Last Supper,Lord's Supper最后的晚餐,主的晚餐

zhǔ de wǎncān

General Information一般资料

(This presentation primarily discusses Protestant perspectives on the Eucharist. At the end of this presentation are links to Catholic and Jewish perspectives, and a more general presentation on the Eucharist that includes presentation of the Orthodox perspective.) (本文主要讨论了关于圣体新教的观点。在本月底提交的,以天主教和犹太教的观点,以及对圣体圣事,其中包含介绍正统的角度更具有一般性介绍的链接。)

The meal shared by Jesus Christ and his disciples on the night before he was crucified is called the Last Supper (Matt. 26:20 - 29; Mark 14:17 - 25; Luke 22:14 - 38; John 13:1 - 17:26).夜间上的共享耶稣基督和他的弟子,他被钉在十字架之前被称为最后的晚餐(太26:20一餐 - 29,马可福音14:17 - 25;路加福音22:14 - 38;约翰13:1 - 17 :26)。It was the occasion of his institution of the Eucharist, when he identified the broken bread with his body and the cup of wine with his blood of the new Covenant.这是他的圣体,当他发现他的身体和酒与他的新约的血杯擘机构的场合。The ritual was that of a Jewish religious meal, which was given new meaning for Jesus' followers when they performed it in remembrance of him.这个仪式,是一个犹太宗教餐,这是由于耶稣的追随者进行了新的意义时,他们在他的记忆了。Christians differ as to the meaning of the words of Jesus, the exact relationship of the bread and wine to his body and blood, and the frequency with which the rite is to be repeated.至于不同的基督徒对耶稣的面包和酒到他的身体和血液的确切关系,字义和频率与该仪式是重复。The Last Supper was also the occasion on which Jesus washed his disciples' feet and commanded them to wash one another's feet.最后的晚餐也是一次对耶稣洗门徒的脚,洗吩咐他们彼此的脚。It has been the subject of art from earliest times.一直以来,从最早的时候,艺术的主题。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息来源
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects

我们2300 宗教科目名单
LL Mitchell当地雇员米切尔

Bibliography 参考书目
O Cullman, Early Christian Worship (1953); G Dix, The Shape of the Liturgy (1945); J Jeremias, The Eucharistic Words of Jesus (1955); J Kodell, The Eucharist in the New Testament (1988); LL Mitchell, The Meaning of Ritual (1977). Ø克尔曼,早期基督教崇拜(1953)100迪克斯,礼仪(1945)形状; Ĵ赫雷米亚斯,耶稣的(1955年)圣体词; Ĵ Kodell,在新约圣体(1988年),当地雇员米切尔该仪式的意义(1977年)。

Last Supper, Lord's Supper最后的晚餐,主的晚餐

General Information一般资料

There are several distinct understandings of the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper in modern Churches.也有主的晚餐在现代教会圣礼几个不同的理解。

BELIEVE includes a number of presentations which discuss these approaches, including the Churches and the individuals who first presented the concepts.相信包括数目的艺术讨论这些方法,包括教会和个人谁首先提出的概念。

Lord's Supper圣餐

General Information一般资料

The Lord's Supper is an ordinance of the New Testament, instituted by Jesus Christ; wherein, by giving and receiving bread and wine, according to his appointment, his death is shown forth, - 1Co 11:23-26主的晚餐是新约由耶稣基督制定,条例;其中,给予和接受的面包和酒,根据他的任命,显示出他的死, - 林前11:23-26

and the worthy receivers are, not after a corporeal and carnal manner, but by faith, made partakers of his body and blood, with all his benefits, to their spiritual nourishment, and growth in grace.接收器和值得,而不是在一个有形的和肉体的方式,而是由信仰,使他的身体和血液与他的所有好处,有分,他们的精神食粮,并在宽限期增长。 - 1Co 10:16- 林前10:16

What is required to the worthy receiving of the Lord's Supper?什么是需要对主的晚餐值得接受?It is required of them who would worthily partake of the Lord's Supper, that they examine themselves of their knowledge to discern the Lord's body, - 1Co 11:28,29这是要求他们将抱负谁吃主的晚餐,他们检查自己的知识去分辨主的身体 - 林前11:28,29

of their faith to feed upon him, - 2Co 13:5他们的信仰喂他, - 林后13:5

of their repentance, - 1Co 11:31他们的忏悔 - 林前11:31

love, - 1Co 11:18-20爱 - 林前11:18-20

and new obedience, - 1Co 5:8和新的服从, - 林前5:8

lest coming unworthily, they eat and drink judgment to themselves.以免未来混迹,他们吃的喝的判断自己。- 1Co 11:27-29- 林前11:27-29

What is meant by the words, "until he come," which are used by the apostle Paul in reference to the Lord's Supper?是什么意思的话,“直到他来了,”这是用来参考的使徒保罗对主的晚餐?They plainly teach us that our Lord Jesus Christ will come a second time; which is the joy and hope of all believers.他们清楚地教导我们说,我们的主耶稣基督将出现第二次,这是所有信徒的喜悦和希望。- Ac 1:11 1Th 4:16- 徒1:11帖前4:16

C Spurgeon ç吉翁

Lord's Supper圣餐

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In each of the four accounts of the Lord's Supper in the NT (Matt. 26:26 - 30; Mark 14:22 - 26; Luke 22:14 - 20; 1 Cor. 1:23 - 26) all the main features are included.在主的晚餐在新台币每个账户的四个(太26:26 - 30;马克14:22 - 26;路加福音22:14 - 20,1肺心病1:23 - 26。)所有的主要特点是包括在内。The accounts of Matthew and Mark have close formal affinities.马修和马克的账户有着密切的正式亲和力。So have those of Luke and Paul.因此,有卢克和保罗的。The main differences between the two groups are that Mark omits the words "This do in remembrance of me" and includes "shed for many" after the reference to the blood of the covenant.两组之间的主要区别是,马克省略的话“这是记念我”,包括“抛开许多”后到立约的血参考。Instead of the Lord's reference to his reunion with the disciples in the fulfilled kingdom of God, common to the Synoptic Gospels, Paul has a reference to proclaiming the Lord's death "till he come."取而代之的是主的提及他与神的国度实现,常见的天气福音,门徒团聚,保罗引用宣告主的死“,直到他来了。”

The meaning of Jesus' action has to be seen against its OT background.耶稣的行动的意义,必须针对其逾时工作背景来看待。Questions are legitimately raised, however, about the actual nature and timing of the meal.问题是合法地提出,不过,有关的实际性质和吃饭的时间。The accounts seem to be at variance.这些帐户似乎是方差。The Fourth Gospel says that Jesus died on the afternoon when the passover lamb was slain (John 18:28).第四福音说,耶稣在逾越节的羊羔时被杀害(约翰福音18:28)下午死亡。The Synoptic accounts, however, suggest that the meal was prepared for, and eaten, as if it were part of the community celebration of the passover feast that year in Jerusalem after the slaying of the lambs in the temple.天气的帐户,不过,建议准备的饭菜,吃了,就好像它是对社会的逾越节庆祝活动的一部分,在耶路撒冷一年之后,在寺庙的羔羊杀害。

The Synoptic accounts raise further problems.天气的帐目提出进一步的问题。It has been thought unlikely that the arrest of Jesus, the meeting of the Sanhedrin, and the carrying of arms by the disciples could have taken place if the meal had coincided with the official passover date.它已被认为不可能的耶稣,该公会会议,以及由弟子携带武器逮捕可能发生,如果饭后曾与官方逾越节的日期相吻合。 Could Simon of Cyrene have been met coming apparently from work in the country, or could a linen cloth have been purchased for Jesus' body, if the feast was in progress?西蒙的昔兰尼能否得到满足来自于该国的工作显然,亚麻布或可能已经购买了耶稣的身体,如果在这个节日的进展?

To meet all such difficulties several suggestions have been made.为了满足所有数项建议已作出这样的困难。Some have held that the meal took the form of a kiddush, a ceremony held by a family or brotherhood in preparation for the Sabbath or for a feast day.有些人认为,餐取了kiddush,在筹备召开一个家庭或兄弟为安息日,或一个节日的仪式形式。It has also been suggested that the meal could have been the solemn climax, before Jesus' death, of other significant messianic meals which he had been accustomed to share with his disciples, in which he and they looked forward to a glorious fulfillment of hope in the coming kingdom of God.也有人建议,一餐可能已被庄严的高潮,在耶稣的死,他的其他重大分享已经习惯与他的弟子,他在其中,他们期待着一个充满希望的救世主履行光荣膳食,神来的国度。

Such theories present as many new difficulties as those they claim to solve.这些理论现在只要那些声称他们解决了许多新的困难。Moreover, many of the features and details of the meal accounted for indicate that it was a passover meal.此外,在功能和膳食占很多细节表明,这是一个逾越节的晚餐。(They met at night, within the city; they reclined as they ate; the wine was red; wine was a preliminary dish.) Jesus himself was concerned to explain what he was doing in terms of the passover celebration. (他们会见了在夜间,在城市,他们倾斜,因为他们吃;的酒是红葡萄酒是一个初步的菜。)自己关心的是如何解释他是在庆祝逾越节方面做耶稣。Scholars who regard the meal as a passover explain the attendant strange circumstances, and various theories have been produced to harmonize all the accounts.学者谁视为逾越节餐服务员奇怪的情况说明,并制作了各种理论,以协调所有帐户。One theory is that disagreement between the Sadducees and the Pharisees led to different dates being fixed for the celebration of the feast in this year.一种理论认为,撒都该人之间,并导致正在为今年的节日庆祝活动定不同的日期法利分歧。

Another theory suggests that Jesus held an irregular passover, the illegality of which contributed to his being betrayed by Judas and arrested.另一种理论认为,耶稣不定期举行逾越节,其非法性导致了他的被出卖的犹大和逮捕。(Such a theory could explain why there is no mention of a passover lamb in the account.) Attention has been drawn to the existence of an ancient calendar in which the calculations of the date of the passover were made on premises different from those made in official circles. (这种理论可以解释为什么没有一个帐户中的逾越节羔羊提及。)注意力都被吸引到一个古代历法的存在,其中的逾越节之日起计算均在处所来自不同制造官场。 The following of such a calendar would have fixed the date of the feast a few days earlier than that of its official celebration.这样一个日历下面将有固定的节日,几天前比其官方庆祝活动,日期。

There is no doubt that Jesus' words and actions are best understood if the meal is regarded as taking place within the context of the Jewish passover.毫无疑问,耶稣的言论和行动是最好的理解是,如果饭后服用内的情况下发生的犹太人逾越节视为怀疑。In this the people of God not only remembered, but again lived through, the events of their deliverance from Egypt under the sign of the sacrificed paschal lamb as if they themselves participated in them (see Exod. 12).在此神的人不要只记得,但同样经历过,在逾越节羔羊的牺牲,如果他们想为自己在他们参与了他们从埃及拯救事件(见Exod。12)。 In this context, giving the bread and wine as his body and blood, with the words, "this do in remembrance of me," Jesus points to himself as the true substitute for the paschal lamb and to his death as the saving event which will deliver the new Israel, represented in his disciples, from all bondage.在这种情况下,给面包和他的身体和血酒,用的话,“这是记念我,”耶稣指向自己作为替代真实的逾越节羔羊和他死亡的事件,将节省从所有束缚提供新的以色列,在他的弟子为代表。 His blood is to be henceforth the sign under which God will remember his people in himself.他的血是要从此签署根据上帝会记住他的人在自己。

In his words at the table Jesus speaks of himself not only as the paschal lamb but also as a sacrifice in accordance with other OT analogies.在他的话在桌子耶稣谈论自己不仅是逾越节的羔羊,而且作为一个与其他城市旅游局根据类比牺牲。In the sacrificial ritual the portion of peace offering not consumed by fire and thus not offered to God as his food (cf. Lev. 3:1 - 11; Num. 28:2) was eaten by priest and people (Lev. 19:5 - 6; 1 Sam. 9:13) in an act of fellowship with the altar and the sacrifice (Exod. 24:1 - 11; Deut. 27:7; cf. Num. 25:1 - 5; 1 Cor. 10).在祭祀仪式的和平提供部分不消耗火,因此没有为他提供食物给神(见列弗3:1 - 11;数量28:2。。)是由祭司和人(利未记19吃: 5 - 6 1萨姆9:13)在与祭坛的牺牲(出24:1金法 - 11;。申命记27:7;比照数量25:1 - 5。。。1肺心病。 10)。Jesus in giving the elements thus gave to his disciples a sign of their own fellowship and participation in the event of his sacrificial death.耶稣给予的元素从而给他的弟子一个属于自己的奖学金和参加他的牺牲死亡事件的迹象。

