Liberal Catholicism自由天主教

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A response by a minority of Catholic intellectuals to the French Revolution and nineteenth century European liberalism, liberal Catholicism may be seen as a chapter in the history of reform Catholicism which has long contended with the majority, conservative, and authoritarian tradition within Roman Catholicism.这是一项由少数天主教知识分子对法国大革命,十九世纪的欧洲自由主义的回应,自由天主教会被视为在改革天主教的历史篇章长期以来与多数,保守,并在罗马天主教的传统,主张独裁。

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The characteristics of liberal Catholicism are best exemplified in its chief exponents.自由派天主教的特点是最好的例证,在其行政指数。The pioneer of the movement was the passionate French priest and prophet HFR de Lamennais (1782 - 1854), who developed a new apologetic for Catholicism.这场运动的先驱,是热情的法国牧师和先知HFR的德Lamennais(1782年至1854年),谁开发天主教新的歉意。 The Catholic religion, he maintained, is not evidenced chiefly by miracles and fulfilled prophecies but by its capacity to perpetuate those beliefs which mankind has found essential to an ordered social life: monotheism, the difference between good and evil, the immortality of the soul, and reward or punishment in a future life.天主教宗教,他认为,是不是证明主要由奇迹和预言更是其履行​​能力,以延续人类已发现那些必不可少的一个有序的社会生活的信念:一神教,区别善恶,灵魂不死,并奖励或处罚在未来的生活。 Testifying to these beliefs is the sensus communis or general reason, the collective judgments derived from custom, tradition, and education.见证这些信念是共通感或一般的原因,从习俗,传统,教育所产生的集体判断。Hence society is the vehicle of revelation, a belief of great democratic potential.因此,社会车辆的启示是,一个伟大的民主潜力的信念。Lamennais's apologetics led to politics.Lamennais的护导致政治。His mission was to promote the social regeneration of Europe through the renaissance of Catholicism.他的使命是通过促进天主教复兴的欧洲社会再生。The Catholic church should break with all royalist and absolutist regimes; the papacy should be the guardian of liberty and the champion of democracy; and the people, in whom was hidden the Word of God, should be sovereign.天主教教会应该冲破一切保皇党和专制政权;教皇应该是自由和民主的捍卫者的监护人;和人民,被隐藏在其中的上帝的话,应该是主权。

In a daily newspaper, L'Avenir, with its motto "God and Liberty," Lamennais advanced his revolutionary program: freedom of conscience and religion (necessitating the abolition of concordats between the papacy and civil governments and the stopping both of state payment of clergy and of state intervention in the appointment of bishops); freedom (not a monopoly) for the church in education; liberty of the press; freedom of association; universal suffrage; and decentralization of government.在每天的报纸,欧莱雅艾文莉,其座右铭是“上帝和自由”,Lamennais先进的革命方案:良心和宗教自由(因此需要之间的教皇和各国政府和民间concordats废除国家都停止自由付款的神职人员和国家干预主教的任命);自由(而不是垄断)教育在教会出版自由;结社自由;普选;和政府的权力下放。

CRF de Montalembert (1810 - 70), historian and publicist, entered the French Parliament in 1837, seeking to catholicize liberals and to liberalize Catholics.慢性肾功能衰竭德蒙塔朗贝尔(1810 - 70),历史学家和政论,进入法国议会于1837年,寻求catholicize自由派和开放的天主教徒。His greatest political victory was the passage in 1850 of the Falloux law, which allowed the development of a Catholic secondary education system independent of the state system.他最大的政治胜利,是在Falloux法律,允许一个天主教中学教育体系的国家制度1850年通过自主开发。

The commitment by liberal Catholics to education was accompanied by an emphasis on preaching, then unusual in the Roman Catholic Church.由自由派天主教徒对教育的承诺的同时,重点对说教,然后在罗马天主教会不寻常的。The greatest liberal Catholic preacher was the Dominican JBH Lacordaire (1802 - 61), who attracted vast crowds especially to his Lenten conferences at Notre Dame Cathedral, where his impassioned sermons combined the call for liberty in church and state with ultramontanism (centralization of papal authority in matters of church government and doctrine).天主教传教士最大的自由是多米尼加JBH拉科代尔(1802 - 61),谁吸引了广大观众尤其是他在巴黎圣母院大教堂四旬期,在那里他慷慨激昂的说教相结合,在教会与国家的自由与ultramontanism致电(教皇的中央集权会议在教会,政府和学说)事宜。

