在愈合谁在在结束安息日犹太教堂聚集邪魔拥有者(马克一32-34;。路四40)。Wherever he came in his wanderings through Galilee and Syria the people followed him (Matt. iv. 23-24; xii. 15; xiv. 14, 34; xv. 30; xix. 1; Mark iii. 10; Luke vi. 17-19), bringing to him the sick, the demoniacs, epileptics, lunatics, and paralytics to be cured; and he drove out the unclean spirits, "rebuking" them (Matt. xvii. 18; Luke iv. 35, 39, 41; ix. 42; comp. "ga'ar" in Zech. iii. 2; Isa. 1. 2; Ps. lxviii. 31 [AV 30]) with some magic "word" (Matt. viii. 8, 16; comp. "milla," Shab. 81b; Eccl. R. i. 8), even as he "rebuked" the wind and told the sea to stand still (Mark iv. 35 and parallels).无论他在加利利和叙利亚通过他的流浪而来的人跟随他(太四23-24;。十二15;。十四14,34;。十五30;。十九1。马克三10;。路加六17。 -19),使他患病,被鬼附,癫痫,精神病患者,瘫痪无法治愈,并把他赶出去的污鬼,“斥责”他们(太十七18;。路四35,39,41。 ;九42;。可比“ga'ar”在撒加利亚三二。。。赛1 2。。诗lxviii 31 [视听30]),加入一些神奇的“字”(太八8,16。。。; 。比赛“米拉,”沙巴810。。传道书传译一8),甚至在他“骂”风,并告诉海停滞不前(马克IV 35和平行线)。。At times he cured the sufferers by the mere touch of his hand (Mark i. 25; Matt. viii. 8, ix. 18-25), or by powers emanating from him through the fringes of his garment (ib. ix. 20, xiv. 36), orby the use of spittle put upon the affected organ, accompanying the operation with a whisper (Mark vii. 32, viii. 23; John ix. 1-11; comp. Sanh. 101a; Yer. Shab. xiv. 14d: Loḥesh and Roḳ).有时,他治愈了他的手触摸患者仅仅(马克一25;。马特第八八,九18-25。。),或由他所产生的,通过他的衣裳(ib.九边缘的权力20。 ,十四36),奥比对后,受影响的器官把唾沫使用,随行的有耳语(马克第七操作32,八23;。。。约翰九1​​-11。比赛葬身101A的;。。。也门里亚尔沙巴。十四14天:。Loḥesh和韩国)。 By the same exorcismal power he drove a whole legion of evil spirits, 2,000 in number, out of a maniac living in a cemetery (Josephus, "BJ" vii. 6, § 3; Sanh. 65b) and made them enter a herd of swine to be drowned in the adjacent lake (Luke viii. 26-39 and parallels; comp. Ta'an. 21b; Ḳid. 49b; B. Ḳ. vii. 7).根据同样的权力,他驾着exorcismal的邪灵2000数量,走出了一条生活在一个疯狂的墓地整个军团,(约瑟夫,“BJ的”七6,§ 3。。葬身65B条),使他们进入一个羊群猪被淹死在相邻的湖(路八26-39和平行线。比赛Ta'an 21B条。。孩子49B条。乙ḳ七7。。)。 It was exactly this Essenic practise which gained for him the name of prophet (Matt. xxi. 11, 46; Luke vii. 16, 39; xxiv. 19; John iv. 19).正是这种Essenic做法为他赢得了先知的名字(太二十一11,46;。路加福音七十六,39岁;。四条19;。约翰四19。)。 In fact, by these supernatural powers of his he himself believed that Satan and his hosts would be subdued and the kingdom of God would be brought about (Luke ix. 2, x. 18, xi. 20); and these powers he is said to have imparted to his disciples to be exercised only in connection with the preaching of the kingdom of God (Matt. ix. 35-x. 6; Mark vi. 7; Luke ix. 1-2).事实上,他的这些神通,他自己认为,撒旦和他的东道主将受到抑制和神的国度会带来(路加福音第九2,十18,十一20。。),以及这些权力,他说:有传授给他的弟子们只能行使在与神的国度说教连接(太九35 × 6。。马克六,七;。路加福音第九1-2。)。They are to him the chief proof of his Messiahship (Matt. xi. 2-19; Luke vii. 21-22).他们向他证明他的弥赛亚行政(太十一2-19。路加福音七21-22。)。It was as the healer of physical pain that Jesus regarded himself "sent to the lost sheep of the house of Israel"; and in the same spirit he sent forth his disciples to perform cures everywhere, yet always excluding the heathen from such benefits (Matt. x. 6-8, xv. 22-28).它是作为物理治疗伤痛,耶稣把自己“发送到以色列家迷失的羊”,并以同样的精神,他派出了他的弟子们进行治疗无处不在,但总是不包括从这种福利异教徒(马特。十6-8,十五。22-28)。 Other miracles ascribed to Jesus, such as the feeding of the 5,000 and the 4,000 (Mark vi. 30-46, viii. 1-9, and parallels), have probably been suggested by the miracles of Moses, and the raising of the dead (Luke vii. 11-17, viii. 40-56; John xi. 1-46) by those of Elijah.神迹归因如喂养的5000和4000至耶稣,(马克六。30-46,八。1-9,和平行线),有可能是有人建议,由摩西的奇迹,死者提高(路加福音七11-17,八40-56;。。。约翰十一1-46)以利亚的。

As Helper of the Poor and Forsaken.由于贫困和被遗弃的助手。

While the Essenes in general were not only healers and wonder-workers but also doers of works of charity, there was aroused in Jesus, owing to his constant contact with suffering humanity, a deep compassion for the ailing and the forsaken (Matt. xiv. 14, xv. 32).虽然在一般的essenes不仅医士和难怪工也是实干家的慈善工作,有引起了耶稣,由于与人类的痛苦,为患病和被遗忘者(太十四深切的同情,他经常联系。十四,十五。32)。 With this there came to him the consciousness of his mission to bring good tidings to the poor (Luke iv. 16-30, vii. 22) and to break down the barrier which Pharisaism had erected between the Pharisees as the better class of society and the 'Am ha-Areẓ, the publicans and fallen ones (Matt. ix. 10-13, xi. 19, and parallels; Luke vii. 36-50).与此有来找他,他的使命意识,把好信息给穷人(路四。16-30,七。22),打破屏障法利赛上竖起更好地为社会和阶级之间的法利在'我公顷AREZ上空盘旋,税吏和堕落的人(太九10-13,十一19,和平行线。。路加福音七36-50。)。 This was a great departure from Essenism, which, in order to attain a higher degree of pharisaic sanctity, kept its adherents entirely apart from the world, in order that they might not be contaminated by it.这是一个从Essenism,伟大的出发其中,为了实现一个pharisaic的神圣化程度较高,不断从世界中,为了其信徒完全分开,他们可能不会被其污染。 Jesus, on the contrary, sought the society of sinners and fallen ones, saying, "They that are whole need not a physician, but they that are sick. I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance" (Luke v. 31-32; comp. parallels).耶稣,相反,寻求社会和堕落的罪人,他说:“他们说的人用不着医生,但他们都生病了。我来本不是召义人,乃是召罪人”(路五31-32;比赛平行线)。。 No wonder that, when performing his miracles, he was believed to be in league with Satan or Beelzebub, the spirit of uncleanness, rather than to be filled with the Holy Spirit (Mark iii. 22 and parallels).难怪,当执行他的奇迹,他被认为是与撒旦或魔王,在污秽的精神,而不是充满圣灵,(马克三。22和平行线)联赛。 This anti-Essenic principle, once announced, emboldened him to allow the very women he had cured to accompany him and his disciples-in sharp contrast to all tradition (Luke viii. 1-3); and they repaid his regard with profound adoration, and subsequently were prominent at the grave and in the resurrection legend.这个反Essenic原则,一经宣布,有恃无恐他允许他曾治愈陪他和他的弟子非常妇女形成鲜明对比的是传统(路八1-3。)和偿还他们崇拜他的深刻的方面,在随后进行的严重突出,在复活的传说。

Another departure from pharisaic as well as Essenic practise was his permission to his disciples to eat with unwashed hands.另一位来自pharisaic的出发以及Essenic的做法是他允许他的弟子们吃饭没洗过的手。When rebuked he declared: "Whatsoever from without entereth into the man can not defile him, but that which proceedeth out of the man [evil speech], that defileth the man" (Mark vii. 15 and parallels)-a principle which scarcely implied the Paulinian abrogation of the dietary laws, but was probably intended to convey the idea that "the profane can not defile the word of God" (Ber. 22a).当斥责他宣称:“无论从没有进了那人进去的不能污秽人,但其中所出的人[邪恶演讲],都是洁净的人”,一个原则,几乎暗示(马克七15和平行线。)该饮食法圣保禄废除,但可能是为了传达的想法说,“不能玷污亵渎了上帝的话”(Ber. 22A条)。

