Last Judgment, Day of the Lord, General Judgment最后的审判

General Information一般资料

The concept of a final judgment on humankind at the end of history is found in Judaism and Christianity, Islam, and Zoroastrianism.一个对人类历史的终结在最后判决的概念是犹太教和基督教中发现,伊斯兰教和拜火教。It holds an important place in Judaic tradition, in which God's judgment is regarded as operative both within history and at its end.它认为,在犹太传统的重要场所,在上帝的判决是执行内部历史和期末认为。The consummation of history is called the Day of the Lord, which is a day of judgment upon all who are unfaithful to God.历史的完善是所谓的主,这是一个审判的日子,呼吁所有谁是不忠诚的上帝之日。

Christian Eschatology owes much to this Hebrew tradition.基督教末世论在很大程度上是这个希伯来传统。The New Testament freely employs the language and imagery of Jewish Apocalyptic Literature.新约自由采用的语言和文学的犹太世界末日的图像。It affirms the expectation that (in the language of the historic creeds) Christ "will come again with glory to judge both the quick and the dead."它肯定了期望(在历史悠久的信条语言)基督“将带着荣耀的同时,审判活人,死人。”Many different interpretations of the meaning of this affirmation have been offered and, in particular, of the symbolic language employed in the New Testament to describe the indescribable.这种肯定的意义,许多不同的诠释已提供,特别是,在新约来形容难以形容采用的符号语言。But there is little doubt that the apostolic writers believed in the Second Coming of Christ and the Great Judgment Day as a manifestation of Christ's eternal victory.但是毫无疑问,使徒作家在基督和大审判日的第二次来临,相信作为基督的永恒胜利的表现。

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Final Judgment最后的审判

Advanced Information先进的信息

Final Judgment is the sentence that will be passed on our actions at the last day (Matt. 25; Rom. 14:10, 11; 2 Cor. 5: 10; 2 Thess. 1:7-10).终审判决是,我们的行动将在最后一天通过了一句(太25;罗14:10,11; 2肺心病5:10。2帖1:7-10。。)。The judge is Jesus Christ, as mediator.法官是耶稣基督,作为调解人。All judgment is committed to him (Acts 17:31; John 5:22, 27; Rev. 1:7).所有的判断是致力于他(使徒17时31分,约翰5:22,27;启示录1:7)。"It pertains to him as mediator to complete and publicly manifest the salvation of his people and the overthrow of his enemies, together with the glorious righteousness of his work in both respects."“这涉及到他作为调停才能完成,体现了公开拯救他的人民,推翻他的敌人,与他在这两方面工作的光荣义在一起。” The persons to be judged are, (1) the whole race of Adam without a single exception (Matt. 25:31-46; 1 Cor. 15:51, 52; Rev. 20:11-15); and (2) the fallen angels (2 Pet. 2:4; Jude 6).该人士判断是,(1)亚当无一例外整场比赛中(太25:31-46,1肺心病15:51,52;。启示录20:11-15)和(2)堕落的天使(2宠物2:4;。裘德6)。

The rule of judgment is the standard of God's law as revealed to men, the heathen by the law as written on their hearts (Luke 12:47, 48; Rom. 2:12-16); the Jew who "sinned in the law shall be judged by the law" (Rom. 2:12); the Christian enjoying the light of revelation, by the will of God as made known to him (Matt. 11:20-24; John 3:19).该判断法则是上帝的法律标准,发现男性,由法律异教徒在他们心中的书面(路加福音12:47,48;罗2:12-16。),而谁“犹太人在法律上犯了罪应受到法律的审判“(罗马书2:12),由上帝的基督教会享受的启示光芒,使他所知的(太11:20-24;约翰3:19)。 Then the secrets of all hearts will be brought to light (1 Cor. 4:5; Luke 8:17; 12:2, 3) to vindicate the justice of the sentence pronounced.然后,每颗心灵的秘密将重见天日(1肺心病4:5。路加福音8:17,12:2,3)以维护正义的判决明显。 The time of the judgment will be after the resurrection (Heb. 9:27; Acts 17: 31).有关判决的时间后会复活(希伯来书9:27;徒17:31)。As the Scriptures represent the final judgment "as certain [Eccl. 11:9], universal [2 Cor. 5:10], righteous [Rom. 2:5], decisive [1 Cor. 15:52], and eternal as to its consequences [Heb. 6:2], let us be concerned for the welfare of our immortal interests, flee to the refuge set before us, improve our precious time, depend on the merits of the Redeemer, and adhere to the dictates of the divine word, that we may be found of him in peace."正如圣经所代表的是某些终审判决“[传道书。11:9],普遍[2肺心病。17:10]正义[光盘。2:5],果断[1肺心病。15:52],和永恒的其后果[河北。6:2],让我们为我们的不朽的利益福利方面,我们面前逃跑设置避难,改善我们的宝贵的时间,取决于救赎的优点,并坚持以口授神圣的字,那我们可能是他发现在和平之中。“

