Logos徽标

General Information一般资料

The word logos (from the root of the Greek verb lego, "to say") figures prominently in a number of Greek and Christian philosophical doctrines.字标识(从希腊动词乐高,“说”根)数字突出了希腊和基督教的哲学学说数量。Although the word's earliest meaning probably was "connected discourse," by the classical period it already had a wide variety of other meanings: "argument," "rational principle," "reason," "proportion," "measure," and others.虽然这个词的最早的意思大概是“连接话语”,由古典时期它已经有了其他的意义广泛:“参数”,“理性原则”,“理性”,“比例”,“措施”等。 For this reason, it is difficult to interpret the logos doctrines of philosophers and dangerous to assume a single history for these doctrines.基于这个原因,它是难以解释的标志和危险的哲学家学说承担了这些学说单一的历史。

Heraclitus was the earliest Greek thinker to make logos a central concept.赫拉克利特是最早的希腊思想家使标志一个核心概念。He urges us to pay attention to the logos, which "governs all things" and yet is also something we "encounter every day."他要求我们注意标识,其中“管理所有的事情”,但也是我们“天天遇到。”We should probably emphasize the linguistic connections of logos when interpreting Heraclitus's thought.我们也许应该强调标识的语言连接,当解释赫拉克利特的思想。In our efforts to understand the world, we should look to our language and the order embodied in it, rather than to scientific or religious views that neglect this.在我们努力了解世界,我们应该着眼于我们的语言和体现在它的顺序,而不是科学或宗教的意见,忽视这一点。

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In the 3d century BC the proponents of Stoicism borrowed the idea of logos from Heraclitus (neither Plato nor Aristotle had given the term prominence) and used it for the immanent ordering principle of the universe - represented, at the level of language, by humankind's ordered discourse.在三维世纪公元前斯多葛学派的支持者借用了从赫拉克利特的逻各斯概念(既柏拉图或亚里士多德给了长期突出)和用于排序的宇宙原则的内在它 - 代表在语言水平,以人类的命令话语。Nature and logos are often treated as one and the same; but logos is nature's overall rational structure, and not all natural creatures have logos, or reason, within them.自然和标志,往往被视为是同一个,但标识是大自然的整体结构合理,并不是所有的自然生物都在其中标志或理由。Humans are urged to "live consistently with logos."人类是敦促“生活与标识一致。”

In the New Testament, the Gospel According to Saint John gives a central place to logos; the biblical author describes the Logos as God, the Creative Word, who took on flesh in the man Jesus Christ. Many have traced John's conception to Greek origins - perhaps through the intermediacy of eclectic texts like the writings of Philo of Alexandria.在新约,福音据圣约翰给出了一个标志的核心地位; 圣经的作者描述了希腊标识作为神,创意字,谁的人耶稣带着血肉在 - 基督。许多人追查约翰的概念到起源也许是通过像亚历山大斐罗的著作intermediacy的折衷案文。More recently, however, scholars have emphasized that the Old Testament contains a doctrine of the Word of God; and in Aramaic paraphrases the "Word of God" takes on some of the functions of God. Later Christian thinkers clearly did incorporate the Stoic logos doctrine; logos was associated particularly with Christ and later, in Arianism, no longer identified with God.但是最近,学者们强调,旧约包含了上帝的教义的单词,而且在阿拉姆语释义“上帝词中”以后来基督教的神。一些思想家的学说中的作用显然没有纳入斯多葛标识的;标志有关,特别是与基督,以及之后的阿里乌主义,不再上帝认同。

Martha C Nussbaum玛莎ç努斯鲍姆

Bibliography 参考书目
J Carey, Kairos and Logos (1978); WJ Ong, Presence of the Word (1967). Ĵ凯里,凯罗斯和标志(1978年);温家宝翁,字(1967)的存在。


Logos徽标

General Information一般资料

Logos (Greek, "word,""reason,""ratio"), in ancient and especially in medieval philosophy and theology, the divine reason that acts as the ordering principle of the universe.标志(希腊文,“词”,“理性”,“比”),在古代和中世纪的哲学和神学,神圣的原因,作为原则的行为,特别是宇宙的秩序。