In another direction, also, Jesus in his practises as a physician was led to oppose the rigorists of his day.在另一个方向,同时,作为一个医生在他的做法被带到耶稣反对他那个时代的rigorists。 The old Hasidæan Sabbath laws were extremely severe, as may be seen from the last chapter of the Book of Jubilees; to these the Shammaites adhered, prohibiting healing on Sabbath.旧密hasidæan安息日法律都非常严重,可能是从书中最后一章的jubilees看到;根据这些决定,Shammaites坚持,禁止在安息日医治。 But there were also the Hillelites, who accepted liberal maxims, such as "Where a life is at stake the Sabbath law must give way" and "The Sabbath is handed over to you, not you to the Sabbath" (Mek., Ki Tissa).但也有该hillelites,谁接受自由格言,如“在哪里生活是安息日法律必须让路于股权”和“安息日是交给你,不是你的安息日”(Mek.,奇Tissa )。Jesus, following these latter, performed cures on the Sabbath (Mark ii. 27, iii. 1-16, and parallels; Luke xiii. 10-21, xiv. 1-8); but that the Pharisees should on this account have planned his destruction, as the Gospels record, is absurd.耶稣,以下这后者,表现在安息日医治(马克二27,三1-16,和平行线。。路加福音10-21第十三,十四1-8。。),但法利赛人须于本帐户有计划他的毁灭,因为福音记录,是荒谬的。 In fact, the compilers misunderstood the phrase "The son of man is lord of the Sabbath"-as if this abrogation of the Sabbath were the privilege of the Messiah-as well as the story of the plucking of grain by the disciples, which Luke (vi. 1) alone has preserved more correctly.事实上,编译器误解“一语人子是安息日的主”,因为如果这个废除安息日是弥赛亚的特权,以及作为采摘粮食由弟子,其中卢克的故事(第六1),仅保留了更加准确。 It was not on the Sabbath, but on the first day of the second Passover week (called δετεροπρώτη from the Biblical expression "the morrow of the Sabbath," Lev. xxiii. 11-14), when no new corn was allowed to be eaten before some had been offered on the altar, that the disciples of Jesus passed through the field and plucked the new corn, called "ḥadash" in rabbinical literature.这不是在安息日,但在第二周逾越节(称为从圣经表达列弗。二十三“的安息日,明天”δετεροπρώτη。11-14)第一天,在没有新的玉米被允许吃在一些已经提供的祭坛上,就是耶稣的门徒通过实地和弹拨新玉米,被称为“ḥadash”,在犹太教文献。 In defending their action Jesus correctly referred to David, who ate of the holy bread because he was hungry (I Sam. xxi. 5-7)-an argument which would not at all apply to the Sabbath.在捍卫自己的行动耶稣正确地提到大卫,谁吃的圣饼,因为他饿了(我心。二十一。5-7)安论据并不适用于所有的安息日。

Man of the People; Nota Reformer.男子人民也没有一名改革者。

Jesus spoke with the power of the Haggadists-compare, eg, "the men of little faith" (Soṭah 48b); "the eye that lusts, the hand that sins must be cut off" (Nid. 13b); "no divorce except for fornication" (Giṭ. 90b); "purity like that of a child" (Yoma 22a)-and not like the men of the Halakah (Luke iv. 32; comp. Matt. vii. 29, "not like the scribes").耶稣与权力的Haggadists轮辐比较,例如:(Soṭah48B条)“小信的人”,“欲望的眼睛,认为罪必须切断的手”(Nid. 13B条);“没有离婚,除了为淫乱“(Giṭ.90B型),”像一个纯洁的孩子“(山脉22A条)和不喜欢的Halakah(路四32人。比赛马特第七月29日。。。”那不喜欢的文士“ )。He often opposed the legalism of the Halakists (Matt. xxiii. 9; Mark vii. 6-23), but he affirmed in forcible and unmistakable language the immutability of the Law (Matt. v. 17-19).他经常反对法家的Halakists(二十三9;。马克七6-23。),但他在强行无误的语言,肯定了该法(太五17-19)不变性。 The Sermon on the Mount, if this was ever delivered by him, was never intended to supplant the law of Moses, though the compiler of the Gospel of Matthew seeks to create that impression.山上宝训,如果这是他发表过,从来没有打算要取代摩西的律法,虽然该编译器的马修福音旨在制造这样的印象。 Nor does any of the apostles or of the epistles refer to the new code promulgated by Jesus.也没有的使徒的书信或任何指耶稣颁布的新的代码。As a matter of fact the entire New Testament teaching is based upon the Jewish Didache (see Seeberg, "Katechismus der Urchristenheit," 1903, pp. 1-44).作为一个事实上整个新约全书教学是根据犹太十二使徒遗训(见西贝尔格,“Katechismus明镜Urchristenheit”,1903年,页1-44)。

The Kingdom of God.神的王国。

Only in order to be prepared for the kingdom of God, which he expected to come in the immediatefuture and during the lifetime of his hearers (Matt. xvi. 28, xxiv. 42-44, xxv. 13), Jesus laid down especial rules of conduct for his disciples, demanding of them a higher righteousness and purity and a greater mutual love than the Pharisees practised (Matt. v. 20, xviii. 4-5).只是为了准备为神的国度,他有望在本immediatefuture和期间,他的听众一生(太十六。28,二十四。42-44,二十五。13),耶稣制定了特殊的规律他的弟子的行为,他们要求更高的正义和纯洁性,一大于法利实行互爱(太五20,十八。4-5)。 It was the Essenic spirit which dictated a life of voluntary poverty, of abstinence from marriage and domestic life, and of asceticism (Matt. xix. 12, 21-24, 29), as well as that principle of non-resistance to evil which the Talmud finds commendable in "the lovers of God" who "take insult and resent not" and shall in the life to come "shine like the sun" (Shab. 88b).这是Essenic精神支配的自愿贫困的生活,从婚姻和家庭生活禁欲,和禁欲主义(太十九。12,21-24,29),还有那种不抵抗原则恶塔木德认为值得称道的“上帝的情人”谁“不采取侮辱和怨恨”,并在生活中来“像太阳照耀”(Shab. 88B条)。The kingdom of God of which Jesus spoke had a decidedly political character, and all the apocalyptic writers so regard it.神的国度,耶稣谈到了坚决的政治品格,以及所有关于世界末日的作家,所以它。The Messiah with the twelve judges of the twelve tribes was expected to rule over the land (Matt. xvi. 27, xix. 28); the Judgment Day was to have its tortures of Gehenna for the wicked, and its banquet in Paradise for the righteous, to precede the Messianic time (Matt. viii. 11-12, xviii. 8-9; Luke xiii. 28-29, xiv. 15-24); the earth itself was to produce plenty of grapes and other fruit of marvelous size for the benefit of the righteous, according to Jesus' own statement to John (Papias, in Irenæus, "Adversus Hæreses," v. 33-34).在与十二个部落的十二法官弥赛亚预计统治的土地上(太十六27,十九28。。);判决当日被恶人有其折磨的地狱,其宴会在天堂为义,先于救世主的时候(太八11-12,十八8-9;。。路加福音28-29第十三,十四15-24。。),地球本身产生大量的葡萄和其他水果的神奇大小义人的利益,根据耶稣自己的声明,约翰(帕皮亚,在爱任纽,“相反Hæreses,”五33-34)。

Often Jesus spoke of the "secrets" of the kingdom of God in allegories and enigmas (not "parables"; see Matt. xiii. 1-52; comp. ii. 35), "dark sayings hidden from the foundation of the world (Ps. lxxviii. 2; John xvi. 25, 29), because they referred to the kingdom of Satan (Matt. xiii. 39)-that is, Rome-whose end was nigh. Of course such "secrets" were afterward turned into spiritual mysteries, too deep even for the disciples to comprehend, while simple words announcing the immediate nearness of the end were changed into phrases such as "The kingdom of God is within you" (Luke xvii. 21, for "among you"). On the other hand, the rabbinical phrase "the yoke of God's kingdom which liberates from the yoke of the kingdom of the worldly power" (Ab. iii. 5) is spoken of as "my yoke" and declared to be "easy" (Matt. xi. 29); for the allegory of the tares and the wheat (Matt. xiii.) used for the heathen and the Jews in the Judgment Day, comp. Midr. Teh. to Ps. ii. 12.耶稣常常提到的“机密”的神的国度,在寓言和谜题(而不是“比喻”,见马特十三1-52。。比赛二35。。),“从基础的世界(隐藏的谜语第七十八号二诗。。。约翰十六世25,29),因为他们提到了撒旦的国度(太十三39),也就是罗马,其结束近了,当然这样的“秘密”是后来变成了。。心灵的奥秘,太深甚至对弟子理解,而简单的字宣布了刚刚结束的接近被改变成短语,如“神的国就在你”(路加福音十七。21,对于“在你们中间”)。另一方面,犹太教一句“上帝的王国,从王国的世俗权力枷锁枷锁中解放出来”(ab.三。5)口语的,因为“我的轭”,并宣布为“易”( 。马特十一29);。。。对于稗子和小麦(太十三)为异教徒和犹太人的审判日,比赛采用寓言Midr到二级私人秘书12。。。。。

Occasionally political strife, as a means of bringing about the catastrophe, is approved by Jesus (Luke xii. 51-53, xxii. 36; comp. verses 49-50).有时政治纷争,作为一个对灾难带来的手段,是通过耶稣(路十二51-53,二十二36;。。。比赛49-50节)。