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Last Judgment最后的审判

Advanced Information先进的信息

Judgment at history's end is the climax of a process by which God holds nations and persons accountable to him as Creator and Lord.在历史的结束判断是一个过程,上帝认为作为负责任的国家和人士对他的创造者和主高潮。

The OT centers ultimate judgment in the day of Yahweh (or the day), when the Lord rids his world of every evil: haughtiness (Isa. 2:12-17), idolatry (Isa. 2:18-20), compromise with paganism (Zeph. 1:8), violence, fraud (Zeph. 1:9), complacency (Zeph. 1:12), and all that brands people as sinners (Isa. 13:9).职能治疗中心最终的判决中,雅威天(或天),当主摆脱掉他的每一个邪恶的世界:傲慢(以赛亚书2:12-17),偶像崇拜(以赛亚书2:18-20),妥协为罪人(以赛亚书13:9)异教(Zeph. 1:8),暴力,诈骗(Zeph. 1:9),自满(Zeph. 1:12),以及所有品牌深入人心。Both the nations (Amos 1:2; Joel 3:2) and Israel (Amos 9:1-4; Mal. 3:2-5) are targets of judgment, which the OT sees as purification of God's people and world so that his creative and covenantal purposes are fulfilled: "The earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover the sea" (Isa. 11:9).无论是国家(摩1:2;乔尔3:2)和以色列(摩9:1-4。玛3:2-5)的判断,而OT为净化神的世界,让人们看到和目标他的创作和圣约的目的是满足:“地球应是主的知识全面,好像水充满洋海一般”(以赛亚书11:9)。

The intertestamental period focuses on the punishment, usually by disaster, of God's enemies, human and supernatural (Eth. Enoch 10:6; 105:3-4).该intertestamental期间的重点是处罚,通常由灾害,上帝的敌人,人与超自然(Eth.伊诺克10:6; 105:3-4)。Where such judgment did not take place in history, where the wicked flourished and the righteous suffered (cf. Pss. 37; 73), divine justice was questioned.如果这种判决没有参加历史,邪恶的繁荣和正义遭受的地方(见诗篇37;。73),神圣的正义提出了质疑。The problem was solved with the view that judgment was not limited to history but could occur after death (Ps. Sol. 3:1ff.; Eth. Enoch) when God or the Son of man would execute judgment in the last day (II Esd. 7; Eth. Enoch).这个问题解决了这一判断的观点并不限于历史,但可能会发生在死后(诗篇溶胶3:1法郎;。。。乙烯利以​​诺)当上帝或人子将执行在最后一天(二公共服务电子化判决7。。乙烯利以​​诺)。

The NT builds on OT and intertestamental teaching, expanding it in light of Christ's incarnation.新台币基础上催产素和intertestamental教学,扩大其在基督的化身光。In the Synoptics, Jesus announces himself as the eschatological judge (Mark 15:62) and calls attention to the day of judgment (Matt. 10:15; 11:22, 24; 12:36, 41-42; 23:33), describing it as a final separation of the evildoers from the righteous (Matt. 13:41-43, 47-50).在天气学,宣布耶稣的末世论法官(马克15:62),并呼吁重视自己的审判的日子(太10:15,11:22,24; 12:36,41-42; 23:33) ,描述为从义(太13:41-43,47-50)的恶最后的分离它。Jesus' parables indicate that his purpose is not to frame an eschatological timetable but so to teach the fact of judgment that his hearers face their present decisions for or against the kingdom with utter seriousness.耶稣的比喻表明他的目的不是为了帧一末世时间表,但这样的判断教他的听众面对事实,支持或反对以极其严肃的王国,他们目前的决定。 In the longest judgment parable Jesus' point is that the ultimate outcome will be determined by whether the nations receive or reject his "brethren" who come to them with the gospel message (Matt. 25:31-46).在最长的判断比喻耶稣的一点是,最终结果将由国家是否接受或拒绝他的“兄弟”谁是带着福音(太25:31-46)他们决定的。

John's Gospel underscores the tie between present human decisions and future divine judgment: believers do not go through judgment but have already crossed from death to life (5:24); the disobedient will not see life but are already under wrath (3:36).约翰福音强调人的决定,与现在和未来的神圣的判断领带:信徒不经过判决,但已经出死入生命(5:24),而不会看到不听话的生活,但都已经下愤怒(3:36) 。Final judgment, committed by the Father to the Son (5:26-27), will follow the resurrection of both the evil and the good (5:28-29), sealing the decree that human faith or disobedience has already determined.最后判决,由父亲致力于儿子(5:26-27),将按照双方的邪恶和好(5:28-29)复活,密封,人类的信仰或不服从已经确定的法令。