The 6th-century BC Greek philosopher Heraclitus was the first to use the term Logos in a metaphysical sense.第六届世纪的希腊哲学家赫拉克利特公元前是第一个在形而上的意义上使用这个词标志。He asserted that the world is governed by a firelike Logos, a divine force that produces the order and pattern discernible in the flux of nature.他宣称,世界是由一个firelike标识,一种神圣的力量,产生于自然的秩序和格局通量明显的制约。He believed that this force is similar to human reason and that his own thought partook of the divine Logos.他认为,这股力量是类似人类的原因,而他自己想到了神圣的标志分享了。

In Stoicism, as it developed after the 4th century BC, the Logos is conceived as a rational divine power that orders and directs the universe; it is identified with God, nature, and fate.在斯多葛主义,因为它开发后的公元前4世纪的标志是作为一个理性的神圣的权力,命令和指示宇宙设想,它是与上帝,自然,与命运确定。 The Logos is "present everywhere" and seems to be understood as both a divine mind and at least a semiphysical force, acting through space and time.此标志是“无处不在”,似乎可以理解为一种神圣的态度,都至少semiphysical力量,通过空间和时间的作用。Within the cosmic order determined by the Logos are individual centers of potentiality, vitality, and growth.在由理性决定的宇宙秩序的潜力,活力和增长个别中心。These are "seeds" of the Logos (logoi spermatikoi).这些“种子”的标识(logoi spermatikoi)。Through the faculty of reason, all human beings (but not any other animals) share in the divine reason.通过推理的能力,所有的人(而非任何其他动物)在神圣的原因份额。Stoic ethics stress the rule "Follow where Reason [Logos] leads"; one must therefore resist the influence of the passions-love, hate, fear, pain, and pleasure.斯多葛伦理学强调规则“跟随而原因[标志]​​引领”;之一,因此必须抵制的激情,爱情的影响,恨,恐惧,痛苦和快乐。

The 1st-century AD Jewish-Hellenistic philosopher Philo Judaeus employed the term Logos in his effort to synthesize Jewish tradition and Platonism.在第一世纪的公元犹太希腊哲学家斐洛Judaeus受聘于他的努力合成犹太传统和柏拉图的术语标志。According to Philo, the Logos is a mediating principle between God and the world and can be understood as God's Word or the Divine Wisdom, which is immanent in the world.据斐洛的逻各斯是上帝和世界之间的调解原则,可作为上帝的话语或神的智慧,这在世界内在的理解。

At the beginning of the Gospel of John, Jesus Christ is identified with the Logos made incarnate, the Greek word logos being translated as "word" in the English Bible: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. . . . And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us . . ."在约翰福音的起头,耶稣基督是确定与取得的标志体现,希腊字标识被当作“字”在英文圣经译为:“太初有道,道与神同在,道就是上帝。。。。和道成了肉身,住在我们中间。。。“ (John 1:1-3, 14). (约翰福音1:1-3,14)。John's conception of Christ was probably influenced by Old Testament passages as well as by Greek philosophy, but early Christian theologians developed the conception of Christ as the Logos in explicitly Platonic and Neoplatonic terms (see Neoplatonism).约翰的基督的概念可能是受旧约段落,以及由古希腊哲学,但早期基督教神学家发展为在柏拉图和新柏拉图明确条款(见柏拉图主义)的标志基督的概念。 The Logos, for instance, was identified with the will of God, or with the Ideas (or Platonic Forms) that are in the mind of God.标识,例如,被认定与上帝的意志,或与理念(或柏拉图式表格),在上帝的心意的。Christ's incarnation was accordingly understood as the incarnation of these divine attributes.基督的化身,因此被理解为这些神性的化身。

Robert S. Brumbaugh罗伯特S布伦博


Logos徽标

Advanced Information先进的信息

The most usual Greek term for "word" in the NT: occasionally with other meanings (eg, account, reason, motive); specifically in the prologue to the Fourth Gospel (John 1:1, 14) and perhaps in other Johannine writings (I John 1:1; Rev. 19:13) it is used of the second person of the Trinity.最常用的希腊文为“词”在新台币:偶尔会与其他的意义(例如,帐户,原因,动机),特别是在第四次福音(约翰1:1,14),或许在其他johannine著作序幕(约翰一书1:1;启示录19:13)这是用三位一体的第二人。 In ordinary Greek parlance it also means reason.在一般的说法这也意味着希腊的原因。