His Death.他的死亡。

Like all the Essenes of his time (Tosef., Men. xiii. 21-23), Jesus was a sworn enemy of the house of the high priest Hanan.像所有的爱色尼他的时间(Tosef.,男性。十三。21-23),耶稣是一个高级祭司哈南房子的死敌。His indignation at seeing the Temple hill turned into a poultry-and cattle-market for the benefit of the arrogant hierarchy (Mark xi. 15-18) fired him into action against these "bazaars of the Hananites" (Derenbourg, "Histoire de la Palestine," p. 466), which he called with Jeremiah (vii. 1) "a den of thieves"; he seized the tables of the money-changers and drove their owners out of the Temple.他在看到寺山愤慨变成了家禽和牲畜市场的傲慢等级(马克席。15-18)受益射进行动打击这些“Hananites市集”他(德朗堡,“历史学德拉巴勒斯坦“,页466),他称之为与耶利米(vii. 1)”一个小偷“书斋,他夺取了货币兑换表,赶着牛庙宇的业主了。Whether he had then actually claimed for himself the title of Messiah in order to be empowered to act thus, or whether he allowed the band of his followers to call him thus, it is certain that he laid no claim to the Messiahship before his entrance into Jerusalem (see Jew. Encyc. iv. 51, sv Christianity; Son of Man).其实不管他当时声称自己是弥赛亚称号,以获授权采取行动,因此,还是他让他的追随者称他为,因此,可以肯定的是,他把加入WTO之前,他没有要求向messiahship耶路撒冷(见犹太人Encyc四51,希沃特基督教;。。。人子)。 According to the more authentic older records (Mark viii. 31, x. 33, xi. 18, xiv. 43, and parallels), he was seized by the high priests and the Sanhedrin, and was delivered over to the Roman authorities for execution.根据老年人更真实记录(马克八。31,十33,十一。18,14。43,和平行线),他被扣押的高级神职人员和公会,并交付了为执行到罗马当局。 The high priests feared the Roman prefect (John xviii. 14); but the people clung to Jesus (Matt. xxvi. 5; Luke xix. 48, xxi. 38, xxiii. 27), and lamented over his death (Luke xxiii. 48).高神父担心罗马省长(约翰十八14。);但人们抱着耶稣(太二十六5;。路加福音十九48,二十一38,二十三27。。。),并举哀他的死亡(路加福音二十三。 48)。Later "the Pharisees" were added to the list of the persecutors of Jesus (Matt. xxii. 15; Mark xii. 13; John xviii. 3; and elsewhere), and the guilt of shedding his blood was laid upon the Jews, while the bloodthirsty tyrant Pontius Pilate was represented as having asserted Jesus' innocence (Matt. xxvii. 24; John xviii. 28-xix. 16).后来“法利赛”是添加到耶稣的迫害者名单(太二十二15;。马克十二13;。约翰十八3;。与其他地方),和他的血的罪是脱落的犹太人铺设,而嗜血的暴君本丢彼拉多断言表示为有耶稣的清白(二十七24;。。约翰十八28十九16。)。 The term "heathen" or "Romans" was changed into "sinners" or "men" (Mark ix. 31, xiv. 41, and parallels), and the charge of rebellion against Rome with the implied instigation to refuse the tribute (Luke xxiii. 2) was put into the mouth of the Jewish authorities, whereas Jesus is represented as having declared: "My kingdom is not of this world" (John xviii. 36) and "Render to Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's" (Mark xii. 13-17 and parallels).术语“异教徒”或“入乡随俗”更名为“罪人”或“男性”(马克九。31,14。41和平行线),并负责与对罗马煽动叛乱隐含拒绝致敬(路加福音。二十三2)投入的犹太当局嘴,而耶稣是为具有代表宣布:。“我的国不属这世界”(约翰福音十八36)和“渲染到凯撒的东西是凯撒”(马克十二。13-17和平行线)。

The Resurrection.复活。

The story of the resurrection of Jesus is the natural consequence of the belief of his followers in his miraculous powers as the subduer of Satan.在耶稣的复活的故事是他的追随者的撒旦subduer他的神奇力量的信念的自然结果。Indeed, it is stated that it was not he alone who arose from the grave, but that many saints arose with him (Matt. xxvii. 52) just as many saints in Jewish folk-lore overcame death (Shab. 55b; Mas. Derek Ereẓ, i.); and resurrection is the proof of the working of the Holy Spirit (Soṭah xv. 15; Cant. R., Introduction, 9; see Resurrection).事实上,这是说,它不是只有他一个人从坟墓谁产生,但许多圣徒的,以及他(太二十七52。)正如在犹太民间传说许多圣人战胜死亡(shab.山东出现。马斯德里克埃雷兹岛)和复活是对圣灵(soṭah十五工作证明15。。不敢河,导言,第9条;见复活)。 The disciples and the women who had been his constant companions when he was alive beheld him in their entranced state as partaking of their meals and heard him address to them instruction and argumentation (Matt. xxviii. 9, 18-20; Luke xxiv. 27-49; John xx. 15-xxi. 23).谁的门徒和他的同伴不断被他活着的时候看到他们陶醉在他作为国家partaking的吃饭,并听取了他的地址给他们指导和论证(太二十八妇女9,18-20。路加福音二十四27。 -49,约翰二十15二十一23)。。。Many apparitions of Jesus after his death were in the course of time related as having taken place during his lifetime.他去世后,许多幻影耶稣的时间,则不在他一生的地方相关课程。Thus the strange stories of his walking at night as a spirit upon a lake (Matt. xiv. 24-36; Luke ix. 28-36; and parallels), of his transfiguration and conversation with Moses and Elijah (Matt. xvii. 1-13), and others became current in those credulous times when all the Apostles had their visions and direct communications from their master, whom they beheld as "the Son of Man in the clouds" waiting for "his return with myriads of angels" to take possession of this earth.因此,他在夜间行走的幻想故事在一个湖泊作为精神(太十四24-36;。路加福音第九28-36。和平行线),他的变形,与摩西和以利亚(太十七对话1。 -13),和其他人则成为那些轻信的时代潮流中,当所有的使徒已经从自己的主人,他们所看到的人“的儿子在云端的人”他们的视野和直接的通信等待的“他与无数的天使重返”利用这个地球占有。 And so it came about that, consciously or unconsciously, the crystallized thought of generations of Essenes and entire chapters taken from their apocalyptic literature (Matt. xxiv.-xxv.) were put into the mouth of Jesus, the acme and the highest type of Essenism.所以来这个,自觉或不自觉地从他们的世界末日的文学采取了几代essenes和整个章节的思想结晶(太xxiv. -二十五。)被放进了耶稣,尖端和最高的口型Essenism。

It was not the living but the departed Jesus that created the Church with Peter as the rock (Matt. xvi, 18); while, according to the Jewish Haggadah, Abraham was made the rock upon which God built His kingdom (Yalḳ., Num. 766).这不是生活,但离开耶稣的创建与彼得的岩石(太十六18)教会;同时,根据犹太哈加达,亚伯拉罕是岩石后作出的神建立了他的王国(Yalḳ.,序号。766)。 See Lord's Prayer; Lord's Supper.见主祷文,主的晚餐。Bibliography: Grätz, Gesch.参考书目:格拉茨,Gesch。4th ed., iii.第四版。,三。 281-314; F. Nork, Rabbinische Quellen Neu-Testamentlicher Stellen, Leipsic, 1839; August Wünsche, Neue Beiträge zur Erläuterung der Evangelien aus Talmud und Midrasch, Gättingen, 1872.K. 281-314;楼诺克,Rabbinische Quellen的Neu - Testamentlicher Stellen,普西克,1839年8月版Wünsche,Neue Beiträge楚Erläuterung明镜Evangelien澳大利亚塔木德有限公司Midrasch,Gättingen,1872.K.

-In Jewish Legend:在犹太人的传说:

The Jewish legends in regard to Jesus are found in three sources, each independent of the others-(1) in New Testament apocrypha and Christian polemical works, (2) in the Talmud and the Midrash, and (3) in the life of Jesus ("Toledot Yeshu'") that originated in the Middle Ages.关于犹太人的传说耶稣被发现在三个来源,每一个独立的人─(1)在新约圣经apocrypha和基督教论辩工程,(2)在塔木德和米德拉士,以及(3)在耶稣的生命(的“toledot椰树'”),起源于中世纪。 It is the tendency of all these sources to be-little the person of Jesus by ascribing to him illegitimate birth, magic, and a shameful death.它是所有这些来源倾向是,小到他所指称的非法出生,魔术,一个可耻的死亡人的耶稣。In view of their general character they are called indiscriminately legends.在其总的性质看法,他们被称为胡乱传说。Some of the statements, as that referring to magic, are found among pagan writers and Christian heretics; and as the Ebionites, or Judæo-Christians, who for a long time lived together with the Jews, are also classed as heretics, conclusions may be drawn from this as to the origin of these legends.一些陈述,因为这指的魔法,被发现在异教作家和基督教的异端,并且随着以便尼派,或犹太基督徒,谁住了很长的时间与犹太人一起,也被认为是异端,结论可归纳从这个画至于这些传说的来源。

It ought also to be added that many of the legends have a theological background.它也应予以补充,有许多传​​说,神学背景。For polemical purposes, it was necessary for the Jews to insist on the illegitimacy of Jesus as against the Davidic descent claimed by the Christian Church.对于论辩的目的,它是必要的犹太人坚持对非婚生子女的耶稣的davidic后裔由基督教教会索赔。Magic may have been ascribed him over against the miracles recorded in the Gospels; and the degrading fate both on earth and hereafter of which the legends speak may be simply directed against the ideas of the assumption and the resurrection of Jesus.魔术可能已被归因于他对着在福音中记录的奇迹;和有辱人格的命运都在地球上和今后的传说,其中可能是简单地发言反对的假设和耶稣复活的思想指导。 The Jewish legends relating to Jesus appear less inimical in character when compared with the parallel passages which are found in pagan authors and Christian sources, more especially as such legends are fixed and frequently occurring themes of folk-lore; and imaginations must have been especially excited by the historical importance which the figure of Jesus came to have for the Jews.有关耶稣的犹太传说中的人物出现,与少不利于它们在异教作家和基督教的来源发现平行通道相比,更尤其是这样的传说都是固定的,经常发生的民间传说主题,与想像一定是特别兴奋由历史重要性,耶稣的数字来已为犹太人。

The earliest authenticated passage ascribing illegitimate birth to Jesus is that in Yeb.最早的认证通过归咎于非法耶稣诞生是在Yeb。iv.四。3.3。The mysterious phrase ("that man") cited in this passage as occurring in a family register which R. Simeon ben Azza is said to have found seems to indicate that it refers to Jesus (see Derenbourg in "REJ" i. 293), and here occur also the two expressions so often applied to Jesus in later literature- (= "that anonymous one," the name of Jesus being avoided) and (="bastard"; for which in later times was used).神秘的词组(“那个人”)引用的这段话,如在家庭登记册,传译西麦贲Azza,据说已发现的发生似乎表明,它是指耶稣(见德朗堡在“相互执行判决”一293),这里也发生在后来的文学,这两个经常应用到基督的表达式(=“,匿名之一,”以耶稣的名义被废止)和(=“私生子”,因为这在稍后的时间被使用)。 Such a family register may have been preserved at Jerusalem in the Judæo-Christian community.这样的家庭寄存器可能已被保存在耶路撒冷的犹太基督教社区。