Paul amplifies these themes: judgment is connected with Christ's coming and the resurrection of the dead (I Cor. 15:22-25); Christ is judge (II Tim. 4:1); Christians share in the judging (I Cor. 6:2-3); judgment is fair (Rom. 2:11), universal (Rom. 2:6), thorough (Rom. 2:16); through justification, judgment is robbed of terror for believers, whose sins have been judged on the cross (Rom. 3:21-26; 8:1, 31-34); believers' judgment consists of rewards for good works (Rom. 14:10; II Cor. 5:10) manifested when the purging fires clear away all dross (I Cor. 3:13-15); final judgment of unbelievers, exclusion from God's presence, is a recurrent theme, much of it stated in OT language (I Thess. 5:3; II Thess. 1:9; Phil. 1:28; 3:19; Rom. 6:21); divine judgment is both present and future reality (Rom. 1:18-32).保罗放大这些主题:判断是与基督的来临和死者(林前15:22-25)。复活相连;基督是法官(二添4:1。)基督徒在判断(我肺心病份额6。 :2 - 3);判决是公平的(罗马书2:11),通用(罗马书2:6),彻底(罗马书2:16),通过的理由,判断是抢劫的恐怖信徒,他们已被罪判断在十字架上(罗马书3:21-26,8:1,31-34),信徒们的判断,包括对优秀作品赏(罗马书14:10;。二,肺心病5:10)清洗火灾时表现清除所有渣滓(林前3:13-15。)最终判决不信从神的存在排斥,是一项经常性的主题,其中大部分是在加时赛语言(一帖说5:3;第二帖1。。: 9;菲尔1:28。3:19,罗马书6:21)。神圣的判断是当前和未来现实(罗马书1:18-32)。

Jude and II Peter use some of the Bible's fiercest language to depict the fate of the wicked teachers (incipient Gnostics?) who misled the faithful by mocking their hope of a second coming and encouraging licentious living because they did not fear a final judgment (II Pet. 3:3-7; Jude 3-4).裘德和彼得使用圣经的激烈的一些语言来描绘恶人的教师的命运(初期的诺斯替派?)谁误导了嘲笑他们的第二个未来的希望和鼓励放肆的生活,因为他们没有恐惧的最终判决(二忠实宠物3:3-7。裘德3-4)。 These letters see the final judgment as the ultimate act in a historical pattern (II Pet. 2:4-10; Jude 5-7), an act that should prompt righteous living by its cosmic power to destroy even the very heavens (II Pet. 3:11-13).这些信件中看到一个历史模式作为最终的法案最终判决(二宠物2:4-10。裘德5-7),一个行为,应及时通过正义的生活的宇宙的毁灭力量甚至非常天堂(二宠物。3:11-13)。

Revelation pictures a tribulation poured out on the earth as a judgment just before the final judgment (seven trumpets, 8-11; seven bowls, 16).启示图片一对患难倒出作为判断地球前的最后判决(七喇叭,8-11;七碗,16)。As the first step in the final judgment the evil leaders whose blasphemous activities sparked the tribulation are captured in battle by the triumphant Christ and consigned to the lake of fire (19:20-21).由于在最后判决的第一步亵渎活动引发大灾难中被捕获的战斗和胜利的基督委托向消防湖(19:20-21)邪恶的领导人。 Next Satan, the ultimate source of evil, is seized and bound for the duration of the millennium (20:1-3).下一步撒旦,邪恶的最终来源,是抓住和千禧年(录20:1-3)时间的约束。His release results in further deception of the nations, a clear sign that God's final judgment is deserved, even after a thousand years of Christ's perfect rule the nations persist in their sin.进一步欺骗的国家,一个明显的迹象表明上帝的最后判决结果是他应得的释放,即使在基督的完美统治了一千多年的国家坚持在他们的罪。 The throne and the books symbolize a careful, accurate process based on well-kept records (20:11-15).书的宝座,象征着小心,准确进程保存良好的记录(20:11-15)为基础。The scene is cosmic in scope: earth and sky flee to be replaced by a new heaven and earth (20:11; 21:1); the damage to creation done by human sin is reversed, as the OT prophets foresaw (Isa. 11:6-9; 65:17-25) and Paul depicted (Rom. 8:22-23).场景是宇宙范围:地球和天空逃往被新的天地(20时11分,21点01),取代了因人类罪恶创作完成逆转的损害是先知预见催产素(以赛亚书11 :6 - 9; 65:17-25),保罗描述(罗马书8:22-23)。