Johannine UsageJohannine用法

According to John 1:1-18 the Logos was already present at the creation ("in the beginning" relates to Gen. 1:1), in the closest relationship with God ("with" = pros, not meta or syn).据约翰1:1-18的标识已经在创建本(“一开始”涉及到创1:1)在与神的亲密关系,(“与”=利弊,而不是元或SYN)。 Indeed, the Logos was God (not "divine," as Moffatt, the anarthrous predicate is grammatically required but may also indicate a distinction between the persons).事实上,理性是上帝(而不是“神”,作为莫法特,语法的anarthrous谓词是必须的,但也可能表明一个人之间的区别)。 This relationship with God was effective in the moment of creation (1:2).这与神的关系是在创造的时候(1:2)有效。 The entire work of creation was carried out through ("by" =dia, vs. 3) the Logos.整个作品的创作进行了通过(“由”=直径,比3)的标志。The source of life (1:4, probable punctuation) and light of the world (cf. 9:5) and of every man (1:9, probable punctuation), and still continuing (present tense in 1:5) this work, the Logos became incarnate, revealing the sign of God's presence and his nature (1:14).生命之源(1:4,可能标点符号)和光的世界(见9:5)和每个人(1:9,可能标点符号),仍然继续(目前在1:5时)这项工作,标识成了肉身,揭示了上帝的存在和他的本性(1:14)的迹象。

The prologue thus sets out three main facets of the Logos and his activity: his divinity and intimate relationship with the Father; his work as agent of creation; and his incarnation.序幕就此提出了三个的标志和他的活动主要方面:他的神性和与父亲的亲密关系,他的工作,作为创建代理人,他的化身。

In I John 1:1 "the Logos of life," seen, heard, and handled, may refer to the personal Christ of the apostolic preaching or impersonally to the message about him.在约翰1:1“生命的标识,”看到,听到,并处理,可参照个人基督使徒的说教或客观的有关他的信息。Rev. 19:12 pictures Christ as a conquering general called the Logos of God.启示录19:12图片基督为征服一般称为神的标志。As in Heb.正如在河北。4:12, it is the OT picture of the shattering effects of God's word (cf. the imagery of vs. 15) which is in mind.4:12,这是神的话语的粉碎效果(参见了对15图像)加时赛的图片,在头脑。

Background of the Term背景期限

OT加时赛

Diverse factors give some preparation for John's usage.不同的因素提供一定的约翰的使用做准备。God creates by the word (Gen. 1:3; Ps. 33:9) and his word is sometimes spoken of semipersonally (Ps. 107:20; 147:15, 18); it is active, dynamic, achieving its intended results (Isa. 50:10-11).上帝创造的字(创1:3;诗33:9)。他的话有时是semipersonally口语(诗篇107:20; 147:15,18),它是积极的,动态的,实现其预期的结果(以赛亚书50:10-11)。The wisdom of God is personified (Prov. 8, note especially vss. 22ff. on wisdom's work in creation).神的智慧是人格化(箴8,注特别是VSS的。22ff。论智慧的创作工作)。The angel of the Lord is sometimes spoken of as God, sometimes as distinct (cf. Judg. 2:1).耶和华的使者,有时口语的,因为神,有时作为独特(参见Judg。2:1)。God's name is semipersonalized (Exod. 23:21; I Kings 8:29).神的名字是semipersonalized(出23:21;我国王8:29)。

Palestinian Judaism巴勒斯坦犹太教

Besides the personification of wisdom (cf. Ecclus. 24), the rabbis used the word me'mra,' "word," as a periphrasis for "God."除了人格化的智慧(参见Ecclus。24),拉比们用这个词me'mra'“字,”作为periphrasis“上帝”。 This usage occurs in the Targums.这种用法发生在Targums。