Birth of Jesus.耶稣的诞生。

The Jews, who are represented as inimical to Jesus in the canonical Gospels also, took him to be legitimate and born in an entirely natural manner.犹太人,谁不利于为在典型福音耶稣也代表了他是合法的,在一个完全自然的方式出生。A contrary statement as to their attitude is expressed for the first time in the "Acts of Pilate" ("Gospel of Nicodemus," ed. Thilo, in "Codex Apoc. Novi Testamenti," i. 526, Leipsic, 1832; comp. Origen, "Contra Celsum," i. 28).一个以他们的态度是相反的声明中表示:“彼拉多行为”第一次(“福音的尼哥底母,”海关现场总线系统,在“食典载脂蛋白C诺维Testamenti。”岛526,普西克,1832年。可比。奥利,“魂斗罗Celsum,”岛28)。 Celsus makes the same statement in another passage, where he refers even to a written source (ἀναγέγραπται), adding that the seducer was a soldier by the name of Panthera (lci 32).塞尔苏斯使得在另一条通道,在那里他甚至指以书面源(ἀναγέγραπται)相同的声明中说,诱惑是由豹(国际​​狮子总会32)名士兵。 The name "Panthera" occurs here for the first time; two centuries later it occurs in Epiphanius ("Hæres." lxxviii. 7), who ascribes the surname "Panther" to Jacob, an ancestor of Jesus; and John of Damascus ("De Orthod. Fide." iv., § 15) includes the names "Panther" and "Barpanther" in the genealogy of Mary.命名为“豹”发生在这里的第一次,两个世纪后,它出现在埃皮法尼乌斯(“Hæres。”第七十八号7。),谁赋予姓“豹”雅各,耶稣的祖先和大马士革的约翰(“德正畸。诚意。“四。,§ 15)包括名称”中的玛丽族谱豹“和”Barpanther“。It is certain, in any case, that the rabbinical sources also regard Jesus as the "son of Pandera" (), although it is noteworthy that he is called also "Ben Sṭada" () (Shab. 104b; Sanh. 67a).这是肯定的,在任何情况下,该犹太教人士还认为是“潘特罗儿子”耶稣(),但值得注意的是,他也被称为“本sṭada”()(Shab.第104B条;葬身67A条。)。

It appears from this passage that, aside from Pandera and Sṭada, the couple Pappus b.看来,从这段话的是,除了潘特罗和Sṭada,夫妇冠毛湾Judah and Miriam the hairdresser were taken to be the parents of Jesus.犹大和仪理发师被视为耶稣的父母。Pappus has nothing to do with the story of Jesus, and was only connected with it because his wife happened to be called "Miriam" (= "Mary"), and was known to be an adulteress.冠毛无关,与耶稣的故事,只是与它发生联系,因为他的妻子被称为“仪”(=“玛丽”),以及被称为是一个淫妇。 The one statement in which all these confused legends agree is that relating to the birth of Jesus.在一个声明中,所有这些困惑的是,传说同意有关耶稣的诞生。Although this is ascribed only to the Jews, even in Celsus, the Jews need not necessarily be regarded as its authors, for it is possible that it originated among heretics inimical to Jesus, as the Ophites and Cainites, of whom Origen says "they uttered such hateful accusations against Jesus as Celsus himself did" ("Contra Celsum," iii. 13).虽然这是归因于只向犹太人,即使在塞尔苏斯,犹太人可不必为它的作者,因为这是可能的,它在异端有损耶稣作为Ophites起源和Cainites,其中奥利说,认为“他们说出这些可恶的指控为反对耶稣塞尔苏斯自己也“(”魂斗罗Celsum,“三。13)。 It is probable, furthermore, that the accusation of illegitimacy was not originally considered so serious; it was ascribed to the most prominent personages, and is a standing motive in folk-lore (Krauss, "Leben Jesu," p. 214).这是可能的,此外,违法性的指控是根本没有考虑那么严重,这是归因于最突出的人物,是一个民间传说站在动机(克劳斯,“生活jesu”,第214页)。

The incident of Jesus concerning the dispute with the Scribes was copied by the rabbinical sources (Kallah 18b [ed. Venice, 1528, fol. 41c]; comp. N. Coronel, "Comment. Quinque," p. 3b, Vienna, 1864, and "Batte Midrashot," ed. Wertheimer, iii. 23, Jerusalem, 1895).耶稣的事件有关的争端和文士复制的犹太教来源(Kallah 18B条[编者按威尼斯,1528年,其次41C条。。]。比赛全科罗内尔“。评论Quinque”,第3b中,维也纳,1864年,而“巴特Midrashot,”版。韦特海默,三。23日,耶路撒冷,1895年)。 All the "Toledot" editions contain a similar story of a dispute which Jesus carried on with the Scribes, who, on the ground of that dispute, declared him to be a bastard.所有的“toledot”版本包含了一个耶稣进行与文士,谁,在该争议地上,宣布他是一个私生子关于解决类似的故事。 Analogous to this story are numerous tales of predictions by precocious boys.类似于这个故事是由无数的故事早熟男孩的预测。

Sojourn in Egypt.在埃及逗留。

The sojourn of Jesus in Egypt is an essential part of the story of his youth.耶稣在埃及逗留是对他的青春故事的重要组成部分。According to the Gospels he was in that country in his early infancy, but Celsus says that he was in service there and learned magic; hence he was there in early manhood.据福音书,他在婴儿早期,在他的国家,但塞尔苏斯说,他在那里学到神奇的服务,因此他在成年初期出现。This assumption may serve to throw more light on the obscure history of Jesus than the account found in the Gospels.这种假设可能有助于扔在掩盖历史的耶稣比帐户更多的光线在福音发现。The Talmud also says that Jesus was in Egypt in early manhood.该塔木德也说,耶稣在埃及,在成年早期。R. Joshua b.传译约书亚乙Peraḥyah is said to have fled with his pupil Jesus to Alexandria in order to escape the persecutions of the Jewish king Yannai (103-76 BC); on their return Jesus made a remark on the not faultless beauty of their hostess, whereupon R. Joshua excommunicated him; and when Jesus approached him again and was not received he set up a brick for his god, and led all Israel into apostasy (Sanh. 107b; Soṭah 47a; Yer. Ḥag. 77d). Peraḥyah据说已经逃离耶稣与他的学生亚历山大,以逃避犹太王Yannai(103-76 BC)的迫害,在他们返回耶稣就不是他们的女主人,于是传译约书亚完美无缺的美的一句话驱逐他,而当他再次走近耶稣,并没有收到他成立了自己的神砖,并导致以色列为叛教(Sanh. 107b;Soṭah47A条。。也门里亚尔女巫77d)。This account is supplemented by the statement, made on the assumption that Ben Sṭada is identical with Ben Pandera, that Ben Sṭada brought magic from Egypt (Shab. 104b).此帐户的补充,是假设本sṭada与本潘特罗,这本sṭa​​da了来自埃及(Shab.第104B条)魔术相同的发言。 The story that Joshua b.约书亚乙的故事Peraḥyah, a contemporary of Simeon b.Peraḥyah,一为西缅当代湾Sheṭaḥ, was the teacher of Jesus, is not clearly stated in the various "Toledot"; it is saidmerely that Jesus was named after this brother of his mother. Sheṭaḥ,是耶稣的老师,就是没有明确说明在各种的“toledot”,它是saidmerely在此之后,耶稣是他的母亲的兄弟的名字命名。 The assumption that Joshua b.约书亚乙的假设Peraḥyah was the uncle of Jesus is confirmed by Ḳirḳisani, who wrote about 937 a history of Jewish sects (ed. Harkavy, § 1, St. Petersburg, 1894; comp. "JQR" vii. 687). Peraḥyah是耶稣的叔叔也证实了Ḳirḳisani,谁写约937个历史的犹太宗派(编辑Harkavy,§ 1,圣彼得堡,1894年;。。可比“JQR”七687)。The references to Yannai, Salome Alexandra, and Joshua b.到Yannai,莎乐美亚历山德拉和约书亚引用湾Peraḥyah indicate that according to the Jewish legends the advent of Jesus took place just one century before the actual historical date; and some medieval apologists for Judaism, as Naḥmanides and Salman Ẓebi, based on this fact their assertion that the "Yeshu'" mentioned in the Talmud was not identical with Jesus; this, however, is merely a subterfuge. Peraḥyah表明,根据犹太人的传说,耶稣的来临以前发生的实际历史约会的地方只有一个世纪,一些中世纪的犹太教和辩护士,为Naḥmanides和SalmanẒebi,在此基础上其实他们的论断,即“椰树'”中提到犹太法典并不等同采用耶稣;然而,这只不过是一个借口。

Jesus as Magician.耶稣是魔术师。

According to Celsus (in Origen, "Contra Celsum," i. 28) and to the Talmud (Shab. 104b), Jesus learned magic in Egypt and performed his miracles by means of it; the latter work, in addition, states that he cut the magic formulas into his skin.据塞尔苏斯(在奥利,“魂斗罗Celsum,”岛28)和塔木德(Shab.第104B条),耶稣在埃及和学习魔术表演由这意味着他的奇迹;除了后者的工作,指出,他他的皮肤切成神奇的公式。 It does not mention, however, the nature of his magic performances (Tosef., Shab. xi. 4; Yer. Shab. 13d); but as it states that the disciples of Jesus healed the sick "in the name of Jesus Pandera" (Yer. Shab. 14d; 'Ab. Zarah 27b; Eccl. R. i. 8) it may be assumed that its author held the miracles of Jesus also to have been miraculous cures.它没有提到,但是,他的魔术表演性质(Tosef.,沙巴十一4;。。。也门里亚尔沙巴13D条。),但它指出,耶稣的门徒治愈“,在耶稣的潘特罗名字,叫做”病(yer.沙巴14天。。'抗体Zarah 27B条。传道书传译一8),可假定其作者举行耶稣的奇迹也已被神奇的治疗方法。Different in nature is the witchcraft attributed to Jesus in the "Toledot."性质不同的是巫术归因于对耶稣的“toledot”。 When Jesus was expelled from the circle of scholars, he is said to have returned secretly from Galilee to Jerusalem, where he inserted a parchment containing the "declared name of God" ("Shem ha-Meforash"), which was guarded in the Temple, into his skin, carried it away, and then, taking it out of his skin, he performed his miracles by its means.当耶稣被从儒林外史驱逐出境,据说他已返回偷偷从加利利到耶路撒冷,在那里他加入了羊皮纸含有“宣告上帝的名义”(“闪公顷Meforash”),这是守卫在寺庙,进入他的皮肤,将它运走,然后,利用他的皮肤出来,他执行的手段他的奇迹。 This magic formula then had to be recovered from him, and Judah the Gardener (a personage of the "Toledot" corresponding to Judas Iscariot) offered to do it; he and Jesus then engaged in an aerial battle (borrowed from the legend of Simon Magus), in which Judah remained victor and Jesus fled.这个神奇的公式,然后不得不从他收回,犹大的园丁(一的“toledot”对应人士对犹大)提供了这样做,他和耶稣,然后在空中交战(从西门magus借来的传说),其中犹大仍然胜利者和耶稣逃去。