The theological implications of the biblical teaching are that final judgment is (1) the ultimate triumph of God's will and the consummate display of his glory in history, the sign that all he intended has been accomplished; (2) the cosmic declaration that God is just, all affronts to his glory are punished and all recognition of it is rewarded; (3) the climax of Christ's ministry, as the Apostles' Creed affirms; (4) the reminder that human and cosmic history move toward a goal, measured by the purposes of God; (5) the absolute seal of human accountability, all believers are held responsible for their works, all unbelievers for their rebellion; (6) the most serious motive for Christian mission, in the face of such judgment the world's only hope is Christ's salvation (Acts 4:12).圣经的教学的神学意义是,最终的判断是:(1)神的旨意的最终胜利和他的历史光辉完善显示,标志,所有他打算工作已完成;(2)宇宙声明,上帝是只是,一切以他的荣耀侮辱受到惩罚,所有它肯定会受到奖励;(3)基督的职事高潮,使徒信经确认,(4)提醒我们,人类和宇宙对测量目标,历史动议神的目的;(5)人类问责绝对密封,所有信徒对自己的作品负责,对他们的叛逆所有不信;(6)在该判决是世界上唯一面对基督教使命最严重的动机,希望是基督的救赎(徒4:12)。

Belief in the last judgment was uniformly endorsed in the early creeds and the Reformation confessions.在最后的审判的信仰是一致赞同的早期教义和改革供词。Except where the various ancient and modern forms of universalism have held sway, Christians have accepted the fact of final judgment, though its form and timing have been strongly debated.除古代和现代的各种形式举行了普遍性的影响下,基督徒都接受了终审判决的事实,尽管它的形式和时间一直强烈争论。

DA Hubbard多巴胺哈伯德
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
DG Bloesch, Essentials of Evangelical Theology, II, 211-34; AA Hoekema, The Bible and the Future; GE Ladd, A Theology of the NT; JP Martin, The Last Judgment; W. Schneider, NIDNTT, II, 361-67.危险品Bloesch,要素的基督教神学,二,211-34;机管局赫克玛,圣经和未来;葛雷德,一个神学的新台币;太平绅士马丁,最后的审判;瓦特施耐德,NIDNTT,二,361-67 。


Last Judgment, General Judgment最后的审判,一般判断

Catholic Information天主教新闻

(Judicium Universale, Last Judgment).(Judicium Universale,最后判决)。

I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT一,存在性综合评判

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Few truths are more often or more clearly proclaimed in Scripture than that of the general judgment.真理往往很少或更明确地宣布,在经文比一般的判断。To it the prophets of the Old Testament refer when they speak of the "Day of the Lord" (Joel 2:31; Ezekiel 13:5; Isaiah 2:12), in which the nations will be summoned to judgment.它的旧约的先知说话时参考了“主日”(珥2:31;以西结书13:5,以赛亚书2:12),在该国将被传召的判断。 In the New Testament the second Parusia, or coming of Christ as Judge of the world, is an oft-repeated doctrine.在新约中的第二Parusia,或未来的基督,作为世界法官,是一个经常重复的教条。The Saviour Himself not only foretells the event but graphically portrays its circumstances (Matthew 24:27 sqq.; 25:31 sqq.).救主自己不仅预示了活动,但其情节生动描绘(马太24:27 sqq。。25:31 sqq)。The Apostles give a most prominent place to this doctrine in their preaching (Acts 10:42; 17:31) and writings (Romans 2:5-16; 14:10; 1 Corinthians 4:5; 2 Corinthians 5:10; 2 Timothy 4:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:5; James 5:7).使徒们给予这一学说最突出的地方在他们的说教(使徒10:42; 17时31分)和写作(罗2:5-16; 14:10;哥林多前书4:5;哥林多后书5:10; 2蒂莫西4:1; 2撒罗尼迦1:5雅各书5:7)。 Besides the name Parusia (parousia), or Advent (1 Corinthians 15:23; 2 Thessalonians 2:19), the Second Coming is also called Epiphany, epiphaneia, or Appearance (2 Thessalonians 2:8; 1 Timothy 6:14; 2 Timothy 4:1; Titus 2:13), and Apocalypse (apokalypsis), or Revelation (2 Thessalonians 2:7; 1 Peter 4:13).除了名称Parusia(圆满),或临(哥林多前书15:23;帖后2:19),第二次来也被称为主显节,epiphaneia或外观(帖后2:8;提摩太前书6:14; 2蒂莫西4:1;提多书2:13),和启示录(apokalypsis),或启示(帖后2:7;彼前4:13)。The time of the Second Coming is spoken of as "that Day" (2 Timothy 4:8), "the day of the Lord" (1 Thessalonians 5:2), "the day of Christ" (Philemon 1:6), "the day of the Son of Man" (Luke 17:30), "the last day" (John 6:39-40).第二届未来的时间里,是口语的,因为“那一天”(提摩太后书4:8),(帖前5:2),(腓利门书1:6)“在基督的日子”的“主日”, (路加福音17:30),“最后一天”(约翰6:39-40)“的人子的日子”。