Moreover, Jesus included in the Last Supper the ritual not only of the paschal and sacrificial meal but also of a covenant meal.此外,包括在耶稣最后的晚餐的仪式不仅逾越和牺牲餐一顿的一个公约,但还。In the OT the making of a covenant was followed by a meal in which the participants had fellowship and were pledged to loyalty one to another (Gen. 26:30; 31:54; 2 Sam. 3:20).在加时赛的一个公约的制定,其次是一餐,其中与会者有奖学金,并承诺将忠诚另一个人(创26:30; 31:54;撒下3:20。)。The covenant between God and Israel at Sinai was likewise followed by a meal in which the people "ate and drank and saw God."上帝和以色列之间的契约,同样在西奈半岛之后,在其中一餐的人“吃了喝了,看见神。”The new covenant (Jer. 31:1 - 34) between the Lord and his people was thus ratified by Jesus in a meal.新约(耶31:1 - 34)之间的主,因此批准他的人民在吃饭耶稣。

In celebrating the Supper, Jesus emphasized the messianic and eschatological significance of the passover meal.在庆祝晚餐,耶稣强调的逾越节餐救世主和末世论的意义。At this feast the Jews looked forward to a future deliverance which was foreshadowed in type by that from Egypt.在这个节日的犹太人期待着未来的解脱是由埃及在该类型埋下了伏笔。A cup was set aside for the Messiah lest he should come that very night to bring about this deliverance and fulfill the promise of the messianic banquet (cf. Isa. 25 - 26; 65:13, etc.).一个水杯被预留弥赛亚免得他应该就在那天晚上到实现这一解脱和履行承诺的救世主宴会(参见伊萨25 - 26;。65:13等)。It may have been this cup which Jesus took in the institution of the new rite, indicating that even now the Messiah was present to feast with his people.它可能是这种耶稣拿起杯,在新的礼仪制度,这表明即使是现在在场的弥赛亚盛宴与他的人民。

After the resurrection, in their frequent celebration of the Supper (Acts 2:42 - 46; 20:7), the disciples would see the climax of the table fellowship which Jesus had had with publicans and sinners (Luke 15:2; Matt. 11:18 - 19) and of their own day - to - day meals with him.后在他们的晚餐频繁庆祝复活(徒2:42 - 46; 20时07分),门徒会看到表的奖学金耶稣曾与税吏和罪人(路加福音15:2有高潮;马特。 11:18 - 19)和他们自己的一天 - 到 - 他的一日三餐。They would interpret it not only as a bare prophecy but as a real foretaste of the future messianic banquet, and as a sign of the presence of the mystery of the kingdom of God in their midst in the person of Jesus (Matt. 8:11; cf. Mark 10:35 - 36; Luke 14:15 - 24).他们将解释它不仅作为一个裸露的预言,但作为真正预示未来救世主的宴会,并作为对神国的奥秘,在他们中间,在耶稣的人(太8:11迹象;比照马克10:35 - 36;。路加福音14:15 - 24)。They would see its meaning in relation to his living presence in the church, brought out fully in the Easter meals they had shared with him (Luke 24:13 - 35; John 21:1 - 14; Acts 10:41).他们会看到它在关系到他在教会中活生生的存在的意义,带出,在复活节他们曾与他分享食物完全(路加福音24:13 - 35;约翰21:1 - 14,徒10:41)。It was a supper in the presence of the risen Lord as their host.这是一个在复活的主的存在为他们的主人晚饭。They would see, in the messianic miracle of his feeding the multitude, his words about himself as the bread of life, a sign of his continual hidden self giving in the mystery of the Lord's Supper.他们会看到,在他喂养的众多奇迹救世主,他的话对自己作为生命的面包,他的手不断的自我隐藏在主的晚餐谜付出。

But they would not forget the sacrificial and paschal aspect of the Supper.但他们不会忘记牺牲和逾越节的晚餐方面。The table fellowship they looked back on was the fellowship of the Messiah with sinners which reached its climax in his self identification with the sin of the world on Calvary.该表奖学金,他们回顾了弥赛亚是金与罪人而达成他与世界上各各罪自我认同高潮。They had fellowship with the resurrected Jesus through remembrance of his death.他们通过对他的死亡与复活的耶稣纪念奖学金。As the Lord's Supper related them to the coming kingdom and glory of Christ, so did it also relate them to his once - for - all death.作为神的晚餐有关他们要来的国度和基督的荣耀,所以也涉及他们这样做是对他的一次 - - 所有死亡。

It is against this background of thought that we should interpret the words of Jesus at the table and the NT statements about the Supper.正是在这种思想的理解,我们应该在餐桌上的晚餐,约新台币报表的话,耶稣的背景。There is a real life giving relationship of communion between the events and realities, past, present, and future, symbolized in the Supper and those who participate in it (John 6:51; 1 Cor. 10:16).有一个现实生活中给予的事件和现实之间的共融关系,过去,现在和将来,在晚饭的象征和那些谁也参加(约6点51。林前10:16)。 This communion is so inseparable from participation in the Supper that we can speak of the bread and the wine as if they were indeed the body and blood of Christ (Mark 14:22, "This is my body"; cf. John 6:53).所以从这个共融是在吃饭时我们能说的面包和作为,如果他们确实是基督的身体和血液(马克14时22分,酒:“这是我的身体”参与分不开的。比照约翰6点53分)。 It is by the Holy Spirit alone (John 6:53) that the bread and wine, as they are partaken by faith, convey the realities they represent, and that the Supper gives us participation in the death and resurrection of Christ and the kingdom of God.它是由单独的圣灵(约翰福音6:53),面包和酒,因为他们是信仰的点心,传达他们所代表的现实,而晚餐让我们在死亡与复活的基督的王国和参与神。 It is by faith alone that Christ is received into the heart at the Supper (Eph. 3:17), and as faith is inseparable from the word, the Lord's Supper is nothing without the word.它是由基督信仰,仅收到入心在晚饭(弗3:17),和信仰是分不开的,是从字,主的晚餐是没有什么字。

Christ is Lord at his table, the risen and unseen host (John 14:19).基督是主在他的桌上,复活的和看不见的主机(约翰14:19)。He is not there at the disposal of the church, to be given and received automatically in the mere performance of a ritual.他不在的时候在教堂处置,给予和接收中的表现仅仅是一种仪式自动。Yet he is there according to his promise to seeking and adoring faith.然而,他是有根据他的承诺,寻求和崇拜的信仰。He is present also in such a way that though the careless and unbelieving cannot receive him, they nevertheless eat and drink judgment to themselves (1 Cor. 11:27).他目前还以这样一种方式,虽然不小心和不信不能接受他,但是,它们吃的喝的判断自己(1肺心病。11:27)。

In participating by the Holy Spirit in the body of Christ which was offered once - for - all on the cross, the members of the church are stimulated and enabled by the same Holy Spirit to offer themselves to the Father in eucharistic sacrifice, to serve one another in love within the body, and to fulfill their sacrificial function as the body of Christ in the service of the need of the whole world which God has reconciled to himself in Christ (1 Cor. 10:17; Rom. 12:1).在参加由圣灵在基督的身体,这是提供一次 - 为 - 在十字架上的一切,教会的成员是由相同的刺激,使圣灵在圣体提供牺牲自己的父亲,服务一在身体内的爱别人,并履行作为基督在整个世界是上帝在基督里调和自己需要的服务机构的祭祀功能(1肺心病10:17。。罗12:1) 。

There is in the Lord's Supper a constant renewal of the covenant between God and the church.目前,在主的晚餐是上帝之间的盟约和教会不断更新。The word "remembrance" (anamnesis) refers not simply to man's remembering of the Lord but also to God's remembrance of his Messiah and his covenant, and of his promise to restore the kingdom.单词“回忆”(病历)是指不只是对人的记忆,而且主神为他的弥赛亚和他的约记念,他承诺恢复王国。At the Supper all this is brought before God in true intercessory prayer.在晚饭前,这一切都是上帝带来真正的代祷。

RS Wallace遥感华莱士

Bibliography 参考书目
J Jeremias, The Eucharistic Words of Jesus; AJB Higgins, The Lord's Supper in the NT; G Wainwright, Eucharist and Eschatology; IH Marshall, Lord's Supper and Last Supper; FJ Leenhardt and O Cullmann, Essays in the Lord's Supper; JJ von Allmen, The Lord's Supper; M Thurian, The Eucharistic Memorial; E JF Arndt, The Font and the Table; M Marty, The Lord's Supper; E Schillebeeckx, ed., Sacramental Reconciliation.Ĵ赫雷米亚斯,耶稣的圣体词; AJB希金斯,主在新台币晚餐,Ğ温赖特,圣体和末世,中转房屋马歇尔,主的晚餐和最后的晚餐; FJ Leenhardt和O Cullmann,在主的晚餐文章;林俊杰冯Allmen ,主的晚餐〔M Thurian,圣体纪念,电子商务怡富阿恩特,字体和表〔M马蒂,主的晚餐。é施雷贝克,教育署,圣事和解。

Lord's Supper圣餐

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The Lord's Supper (1 Cor. 11:20), called also "the Lord's table" (10:21), "communion," "cup of blessing" (10:16), and "breaking of bread" (Acts 2:42).主的晚餐(1。林前11:20),也称为“上帝的餐桌”(10:21),“共融”,“福杯”(10:16),和“面包”(使徒2断裂: 42)。In the early Church it was called also "eucharist," or giving of thanks (comp. Matt. 26:27), and generally by the Latin Church "mass," a name derived from the formula of dismission, Ite, missa est, ie, "Go, it is discharged."在早期教会,它也被称为“圣体”,或感谢的话(comp.马特。26:27),一般由拉丁美洲教会“大众”,从解聘,联阳,弥撒美国东部时间的公式计算出来的名称,也就是说,“走,这是出院。” The account of the institution of this ordinance is given in Matt.对本条例的机构帐户是由于在马特。26:26-29, Mark 14:22-25, Luke 22:19, 20, and 1 Cor.26:26-29,马可福音14:22-25,路加福音22:19,20和1肺心病。11: 24-26.11:24-26。 It is not mentioned by John.它是由约翰没有提及。It was designed, (1.) To commemorate the death of Christ: "This do in remembrance of me."它的目的是,(1。)为了纪念基督的死:“。这种记念我”(2.) To signify, seal, and apply to believers all the benefits of the new covenant. (2。)为标志,印章,并适用于所有信徒的新约的好处。In this ordinance Christ ratifies his promises to his people, and they on their part solemnly consecrate themselves to him and to his entire service.在本条例基督批准他的承诺给他的人民,他们对他们的一部分奉献了自己,他郑重地和他的整个服务。(3.) To be a badge of the Christian profession.(3。)要成为一个基督教界的徽章。(4.) To indicate and to promote the communion of believers with Christ.(4。)来指示和促进信徒与基督的共融。(5.) To represent the mutual communion of believers with each other.(5。)代表与每个其他信徒互相交流。The elements used to represent Christ's body and blood are bread and wine.用来代表基督的身体和血液中的元素是面包和酒。The kind of bread, whether leavened or unleavened, is not specified.面包的种类,是否有酵或无酵,没有规定。Christ used unleavened bread simply because it was at that moment on the paschal table.基督用未经发酵的面包,只是因为它在桌子上的逾越时刻。Wine, and no other liquid, is to be used (Matt. 26:26-29).酒,没有其他液体,是用来(太26:26-29)。Believers "feed" on Christ's body and blood, (1) not with the mouth in any manner, but (2) by the soul alone, and (3) by faith, which is the mouth or hand of the soul.信徒“饲料”对基督的身体和血液,(1)不以任何方式的嘴,但(2)单独的灵魂,(3)由信仰,这是嘴或手的灵魂。This they do (4) by the power of the Holy Ghost.他们这样做(4)由圣灵的力量。This "feeding" on Christ, however, takes place not in the Lord's Supper alone, but whenever faith in him is exercised.这种“反哺”基督,然而,发生在主的晚餐并不孤单,但只要在他的信仰是行使。This is a permanent ordinance in the Church of Christ, and is to be observed "till he come" again.这是在基督的教会永久条例,并须遵守“直等到他来”了。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)