The accusation of magic is frequently brought against Jesus.魔法的指控是经常提起耶稣。Jerome mentions it, quoting the Jews: "Magum vocant et Judæi Dominum meum" ("Ep. lv., ad Ascellam," i. 196, ed. Vallarsi); Marcus, of the sect of the Valentinians, was, according to Jerome, a native of Egypt, and was accused of being, like Jesus, a magician (Hilgenfeld, "Ketzergesch." p. 370, Leipsic, 1884).杰罗姆提到它,引用犹太人说:“Magum vocant等Judæi Dominum meum”,马库斯的伦提努的教派是,根据杰罗姆(岛196,教育署Vallarsi“的EP LV的广告Ascellam。。”。) ,是埃及本地人,被指控是像耶稣,魔术师,(Hilgenfeld,“Ketzergesch。”,第370,普西克,1884)。There were even Christian heretics who looked upon the founder of their religion as a magician (Fabricius, in "Codex Apocr. Novi Testamenti," iii. 396), and public opinion at Rome accused all Christians of magic (WM Ramsay, "The Church in the Roman Empire Before AD 170," pp. 236, 392, London, 1897).甚至有基督教异端谁后,他们作为一个魔术师教主看着(在法氏囊,“食品法典委员会Apocr。诺维Testamenti,”三。396),并在罗马舆论指责所有基督徒的魔术(西医拉姆齐,“教会在公元170前,“页236,392,伦敦,1897年)罗马帝国。 The Apostles were regarded in the same light ("Acta Petri et Andreæ," ed. Bonnet, § 8).使徒们被认为在相同的光(简称“学报的Petri等Andreæ,”版。帽,§ 8)。Neither this accusation nor that concerning the birth of Jesus is found in the canonical Gospels, but it occurs in the apocryphal accounts; eg, "Gesta Pilati," ii.无论这一指控,也不是关于耶稣的诞生,是发现典型福音,但它发生在猜测帐户,例如,“Gesta皮拉蒂,”二。1; "Acta Pilati," version B, ii. 1,“学报皮拉蒂,”版本B,二。3, iii.三,三。1; ib.1,兴业。i.1 (μαγεΊαι; comp. γόης ἐστιν = "he is a magician"); ib.1(μαγεΊαι。比赛γόηςἐστιν=“他是一个魔术师”);兴业。in ed.教育署。Tischendorf, 2d ed., p.提申多夫,2版。,第216, "maleficus est"; ib. 216,“maleficus美国东部时间”;兴业。p.338 ("Zeit. für die Neutest. Wissenschaft," 1901, iii. 94), with which comp "veneficus" = "poisoner" ("Evang. Infantiæ Arab." ed. Thilo, § 36). 338(“时代。献给死Neutest。Wissenschaft”,1901年,三。94),与该比赛“veneficus”=“投毒”(“埃旺。Infantiæ阿拉伯人。”版。现场总线系统,§ 36)。Somewhat different is the accusation that Jesus imposed upon the people and led them astray (comp. Bischoff, "Ein Jüdisch. Deutsches Leben Jesu," p. 20, Leipsic, 1895: , often also , and in the Greek texts πλανός, λαοπλανός; comp. πλανᾷ τὸν ὅχλον = "he deceives the people"; John vii. 12).有点不同的是耶稣的指责强加给人民,使他们误入歧途(可比比肖夫,“艾因Jüdisch德意志生活jesu。”第20页,普西克,1895年:,往往也和在πλανός,λαοπλανός希腊文;比赛πλανᾷτὸνὅχλον=“他欺骗人民”。。约翰七12)。 As Balaam the magician and, according to the derivation of his name, "destroyer of the people," was from both of these points of view a good prototype of Jesus, the latter was also called "Balaam."正如巴兰的魔术师,而根据他的名字起源,“人民的驱逐舰,”从一个角度耶稣的好原型,这两点是,​​后者也被称为“巴郎”。

The Disciples of Jesus.耶稣的门徒。

Celsus (i. 62) says there were ten or eleven apostles.塞尔苏斯(一62)说,有10或11使徒。A passage of the Talmud (Sanh. 43a) ascribes five disciples to Jesus: "Matthai" (Matthew), "Nakai" (Luke), "Nezer" (Nazarene, a general designation for Christian in antiquity), "Boni" (probably the Nicodemus mentioned by John), and "Thoda" (Thaddæus).作者:塔木德(Sanh. 43A条)通过赋予五个弟子耶稣:“Matthai”(马太),“井”(路加),“Nezer”(拿撒勒,一个在古代基督教的统称),“渤泥”(很可能尼哥底母所说的由John)和“Thoda”(项退)。 The following are mentioned in the "Toledot" (Huldricus, p. 35): "Simeon" (Peter), "Matthia" (Matthew), "Elikum" (Luke), "Mordecai" (Mark), "Thoda" (Thaddæus), and "Johannos" (John)-that is, the four evangelists plus Peter and Thaddæus.以下是中提到的“toledot”(Huldricus,第35页):“西蒙”(彼得),“圣马提亚”(马太),“Elikum”(路加),“莫迪凯”(马克),“Thoda”(项退)和“Johannos”(约翰),也就是说,加上彼得和达太的四个福音。 Paul is mentioned in another connection, and (p. 48) Judas "the betrayer": it is to be noted that the last-named does not occur at all in Talmudic legends.保罗提到的另一个方面,和(第48页)犹大“叛徒”:这是必须指出,最后的命名不会发生在所有在talmudic传说。 The Twelve Apostles are mentioned in other versions of the "Toledot" (ed. Wagenseil, p. 19; ed. Bischoff, p. 21), while still other versions frequently mention a following of 300, 310, 320, 330 men.十二使徒中提到的“toledot”其他版本(编瓦根赛尔,第19页;海关比肖夫,第21页。),同时还经常提到了其他版本的300,310,320,330人以下。 It is especially striking that all these disciples are described as eminently wise and learned, while according to Celsus (i. 63, ii. 46) the disciples of Jesus were common men, toll-keepers and seamen, an assumption that agrees to some extent with the canonical Gospels.这是特别引人注目的是,所有这些弟子为显然明智和教训说明,而根据塞尔苏斯(一63,二。46)耶稣的门徒普通人,收费人员和海员,一个假设,即在一定程度上同意与典型福音。

The Doctrines of Jesus.耶稣的教义。

In all the editions of the "Toledot" the doctrine of Jesus is summed up in the statements that he was the son of God, born of a virgin mother, a descendant of David and the promised Messiah; this he proved from passages of Scripture, in the rabbinic-Talmudic manner.在所有的“toledot”耶稣的教义是版本的总结发言中说,他是神的儿子处女母亲,大卫的后裔和承诺弥赛亚出生;这一点,他从圣经经文证明,在拉比,塔木德的方式。 In connection with these statements he is also represented as engaging in disputations with Jewish scholars.根据这些,他也与犹太学者在从事disputations代表发言连接。The only specifically Christian doctrine mentioned by the Talmud is (Shab. 116a, b) that the law of Moses has been annulled and the Gospels put in its place-the well-known Christian doctrine of the abrogation of the Law; the saying of Jesus, "I have not come to take away the law of Moses, but to add to it," is also cited (ib.).基督教教义的唯一特别提及的是由塔木德(Shab. 116a,乙),摩西法已废止和福音它所在的位置,众所周知的法律废除把基督教教义,耶稣的说法“我来不是要拿走摩西的律法,而是增加了,”还引用(同上)。 In the "Toledot" the doctrine of abrogation is put into the mouth of Peter, and the latter, secretly intending to separate the Christians from the community in the interest of the Jews, promulgates the following tenets: Jesus suffered the pain and punishment of death in order to redeem from hell those that believe in him (comp. I Cor. xv. 26, 55); believers shall not hurt the Jews (comp. Acts iii. 26); one who deserves to be accompanied one mile only shall be accompanied two miles; both cheeks shall be offered if one cheek has been struck (comp. Matt. v. 39-41); instead of the Sabbath, Sunday shall be kept holy; Easter shall be celebrated instead of the Passover, Pentecost instead of the Feast of Weeks, etc.; circumcision is abrogated, and the dietary laws annulled.在“toledot”的废止学说被放入口中的彼得,而后者,暗自打算单独从犹太人的利益共同体的基督徒,颁布如下原则:耶稣所遭受的痛苦和死亡的惩罚为了换取那些来自地狱相信他(林前十五26 comp.我,55。。);信徒不得伤害了犹太人(comp.行为三26。);一个谁值得一英里的陪同下只应伴随着两英里;不得提供双颊如果脸颊已被击中(comp.马特诉39-41。)不是安息日,周日应当保持圣洁,而不是庆祝复活节应的逾越节,五旬节,而不是对周等节;割礼是废止,废止和饮食规律。 All these doctrinesare merely external, while the essential points of the teachings of Jesus are hardly alluded to.所有这些doctrinesare只是外部的,而耶稣的教义的基本点是难以提及。