22

The belief in the general judgment has prevailed at all times and in all places within the Church.在一般的判断信仰盛行在任何时候,在教堂内的所有地方。It is contained as an article of faith in all the ancient creeds: "He ascended into heaven. From thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead" (Apostles' Creed).它被作为一个在所有古老的信条信条:“他升天必从那里降临,审判活人,死人。”(使徒信经)。He shall come again with glory to judge both the living and the dead" (Nicene Creed). "From thence he shall come to judge the living and the dead, at whose coming all men must rise with their bodies and are to render an account of their deeds" (Athanasian Creed). Relying on the authority of Papias, several Fathers of the first four centuries advanced the theory of a thousand years' terrestrial reign of Christ with the saints to precede the end of the World (see article on MILLENNIUM). Though this idea is interwoven with the eschatological teachings of those writers, it in no way detracted from their belief in a universal world-judgment. Patristic testimony to this dogma is clear and unanimous.他必再来判断与荣耀都生者与死者“(尼西亚)。”必从那里降临,审判活人与死人,在其未来所有的人必须站起来与他们的身体并正在向报帐他们的事迹“(亚他那修信经)。帕皮亚管理局对为依托,四个世纪的第一个先进的几个父亲了一千多年的统治陆地的基督与圣徒理论先于世界的尽头(见千年的文章)。尽管这一想法与这些作家的末世论的教义相互交织,这丝毫不减损他们的信念,一个普遍的世界的判断。教父证明了这一点是明确的和一致的教条。

3

The Roman Catechism thus explains why, besides the particular judgment of each individual, a general one should also be passed on the assembled world: "The first reason is founded on the circumstances that most augment the rewards or aggravate the punishments of the dead. Those who depart this life sometimes leave behind them children who imitate the conduct of their parents, descendants, followers; and others who adhere to and advocate the example, the language, the conduct of those on whom they depend, and whose example they follow; and as the good or bad influence or example, affecting as it does the conduct of many, is to terminate only with this world; justice demands that, in order to form a proper estimate of the good or bad actions of all, a general judgment should take place. . . . Finally, it was important to prove, that in prosperity and adversity, which are sometimes the promiscuous lot of the good and of the bad, everything is ordered by an all-wise, all-just, and all-ruling Providence: it was therefore necessary not only that rewards and punishments should await us in the next life but that they should be awarded by a public and general judgment."罗马问答从而解释了为什么,除了个别特殊的判断,一般人也应该通过世界上的组装:。“第一个原因是在大部分情况下,增加回报或加重处罚的死者的创立者这辈子谁离开他们的孩子有时会留下谁模仿他们的父母,子孙,信徒的行为;和其他谁坚持和倡导的例子,语言,这些对他们所依赖的行为,他们遵循的范例;及为好的或坏的影响或例子,因为它影响了许多行为,是终止与这个世界唯一的,正义要求,以形成一个所有行为的好坏适当的估计,一般的判断应该发生。。。。最后,重要的是要证明,在繁荣和逆境,有时混杂的好很多的坏,一切都订购一全智,全刚,全执政的普罗维登斯:因此,它不仅需要有奖惩应等待我们在未来的生活,但他们应该被公共和总体判断授予“。

II.二。SIGNS THAT ARE TO PRECEDE THE GENERAL JUDGMENT迹象表明,是否先于一般判断

The Scriptures mention certain events which are to take place before the final judgment.圣经提到这是最终判决前采取某些事件的发生。These predictions were not intended to serve as indications of the exact time of the judgment, for that day and hour are known only to the Father, and will come when least expected.这些预测并没有打算作为判断的准确时间为这一天的迹象和小时,是已知的唯一的父亲,并会在不经意间。They were meant to foreshadow the last judgment and to keep the end of the world present to the minds of Christians, without, however, exciting useless curiosity and vain fears.他们注定预示最后的审判,并随时向世界呈现给基督徒的心中结束,如果没有,不过,令人兴奋的徒劳无用的好奇心和恐惧。 Theologians usually enumerate the following nine events as signs of the last judgment:神学家通常枚举作为最后的审判迹象以下九个事件:

1. 1。General Preaching of the Christian Religion一般的基督教传教

Concerning this sign the Saviour says: "And this gospel of the kingdom, shall be preached in the whole world, for a testimony to all nations, and then shall the consummation come" (Matthew 24:14).关于这个标志的救世主说:“这天国的福音,要传遍全世界的所有国家的证词,然后应完善来”(马太24:14)。This sign was understood by Chrysostom and Theophilus as referring to the destruction of Jerusalem, but, according to the majority of interpreters, Christ is here speaking of the end of the world.这个标志是理解金口和西奥菲勒斯为是指耶路撒冷的毁灭,但根据大多数口译,基督在这里的世界结束时发表讲话。

2. 2。Conversion of the Jews转换的犹太人

According to the interpretation of the Fathers, the conversion of the Jews towards the end of the world is foretold by St. Paul in the Epistle to the Romans (11:25-26): "For I would not have you ignorant, brethren, of this mystery, . . . that blindness in part has happened in Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles should come in. And so all Israel should be saved as it is written: There shall come out of Sion, he that shall deliver, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob".据父亲解释,犹太人对世界的末日预言的转换是在圣保罗的书信向罗马(11:25-26):“我愿意你们不知道,弟兄们, 。。。这个谜,在部分盲症已在以色列发生的事情,直到外邦人的丰满应该进来,因此所有以色列应该被保存,因为它是写:应走出锡永,他能救,要消除雅各“不虔。