Views of Lord's Supper意见主的晚餐

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The NT teaches that Christians must partake of Christ in the Lord's Supper (1 Cor. 11:23 - 32; cf. Matt. 26:26 - 29; Luke 22:14 - 23; Mark 14:22 - 25).新台币教导我们,基督徒必须参加在主的晚餐的基督(林前11:23 - 32;。。。比照马特26:26 - 29;路加福音22:14 - 23;马克14:22 - 25)。In a remarkable discourse Jesus said that his disciples had to feed on him if they were to have eternal life (John 6:53 - 57).在一个显着的话语耶稣说,他的弟子们对他的饲料,如果他们有永恒的生命(约翰6:53 - 57)。The setting of that discourse was the feeding of the five thousand.该设置是话语的5000喂养。Jesus used the occasion to tell the multitude that it should not be as concerned about perishable food as about the food that lasts forever, which he gives them.耶稣利用这个机会来告诉它不应该随着人们对食品的永恒,这是他给了他们许多易腐食品有关。That food is himself, his body and his blood.食物是自己,他的身体和他的血。Those who believe in him must eat his flesh and drink his blood, not literally, but symbolically and sacramentally, in the rite he gave the church.那些谁相信他一定要吃他的肉,喝他的血,而不是从字面上看,但象征意义sacramentally,在他给教堂仪式。 Through faith in him and partaking of him they would live forever, for union with him means salvation.通过信仰对他和他的圣餐,他们将永远活联盟,与他的手段拯救。

The setting for the institution of the Lord's Supper was the passover meal that Jesus celebrated with his disciples in remembrance of the deliverance of Israel from Egypt (Matt. 26:17; John 13:1; Exod. 13:1 - 10).为主的晚餐机构设置是与逾越节晚餐,耶稣在以色列从埃及解脱怀念他的弟子庆祝(太26:17,约翰福音13:1。Exod 13:1 - 10)。In calling the bread and wine his body and blood, and saying, "Do this in remembrance of me," Jesus was naming himself the true lamb of the passover whose death would deliver God's people from the bondage of sin.在调用的面包和酒将自己的身体和血,并说:“你在我的记忆这一点,”耶稣被命名自己的逾越节他的逝世,将提供从罪的捆绑上帝的人民真正的羊肉。 Thus Paul writes, "Christ, our paschal lamb, has been sacrificed" (1 Cor. 5:7; cf. John 1:29).因此,保罗写道:“基督,我们逾越节的羔羊,已牺牲”(林前5:7;。比照约翰福音1:29)。。


The doctrine of the Lord's Supper first occasioned discord in the church in the ninth century when Radbertus, influenced by the hankering for the mysterious and supernatural which characterized his time, taught that a miracle takes place at the words of institution in the Supper. The elements are changed into the actual body and blood of Christ. Radbertus was opposed by Ratramnus, who held the Augustinian position that Christ's presence in the Supper is spiritual. The teaching and practice of the church moved in Radbertus's direction, a doctrine of transubstantiation; namely, that in the Supper the substance in the elements of bread and wine is changed into the substance of the body and blood of Christ while the accidents, ie, the appearance, taste, touch, and smell, remain the same. In the eleventh century Berengar objected to the current idea that pieces of Christ's flesh are eaten during Communion and that some of his blood is drunk.主的晚餐第一次引起不和,在教会的教义中的第九世纪时,拉得伯土,晚餐影响和渴望对神秘的超自然的把他的时间,告诉我们一个奇迹机构需要的话放在。 元素就变成实际的身体和基督的血变体。拉得伯土教义是反对Ratramnus,谁举行的奥古斯丁的立场, 在基督的存在的晚餐是精神的。实践教学的教会搬到拉得伯土,的方向,即在晚饭的面包和酒中的物质要素是物质转变为基督的身体和血液,而意外,即外观,口感,触觉和嗅觉,保持不变。在11世纪Berengar反对现在的想法是基督的肉件圣餐时吃,而他的血液有些是喝醉了。

With sensitivity he held that the whole Christ (totus Christus) is given the believer spiritually as he receives bread and wine.其敏感性他认为,整个基督(totus克里斯特斯),是由于精神上的信徒,他收到的面包和酒。The elements remain unchanged but are invested with new meaning; they represent the body and blood of the Savior.元素保持不变,但投资与新的含义,它们代表了身体和血液的救世主。This view was out of step with the times, however, and transubstantiation was declared the faith of the church in 1059, although the term itself was not used officially until the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215.这种观点是不符合时代步伐,然而,陷于变体被宣布为在1059年教会的信仰,虽然这个词本身并没有使用,直到1215年第四次拉特兰会议正式。

The medieval church continued and refined the teaching of transubstantiation, adding such subtleties as (1) concomitance, ie, that both the body and blood of Christ are in each element; hence, when the cup is withheld from the laity the whole Christ, body and blood, is received in the bread alone; (2) consecration, ie, the teaching that the high moment in the Eucharist is not communion with Christ but the change of the elements by their consecration into the very body and blood of Christ, an act performed by the priest alone; (3) that, inasmuch as there is the real presence of Christ in the Supper, body, blood, soul, and divinity, a sacrifice is offered to God; (4) that the sacrifice offered is propitiatory; (5) that the consecrated elements, or host, may be reserved for later use; (6) that the elements thus reserved should be venerated as the living Christ.中世纪的教会继续和完善了陷于教学,新增的这些微妙(1)共存,也就是说,无论是身体和基督的血在每个元素,因此,当杯子被扣压的俗人整个基督,身体血,是在收到单靠面包(2)奉献,即教学,在高一时没有圣体与基督共融的元素,但他们的奉献变成非常身体和基督的,一血由牧师单独执行的行为;(3),因为那里是真实存在的基督在晚餐,身体,血液,灵魂和神性,牺牲是提供给神(4)提供的是和解的牺牲(5)表示,神圣的元素,或主机,可保留以备后用;(6),因此应保留基督崇敬的生活元素。 The Council of Trent (1545 - 63) confirmed these teachings in its thirteenth and twenty second sessions, adding that the veneration given the consecrated elements is adoration (latria), the same worship that is given God.安理会的遄达(1545 - 63)确认在其第十三和第二十二届会议的这些教导,并补充,由于元素的崇拜是神圣的崇拜(latria),同样是给予神崇拜。

Luther and Consubstantiation路德和Consubstantiation

The Reformers agreed in their condemnation of the doctrine of transubstantiation. They held it to be a serious error that is contrary to Scripture; repugnant to reason; contrary to the testimony of our senses of sight, smell, taste, and touch; destructive of the true meaning of a sacrament; and conducive to gross superstition and idolatry. 改革者同意了。在他们陷于谴责他们的学说举行了它是一个严重的错误,是违背圣经;令人厌恶的理由;违背了触摸见证,我们的感官视觉,嗅觉,味觉,破坏性的真正意义的圣礼;,有利于毛的迷信和偶像崇拜。 Luther's first salvo against what he considered to be a perversion of the Lord's Supper was The Babylonian Captivity of the Church.路德反对什么,他认为是主的晚餐变态第一齐射是该教会的巴比伦囚禁。

In it he charges the church with a threefold bondage in its doctrine and practice concerning the Supper, withholding the cup from the people, transubstantiation, and the teaching that the Supper is a sacrifice offered to God.结果他用了三倍的费用在其理论和实践有关的晚餐束缚的教堂,从人民群众隐瞒,陷于杯,以及教学,晚饭是提供给神的牺牲。Luther tells about his earlier instruction in the theology of the sacrament and of some of his doubts:路德讲述了他在圣和他的一些疑虑的神学较早的指令:

"When I learned later what church it was that had decreed this, namely the Thomistic, that is, the Aristotelian church, I grew bolder, and after floating in a sea of doubt, I at last found rest for my conscience in the above view, namely, that it is real bread and real wine, in which Christ's real flesh and real blood are present in no other way and to no less a degree than the others assert them to be under their accidents. “当我后来才知道这是什么教堂,民政事务总署颁布了关于这个,即托马斯主义,也就是亚里士多德的教堂,我长大了更大胆,并相继在海上漂浮的怀疑,我终于找到我的休息,在上述观点的良心,即它是真实的面包和真正的葡萄酒,在基督的真实和真实的肉血在没有其他办法,以及不低于目前在一定程度上比其他人断言他们将根据自己的意外。

"I reached this conclusion because I saw that the opinions of the Thomists, whether approved by pope or by council, remain only opinions, and would not become articles of faith even if an angel from heaven were to decree otherwise (Gal. 1:8). For what is asserted without the Scriptures or proven revelation may be held as an opinion, but need not be believed. But this opinion of Thomas hangs so completely in the air without support of Scripture or reason that it seems to me he knows neither his philosophy nor his logic. For Aristotle speaks of subject and accidents so very differently from St. Thomas that it seems to me this great man is to be pitied not only for attempting to draw his opinions in matters of faith from Aristotle, but also for attempting to base them upon a man whom he did not understand, thus building an unfortunate superstructure upon an unfortunate foundation." “我得出这个结论,因为我看到的是,Thomists意见,是否批准由教皇或由理事会,只留意见,不会成为信仰,即使是一个天使从天上的法令,否则文章(加拉太书1:8 )。对于什么是没有圣经或证实启示断言均可作为意见,但不必相信。但托马斯认为挂起所以完全没有理由支持的经文,或在空中,它在我看来,他也不知道他的哲学也不是他的逻辑亚里士多德。讲的题目和事故等非常不同的圣托马斯,看来我这个伟大的人是值得同情的试图找出在信仰方面的意见,从亚里士多德的作品不仅是,而且对试图立足一个人给他不理解,从而建立一个不幸的基础后,一个不幸的上层建筑他们。“ (Works, XXXVI, 29) (工程,三十六,29)

Luther was feeling his way into a new understanding of the sacrament at this time, but he believed it legitimate to hold that there are real bread and real wine on the altar.路德感到成此时圣礼的新认识他的方式,但他认为这是合法持有,有真正的面包和酒坛真实。He rejected the Thomistic position of a change in the substance of the elements while the accidents remain, inasmuch as Aristotle, from whom the terms "substance" and "accidents" were borrowed, allowed no such separation.他拒绝了一个元素的物质变化托马斯主义的立场,而事故仍然存在,因为正如亚里士多德,从他们的条款“物质”和“意外”是借来的,不允许有任何这样的分离。 The "third captivity," the doctrine of the sacrifice of the Mass, Luther declared to be "by far the most wicked of all" for in it a priest claims to offer to God the very body and blood of Christ as a repetition of the atoning sacrifice of the cross, only in an unbloody manner, whereas the true sacrament of the altar is a "promise of the forgiveness of sins made to us by God, and such a promise as has been confirmed by the death of the Son of God." “第三圈养”的群众牺牲的教义,路德被宣布为“迄今最邪恶的一切”,为IT牧师声称向上帝作为重复的非常的身体和血液基督赎罪的十字架的牺牲,只能在一个unbloody方式,而真正的圣礼的祭坛上,是对我们取得了神赦罪“的承诺,而这样的承诺因为已经由神的儿子证实死亡“。 Since it is a promise, access to God is not gained by works or merits by which we try to please him but by faith alone.由于它是一种承诺,获得上帝是没有获得通过工程或值得我们试图讨好他,而是由信仰单。"For where there is the Word of the promising God, there must necessarily be the faith of the accepting man." “因为那里是充满希望的神的话,必须有一定的接受男人的信任。”

"Who in the world is so foolish as to regard a promise received by him, or a testament given to him, as a good work, which he renders to the testator by his acceptance of it? What heir will imagine that he is doing his departed father a kindness by accepting the terms of the will and the inheritance it bequeaths to him? What godless audacity is it, therefore, when we who are to receive the testament of God come as those who would perform a good work for him! This ignorance of the testament, this captivity of so great a sacrament, are they not too sad for tears? When we ought to be grateful for benefits received, we come arrogantly to give that which we ought to take. With unheard of perversity we mock the mercy of the giver by giving as a work the thing we receive as a gift, so that the testator, instead of being a dispenser of his own goods, becomes the recipient of ours. Woe to such sacrilege!" “谁在世界上是如此愚蠢,把他收到的承诺,或给他一本圣经,作为一个良好的工作,他予以接受,他的遗嘱呈现什么继承人将想像,他已经尽力了离开父亲,接受条款的意志和继承它传给他的好意呢?什么​​不信神的Audacity是它,因此,当我们谁是接受神的证明来为那些谁对他将履行好工作!这的遗言,这如此巨大的圣礼圈养,无知是他们没有太伤心流泪?当我们应该感谢收到的好处,让我们来傲慢地说,我们应该走的路。随着我们模拟了闻所未闻的反常怜悯的送礼者作为工作给予我们的东西作为礼物接收,从而使而不是被他自己的商品饮水机立遗嘱人,成为我们的收件人。祸这种亵渎!“ (Works, XXXVI, 47 - 48) (工程,三十六,47 - 48)