Jesus performed all his miracles by means of magic, as stated above.耶稣行作为上述神奇的手段,他所有的奇迹。These miracles are not specified in the Talmud, but they are in the "Tole-dot"; they are partly such as are mentioned in the Gospels, as the healing of the halt, blind, and leprous, and are somewhat different in nature, though based on the Gospels, as the story of Jesus walking on the sea on a heavy millstone ("Toledot"-ed. Wagenseil, p. 14; ed. Huldricus, p. 43; ed. Bischoff, p. 25; MS. Adler, in Krauss, "Leben Jesu," p. 119; comp. Matt. xiv. 25, xviii. 6).这些奇迹是犹太法典中没有规定,但他们是在“托勒点”,他们是部分,比如在福音中提到,作为制止,盲目愈合,患麻风病,并有所不同的性质,虽然根据福音,因为耶稣的故事就在一个沉重的磨石海(的“toledot”- ED镜头瓦根赛尔,第14页行走;。。教育署Huldricus,第43条;海关比肖夫,第25页。硕士学位。阿德勒,在克劳斯,“生活jesu”,页119。。比赛马特十四25,十八6)。。。 Other miracles are derived from apocryphal accounts, as the story that Jesus fashioned birds from clay or marble and put life into them; this occurs also in the "Gospel of Thomas," in "Evang. Infantiæ Arab."其他奇迹是来自未经帐户,作为故事,由粘土或大理石和耶稣老式鸟放进他们的生活,这也发生在“托马斯福音”,在“埃旺Infantiæ阿拉伯人。。” § 36 (Thilo, ib. i. 111), and in the Koran.§ 36(现场总线系统,兴业。岛111),并在可兰经。These legends are much amplified in the later "Toledot," although the substance remains the same.这些传说是在后来的许多放大的“toledot,”虽然物质仍然是一样的。

Trial and Death of Jesus.审判和死亡的耶稣。

The Talmudic account of the manner of executing a person guilty of leading the people astray (Sanh. 67a) would be of signal historical importance if it were certain that it referred to Jesus.在对执行一人领导人民误入歧途(Sanh. 67A条)将历史意义的信号,如果它被肯定的是,它是指耶稣认罪态度塔木德帐户。The proceeding against one who incites others to deny the religion of their fathers consists in convicting him of his guilt by means of concealed witnesses, as follows: The accused is placed in an inner room with a light, so that witnesses unknown to him and watching him from an outer room can see and hear him clearly.谁对一个程序煽动他人否定宗教在他们的父亲对他的定罪隐匿证人指他有罪组成,具体如下:被告人是放置在一个房间内有灯光,让证人向他,看不明他从外屋可以看到和听到他清楚。 Then a companion says to him: "Tell me again what you told me in confidence [in regard to renouncing our religion]."然后,一个同伴对他说:“告诉你告诉我又是什么[关于放弃我们的宗教]我的信心。”If he does so, the other replies: "How could we leave our God in heaven and serve idols?"如果他这样做,对方回答说:“我们怎么能离开我们的上帝在天上,服务偶像?”If he recants now, it is well; but if he says, "It is our duty and we must do it," then the witnesses outside take him into court and he is stoned.如果他recants现在,它是很好的;但如果他说:“这是我们的责任,我们必须这样做”,那么,考虑到法庭的证人外,他是用石头打他。 "Thus they did with Ben Sṭada at Lydda, who was hanged on the eve of the Passover." “因此,他们就与本sṭada在lydda,谁是对的逾越节前夕被处以绞刑。”This passage refers to Jesus only if he is regarded as identical with Ben Sṭada; this can hardly be assumed in view of the reference to Lydda.这段话是指耶稣是唯一的,如果他认为与本sṭada相同,这很难在以Lydda参考视点承担。The frequently repeated statement that Jesus was condemned for inciting to apostasy () is based on Sanh.频繁反复声明说,耶稣是为煽动叛教谴责(),是基于葬身。43a; there is added the entirely improbable statement that forty days before the condemnation of Jesus a herald called upon any one who could say anything in his favor to come forward and testify, but that no one appeared.第43A条,有补充的完全不可能的声明,谴责耶稣之前四十天的先驱呼吁任何一个谁可以说他赞成挺身作证任何东西,但没有人出现。

The proceeding is related very differently in the "Toledot"; although the several editions of the same differ in detail they agree in substance.该诉讼是非常不同的方式在相关的“toledot”,虽然在相同的几个版本在细节上有所不同,他们的物质同意。 The following account is found in a rather old edition (see Krauss, lc pp. 43 et seq.).以下帐户被发现在一个相当老版本(见克劳斯,立法会第43起。)。The scholars of Israel took Jesus into the synagogue of Tiberias and bound him to a pillar; when his followers came to liberate him, a battle occurred in which the Jewish party was worsted and his disciples took him to Antiochia.以色列的学者到了耶稣的犹太教堂的太巴列和约束他在柱子上,当他的追随者来到解放他,一场战斗发生在该犹太党精纺和他的弟子们把他带到Antiochia。 On the eve of Passover he entered Jerusalem riding on an ass (comp. Matt. xxi. 4-17), disguised-according to several editions-so that his former disciple Judas had to betray him in order to secure his seizure.在逾越节前夕,他进入了一个驴(comp.马特。二十一。4-17)耶路撒冷骑马,变相,根据几个版本,所以,他的前弟子犹大出卖他,以保证他扣押。 He was executed on the eve of the Passover festival, which was also the eve of the Sabbath.他被处决的逾越节节,也是安息日的前夕前夕。The executioners were not able to hang him upon a tree, for he had conjured all trees, by means of the name of God, not to receive him, and therefore they all broke; he was finally received by a large cabbagestalk (comp. Targ. Sheni to Esth. vii. 9).刽子手没能挂在树上他,因为他已经唤出所有的树木,由神的名字的意思是,不接受他,所以他们都打破了,他终于由一个大型cabbagestalk(收到comp.塔尔格。Sheni到Esth。七。9)。 He was buried on the same day, in conformity with the Law, and the apostates, his disciples, wept at his tomb.他被安葬在同一天,在符合法律规定和变节者,他的弟子,在他的坟墓哭了。

According to the "Toledot" his disciples sought for his body in the tomb, but being unable to find it they used the incident as proof before Queen Helena that he who had been slain had ascended into heaven.根据的“toledot”他对他的墓机构寻求弟子,但无法找到它,他们使用过的女王拿的事件,以证明他已经被消灭了谁升天。 It then appeared that a man-sometimes called "Judas the Gardener" (Judas Iscariot), sometimes, indefinitely, the "master of the garden"-had taken the body out of the grave, used it as a dam to keep the water out of his garden, and had flooded the tomb.然后,它看来,一个人,有时也被称为“犹大的园丁”(犹大),有时候,无限期,有“花园主”,已采取了严重的身体,它作为一个大坝,以保持水面他的花园,并淹没了坟墓。 Then there was joy again in Israel; the body was taken before the queen at Jerusalem, and the Christians were shamed.然后是快乐又在以色列面前的尸体被女王在耶路撒冷和基督信徒被羞辱。Three points deserve notice in this account: (1) The fact that the body was stolen.有三点值得在此帐户的通知:(1)这具尸体被偷走的事实。According to Matt.据马特。 xxvii.二十七。64, the Pharisees asked Pilate to guard the tomb so that the disciples might not steal the body and say that Jesus had ascended into heaven; but when the report was nevertheless circulated that Jesus had ascended, the Pharisees bribed the soldiers to say that the body had been stolen by the disciples (Matt. xxviii. 13). 64,法利赛人问彼拉多看守坟墓,使弟子的身体可能不偷,说耶稣升天,但尽管如此,当报告传出耶稣升天,法利贿赂的士兵说,该机构被偷走的门徒(太二十八。13)。 The "Gospel of Nikodemus," § 13 (Thilo, ib. i. 616), adds that the Jews still persisted in this statement.而“Nikodemus福音,”§ 13(现场总线系统,兴业。岛616),补充说,犹太人仍然在坚持这一声明。 A similar story is known to Justin ("Dial. cum Tryph." § 108; comp. § 17) and Eusebius ("Hist. Eccl." ch. iv. 18), while in the pseudo-Clementine "Recognitiones" (i., § 42) this assertion is ascribed to "others" (probably the Jews).一个类似的故事是众所周知的贾斯汀(“拨号暨Tryph。。”§ 108;。比赛§ 17)和尤西比乌斯(“历史传道书。。”第四章18。。),而在伪克莱门汀“Recognitiones”(我。,§ 42)这种说法是归因于“其他”(可能是犹太人)。(2) The statement of the theft of the body and the statement of the gardener who was afraid that the multitude of disciples might destroy his lettuce-beds were both known to Tertullian ("De Spectaculis," § 30).(2)身体盗窃和声明的园丁谁怕众多的弟子可能摧毁他的莴苣床都被称为向良(“德Spectaculis,”§ 30)语句。(3) The insult offered to the body in the streets of Jerusalem is alluded to in the Koran (see below).(3)提供在耶路撒冷街头,身体的侮辱,是暗示,在可兰经(见下文)。