3. 3。Return of Enoch and Elijah以诺和以利亚的回归

The belief that these two men, who have never tasted death, are reserved for the last times to be precursors of the Second Advent was practically unanimous among the Fathers, which belief they base on several texts of Scripture.认为这两名男子,谁从来没有尝过死亡的,在过去​​的时代保留予第二次降临前体的信念,几乎全在父亲,他们一致的信念基础上的经文几个文本。 (Concerning Elijah see Malachi 4:5-6; Sirach 48:10; Matthew 17:11; concerning Enoch see Sirach 44:16) (关于以利亚见玛拉基书4:5-6;西拉奇48:10;马太17:11;关于诺看到西拉奇44:16)

4. 4。A Great Apostasy一个伟大的叛教

As to this event St. Paul admonishes the Thessalonians (2 Thessalonians 2:3) that they must not be terrified, as if the day of the Lord were at hand, for there must first come a revolt (he apostasia).The Fathers and interpreters understand by this revolt a great reduction in the number of the faithful through the abandonment of the Christian religion by many nations.由于此活动圣保罗告诫撒罗尼迦(帖撒罗尼迦后书2:3),他们不能害怕,因为如果主当天在手,因为在那里必须先有一个反抗(他apostasia)。父亲和口译理解这个反抗透过基督教的许多国家放弃在忠实数量大量减少。 Some commentators cite as confirmatory of this belief the words of Christ: "But yet the Son of man, when he cometh, shall he find, think you, faith on earth?"一些评论家援引作为这一信念确认基督的话:“但迄今为止还是人,当他来到,他必寻找,想你,地球上的信仰儿子吗?” (Luke 18:8).(路加福音18:8)。

5. 5。The Reign of Antichrist敌基督统治的

In the passage above mentioned (2 Thessalonians 2:3 sqq.) St. Paul indicates as another sign of the day of the Lord, the revelation of the man of sin, the son of perdition.在上面提到的通过(2撒罗尼迦2:3 sqq。)圣保罗的另一主,该罪的男子,灭亡的日子来到迹象表明儿子。 "The man of sin" here described is generally identified with the Antichrist, who, says St. John (1 John 2:18), is to come in the last days. “罪之人”在这里描述的是一般与反基督,谁,说圣约翰(约翰一书2:18)确定的,是来在最后的日子。Although much obscurity and difference of opinion prevails on this subject, it is generally admitted from the foregoing and other texts that before the Second Coming there will arise a powerful adversary of Christ, who will seduce the nations by his wonders, and persecute the Church.尽管还有许多默默无闻的意见分歧就这个问题普遍存在,人们普遍承认,从上述和其他案文的第二次到来之前将出现一个强大的对手的基督,谁勾引他的奇事的国家,逼迫教会。

6. 6。Extraordinary Perturbations of Nature扰动的特殊性质

The Scriptures clearly indicate that the judgment will be preceded by unwonted and terrifying disturbances of the physical universe (Matthew 24:29; Luke 21:25-26).圣经清楚地表明,该判决之前将物理宇宙少有的和可怕的骚乱(马太24:29;路加福音21:25-26)。The wars, pestilences, famines, and earthquakes foretold in Matthew 24:6 sq., are also understood by some writers as among the calamities of the last times.战争,瘟疫,饥荒,在马太24:6平方米预言地震,也理解一些作家,因为在过去时代的灾难。

7. 7。The Universal Conflagration通用火灾

In the Apostolic writings we are told that the end of the world will be brought about through a general conflagration, which, however, will not annihilate the present creation, but will change its form and appearance (2 Peter 3:10-13; cf. 1 Thessalonians 5:2; Apocalypse 3:3, and 16:15).在使徒的著作告诉我们说,世界末日将提请通过一般火灾,其中,但是,现在不能消灭的创造,但会改变其形式和外观(彼得3:10-13左右;比照。帖撒罗尼迦前书5:2;启示录3:3和16:15)。 Natural science shows the possibility of such a catastrophe being produced in the ordinary course of events, but theologians generally tend to believe that its origin will be entirely miraculous.自然科学显示了这样一个灾难的可能性在事件的正常过程中产生的,但神学家一般倾向于认为它的起源将完全奇迹。

8. 8。The Trumpet of Resurrection复活的小号

Several texts in the New Testament make mention of a voice or trumpet which will awaken the dead to resurrection (1 Corinthians 15:52; 1 Thessalonians 4:15; John 5:28).几个文本在新约中利用语音或小号将唤醒死人复活提到(哥林多前书15:52;帖撒罗尼迦前书4:15,约翰福音5:28)。 According to St. Thomas (Supplement 86:2) there is reference in these passages either to the voice or to the apparition of Christ, which will cause the resurrection of the dead.据圣托马斯(补编86:2)这些通道中有任何提及的语音​​或基督的幽灵,这将导致死者复活。