In his determination to break the bondage of superstition in which the church was held, Luther wrote four more tracts against the medieval perversion of the Lord's Supper.他决心要打破迷信,教会在举行的束缚,路德说违背了上帝的晚餐中世纪变态四个大片。However, he also fought doctrinal developments on the other side.不过,他也打在对方理论的发展。Some who with him rejected Roman Catholic error were denying any real presence of Christ in the Supper; against them, beginning in 1524, Luther directed an attack.谁跟他拒绝了一些罗马天主教的误差进行了否认基督在晚饭真实的存在;反对他们,在1524年开始,路德进行了攻击。 In these five writings he showed that, while he rejected transubstantiation and the sacrifice of the Mass, he still believed that Christ is bodily present in the Lord's Supper and that his body is received by all who partake of the elements.在这五年著作,他表明,虽然他拒绝陷于和群众的牺牲,他仍然相信基督是身体在主的晚餐存在,而且他的身体是所有谁分享收到的元素。

"On this we take our stand, and we also believe and teach that in the Supper we eat and take to ourselves Christ's body truly and physically." “在此,我们把我们的立场,我们也相信并教导,在我们吃晚饭,并采取自己基督的身体真正的体育。”While he acknowledge the mystery, he was certain of the fact of Christ's real corporeal presence inasmuch as he had said when he instituted the Supper, "This is my body."虽然他承认其中的奥秘,他是基督的真正肉体存在的事实因为他曾说过,当他提起的晚餐,某些“这是我的身体。”If Scripture cannot be taken literally here, it cannot be believed anywhere, Luther held, and we are on the way to "the virtual denial of Christ, God, and everything."如果圣经不能从字面上看这里,它不能相信任何地方,路德举行,我们正在就未来路向“的基督,上帝,一切虚拟否认”。 (Works, XXXVII, 29, 53) (工程,三十七,29,53)


Luther's main opponent among the evangelicals was Ulrich Zwingli, whose reforming activity in Switzerland was as old as Luther's in Germany.路德的福音派之间的主要对手是乌尔里希茨温利,其改革在瑞士的活动高达路德在德国的老。While equally opposed to Rome, Zwingli had been deeply influenced by humanism with its aversion to the medieval mentality and its adulation of reason.虽然同样反对罗马,茨温利曾深受其影响,人文与厌恶的中世纪的心态和理性的崇拜​​之情。Luther felt an attachment to the whole tradition of the church, was conservative by nature, and had a deep mystical strain and suspicion of the free use of reason.路德感到一种附着在全教会的传统,是由一种保守的,并进行了深刻的神秘的应变和免费使用的原因怀疑。

"As the one was by disposition and discipline a schoolman who loved the Saints and the Sacraments of the Church, the other was a humanist who appreciated the thinkers of antiquity and the reason in whose name they spoke. Luther never escaped from the feelings of the monk and associations of the cloister; but Zwingli studied his New Testament with a fine sense of the sanity of its thought, the combined purity and practicability of its ideals, and the majesty of its spirit; and his ambition was to realize a religion after its model, free from the traditions and superstitions of men. It was this that made him so tolerant of Luther, and Luther so intolerant of him. The differences of character were insuperable." “作为一所学科的配置和烦琐哲学家谁爱的圣徒和教会圣事的时候,另一位是一个人道主义者谁赞赏古代思想家和合理的名字,他们讲了话。路德从来没有从感情逃脱和尚和协会的回廊,但茨温利研究了他的新的和它的思想,结合自己的理想纯度和实用性,其精神陛下精品意识清醒遗嘱,他的抱负是要实现后,宗教的模式,从传统和迷信的人免费。正是这种使他这么宽容的路德,路德所以他不能容忍。性格差异有不可克服的。“ (HM Fairbairn, The Cambridge Modern History, II)(陛下费尔贝恩,剑桥近代史,二)

The chief differences between Luther and Zwingli theologically were Luther's inability to think of Christ's presence in the Supper in any other than a physical way and a heavy dualism that runs through much of Zwingli's thought.路德和茨温利之间的主要分歧是路德神学的无力认为基督的存在,在任何其他的晚餐比物理的方法和沉重的二元论贯穿于茨温利的思想了。 The latter is seen in Zwingli's doctrine of the Word of God as both inward and outward, the church as both visible and invisible, and his conception of the means of grace as having both an external form and an inward grace given by the Holy Spirit.后者被认为是在茨温利的学说的神的话语作为对内对外,为有形和无形的,他对为具有既是外在形式和内在的宽限期,由圣灵给予宽限期的方式受孕教堂。 No physical element can affect the soul, but only God in his sovereign grace.没有物理元素可以影响灵魂,而只有在他的主权恩典的上帝。Thus there must be no identification of the sign with that which it signifies, but through the use of the sign one rises above the world of sense to the spiritual reality signified.因此,必须有没有识别标志,它与该标志,而是通过在一个以上的上升到精神的现实意义,标志着世界标志的使用。 By contrast, Luther held that God comes to us precisely in physical realities discerned by sense.相比之下,路德认为上帝给我们留下的感觉中察觉物理现实准确。

Zwingli interpreted the words of Jesus, "This is my body," in harmony with John 6, where Jesus spoke of eating and drinking his body and blood, especially vs. 63: "It is the spirit that gives life, the flesh is of no avail."茨温利解释耶稣的话,“这是我的身体,”和谐与约翰6,耶稣吃,喝他的身体和血液发言,尤其是主场迎战63:“这是赐生命的精神,肉体是没有用。“ Therefore, he reasoned, not only is transubstantiation, that somehow Christ is corporeally in, under, and with the elements.因此,他的理由,不仅是陷于变体,是物质上,不知怎的,在基督之下,并与元素。The doctrine of physical eating is absurd and repugnant to common sense.吃的物理理论是荒谬的和令人反感常识。Moreover, God does not ask us to believe that which is contrary to sense experience.此外,上帝并没有要我们相信,这是违反常识的经验。The word "is" in the words of institution means "signifies," or "represents," and must be interpreted figuratively, as is done in other "I am" passages in the Bible.这个“是”的话,机构的意思是“标志”或“代表”,而且必须被解释的形象,这在其他做“我是”圣经中的段落。Christ's ascension means that he took his body from earth to heaven.基督升天意味着他从地球到天堂他的身体。

Zwingli's shortcoming was his lack of appreciation for the real presence of Christ in the Supper in his Holy Spirit and a real feeding of the faithful on Him.茨温利的缺点是他的真实存在的基督在晚饭在他的圣精神和对他的忠实缺乏真正的喂养赞赏。What he needed for an adequate doctrine was Luther's belief in the reality of communion with Christ and a reception of Him in the Supper.他所需要的是足够的学说路德在与基督的共融和对他在晚饭接待现实的信念。This was to be found in Calvin.这将是在卡尔文发现。


Calvin's view of the Lord's Supper appears to be a mediate position between the views of Luther and Zwingli, but it is in fact an independent position.卡尔文的主的晚餐看法似乎是调解之间的路德和茨温利的意见的立场,但其实它是一个独立的立场。Rejecting both Zwingli's "memorialism" and Luther's "monstrous notion of ubiquity" (Inst. 4.17.30), he held that there is a real reception of the body and blood of Christ in the supper, only in a spiritual manner.茨温利都拒绝的“memorialism”和路德的“无处不在滔天的概念”(机构4.17.30),他认为,有一个身体和血液基督真正的晚餐招待会只有一种精神的方式。 The sacrament is a real means of grace, a channel by which Christ communicates himself to us.圣餐是一个真正的宽限期手段,一个通道由基督亲自向我们传达。With Zwingli, Calvin held that after the ascension Christ retained a real body which is located in heaven.随着茨温利,卡尔文认为,基督升天后,保留了真正的机构,设在天上。Nothing should be taken from Christ's "heavenly glory, as happens when he is brought under the corruptible elements of this world, or bound to any earthly creatures. . . Nothing inappropriate to human nature (should) be ascribed to his body, as happens when it is said either to be infinite or to be put in a number of places at once" (Inst. 4.12.19).没有什么应该从基督的“天国的荣光,发生在他的赞助商根据这个世界里,腐败的元素或绑定到任何世俗的生物。。。没有什么不合适的人性(应该)归因于他的身体,因为发生在这是说要么是无限的或将要投入一些地方在一次“(机构4.12.19)。

With Luther, Calvin believed that the elements in the Supper are signs which exhibit the fact that Christ is truly present, and he repudiated Zwingli's belief that the elements are signs which represent what is absent.路德,加尔文认为,在晚餐中的元素的迹象其中展出的事实,基督是真正的礼物,他否认茨温利的信念,即元素的迹象,代表什么是缺席。 Inasmuch as the doctrine of the real presence of Christ in the Supper was the key issue in the eucharistic debate, it is obvious that Luther and Calvin agreed more than did Calvin and Zwingli.因为作为基督在晚餐是真实存在的学说,在圣体辩论的关键问题,很明显,路德和卡尔文同意以上没有卡尔文和茨温利。 The latter's conception of Christ's presence was "by the contemplation of faith" but not "in essence and reality."后者的基督的存在的概念是“信仰的沉思”,而不是“在本质上和现实。”For Luther and Calvin communion with a present Christ who actually feeds believers with his body and blood is what makes the sacrament.路德和卡尔文共融与基督的礼物究竟是谁喂养他的身体和血的信徒是什么使圣餐。The question between them was the manner in which Christ's body exists and is given to believers.他们之间的问题的方式是在基督的身体存在,是给信徒。

In his response to this question Calvin rejected the Eutychian doctrine of the absorption of Christ's humanity by his divinity, an idea he found in some of his Lutheran opponents, and any weakening of the idea of a local presence of the flesh of Christ in heaven.在回答这个问题卡尔文拒绝了他的神的基督的人性吸收Eutychian学说,一想到他在他的信义一些对手发现,任何一个基督在天上的肉地方存在观念弱化。 While Christ is bodily in heaven, distance is overcome by the Holy Spirit, who vivifies believers with Christ's flesh.而基督是身体在天上,距离克服了圣灵,谁vivifies与基督的肉体的信徒。Thus the Supper is a true communion with Christ, who feeds us with his body and blood.因此,晚餐是一个与基督,谁喂养他的身体和血液我们真正的共融。"We must hold in regard to the mode, that it is not necessary that the essence of the flesh should descend from heaven in order to our being fed upon it, the virtue of the Spirit being sufficient to break through all impediments and surmount any distance of place. “我们必须持以我们正在赋予它喂食,圣灵的美德不足以冲破一切障碍和克服任何距离方面的模式,它是没有必要的是,肉体的本质应该从天上降临地方。

Meanwhile, we deny not that this mode is incomprehensible to the human mind; because neither can flesh naturally be the life of the soul, nor exert its power upon us from heaven, nor without reason is the communion which makes us flesh of the flesh of Christ, and bone of his bones, called by Paul, 'A great mystery' (Eph. 5:30).同时,我们不否认这个模式是不可理解的人的头脑,因为肉自然也不能是生命的灵魂,也没有从天上发挥其对我们的力量,也不是没有道理的共融,使我们的肉的肉基督,他的骨头由保罗称,'一个伟大的奥秘'(弗5:30)骨。 Therefore, in the sacred Supper, we acknowledge a miracle which surpasses both the limits of nature and the measure of our sense, while the life of Christ is common to us, and his flesh is given us for food.因此,在神圣的晚餐,我们承认这是一个奇迹都超过限制的性质和我们的意识的措施,而基督的生命,是我们共同的,和他的肉,是给予我们食物。 But we must have done with all inventions inconsistent with the explanation lately given, such as the ubiquity of the body, the secret inclosing under the symbol of bread, and the substantial presence on earth." (Tracts, II, 577)但是,我们必须做所有的发明与最近的解释,如身体的普及,秘密下的面包象征inclosing,以及地球上大量存在的不一致。“(大港,二,577)