The Resurrection.复活。

It is clear, therefore, that the Jewish legends deny the resurrection of Jesus; the halakic assertion that Balaam (ie, the prototype of Jesus) had no part in the future life must also be especially noted (Sanh. x. 2).很明显,因此,犹太人的传说否认耶稣复活的halakic断言巴兰(即耶稣的原型)没有在未来生活的一部分,还必须特别指出(sanh.十2)。 It is further said: "The pupils of the recreant Balaam inherit hell" (Abot v. 19).它进一步说:“学生们的怯懦巴兰继承地狱”(abot诉19)。Jesus is accordingly, in the following curious Talmudic legend, thought to sojourn in hell.耶稣因此,在下面的好奇talmudic传说,被认为是寄居在地狱里。A certain Onḳelos b.某Onḳelos湾Ḳaloniḳos, son of Titus' sister, desired to embrace Judaism, and called up from hell by magic first Titus, then Balaam, and finally Jesus, who are here taken together as the worst enemies of Judaism. Ḳaloniḳos的儿子提图斯的姐姐渴望拥抱犹太教,并呼吁由魔术先提多,那么巴兰,最后耶稣,谁在这里作为犹太教的最坏的敌人一起地狱。He asked Jesus: "Who is esteemed in that world?"他问耶稣:“谁是在这个世界尊敬?”Jesus said: "Israel."耶稣说:“以色列。”"Shall one join them?" “必有人加入他们吗?”Jesus said to him: "Further their well-being; do nothing to their detriment; whoever touches them touches even the apple of His eye."耶稣对他说:“继其福祉;不做任何有害无益;谁触动他们触及甚至他的掌上明珠。”Onḳelos then asked the nature of his punishment, and was told that it was the degrading fate of those who mock the wise (Giṭ. 56b-57a). Onḳelos接着问他的惩罚性质,被告知,这是对那些有辱人格的命运谁嘲笑聪明(Giṭ.56B条,57A条)。This most revolting passage was applied in the Middle Ages to another Jesus (eg, by R. Jeḥiel, in the Paris disputation; "Wikkuaḥ," p. 4, Thorn, 1873).通过这个最令人作呕的是应用在中世纪到另一个耶稣(例如,由R.耶歇在巴黎的争议;“Wikkuaḥ”,第4,草木丛生,1873)。 A parallel to the story is found in the statement of the "Toledot" that when Judas found he could not touch Jesus in any way in the aerial battle, he defiled him.一个平行的故事在的“toledot”语句发现,当犹大发现他不能触摸任何空战方式耶稣,他玷污了他。This feature naturally especially angered Christians (see Wagenseil, "Tela Ignea Satanæ," p. 77).此功能特别是自然激怒基督徒(见瓦根赛尔,“特拉Ignea Satanæ”,第77页)。According to a passage in the Zohar (Steinschneider, "Polemische Litteratur," p. 362) the same degrading fate is meted out to both Jesus and Mohammed.据一位在佐哈尔通道(Steinschneider,“Polemische文学,”第362页)同样的命运是有辱人格的处罚外,同时耶稣和穆罕默德。

Legends regarding Jesus are found in Mohammedan folk-lore.传说中耶稣被发现在伊斯兰教的民间传说。Although the innocence of Mary is most emphatically asserted, there are such striking parallels to Jewish legends that this material must certainly have been taken from Judaism into the Koran.虽然玛丽纯真是最强调断言,有以这种材料必须肯定已经考虑到从犹太教的犹太传说古兰经这样惊人的相似之处。In that work, also, it is stated that Jesus formed birds out of clay and endowed them with life (sura iii. 43); both the Koran and Jalal al-Din (in Maracci, "Refutatio Alcorani," fol. 114b, Patavii, 1698) refer to the peculiar clothing worn by the disciples of Jesus; and in Ibn Said (Maracci, lc fol. 113b) is found the statement that the body of Jesus was dragged with ropes through the streets.在这项工作中,同时,它说明耶稣用粘土形成的鸟类,并赋予他们与生活(苏拉三43。)古兰经和贾拉拉巴德两个al - Din的在Maracci(,“Refutatio Alcorani”的FOL 114b,Patavii。 ,1698),是指以奇特的服装由耶稣的门徒穿;在伊本赛义德(Maracci,立法会的FOL 113b)被发现的是耶稣的身体被绳子拖着在街上声明。。

Karaites and Samaritans.卡拉和撒玛利亚。

The cardinal point in the Jewish legends concerns the birth of Jesus.犹太传说中耶稣诞生的关注基点。This question is discussed by both the Samaritans ("Chronique Samaritaine," ed. Neubauer, p. 18, Paris, 1873) and the Karaites, as may be seen in a recently published passage from the work of the Karaite Judah Hadassi ("JQR" viii. 440).这个问题是双方讨论的撒马利亚人(“Chronique Samaritaine,”版。纽鲍尔,第18页,巴黎,1873年)和卡拉,可能在最近出版的通道看到从圣经派犹大hadassi工作(“JQR “八。440)。Other essential points are that Jesus performed his miracles by conjuring with the name of God (ib. viii. 436), and the legend appended to the "Toledot" editions regarding the finding of the cross (ib. viii. 438).其他基本点是,耶稣行通过与上帝的名义魔术他的神迹(ib.八。436),和传说追加到“toledot”版本关于跨发现(ib.八。438)。 The Karaites, however, had their own "Toledot."该卡拉,但是,也有自己的“toledot”。Meswi al'Akkbari, the founder of a Karaite sect, engaged in similar polemics against the Christian doctrines ("REJ" xxxiv. 182).Meswi al'Akkbari,一个圣经派教派的创始人,在对基督教教义类似的争论(“相互执行判决”三十四。182)从事。

Antichrist Legends.敌基督的传说。

The Jewish legends referring to Jesus can not be regarded as originally purely Jewish, because the Christian Antichrist legends also make use of them.在犹太传说指耶稣不能被视为原本纯粹犹太人的,因为基督教箴传说,也利用它们。The Antichrist is born of a wandering virgin, the latter being, according to one version, a Danitic, hence Jewish, woman, while the father belongs to the Latin race (corresponding to the Roman soldier Panthera).反基督者是一个流浪处女所生,后者目前,根据一个版本,一Danitic,因此犹太人,女人,而父亲属于拉丁种族(相当于罗马士兵豹)。 Similar details are found in the Armilus legend (Bousset, "Der Antichrist," p. 99, Göttingen, 1895; Krauss, "Das Leben Jesu," p. 216).类似的细节被发现在Armilus传奇(Bousset,“明镜箴”,第99,哥​​廷根,1895年,克劳斯,“达斯生活jesu”,第216页)。

Joseph Jacobs, Kaufmann Kohler, Richard Gottheil, Samuel Krauss约瑟夫雅各布斯,考夫曼科勒,理查德高泽尔,塞缪尔克劳斯
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版01年至1906年之间。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Mehlführer, Jesus in Talmude, Altorf, 1699; Andr.Mehlführer,耶稣在Talmude,Altorf,1699年,安德烈。Conr.Conr。Werner, Jesus in Talmude, Stade, 1738; D'Herbelot, Bibliothèque, Orientale, ii.维尔纳,在Talmude,体育场,1738年耶稣德Herbelot,Bibliothèque,东方,二。349; Wagenseil, Tela Ignea Satanœ, Altorf, 1681 (where the Confutatio of the Toledot is separately paged); Eisenmenger, Entdecktes Judenthum, i.349;瓦根赛尔,影视处Ignea Satanœ,Altorf,1681(如该Toledot Confutatio单独分页);艾森曼格,Entdecktes Judenthum岛 105, 133, 249, passim; Von der Alm, Die Urtheile, Heidnischer und Jüdischer Schriftsteller über Jesus, Leipsic, 1864; Hoffmann, Das Leben Jesu nach den Apokryphen, ib. 105,133,249,各处;冯明镜阿尔姆,模具Urtheile,Heidnischer有限公司Jüdischer Schriftsteller黚耶稣,普西克,1864年,霍夫曼,达斯生活jesu胆碱巢穴Apokryphen,兴业。1851; G. Rosch, Jesusmythen, in Theologische Studien und Kritiken, 1873, pp. 77-115; Jüdische Sagen über das Leben Jesu, by Conard, in Neue Kirchliche Zeitschrift, pp. 164-176, Erlangen and Leipsic, 1901; Baring-Gould, Lost and Hostile Gospels, 1875; Laible, Jesus Christus im Talmud (with Appendix-Die Talmudischen Texte, by G. Dalman), Berlin, 1891 (has been transl. into English); Krauss, Das Leben Jesu nach Jüdischen Quellen, Berlin, 1902; R. Travers Herford, Christianity in Talmud and Midrash, pp. 1-96, London, 1903.GS Kr. 1851年,克Rosch,Jesusmythen,在神学Studien有限公司Kritiken,1873年,页77-115; Jüdische文学Sagen黚DAS的生活jesu,由科纳尔,在Neue Kirchliche杂志,页164-176,埃尔兰根和普西克,1901年;霸菱-古尔德,丢失和敌对福音,1875年; Laible,基督耶稣的IM塔木德(附录模Talmudischen Texte,由G.达尔曼),柏林,1891年(已被译成英文译。)克劳斯,达斯生活jesu胆碱Jüdischen Quellen ,柏林,1902年;河Travers的黑尔福德,在塔木德和米德拉士,第1-96,伦敦,1903.GS氪基督教。


Son of Man人子

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观资料

In Contrast to Deity.在对比的神。

The rendering for the Hebrew "ben adam," applied to mankind in general, as opposed to and distinct from non-human relationship; expressing also the larger, unlimited implications of humanity as differentiated from limited (eg, national) forms and aspects of human life.渲染为希伯来语“奔亚当”,一般适用于人类,而不是从非人类的关系明显;表达也越大,人类无限的影响,因为从有限的(例如国家)的形式和人力方面的区别生活。 Thus, contrasted with the "sons of God" ("bene Elohim") are the "daughters of man" ("benot ha-adam"), women taken by the former, non-human or super-human, beings as wives (Gen. vi. 2 et seq.).因此,对比与“神的儿子”(“贝内莹”)是“人的女儿”(“benot公顷亚当”),由前,非人类或超人类,作为妻子的生命采取的女性(将军六。2起。)。 As expressing difference from God, the term occurs in the blessing of Balaam: "God is not a man, that he should lie; neither the son of man, that he should repent" (Num. xxiii. 19).作为表达,从神的差异,短期发生在巴兰祝福:“上帝是不是一个人,他应该说谎,无论是人的儿子,他应该忏悔”(民数记二十三19。)。 Similarly, David appealing to Saul puts Yhwh over and against the children of men (I Sam. xxvi. 19).同样地,扫罗把大卫呼吁结束,对人类的孩子耶和华(我心。十六。19)。The punishment of God, also, is contrasted with that of the "children of men," the former being much more severe, as appears from the promise solemnly given to David (II Sam. vii. 14).神的,处罚也进行了对比与“人类之子”,前者更为严峻,从庄严的承诺给大卫出现(二山姆。七。14)。God alone knows the heart of the "children of man" (II Chron. vi. 29 et seq.).只有上帝知道了“人的子女”的心(二慢性。六。29起。)。In the prayer in which this thought is expressed, "man" is used in distinction to the "people of Israel"; indeed, "children of men" appears to mark a contrast to "children of Israel" in the Song of Moses (Deut. xxxii. 8, RV).在这一思想在其中表示,祈祷“人”是用于区别的“以色列人民”,实际上,“人类之子”似乎标志着一个对比,“以色列人”,在摩西的歌(申。三十二。八,RV)的。