9. 9。"The Sign of the Son of Man Appearing in the Heavens."“牌的人在天上亮相的儿子。”

In Matthew 24:30, this is indicated as the sign immediately preceding the appearance of Christ to judge the world.在马太福音24:30,这是显示为紧接基督的外观来判断世界的标志。By this sign the Fathers of the Church generally understand the appearance in the sky of the Cross on which the Saviour died or else of a wonderful cross of light.这个星座的,教会的父亲一般理解,在天空中出现的十字架上的救世主死亡或奇妙的光交叉别人。

III.三。CIRCUMSTANCES ACCOMPANYING THE GENERAL JUDGMENT伴随着总体判断境遇

1. 1。Time时间

As was stated above, the signs that are to precede the judgment give no accurate indication of the time when it will occur (Mark 13:32).正如上文所述,迹象表明,是先不作判断的时候,它会发生(马可福音13:32)准确的指示。When the Disciples asked the Saviour: "Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel?"当门徒问救主:“主阿,连在这个时候,你又恢复以色列国,就?”He answered: "It is not for you to know the times or moments, which the Father hath put in his own power" (Acts 1:6-7).他回答说:“这不是你们可以知道的时间或时刻,因为父上帝把自己的权力”(徒1:6-7)。The uncertainty of the day of judgment is continually urged by Christ and the Apostles as an incentive to vigilance.在一天的判决不确定性不断敦促基督并作为警惕激励使徒。The day of the Lord will come "as a thief" (Matthew 24:42-43), like lightning suddenly appearing (Matthew 24:27), like a snare (Luke 21:34), as the Deluge (Matthew 24:37).主的日子来到,“作为一个小偷”(马太24:42-43),如突然出现闪电(马太24:27),像一个陷阱(路加福音21:34),作为大洪水(马太24:37 )。

2. 2。Place of the Judgment地点判决

All the texts in which mention is made of the Parusia, or Second Coming, seem to imply clearly enough that the general judgment will take place on the earth.所有在其中提到的Parusia,或第二的到来,使文本似乎暗示不够清楚,一般的判断将在地球的地方。Some commentators infer from 1 Thessalonians 4:16, that the judgment will be held in the air, the newly risen being carried into the clouds to meet Christ; according to others the prophecy of Joel (3:1 sq.) places the last judgment in the Valley of Josaphat.一些评论家推断帖4:16,该判决将在空中,正在成为新兴的云进行,以满足基督,根据其他人的乔尔(3:1平)预言的地方最后判决在约萨法特谷。

3. 3。The Coming of the Judge法官的到来

That this judgment is ascribed to Christ, not only as God, but also as Man, is expressly declared in Scripture; for although the power of judging is common to all the Persons of the Trinity, yet it is specially attributed to the Son, because to Him also in a special manner is ascribed wisdom.这个判断是归因于基督,不仅如神,而且还由于人,就是在圣经中明确宣布,因为虽然作为判断力量共同所有的三位一体的人,但由于它是专门给儿子,因为对他也以特殊方式是归因于智慧。 But that as Man He will judge the world is confirmed by Christ Himself (John 5:26-27).但作为人,他将审判世界证实了基督本人(约翰5:26-27)。At the Second Coming Christ will appear in the heavens, seated on a cloud and surrounded by the angelic hosts (Matthew 16:27; 24:30; 25:31).在第二次来基督将出现在坐在云和天使般的主机包围了天空,(马太16时27分,24:30,25:31)。The angels will minister to the Judge by bringing all before Him (Matthew 24:31).天使们将通过将前总理他(马太24:31),所有的法官。The elect will aid Christ in a judicial capacity (1 Corinthians 6:2).该选举将有助于在司法能力(哥林多前书6:2)基督。The lives of the just will in themselves be a condemnation of the wicked (Matthew 21:41), whose punishment they will publicly approve.刚刚在自己的将是一个生活的谴责恶人(马太21:41),其惩罚他们将公开审批。 But the Apostles will be judges of the world in a sense yet more exact, for the promise that they shall sit upon twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel (Matthew 19:28) seems to imply a real participation in judicial authority.但使徒们将成为世界法官在某种意义上还更加精确的承诺,他们坐在十二个审判以色列(马太19:28)十二个支派宝座上,似乎暗示着一种司法权力的真正参与。 According to a very probable opinion, this prerogative is extended to all who have faithfully fulfilled the counsels of the Gospel (Matthew 19:27-28).根据一项很可能认为,这种特权是扩大到所有谁忠实地履行了福音(马太19:27-28)律师。Nothing certain is known as to the manner in which this delegated authority will be exercised.没有肯定的是被称为向在此授权将行使方式。St. Thomas conjectures that the greater saints will make known the sentence of Christ to others (Supplement 88:2).圣托马斯推测,大圣人将已知的基督一句别人(补编88:2)。