Calvin held that the essence of Christ's body was its power.加尔文认为,基督的身体的实质是它的权力。 In itself it is of little value since it "had its origin from earth, and underwent death" (Inst. 4.17.24), but the Holy Spirit, who gave Christ a body, communicates its power to us so that we receive the whole Christ in Communion.它本身是因为它“已经从地球的起源,并接受死亡”(机构4.17.24),但圣灵,谁给了基督的身体,它的力量传达给我们,让我们得到整个价值不大基督在圣餐。 The difference from Luther here is not great, for he held that the "right hand of God" to which Christ ascended meant God's power, and that power is everywhere.从路德的差别是不是很大,因为他认为“正确的上帝之手”,以基督升天意味着上帝的力量,这种力量是无处不在。 The real difference between Luther and Calvin lay in the present existence of Christ's body.路德和卡尔文之间的真正区别在于,基督的身体目前存在。Calvin held that it is in a place, heaven, while Luther said that it has the same omnipresence as Christ's divine nature.加尔文认为,它是在一个地方,天堂,而路德说,它已作为基督的神性一样无所不在。Both agreed that there is deep mystery here which can be accepted though not understood.双方一致认为,有着深厚的奥秘在这里,可以接受,但不理解。"If anyone should ask me how this (partaking of the whole Christ) takes place, I shall not be ashamed to confess that it is a secret too lofty for either my mind to comprehend or my words to declare. . . I rather experience than understand it." “如果有人问我如何(全体基督圣餐)发生,我将不再羞于承认这是一个秘密,要么是我太理解或记住我的话要申报。崇高。。我宁愿经验比了解它。“(Inst. 4.17.32) (机构4.17.32)


While each of the positions declineated above sought to do justice to the Holy Supper which the Lord has given his church, and while each has in it elements of truth, Calvin's position has received widest acceptance within the universal church.虽然每个declineated上述立场寻求公平对待圣晚饭,其中主给他的教会,虽然每个人都有为真理IT元素,卡尔文的立场得到了最广泛的范围内接受普世教会。 Moreover, it is the position closest to the thinking of contemporary theologians within both the Roman Catholic and Lutheran traditions. It is a position which sees the Lord's Supper as a rite instituted by Jesus Christ in which bread is broken and the fruit of the vine is poured out in thankful remembrance of Christ's atoning sacrifice, having become, through their reception and the sacramental blessing given by the Holy Spirit, the communion (that is, a partaking) of the body and blood of Christ and an anticipation of full future salvation.此外,它是位置最接近的思想对当代神学家,在双方的罗马天主教和信义的传统。 这是一个立场看到由主礼提起一的晚餐作为耶稣基督的面包碎和水果的倒出的赎罪牺牲感谢纪念基督的,已经成为拯救,通过对他们的接待,还有圣未来的祝福,给予的圣灵,共融(即一个圣餐)的血液身体和基督的满满的,由于市场预期。

ME OsterhavenME的Osterhaven
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
"The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent," in Creeds of Christendom, II, ed. “该炮和安理会的遄达法令,”在基督教,二,教育署信条。P Schaff; J Pelikan and HT Lehmann, eds., Luther's Works; J Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, ed. p沙夫。Ĵ伯利坎和HT莱曼合编,路德的作品; j卡尔文学院的基督教宗教,教育署。JT McNeill, and Tracts Relating to the Reformation; GW Bromiley, ed., Zwingli and Bullinger; K McDonnell, John Calvin, the Church, and the Eucharist; D Bridge and D Phypers, Communion: The Meal That Unites?特鲁利麦克尼尔,大港和有关的改革;毛重罗米立,教育署,茨温利和布凌格; K表麦克唐纳,约翰卡尔文,教会,和圣体; ð大桥和D Phypers,圣餐:。吃完饭,指出美国?

The Last Supper最后的晚餐

Catholic Information天主教新闻

The meal held by Christ and His disciples on the eve of His Passion at which He instituted the Holy Eucharist.这顿饭举行基督和他的弟子们对他的激情前夕,这是他提起的圣体。


The Evangelists and critics generally agree that the Last Supper was on a Thursday, that Christ suffered and died on Friday, and that He arose from the dead on Sunday.福音和评论家普遍认为,最后的晚餐是在星期四,基督遭受痛苦和死亡上周五,他在周日从死人出现了。As to the day of the month there seems a difference between the record of the synoptic Gospels and that of St. John.至于几月几日之间似乎有一对天气福音纪录,而圣约翰的差异。In consequence some critics have rejected the authenticity of either account or of both.在一些批评者因此拒绝了任何一个帐户或两者的真实性。Since Christians, accepting the inspiration of the Scriptures, cannot admit contradictions in the sacred writers, various attempts have been made to reconcile the statements.由于基督徒,接受了圣经中的灵感,也不能承认,在神圣的作家的矛盾,已经作出各种尝试调和的发言。Matthew 26:17 says, "And on the first day of the Azymes"; Mark 14:12, "Now on the first day of the unleavened bread, when they sacrificed the pasch"; Luke 22:7, "And the day of the unleavened bread came, on which it was necessary that the pasch should be killed".马太福音26:17说,“在第一天的azymes”,马可福音14:12,“现在对未经发酵的面包,当他们牺牲的Pasch第一天”,路加福音22:7“,而日无酵饼来了,就它是必要的,应该被杀死的Pasch“。 From these passages it seems to follow that Jesus and his disciples conformed to the ordinary custom, that the Last Supper took place on the 14th of Nisan, and that the Crucifixion was on the l5th, the great festival of the Jews.从这些通道,它似乎遵循耶稣和他的弟子符合一般的规矩,最后的晚餐了对尼散月14日举行,而受难的l5th,犹太人的大节。 This opinion, held by Tolet, Cornelius a Lapide, Patrizi, Corluy, Hengstenberg, Ohlshausen, and Tholuck, is confirmed by the custom of the early Eastern Church which, looking to the day of the month, celebrated the commemoration of the Lord's Last Supper on the 14th of Nisan, without paying any attention to the day of the week.这一意见,由Tolet举行,科尼利厄斯一个Lapide,柏德,Corluy,亨斯,Ohlshausen和Tholuck,是由早期的东方教会的习俗,期待着这个月的一天证实,庆祝主的最后晚餐的纪念在14日尼散无需支付任何注意一周中的一天。 This was done in conformity with the teaching of St. John the Evangelist.这样做是符合的圣约翰福音教学。But in his Gospel, St. John seems to indicate that Friday was the 14th of Nisan, for (18:28) on the morning of this day the Jews "went not into the hall, that they might not be defiled, but that they might eat the pasch".但在他的福音,圣约翰似乎表明,星期五是尼散,为(18:28)第14次在这一天,犹太人“不进大厅去了,他们可能不会被玷污上午,但他们可能吃的Pasch“。 Various things were done on this Friday which could not be done on a feast, viz., Christ is arrested, tried, crucified; His body is taken down" (because it was the parasceve) that the bodies might not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day (for that was a great sabbath day)"; the shroud and ointments are bought, and so on.各种事情就此进行了一些不能在一个宴会上,即完成周五,基督被逮捕,审判,钉在十字架上。他的身体是撤下“(因为它是parasceve)该机构可能不会保持在十字架上在安息日(因为这是一个伟大的安息日)“;导流罩和药膏是买的,等等。

The defenders of this opinion claim that there is only an apparent contradiction and that the differing statements may be reconciled.这个意见的捍卫者声称,只有一个明显的矛盾,而不同的陈述可能不甘心。For the Jews calculated their festivals and Sabbaths from sunset to sunset: thus the Sabbath began after sunset on Friday and ended at sunset on Saturday.为犹太人从日落计算自己的节日和安​​息日到日落:因此安息日日落之后开始在星期五和星期六在日落结束。This style is employed by the synoptic Gospels, while St. John, writing about twenty-six years after the destruction of Jerusalem, when Jewish law and customs no longer prevailed, may well have used the Roman method of computing time from midnight to midnight.这种风格是受雇于天气福音,而圣约翰,约二十六年写作后,耶路撒冷,犹太法和海关时不再盛行的破坏,很可能已经使用的计算从午夜到午夜的时间罗马的方法。 The word pasch does not exclusively apply to the paschal lamb on the eve of the feast, but is used in the Scriptures and in the Talmud in a wider sense for the entire festivity, including the chagigah; any legal defilement could have been removed by the evening ablutions; trials, and even executions and many servile works, though forbidden on the Sabbath, were not forbidden on feasts (Numbers 28:16; Deuteronomy 16:23).这个词并不完全适用于pasch上的前夕的节日逾越节的羔羊,而是用来在圣经和犹太法典在更广泛的意义上为整个节日,包括chagigah;任何法律污辱可能已被移除了晚上沐浴,审判,甚至处决,许多奴性的作品,虽然在安息日禁止的,并没有禁止在节日(民数记28:16;申命记16:23)。 The word parasceve may denote the preparation for any Sabbath and may be the common designation for any Friday, and its connexion with pasch need not mean preparation for the Passover but Friday of the Passover season and hence this Sabbath was a great Sabbath.这个词parasceve可能是指对任何安息日准备和可能是任何一个星期五的共同称号,及其与pasch联接并不意味着要在逾越节逾越节,但周五的准备,因此这个赛季是一个伟大的安息日安息日。 Moreover it seems quite certain that if St. John intended to give a different date from that given by the Synoptics and sanctioned by the custom of his own Church at Ephesus, he would have said so expressly.此外,它似乎很肯定地说,如果打算给圣约翰从给定的天气学和他自己的教会,在以弗所定制批准的不同的日期,他会说这么明确。 Others accept the apparent statement of St. John that the Last Supper was on the 13th of Nisan and try to reconcile the account of the Synoptics.别人接受明显的​​圣约翰声明中表示,最后的晚餐是在尼散月13日,试图调和的天气学的帐户。To this class belong Paul of Burgos, Maldonatus, Pétau, Hardouin, Tillemont, and others.这一类属于布尔戈斯,Maldonatus,Pétau,Hardouin,蒂耶蒙等保罗。Peter of Alexandria (PG, XCII, 78) says: "In previous years Jesus had kept the Passover and eaten the paschal lamb, but on the day before He suffered as the true Paschal Lamb He taught His disciples the mystery of the type."彼得亚历山大(前列腺素,XCII,78)说:“在过去几年一直保持耶稣在逾越节,吃逾越节的羔羊,但在一天之前,他是真正的逾越节羔羊,他教导他的弟子类型的神秘受损。” Others say: Since the Pasch, falling that year on a Friday, was reckoned as a Sabbath, the Jews, to avoid the inconvenience of two successive Sabbaths, had postponed the Passover for a day, and Jesus adhered to the day fixed by law; others think that Jesus anticipated the celebration, knowing that the proper time He would be in the grave.也有人说:自的Pasch,同比下降的一个星期五,被认为是安息日,犹太人,估计要避免连续两个安息日不便,推迟了一天的逾越节,耶稣坚持由法律规定的日子;有人认为耶稣预期的庆祝,因为他们知道适当的时候,他将在坟墓。


The owner of the house in which was the upper room of the Last Supper is not mentioned in Scripture; but he must have been one of the disciples, since Christ bids Peter and John say, "The Master says".房子的主人在这是最后的晚餐上的房间不是在圣经中提到的,但他必须有被门徒之一,因为基督出价彼得和约翰说,“主人说。” Some say it was Nicodemus, or Joseph of Arimathea, or the mother of John Mark.有人说这是尼哥底母,或亚利马太的约瑟夫,或约翰马克的母亲。The hall was large and furnished as a dining-room.大厅是大的,作为餐厅的装饰。In it Christ showed Himself after His Resurrection; here took place the election of Matthias to the Apostolate and the sending of the Holy Ghost; here the first Christians assembled for the breaking of bread; hither Peter and John came when they had given testimony after the cure of the man born lame, and Peter after his liberation from prison; here perhaps was the council of the Apostles held.它表明在基督复活后,他自己,这里发生了马蒂亚斯当选为使徒和圣灵派,这里的破面包组装的第一基督徒彼得和约翰来到这儿时,他们给的证词后,治跛出生的人,彼得从监狱后,他的解放,这里也许是安理会的使徒举行。 It was for awhile the only church in Jerusalem, the mother of all churches, known as the Church of the Apostles or of Sion.这是一段时间,在耶路撒冷,所有教会的母亲的使徒或称为锡安教会,唯一的教会。It was visited in 404 by St. Paula of Rome.它访问了404罗马的圣保拉。In the eleventh century it was destroyed by the Saracens, later rebuilt and given to the care of the Augustinians.在十一世纪就被毁掉了这部电影,后来重建,给予照顾的奥古斯丁。Restored after a second destruction, it was placed in charge of the Franciscans, who were driven out in 1561.恢复后的第二次破坏,这是摆在了方济,谁在1561年被赶出了费用。At present it is a Moslem mosque.目前它是一个穆斯林清真寺。