The majority of liberal Catholics remained orthodox, seeking to modernize the church through the political emancipation of the laity and the separation of church and state.大多数的自由仍然是正统的天主教徒,试图通过现代化的俗人政治解放和教会与国家分离的教会。A later generation of liberal Catholics, including Lord Acton (1834 - 1902) in England and JJI von Dollinger (1799 - 1890) in Germany, advocated autonomy for the laity in doctrinal matters.自由派天主教徒的后代,包括阿克顿勋爵(1834年至1902年)在英格兰和JJI冯多林格(1799年至1890年)在德国,主张在理论问题俗人的自主权。

The currents of liberal Catholicism led at the beginning of the twentieth century to the much stormier waters of Catholic modernism, which tended to be antidogmatic and anthropocentric.在对二十世纪现代主义的许多天主教stormier水域,这往往是antidogmatic和人类中心领导的自由开始天主教的电流。 The leading Catholic modernists, Alfred Loisy, George Tyrell, Baron Friedrich von Hugel, Edouard Le Roy, Maurice Blondel, and Ernesto Buonaiuti, were concerned to reconcile traditional Catholic doctrine with the results of critical scriptural exegesis.全国天主教现代派,阿尔弗雷德卢瓦西,乔治泰雷尔,男爵弗里德里希冯胡格尔,爱德华莱罗伊,莫里斯布隆德尔,和Ernesto Buonaiuti,关注调和传统的圣经注释关键天主教教义的结果。

The papacy has consistently criticized and frequently condemned liberal Catholicism for its rationalism and naturalism.罗马教廷一直批评和谴责频繁的理性主义和自然主义自由派天主教。Lamennais's political liberalism was condemned by Gregory XVI in the encyclical Mirari vos of 1832. Lamennais的政治自由主义格里高利十六世谴责了在1832年的通谕米拉里沃斯。In 1834 in Singulari nos Gregory condemned Lamennais's doctrine that the evolution of truth was part of the progressive evolution of the people (a view later called immanentism).在1834年谴责Singulari号格雷戈里Lamennais的学说认为,真理的发展是人民的逐步进化的一部分(一观点后来被称为immanentism)。 Montalembert concluded that it was not possible to be a Catholic and a liberal after Pius IX's encyclical Quanta Cura and the Syllabus of Errors (both 1864).蒙塔朗贝尔的结论是不可能成为一个天主教和庇护九之后的通谕广达库拉自由和教学大纲的错误(包括1864年)。Acton and Dollinger withdrew their active support of Rome after the promulgation in 1870 of the dogma of papal infallibility.阿克顿和多林格撤出后,在犯错误的教条的教皇颁布的1870年罗马的积极支持。Modernism was condemned in 1907 by Pius X in the decree Lamentabili and the encyclical Pascendi gregis.现代谴责了比约X在法令Lamentabili和谕Pascendi gregis于1907年。

FS Piggin财政司司长Piggin

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Bibliography 参考书目
Lord Acton, The History of Freedom and Other Essays; JL Altholz, The Liberal Catholic Movement in England; EEY Hales, Pio Nono: A Study in European Politics and Religion in the Nineteenth Century and Revolution and Papacy, 1769 - 1846; D Holmes, The Triumph of the Holy See: A Short History of the Papacy in the Nineteenth Century; TM Loome, Liberal Catholicism, Reform Catholicism, Modernism: A Contribution to a New Orientation in Modernist Research; JN Moody, ed., Church and Society: Catholic Social and Political Thought and Movements, 1789 - 1950; BMG Reardon, Liberalism and Tradition: Aspects of Catholic Thought in Nineteenth Century France; AR Vidler, Prophecy and Papacy: A Study of Lamennais, the Church and the Revolution.阿克顿勋爵,自由和其他散文的历史;巨浪Altholz,自由在英国天主教运动; EEY阿莱斯,皮奥诺诺:在欧洲政治学研究在19世纪的革命和教皇,1769年宗教 - 1846年; ð福尔摩斯为胜利而罗马教廷:一个在19世纪罗马教皇的简短历史,商标Loome,自由天主教,天主教改革,现代主义:。一个对现代主义研究的新取向的贡献;若穆迪,海关,教会与社会:天主教社会与政治思想和运动,1989至50年,BMG公司里尔顿,自由主义与传统:19世纪法国天主教思想方面;铁维德勒,预言和教皇:一个Lamennais研究,教会和革命。


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