4. 4。Those to be Judged这些来评判

All men, both good and bad, according to the Athanasian Creed, will appear in the judgment to give an account of their deeds.所有的人,无论是好是坏,根据亚他那修的信条,将出现在判决给了他们的事迹帐户。As to children that have personally done neither good nor evil, the baptized must be distinguished from the unbaptized.至于那些亲自做无善无恶的儿童,必须区分的洗礼从经洗礼。The former appear in the judgment, not to be judged, but only to hold the glory of Christ (Supplement 80:5), while the latter, ranked with the wicked, although not judged, will be enabled to realize the justice of their eternal loss (Suarez).前者出现在判断,不被审判,但只持有基督的荣耀(补编80:5),而后者,与邪恶的排名,虽然没有判断,将能够实现其永恒正义损失(苏亚雷斯)。 The angels and the demons will not be judged directly, since their eternal destiny has already been fixed; yet, because they have exercised a certain influence over the fortunes of men, the sentence pronounced on the latter will have a corresponding effect on them also (Supplement 89:8).天使和恶魔不会直接进行判断,因为他们永恒的命运已经被修复,然而,因为他们行使了人的命运了一定的影响,对后者宣判的刑期将有相应的影响也对他们(补充89:8)。

5. 5。Object of the Judgment对象的判决

The judgment will embrace all works, good or bad, forgiven as well as forgiven sins, every idle word (Matthew 12:36), every secret thought (1 Corinthians 4:5).该判决将包括所有的作品,无论好坏,以及宽恕赦免罪孽,每闲置字(马太12:36),每一个秘密的思想(林前4:5)。 With the exception of Peter Lombard, theologians teach that even the secret sins of the just will be made manifest, in order that judgment may be made complete and that the justice and mercy of God may be glorified.随着彼得隆巴德例外,神学教导,即使是刚刚将显露秘密罪,以​​便作出判断可能是完整的正义和怜悯的神得荣耀。 This will not pain or embarrass the saints, but add to their glory, just as the repentance of St. Peter and St. Mary Magdalen is to these saints a source of joy and honour.这不会疼痛或尴尬的圣人,但增加他们的荣耀,正如圣彼得和圣玛丽马格达伦忏悔是对这些圣人的喜悦和荣誉的来源。

6. 6。Form of the Judgment判决形式

The procedure of the judgment is described in Matthew 25:31-46, and in the Apocalypse 20:12.有关判决的程序中描述马太25:31-46,并在启示录20:12。Commentators see in those passages allegorical descriptions intended to convey in a vivid manner the fact that in the last judgment the conduct and deserts of each individual will be made plain not only to his own conscience but to the knowledge of the assembled world.评论家看到这些通道意在生动地传达了,在最后的审判的行为及个别沙漠变为平原,不仅他自己的良心,但到了世界的知识其实组装寓言说明。 It is probable that no words will be spoken in the judgment, but that in one instant, through a Divine illumination, each creature will thoroughly understand his own moral condition and that of every fellow creature (Romans 2:15).这是有可能的话将没有发言的判断,但在一瞬间,通过一个神圣的照明,每个生物会彻底明白自己的道德状况,而每一个同伴动物(罗马书2:15)。 Many believe, however, that the words of the sentence: "Come, ye blessed", etc. and "Depart from me", etc. will be really addressed by Christ to the multitude of the saved and the lost.许多人相信,但是,句子的话:“来吧,你们有福”等,“离开我”等,才是真正的基督给的保存和失去许多。

IV.四。RESULTS OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT一般判断之结果

With the fulfilment of the sentence pronounced in the last judgment the relations and the dealings of the Creator with the creature find their culmination, are explained and justified.随着在最后的审判的关系,并与动物打交道的造物主宣判的刑期实现找到自己的高潮,是解释并说明理由。 The Divine purpose being accomplished, the human race will, as a consequence, attain its final destiny.神圣的目的是完成了,人类的意志,因此,实现其最终的命运。The reign of Christ over mankind will be the sequel of the General Judgment.基督在人类的统治将成为续集的总体判断。

Publication information Written by JA McHugh.出版信息的书面由JA麦克休。Transcribed by Donald J. Boon.转录的唐纳德J福音。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.天主教百科全书,音量八。Published 1910.1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,十月一日,1910年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


Also, see:此外,见:
Divine Judgment神圣的判决
Second Coming of Christ耶稣第二次来
Eschatology 末世
Dispensation, Dispensationalism配药, dispensationalism
Views of the Millennium意见千年
Rapture, Tribulation破裂,磨难
Tribulation, Great Tribulation磨难,伟大的磨难


This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



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