Some critics give the following harmonized order: washing of the feet of the Apostles, prediction of the betrayal and departure of Judas, institution of the Holy Eucharist.一些批评家提供以下统一秩序:对使徒,和犹大的背叛,圣体圣事机构预测的脚洗离境。Others, believing that Judas made a sacrilegious communion, place the institution of the sacrament before the departure of Judas.其他人,认为亵渎了一个共融的犹大,犹大的地方出发前的圣餐机构。


The Last Supper has been a favourite subject.最后的晚餐一直是最喜欢的学科。In the catacombs we find representations of meals giving at least an idea of the surroundings of an ancient dining hall.在地下墓穴,我们发现给予至少是一个古老的餐厅用餐的环境思想交涉。Of the sixth century we have a bas-relief in the church at Monza in Italy, a picture in a Syrian codex of the Laurentian Library at Florence, and a mosaic in S. Apollmare Nuovo at Ravenna.六世纪,我们在意大利的蒙扎,在一个图书馆的劳伦在佛罗伦萨叙利亚抄本的图片,并在S Apollmare诺沃在拉文纳镶嵌在教堂的浮雕。One of the most popular pictures is that of Leonardo da Vinci in Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan.最流行的图片之一是,达芬奇在圣玛丽亚阿尔Grazie,米兰。Among the modern school of German artists, the Last Supper of Gebhardt is regarded as a masterpiece.德国艺术家之间的现代学校,最后的晚餐的格巴尔被视为杰作。

Publication information Written by Francis Mershman.出版信息写弗朗西斯Mershman。Transcribed by Scott Anthony Hibbs.转录由斯科特安东尼希布斯。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.天主教百科全书,体积十四。Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


FOUARD, The Christ, the Son of God, tr.富阿尔,基督,神,文子。GRIFFITH, II (London, 1895), 386; MADAME CECILIA, Cath.格里菲斯,二(伦敦,1895年),386;夫人塞西莉亚,蛋白酶。Scripture Manuals; St. Matthew, II, 197; The Expository Times, XX (Edinburgh, 1909), 514; Theolog.圣经手册;圣马太,二,197;的说明性时报,第二十条(爱丁堡,1909年),514; Theolog。praktische Quartalschrift (1877), 425; LANGEN, Die letzten Lebenstage Jesu (Freiburg, 1864), 27; KRAUS, Gesch. praktische Quartalschrift(1877),425;烂根,模具letzten Lebenstage耶稣(弗赖堡,1864年),第27条;克劳斯Gesch。der chr.明镜染色体。Kunst, sv Abendmahl; Stimmen aus Maria Laach, XLIX, 146; CHWOLSON in Mém.孔斯特,希沃特Abendmahl; Stimmen澳大利亚玛丽亚Laach,第四十九届,146,在纪念CHWOLSON。de l'Acad.德欧莱雅中山。impér.impér。des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg, 7th ser., XLI, p.德学德圣Petersbourg酒店,第7辑。,四十一,第37; VIGOUROUX, Dict.37; VIGOUROUX,快译通。de la Bible (Paris, 1899), s.德拉圣经(巴黎,1899年),第vv.维维。Cène; Cénacle, where a full bibliography may be found.世;晚餐厅,那里可以找到完整的参考书目。

We Received the Following Comment我们收到了如下评论

Subj: Calvinistic Bias on the Lord's Supper主旨:加尔文偏压对主的晚餐

Dear Friends:亲爱的朋友:

Bias is very difficult to avoid and I am sure that you have done your best.偏差是很难避免,我相信你做你最好的。Therefore, I expect you to receive this criticism as something beneficial for your service in educating people on the Christian faith.因此,我希望你收到这个东西你在教育上的基督教信仰的人服务的有益的批评。

On the topic of the Lord's Supper, you use the word, "Consubstantiation" to identify the Lutheran teaching.在主的晚餐话题,你用一个词,“Consubstantiation”明确路德教学。Lutherans don't use this word to describe their own teaching.路德会不会用这个词来形容自己的教学。It is rather the Reformed who use it to describe the Lutheran position.这是谁,而改革后用它来形容路德的立场。It is a misleading word.这是一个误导性的话。The Lutheran doctrine cares little about whether or not the bread remains bread.路德教义关心不多,是否仍然面包的面包。 We simply won't impose a Thomistic (or any other) philosophy on a biblical doctrine.我们绝不会强加托马斯主义(或任何其他)圣经的教义理念。I know that it is quite common for the Reformed to use this word to describe the Lutheran teaching, but this does not make it acceptable.我知道这是相当普遍的改革,用这个词来形容路德教学,但这并不表示它是可以接受的。Luther, the Lutheran Confessions, and Lutheran Orthodoxy are far more critical of the view that the Supper is not Christ's true body and blood than they are of the view that the bread and wine have changed.路德,路德自白,和路德正统得多认为,晚饭是不是基督的真比他们的身体和血的面包和酒的看法发生了变化是至关重要的。

Furthermore, the assertion that Lutherans today are closer to Calvin's view of the real presence than to Luther's view is simply false witness.此外,今天的说法更接近路德加尔文的比路德认为真实存在的观点是完全错误的见证。You really ought to correct this.你真的应该纠正。I am a confessional Lutheran who subscribes without any reservation to the Lutheran Confessions.我是一个教派信义谁是没有任何保留的路德自白赞同。Ask your contributors to read our Confessions and then to write articles on our doctrine.问问你的贡献者阅读我们的自白,然后写上我们的理论文章。It is unfair to appoint a writing task to one who is ignorant of his topic.这是不公平的写作任务委任一个谁是他的话题一无所知。 If you would like further information, you may write to me, or to any of the seminary faculties of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod, the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, or the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod.如果您想了解更多的信息,你可以写信给我,或对福音派路德主教,威斯康辛基督教香港信义主教,路德教会或神学院院系任何 - 密苏里州主教。Any one of these seminaries would be happy to correct for the benefit of your readers the various articles that are written concering the doctrine of Lutheranism.这些神学院的任何人会很乐意为您正确的读者,以书面concering路德教教义的各种物品的利益。

Thank you for your kind consideration of my criticisms!感谢您对我的批评关照你!


(Rev.) Rolf D. Preus, pastor(启示录)罗尔夫四普罗伊斯,牧师
River Heights Lutheran Church (Evangelical Lutheran Synod)里弗海茨路德教会(基督教香港信义主教)

Editor's Notes编者的话

There are some differences between the celebration of the Eucharist in various Churches.之间存在的各种教会庆祝圣体圣事一定的差异。For more extensive discussion, including Advanced Information articles, please also see the (Catholic oriented) Mass presentation, linked below.为更广泛的讨论,其中包括先进的信息文章,也请看到(天主教为主)大众介绍,链接如下。

It is generally accepted by Christian scholars that the last meal of Jesus was a (Jewish) Seder meal which is part of the Passover celebration.这是普遍接受的,耶稣的最后一餐是一个(犹太)seder餐这是逾越节的庆祝活动的一部分基督教学者。BELIEVE contains a presentation on the Seder which includes the specific foods and procedures involved, along with the Jewish (historic) reasons for them.相信包含在seder文稿,其中包括具体的食品和涉及的程序,随着犹太人(历史性)为他们的原因。References to Christian adaptations of the Seder are also included.以基督教的seder改编引用也包括在内。

The subject is an example of probably around 30 different important Christian subjects where individuals can apply their own preconceptions and assumptions to arrive at their own conclusions.这个题目是一个大概在30个不同的重要的基督教科目时,个人可以申请自己的成见和假设,得出自己的结论的例子。 Catholics choose to believe that the bread "actually turns bloody" in the process of eating it, although they agree that there are NO outward signs of it. There is no possible way to argue against such a claim! If you had a dream or a nightmare last night, no one has any possible way of arguing that you did not, because it was a personal experience that cannot be confirmed or disputed by anyone else. So, if Catholics are right about the "becoming bloody" viewpoint, no critic could ever "prove" them wrong but also, they could never "prove" that they are right.天主教徒选择相信,面包“实际上变成血腥”它的过程中吃,尽管他们也认为,有迹象显示它没有向外。 没有可能的方式来反对这种说法!如果你有一个梦想或恶梦昨晚,没有人有任何没有可能的方式的争论,你,因为这是一个个人经验,无法证实或其他有争议的人。 因此,如果天主教徒的观点正确的关于“成为血腥”,没有评论家会曾经“证明”他们是错误的,而且,他们永远无法“证明”,他们是对的。

Luther, and Calvin, and others, each felt that this was an illogical conclusion, and, more specifically, that the Bible does not clearly support the "bloody" interpretation. Some Protestants came to conclude that the bread was "merely symbolic" of the Lord, while others (following Luther) felt it really became the Lord, but in a non-bloody way.路德,加尔文等人,每个人都感到这是一个不合逻辑的结论,而且,更具体而言,圣经没有明确支持“血腥”的解释。 一些新教徒来到得出结论认为,面包是“仅仅是象征性”的主,而其他人(以下路德)觉得它真的成了上帝,但在一个非流血的方式。

No one can either "prove" or "disprove" any of these viewpoints either. 没有人可以“证明”或“否定”的观点无论任何这些。

It is a subject on which there can never be agreement! Each group has applied their own preconceptions and assumptions and decided on a specific conclusion/interpretation. Since the Bible does not include sufficient details to tell that one or another is more correct, they each should be considered "equally correct" (personal opinion), and therefore totally valid FOR THAT GROUP.这是一个主题上不可能有永远协议!每个组都有自己的成见和应用的假设和解释确定了明确的结论/。 由于圣经没有包括足够的细节告诉大家,一种或另一种更正确,他们每应被视为“同样正确的”(个人意见),因此完全组的有效这样做的。 Therefore, we see no cause or basis to criticize Catholics for their conclusion regarding Transubstantiation.因此,我们认为没有任何原因或依据有关陷于变批评为他们的结论天主教徒。But we also see no cause or basis to criticize Zwingli et al for a purely symbolic understanding.但是,我们也看不出有什么原因或依据批评理解为纯粹的象征性茨温利等人。

Our Church feels that such arguments are pretty much irrelevant. What REALLY is important is how the Eucharist is perceived by and affects the specific person that partakes in it. If a person simply eats it, as a mundane piece of bread, it has no merit, in ANY Church!我们的教会认为,这种论调是几乎无关。 什么是真正重要的是如何感知的圣体是由特定的人,并影响其参与大英寸如果一个人根本吃面包了,作为一个平凡的一块,它没有任何好处在任何教会! However, if the person's heart is deeply affected by the Rite (the REAL desire of the Lord), then it is valid, no matter what the opinions on interpretation might be.但是,如果人的心是深受成年礼(主的真正愿望)的影响,那么它是有效的,无论什么意见,对可能的解释。

We have a rather different thought to offer up on the subject!我们有一个相当不同的思维,提供关于这个问题了!Modern science has proven that there are an unbelievable number of atoms in even a small amount of any liquid or solid (Avogadro's number).现代科学已经证明,即使是在任何液体或固体(阿伏伽德罗数)少量的原子数目令人难以置信。If there is a cup of coffee on your desk, or a glass of pop, or a Ritz cracker, or a candy bar, there are something like 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 atoms in it.如果有一个你的办公桌上一杯咖啡,或流行玻璃或丽嘉饼干或糖果,也有像100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000原子在它的东西。 When Jesus Lived, He breathed!当耶稣活着,他的呼吸!Every breath He exhaled had water vapor in it and carbon dioxide, atoms and molecules that HAD BEEN PART OF HIS BODY.他的每一次呼吸已被呼出了他的身体部分水蒸气和二氧化碳在里面,原子和分子。A number of years back, I studied this subject carefully.若干年后,我仔细研究这个课题。The winds of the world distribute such air, including those molecules, all around the world, within a couple years.世界上的风散布这些空气,包括世界各地的分子,几年之内。As a wheat plant is growing in Kansas, it takes in carbon dioxide and water vapor from the air, which then become part of that plant!由于堪萨斯州小麦植株在生长,它发生在二氧化碳和从空中,然后成为水蒸气,植物的一部分!The point here is that some of those molecules had actually been part of the Body of Jesus 2000 years earlier!这里的关键是,这些分子有些人居然被耶稣的身体,2000年来同期的一部分!I did the math on this, and was amazed!我没有就这个问题的数学,并且很惊讶!Every mouthful of that coffee certainly contains around a MILLION atoms that had once physically been part of the Body of Jesus!每一口咖啡一定含有大约一万元的身体曾一度被耶稣的身体的一部分原子!Similar for crackers or candy bars!类似的饼干和糖果了!