"Son of man" is a common term in the Psalms, used to accentuate the difference between God and human beings.“人子”是一种常见的术语在用于加剧上帝与人类之间的差异的诗篇。As in Ps.正如在PS。viii.八。4 (AV 5), the phrase implies "mortality," "impotence," "transientness,"as against the omnipotence and eternality of God. 4(影音5),这句话意味着“死亡”,“无能”,作为对全能和神的永恒“transientness”。Yhwh looks down from His throne in heaven upon the "children," or "sons," of "man" (Ps. xi. 4, xxxiii. 13).往下望耶和华从他的宝座在天上对“儿童”或“儿子”,“人”(诗篇十一。四,三十三。13)。The faithful fail among them (Ps. xii. 2 [AV 1]); the seed of Yhwh's enemies will not abide among the "children of men" (Ps. xxi. 10).忠实挫败他们(诗篇第十二2 [影音1]。)对耶和华的敌人不会遵守种子之间的“人类之子”(诗篇二十一10。)。"Children of men" is thus equivalent to "mankind" (Ps. xxxvi. 8 [AV 7], lxvi. 5). “人类之子”因此,相当于“人类”(诗篇三十六。八[影音7],lxvi。5)。

"Sons of men," or "children of men," designates also the slanderers and evil-doers in contrast to the righteous, that is, Israel (Ps. lvii. 5 [AV 4], lviii. 2 [AV 1]). “儿子的男子,”或“人类之子”,还指定相对于正义的诽谤者和恶人,也就是以色列(诗篇第五十七。5 [影音4],lviii。2 [影音1]) 。 It occurs most frequently, however, as a synonym for "mankind," "the human race" (Ps. xc. 3, cvii. 8, cxv. 16, cxlv. 12); it has this sense also in the passage in which wisdom is said to delight with the "sons of men" (Prov. viii. 31).它最常出现,然而,作为“人类”,“人类”的同义词(雅歌越野3,cvii 8,cxv 16 cxlv 12。。。。),它在通道中,从这个意义上讲也智慧是说高兴与“世人”(箴八。31)。Job(xvi. 21) employs the expression in the passionate plea for his rights while he is contending against God and against his neighbors.作业(xvi. 21)采用了在充满激情的呼吁表达了自己的权利,而他对上帝和邻居对他的争夺。But Bildad insists that the "son of man," who is a mere worm, can not be justified with God (Job xxv. 4-6).但是书亚坚持认为,谁仅仅是一种蠕虫病毒,“人的儿子,”不能与神(求职二十五。4-6)合理的。In the same spirit the prophet (Isa. li. 12) censures Israel for being afraid of "the son of man which shall be made as grass" when Yhwh is their Comforter; but in Isa.在同一精神先知(。以赛亚李12)指责为是对“人的儿子,应如草的”怕当耶和华以色列是他们的安慰,但在伊萨。lvi.LVI的。2-3 the Sabbath is extolled as making the "son of man" (ie, any man, regardless of birth) blessed; indeed, God has His eyes "open upon all the ways of the sons of men: to give every one according to his ways" (Jer. xxxii. 19). 2-3安息日是赞颂使“人子”(即任何人,不论出生)有福的确,上帝有他的眼睛“开放后,所有的人的儿子的方法:给每一个按他的办法“(耶三十二。19)。 The meaning of the term as employed in these passages admits of no doubt; it connotes in most cases the mortality of man, his dependence upon God, while in only a few it serves to differentiate the rest of the human race from Israel.在这些通道中采用的术语,意思是承认是毫无疑问,它意味着在大多数情况下,人的死亡率,他依靠上帝,而只有少数它有助于区分从以色列人类休息。

In Ezekiel, Daniel, and Enoch.在以西结,但以理,以诺。

In Ezekiel the term occurs in Yhwh's communications as the prevailing form of address to the prophet (ii. 1; iii. 1, 4, 10, 17; iv. 1 et al.; in all about 90 times).在以西结书一词出现在耶和华的通信作为处理普遍的形式向先知(白介素1;。三,1,4,10,17;。四第一等人。在所有的约90倍)。 It has been held that it conveyed the special idea that a wide chasm stood between God, the speaker, and the prophet so addressed, but that it implied at the same time that Ezekiel was considered to be the ideal man.据认为,它传达了特殊的想法,那就是上帝之间的鸿沟宽,扬声器站着,和先知如此提及,但它在同一时间,以西结被认为是理想的人暗示。 This view must be abandoned as unwarranted.这一观点必须被抛弃的毫无根据的。The term "ben adam" is merely a cumbersome but solemn and formal substitute for the personal pronoun, such substitution being due, perhaps, to the influence of Assyro-Babylonian usage (see Delitzsch, "Wörterbuch," sv "Amelu"; comp. "zir amiluti" in the Babylonian myth concerning Adapa).术语“奔亚当”只不过是个人的代名词繁琐而隆重和正式的替代品,这种替代是因为,也许,到亚述,巴比伦的使用(见delitzsch影响,“Wörterbuch,”希沃特“Amelu”;比赛。 “锆amiluti”关于达帕在巴比伦神话)。Similarly in Aramaic, "son of man" is the usual designation for "man," and occurs in the inscriptions in Syriac, Mandaic, Talmudic, and other dialects (see Nathanael Schmidt in Cheyne and Black, "Encyc. Bibl." iv. 4707-4708).同样,在阿拉姆语,“人子”是“人”,通常在指定和叙利亚,Mandaic,塔木德的铭文时,和其他方言(见进益和黑色,“encyc。Bibl。”四拿施密特。 4707-4708)。In Dan.在丹。vii.七。13, the passage in which it occurs in Biblical Aramaic, it certainly connotes a "human being." 13日,通过其中发生在圣经阿拉姆语,它当然意味着一种“人”。Many see a Messianic significance in this verse, but in all probability the reference is to an angel with a human appearance, perhaps Michael.许多人看到了这首诗弥赛亚的意义,但在所有的概率提到的是一个人的外表,也许迈克尔天使。

"Son of man" is found in the Book of Enoch, but never in the original discourses. “人子”是发现,在以诺书,但从来没有在原来的话语。It occurs, however, in the Noachian interpolations (lx. 10, lxxi. 14), in which it has clearly no other meaning than "man," if, indeed, Charles' explanation ("Book of Enoch," p. 16), that the interpolator misused the term, as he does all other technical terms, is untenable.它发生,但是,在对noachian插值(lx. 10,lxxi。14),其中已比显然没有别的意思“的人,”事实上,如果查尔斯的解释(“以诺书”,第16页) ,认为插误用的术语,因为他做了所有其他技术而言,是站不住脚的。In that part of the Book of Enoch known as the "Similitudes" it is met with in the technical sense of a supernatural Messiah and judge of the world (xlvi. 2, xlviii. 2, lxx. 27); universal dominion and preexistence are predicated of him (xlviii. 2, lxvii. 6).在那个以诺的“Similitudes”这是满足了一个超自然的救世主技术意义上的法官和世界已知书的一部分(xlvi. 2,48 2,LXX的27。。);普遍统治和前世是他预测(xlviii. 2,lxvii。6)。He sits on God's throne (xlv. 3, li. 3), which is His own throne.他坐在神的宝座(xlv. 3,李。3),这是他自己的王位。Though Charles does not admit it, these passages betray Christian redaction and emendation.虽然查尔斯并不承认,这些通道背叛基督教节录和校正。Among Jews the term "son of man" was not used as the specific title of the Messiah.在犹太人的术语“人子”,并不是作为特定商品的弥赛亚。The New Testament expression ὅ ὑιὸς τοῦ ἀνθρόπου is a translation of the Aramaic "bar nasha," and as such could have been understood only as the substitute for a personal pronoun, or as emphasizing the human qualities of those to whom it is applied.新约表达ὅὑιὸςτοῦἀνθρόπου是阿拉姆语翻译“栏南沙”,因此本来仅作为个人的代词替代,或强调这些人的素质要理解人,这是应用。 That the term does not appear in any of the epistles ascribed to Paul is significant.这个词没有出现在显着归功于保罗的书信任何。 Psalm viii.诗篇八。5-7 is quoted in Ḥeb. 5-7是引用希伯来书。ii.二。6 as referring to Jesus, but outside the Gospels, Acts vii.6,它是指耶稣,但外面的福音,行为七。56 is the only verse in the New Testament in which the title is employed; and here it may be a free translation of the Aramaic for "a man," or it may have been adopted from Luke xxii. 56,是在新约中的标题是只雇用诗;在这里它可能是一个自由的阿拉姆语翻译“一个人”,或者它可能已被采纳从路加福音二十二。69.69。

In the New Testament.在新约。

In the Gospels the title occurs eighty-one times.在福音书的标题出现八一倍。Most of the recent writers (among them being II. Lietzmann) have come to the conclusion that Jesus, speaking Aramaic, could never have designated himself as the "son of man" in a Messianic, mystic sense, because the Aramaic term never implied this meaning.在最近的作家大多数(其中正二。Lietzmann)得出的结论是耶稣,阿拉姆说,决不可能定为“人子”的救世主,神秘感自己,因为长期的阿拉姆从来没有暗示这意义。 Greek translators coined the phrase, which then led, under the influence of Dan.希腊语翻译创造了一句,然后率领下,丹的影响。 vii.七。13 and the Logos gospel, to the theological construction of the title which is basic to the Christology of the Church.13和标识福音,标题中的神学建设是基本到基督的教会。To this construction reference is made in Abbahu's controversial saying in Ta'an.为此施工提供参考是Abbahu的道理,在Ta'an争议。65b.65B条。Indeed, examination of many of thepassages shows that in the mouth of Jesus the term was an equivalent for the personal pronoun "I."的确,许多研究表明,thepassages在耶稣口中的任期为人称代词“我”等效

Emil G. Hirsch Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.埃米尔g.赫希犹太百科全书出版01年至零六年之间。


Also, see:此外,见:
Christ 基督
God 上帝
Bible 圣经
Christianity 基督教
The Arising of Jesus产生的耶稣


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