This is really an entirely different subject, but it certainly is an established fact.这实在是一个完全不同的主题,但可以肯定的是既定的事实。I see it as sort of affecting such arguments regarding the Nature of the Eucharist.我认为影响有关圣体性质,例如参数排序。If someone wanted to think that the million atoms that ACTUALLY had been part of the Body of Jesus were "bloody", I cannot really argue against that, because some/most of those atoms certainly had been His blood and His flesh.如果有人要认为万,实际上已被耶稣的身体的一部分原子是“血腥”,我真的不能反驳这点,因为有些/这些原子肯定了他的血和他的肉。 However, if a different person would choose to look at that coffee as more "symbolic", well that is also sort of true!但是,如果一个不同的人会选择看,咖啡随着越来越多的“象征性”,那么这也是真正的那种!

This is brought up to try to show that "arguments" on "human important perceptions" are probably not really very important.这是从小就尝试表明,“论据”“人类重要的看法”也有可能不是真的很重要。 Also, that you might look at EVERY piece of bread, and meat, and vegetable, and every glass of any liquid, in a new light!此外,你可能看每一块面包,肉类,蔬菜,每天的任何液体玻璃,在新的光芒!With the proper mind-set, I believe, one could see that EVERY bite of food and every sip of liquid is arguably "of Christ" in a VERY direct way!有了正确的心态,我相信,人们可以看到一个非常直接的方式,每一口食物,每一口的液体可以说是“基督”!Instead of just sucking down a Pepsi, look at it for a moment, and contemplate these facts.而不是只吸了一百事可乐,看它一会儿,思考这些事实。I have a VERY large number of "religious experiences" in this way!我有一个“宗教经验”这种方式非常大的数字!

Some Christians might get upset over the molecule discussion above.有些基督徒可能会心烦意乱分子上述讨论。NO, it is NOT meant as any replacement for Faith perceptions of the Eucharist!不,这并不意味着任何信仰的圣体圣事的看法更换! It is NOT to imply that Faith perceptions are incorrect or incomplete.它并不是说信仰的看法是不正确或不完整。Just the reverse!正好相反! Our small Church encourages all Members to spend a few seconds contemplating the wafer or bread about to be taken in the Eucharist Rite, in order to realize, in ADDITION to the Faith importance as described by their Church, the ACTUAL FACT that they are looking at and about to ingest ACTUAL PHYSICAL PARTS of the Body of Jesus!我们的小教会鼓励所有成员花考虑晶圆或即将采取的圣体礼饼,几秒钟,以实现除了信仰的重要性,他们的教会,实际上描述的,他们正在寻找在,约摄取了耶稣的身体实际的物理部件! Personally, I often get a shiver, in realizing just how intimately Jesus is to me in that Rite!就个人而言,我常常一哆嗦,就如何实现密切耶稣是我在这礼!We hope that is also true among the Congregation!我们希望,也成为了众成真!

Newer Additional Comments (Nov 2005) by the Editor of BELIEVE.较新的附加评论的编辑器(2005年11月)相信。

I sometimes wonder how Members of the Clergy might act if they were to interact with Jesus Himself, without realizing it!我有时很想知道神职人员可能会采取行动,如果他们要交互耶稣自己没有意识到这一点,!Several Lutheran Ministers have behaved to us in extremely poor ways on this subject!部长们几个路德对这个问题表现在极其恶劣的方式给我们!And after an initial mean-spirited e-mail that accuses BELIEVE of being an adversary of Lutheranism, often with amazingly harsh language, I have always assured them that BELIEVE is NOT "against Lutheranism" and in fact always wants to improve any of the 1300 subject presentations in BELIEVE which may be inaccurate or incomplete, and usually asking for their assistance in improving this particular presentation.而在经过最初的卑鄙的电子邮件,指控相信作为一个路德教对手,与恶劣的语言往往令人惊讶的,我一直向他们保证,相信是不是“对路德教”,其实一直想改善任何1300主题演讲中认为这可能是不准确或不完整的,通常为他们特别提出改善这种援助要求。 A Lutheran Minister just reacted to that request by saying that he didn't see any reason that he should have to do our research!一个路德部长只是这一请求作出反应,说他不认为有任何理由,他应该做我们的研究!OK!行!That's fine, but without any cooperation from Lutheran Ministry, it is hard for a non-Lutheran (a Non-Denominational Protestant Pastor) to truly learn Lutheran attitudes.这很好,但没有任何信义部合作,这是很难的非路德(非宗派新教牧师)要真正了解路德的态度。

I will attempt to describe the issue, as best I understand it.我将试图描述的问题,尽我所知。

As far as we can find from research, the word Consubstantiation has absolutely no other usage other than to supposedly describe the Lutheran belief regarding the Eucharist.据我们从研究中可以发现,这个词Consubstantiation绝对没有其他用途的其他描述,而不是所谓的路德信仰有关圣体。 However, Lutheran Clergy seem to go ballistic regarding the very existence of the word!然而,路德会神职人员似乎去弹道导弹关于这个词非常的存在!Now, if the "definition" of the word Consubstantiation is inaccurate, I could easily see why Lutherans would want to correct it.现在,如果“定义”这个词Consubstantiation是不准确的,我可以很容易明白为什么lutherans会要改正。 But that has never been their interest, in dozens of Lutheran Clergy who have complained about the above (scholar-written) articles.但是,从来没有自己的利益,在路德会神职人员谁对以上(学者编写的)的文章抱怨几十人。They always are intensely outraged (and most very clearly express extreme outrage!) at the very word itself!他们总是强烈愤慨(非常明确表示,最极端的愤慨!)在这个字本身!In every case, I have calmly tried to ask why, and none have ever responded to that question.在任何情况下,我试图冷静地问为什么,没有回答过这个问题。

That attitude COULD make sense, IF the word Consubstantiation had some second meaning, a usage where the meaning is clearly different from Lutheran belief regarding the Eucharist.这种态度可能是有意义的,如果单词Consubstantiation了一些第二层含义,一个使用其中的含义显然是从路德关于圣体信仰不同。 No Lutheran Clergy has never indicated that there is any other such usage.没有路德会神职人员从未表示有任何其他用途。

This then seems REALLY confusing to me!这就似乎真的迷惑了我!At this point in each communication, I usually refer to the word "mousepad", which, as far as I know, only has a single usage, that little area on which a computer mouse moves around.在这每一个通讯点,我通常指的是单词“鼠标垫”,其中,据我所知,只有一个单一的用法,即小面积一台计算机上移动鼠标左右。 If someone became intensely emotionally irritated by the word "mousepad", I would wonder why.如果有人情绪变得强烈的话激怒了“鼠标垫”,我想知道为什么。With no other know usage, WHATEVER the definition of that word is, it MUST have something to do with a mouse and moving it around!没有其他知道的用法,不管这个词的定义,它必须有事情要处理与鼠标移动它!So even if a definition was considered inaccurate, doesn't it make more sense to attempt to refine the definition to being more correct than to become abusive and mean-spirited because the word mousepad was used?因此,即使被认为是不准确的定义,不是更有意义试图以更加完善的正确比成为虐待和卑鄙的,因为这个词被用来定义鼠标垫?

In my interactions with Lutheran Ministers on this one subject, I have started to wonder how well they have their acts together!在与我的相互作用对路德部长这个问题,我已经开始想知道他们的行为以及他们在一起!Some have insisted that, yes, Luther described this view, but later abandoned it, and yes, Melanchthon first used that word but also later refuted it completely.有些人坚持认为,是的,路德描述这一观点,但后来放弃了,是的,梅兰希第一次使用这个词,但后来也完全驳斥。 Does this mean that Lutheran beliefs today are not compatible with what Luther had believed as he initiated the Protestant Reformation?这是否意味着今天的路德信念不相信什么路德为他发起了宗教改革兼容吗?(seems like a fair question). (似乎是一个公平的问题)。Other Lutheran Clergy have "announced" to me that Luther had never used such a word (which is true!) and that it first was used around 60 years later, around 1590.其他路德会神职人员“,宣布”对我来说,路德从来没有使用这样的词(这是真的!),它首先是用大约60年后的1590年左右。 Yet other Lutheran Clergy insist that the word Consubstantiation was used (either 100 or 200 years) before Luther, and some of those claims say that Scotus first used it.不过,其他路德会神职人员坚持这个词用在路德Consubstantiation(无论是100或200年),和那些声称有人说,第一次使用它司各脱。 But none have ever provided BELIEVE with actual texts of any of these things, and instead only refer to MODERN Lutheran texts.不过目前还没有提供过这些事情与任何实际的文本相信,而不是仅指现代信义文本。The standards of BELIEVE are such that that is not good enough!作者认为,标准是这样的,这是不够的!If we are to dump the work of a highly respected Christian scholar (our included texts), we would need REALLY good evidence and documentation!如果我们要转储一位德高望重的基督教学者的工作(包括我们的文本),我们将真正需要良好的证据和文件!

Even if someone used that specific word prior to Luther, that does not necessarily mean that it did or didn't mean the same thing.即使所使用的特定的词之前路德,这并不一定意味着它没有或没有意思是一样的人。The word "mouse" has been around for thousands of years, but never referred to any part of a computer until twenty years ago!这个“鼠标”已经存在了数千年,但从来没有提及,直到二十年前的任何一台计算机的一部分!Should we read a Shakespeare mention of a mouse with outrage, in not properly also referring to the computer?如果我们读了一本莎士比亚与愤怒鼠标也提不正确指的是电脑,?

In any case, all we want are actual facts.在任何情况下,所有我们要的是事实。Except for these aberrant Lutheran Clergy Members, we actually strongly support the Lutheran Church and wish to improve BELIEVE to better present their beliefs.除了这些异常路德会神职人员,我们其实是路德教会大力支持,并希望改善相信更好地介绍自己的信仰。But, regarding this one word, Consubstantiation, they seem to immediately get angry and vengeful and go into attack-mode, without (yet) ever providing actual evidence (not counting recent articles of their peers) which is what we actually need.但是,对于这一个词,Consubstantiation,他们似乎马上生气和复仇,进入攻击模式,没有(还)曾经提供实际的证据(不包括他们的同龄人最近的文章),而这正是我们真正需要的。 For example, if Scotus actually used the term Consubstantiation, we would just need the name of the book and the page number, so we could research the context in which the word was used.例如,如果司各脱实际使用期限Consubstantiation,我们只需要的书籍和页码的名字,所以我们可以研究这个词是在其中使用的上下文。

This subject has been quite confusing to us at BELIEVE.这个问题已经相当混乱给我们相信。We would have thought that the Lutheran Church would have LOVED to have a "special word" that referred ONLY to their unique belief on the Eucharist!我们本来以为信义会喜欢有一个“特殊词”中只提及他们在圣体独特的信念! No other Church other than the Roman Catholic Church has such a specific word associated with it.没有其他教会的罗马天主教会比其他有这样一个特定的词与它相关联。But it is clear that Lutherans would really wish to eliminate that word from our language!但很显然,路德会真的要消除,从我们的语言文字!And we do not see why!我们不明白为什么!We have made many offers to "correct an inaccurate definition" but Lutherans do not seem interested in that.我们已经提出了很多优惠“纠正一个不准确的定义”,但路德在这似乎并不感兴趣。

Lord's Supper圣餐

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观资料

Name taken from I Cor.名称取自我肺心病。xi.十一。20, and given by the Christian world to the rite known as the eucharist, the partaking of the cup of wine and the bread offered in memory of Jesus' death and brought into connection with the story of his last meal, which he is said to have taken with his disciples on the eve of his crucifixion. 20,给予基督教世界为圣体,对葡萄酒和耶稣的死所带来的内存partaking的面包杯,并与他最后一餐,他是说故事的连接带来了著名的礼仪已经采取了对他的受难前夕他的弟子。 According to the synoptic Gospels (Matt. xxvi. 26-29; Mark xiv. 23-25; Luke xxii. 15-18, 19), Jesus was partaking of the Passover meal with his disciples on the fourteenth of Nisan, before his capture by the officers of the high priest.根据天气福音(太二十六26-29。马克十四23-25​​;。。路加福音二十二15-18,19),耶稣是与尼散月十四对他的弟子partaking的逾越节餐之前,他捕捉由大祭司的人员。 The Gospel of John, however, knows nothing of the institution and assigns the crucifixion to the fourteenth day of Nisan, the day when the Passover lamb is sacrificed.约翰的福音,然而,知道什么该机构并指定受难到尼散月,在逾越节的羊羔时是牺牲天第十四天。This discrepancy shows that the identification of the "crucified Christ" with the "lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world" (John i. 29 [adapted from Isa. liii. 7]; I Peter i. 19; Acts viii. 32; Rev. v. 6; and elsewhere) gradually led to an identification of Jesus with the Passover lamb also (see I Cor. v. 7).这种差异表明,在“钉在十字架上的基督”认同“上帝的羔羊去掉了世界的罪”(约翰一29 [从ISA改编liii 7。。];我彼得一19,徒八。32;致诉6;和其他地方)逐渐导致了耶稣的逾越节羔羊鉴定也(见林前7节)。。

Subsequently the mystic love-meals of the Mithra-worshipers, who also broke bread and drank the soma-wine in memory of Mithra's last supper (see T. Cumont, "Die Mysterien des Mithra," pp. 99-101, 118-119, Leipsic, 1903), caused the love-feasts of the early Christians to be celebrated as actual remembrances of the last supper eaten by Jesus; and so a special passage was inserted (I Cor. xi. 23-28, interrupting the context, and contradictory to ib. x. 4) in which the apostle rather oddly declares that he had received from Jesus by inspiration the statement that he had instituted the eucharist on the night of his betrayal, giving the formulas for the bread and the cup which, with some variations, appears in each of the three synoptic Gospels.随后,神秘的爱情餐的密特拉-崇拜者,谁也打破了面包,喝了苏摩在密特拉的最后的晚餐记忆酒(见吨库蒙,“模具Mysterien德密特拉,”页99-101,118-119 ,普西克,1903年),所造成的爱情节日的早期基督徒被视为由耶稣最后的晚餐吃了实际的纪念品庆祝,并因此被插入专用通道(林前十一23-28,中断的情况下。。和矛盾兴业。十4),其中使徒相当奇怪宣布,他已收到来自耶稣的灵感,他曾提起对他的背叛夜圣体,所以给面包和一杯公式声明,有一些变化,出现在每三个天气福音。 Incompatible with the whole story, however, is the fact that the Christian Didache (ix. 1-4; comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 587) gives the eucharist formulas for the cup and the wine used in Christian circles without any reference to the crucifixion or to the last supper.与整个故事不兼容,但是,是一个事实,即基督教十二使徒遗训(ix. 1-4;。。。。比赛犹太人Encyc四587)中给出了在基督教界杯和使用没有任何引用酒的圣体公式在最后的晚餐或受难。This makes it probable that the institution had developed out of the Essene communion-meals and was only at a later time referred to Jesus.这使得它有可能是该机构已开发出的essene共融,吃饭,只有在稍后的时间称为耶稣。

The original idea of the Essene communion-feasts, borrowed from Parseeism, remained attached to it: the hope for the banquets (of leviathan) in paradise; wherefore Jesus is reported as having especially referred to wine in the Kingdom of God (Matt. xxvi. 29; Mark xiv. 25; Luke xxii. 18, 30).在共融的厄从Parseeism借来节日,最初的想法,仍然重视它:在天堂的宴会(利维坦)希望你们为何耶稣是填报特别提到,在上帝的王国(太二十六酒。29;马克十四25;。路加福音二十二18,30)。。

The whole story of the Passover celebration by Jesus on the eve of his crucifixion thus arose in circles where real familiarity with Jewish law and life no longer existed.的逾越节的庆祝活动上,他的整个故事耶稣受难前夕,以致出现在把犹太人真正熟悉法律生活圈子不再存在。It has, however, been argued that the ritual of the mass or communion service is derived from that of the Passover eve service (see Bickell, "Messe und Pascha").它了,但有人认为,大众或共融服务的仪式是从逾越节前夕衍生服务(见Bickell,“展览有限公司逾越节”)。

Kaufmann Kohler考夫曼科勒
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版01年至1906年之间。

Consubstantiation Consubstantiation

Possibly a solid Clarification!可能是一个坚实的澄清!

General Information一般资料

Dear Editor:尊敬的编辑:

I was browsing your article concerning the various views of the Lord's Supper, or Eucharist.我在浏览你的文章关于主的晚餐,或圣体圣事的各种意见。You noted that none of the Lutheran pastors who have spoken with you could cite anything, beyond modern articles, asserting that the Lutheran position is not "consubstantiation."你指出的路德谁的发言与你能举出任何超出现代的文章,没有牧师,声称路德的立场是不是“consubstantiation。” Allow me, first, to present a source from the time of the Reformation and, second, to add some clarification.请允许我,第一,目前从时间的改革,第二来源,补充一些澄清。

Nicolaus Selneccer(1530-1592), one of the authors/orchastrators of the Formula of Concord writes, "Although our churches use the old expressions 'in the bread', 'with the bread,' or 'under the bread' they do not teach an inclusio, consubstantiatio, or delitescentia. The meaning is rather that Christ, 'when giving the bread, gives us simultaneously His body to eat.'" Vom hl.尼古拉Selneccer(1530年至1592年),作者的/的公式的康科德orchastrators一写道:“虽然我们的教会使用旧的表达在面包','用面包,'或'下的面包' 他们不教一inclusio,consubstantiatio,或delitescentia。意思是相当是基督,'当给予面包,同时他的身体给我们吃'" VOM的HL时。Abendmahl des Herrn etc. (1591) Bl E 2.Abendmahl德Herrn等(1591)基本法é 2。

The reason Lutheran pastors get upset over the attribution of the term "consubstantaion" to our theology is two-fold.路德牧师克服了对“consubstantaion”我们的神学归属不安的原因有两方面。

First, you may find in early Luther (the Luther of whom he himself writes, in his introduction to his Latin writings, was still a "raving papist.") that he preferred "consubstantiation," as argued by Peter d'Ailly's "Questiones on Peter Lombard."首先,你会发现在早期路德(路德的人,他自己写道,在​​介绍他的拉丁文著作,仍然是一个“疯狂papist。”),他宁愿“consubstantiation”,由彼得德Ailly's“Questiones主张在彼得伦巴。“ Luther preferred d'Ailly's view, however, largely for philosophical reasons.路德推荐德Ailly's观点,但是,主要是为了哲学的原因。It required only a single miracle whereas transubstantiation, as it had been pushed from Aquinas to Duns Scotus required a second miracle: the annihilation of the substance of the bread.它要求只有一个,而陷于变单一的奇迹,因为它已被推迟到邓司各脱从阿奎那需要第二个奇迹:在面包的物质湮灭。Though, at the time, Luther only argues that it is "better philosophy" and would be preferred only if transubstantiation hadn't already been declared by the Church.虽然,在当时,路德只认为这是“更好的理念”,将是首选只有陷于不是已经被教会的声明。So, the first reason why Lutherans reject the idea of consubstantiation is that the term itself is wrapped up in the same philosophical categories as transubstantiation and is, therefore, rejected on those grounds.所以,第一个理由路德拒绝consubstantiation想法是,这个词本身是包裹在为陷于同样的哲学范畴,因此是,这些理由加以拒绝。 The Lutheran objection to transubstantation wasn't so much that they excluded the bread/wine, but that the theory had dogmatized Aristotle which, in turn, speaks where Scripture has remained silent.路德反对transubstantation没有那么多,他们排除了面包/葡萄酒,但该理论亚里士多德教条化,这反过来,讲经文一直保持沉默的地方。 It forces theology in a way typical of Scholasticism: it sets up a principle (principium/Oberbegriff) as the "first thing," under which all our theology must be made to fit.它强制的方式典型的士林神学:它规定了一个原则(原理/ Oberbegriff)作为“第一件事情,”在所有我们的神学必须作出适应。The Lord can't be forced into our principium, therefore, where the Lord has not declared the "how," we are best never to dogmatize our theories about how it may have been possible.主不能强迫进入我们的原理,因此,如果主没有宣布“如何,”我们最大的努力教条我们对如何它可能已被可能的理论。 Notice these words from the Smalcald Articles, III, 6 "We care nothing about the sophistical subtlety by which they teach that bread and wine leave or lose their own natural substance, and that there remains only the appearance and colour of bread, and not true bread."请注意从Smalcald文章,三,六“我们关心的微妙的诡辩,使他们教导说,面包和酒离开或者失去自己的天然物质,并有仍然只有面包的外观和颜色,而不是真正没有这些话面包 “ The criticism, here, isn't merely the conclusion (that bread is no longer) but the philosophical method, or "sophistical subtelty" which attempts to expalin the how.的批评,在这里,不仅是结论(即不再是面包),但哲学方法,即“诡辩subtelty”试图解释如何去做。Lutherans were quite willing to allow for transubstantation, or even consubstantation, so long as the Church would not make a dogma of such.路德会很愿意让transubstantation,甚至consubstantation,只要教会长时间没有作出这样的教条。 The reason, in the Babylonian Captivity, Luther cites transubstantiation as one of the "three walls" having obscured the Gospel of the Sacrament is not that they have gotten rid of bread, but they have dogmatized a theory that can't be scripturally substantiated.究其原因,在巴比伦囚禁,路德援引“三墙”一陷于有遮蔽的圣餐福音是不是他们已经得到了面包赶走,但他们有一个理论教条化,不能根据圣经证实。 Thus, the reason we reject consubstantiation is for the very same reason we reject transubstantiation.因此,我们之所以拒绝consubstantiation是为了同样的原因,我们拒绝陷于变体。 Instead, we prefer to speak of the "Sacramental Union," or the "unio sacramentailis."相反,我们更愿意谈论的“圣事联盟”或“unio sacramentailis。”The unio sacramentalis is the Lutheran counterpart to Roman transubstantiation, and Late Medieval consubstantiation, with which is it often mistakingly confounded.该unio sacramentalis是对应到罗马陷于信义,晚中世纪consubstantiation,这是它与通常mistakingly混淆。Like consubstantiation, unio sacramentalis presupposes the bread and body, wine and blood, exist together.像consubstantiation,unio sacramentalis前提是面包和身体,酒和血,共存。 Bread and wine are not destroyed or "transubstantiated."面包和葡萄酒是不会被破坏或“transubstantiated。”The difference, however, is that no theory is built up about the coexistence of two substances, reflecting the accidents of one to the exclusion of the other.所不同的,但问题在于,没有任何一种理论是建立了对两种物质共存,反映了一个意外的其他排除。

Second, we prefer not to be call "consubstantiationists," because the differentiation implied by the use of the term suggests that our primary "difference" in our confession of the Sacrament, against Rome, is that of bickering over the presence of bread and wine.第二,我们不希望被称之为“consubstantiationists,”因为这个术语的使用许可的分化表明,我们的首要“差异”在我们的供词对罗马的圣事,就是以上的面包和酒的存在争吵。 This isn't the matter, at all.这不是问题,在所有。While we do believe Rome is wrong to dogmatize a philosophical theory (transubstantiation) our real "criticism" with the Roman doctrine of the Eucharist is the *sacrifice* of the mass.虽然我们相信罗马是错误的教条一种哲学理论(陷于)我们真正的“批评”与罗马的圣体学说,是牺牲的群众* *。Hence, as Luther says in the Babylonian captivity, they have turned what is truly Gospel (beneficium) into law (sacrificium).因此,作为路德在巴比伦被掳说,他们已经把什么是真正的福音(beneficium)进入法律(sacrificium)。 That is, they have turned something that is primarilly God's gracious, Gospel-deliviering action *for us* into an action we offer to God in order to appease the wrath of the Father.也就是说,他们把东西是primarilly *成为一个行动,我们向上帝,以安抚愤怒的父亲上帝的恩典,福音歌曲deliviering我们行动*。

Ryan T. Fouts瑞安福茨

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