Greek Philosophy希腊哲学

Among the philosophers the precise significance of Logos varies, but it stands usually for "reason" and reflects the Greek conviction that divinity cannot come into direct contact with matter.在哲学家的确切意义的图案各不相同,但它通常代表“理性”,反映了希腊的信念,神不能接触到的问题有直接联系。The Logos is a shock absorber between God and the universe, and the manifestation of the divine principle in the world.逻各斯是上帝和宇宙之间的减震器,以及在世界神圣原则的体现。In the Stoic tradition the Logos is both divine reason and reason distributed in the world (and thus in the mind).在斯多葛传统的标志是既神圣理性和理智的世界(从而在脑海中)发放。

Hellenistic Judaism希腊化犹太教

In Alexandrian Judaism there was full personification of the word in creation (Wisd. Sol. 9:1; 16:12).在亚历山大犹太教有字的创作完全人格化(Wisd.溶胶9:1;。16:12)。In the writings of Philo, who, though a Jew, drank deeply from Platonism and Stoicism, the term appears more than 1300 times.在斐洛,谁,他是犹太人,喝了从柏拉图和斯多亚学派的著作深刻,这个词似乎更超过1300次。The Logos is "the image" (Col. 1:15); the first form (protogonos), the representation (charakter, cf. Heb. 1:3), of God; and even "Second God" (deuteros theos; cf. Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelica vii. 13); the means whereby God creates the world from the great waste; and, moreover, the way whereby God is known (ie, with the mind. Closer knowledge could be received directly, in ecstasy).此标志是“形象”(歌1:15),第一个表格(protogonos),代表性的神(charakter,比照希伯来书1:3。。),甚至“第二个神”(deuteros theos;比照。尤西比乌斯,Praeparatio Evangelica七13)。上帝创造的手段,即从世界上的巨大浪费。,此外,方式,即上帝是已知的(即与心灵,更紧密的知识可以直接接收摇头丸)。

Hermetic Literature密封文学

Logos occurs frequently in the Hermetica.标识经常出现在Hermetica。Though post-Christian, these are influenced by hellenistic Judaism.虽然后基督教,这是希腊化犹太教的影响。They indicate the Logos doctrine, in something like Philonic terms, in pagan mystical circles.它们指示标识学说,类似Philonic条款异教神秘圆。

Sources of John's Doctrine来源约翰的学说

John 1 differs radically from philosophic usage.约翰一从哲学根本不同的用法。For the Greeks, Logos was essentially reason; for John, essentially word.希腊人,基本上是理性的原因;约翰,基本上字。Language common to Philo's and the NT has led many to see John as Philo's debtor.斐洛共同语言的和NT已经导致许多人认为斐洛的债务人约翰。But one refers naturally to Philo's Logos as "It," to John's as "He."但一提到自然斐洛的逻各斯为“吧,”约翰AS的“他说。”Philo came no nearer than Plato to a Logos who might be incarnate, and he does not identify Logos and Messiah.斐洛走近了比柏拉图没有谁可能是一个理性的化身,而​​他没有指明标志和弥赛亚。John's Logos is not only God's agent in creation; He is God, and becomes incarnate, revealing, and redeeming.约翰的标志不仅是上帝的创造代理,他是神,成为肉身,揭示和救赎。

The rabbinic me'mra,' hardly more than a reverent substitution for the divine name, is not sufficiently substantial a concept; nor is direct contact with Hermetic circles likely.拉比me'mra,'几乎比一个神圣的名字更虔诚的替代,是不是足够庞大的概念,也不是全封闭圈与可能产生的直接接触。

The source of John's Logos doctrine is in the person and work of the historical Christ.约翰的逻各斯学说来源是在人与历史基督的工作。"Jesus is not to be interpreted by Logos: Logos is intelligible only as we think of Jesus" (WF Howard, IB, VIII, 442).“耶稣是不能解释的标志:标志是可以理解的,因为我们只是认为耶稣”(永丰霍华德,兴业,八,442)。Its expression takes its suitability primarily from the OT connotation of "word" and its personification of wisdom.其表达主要采用从“字”,其人格化的智慧内涵加时赛其适用性。Christ is God's active Word, his saving revelation to fallen man.基督是上帝的积极话语,他的堕落的人节省的启示。It is not accidental that both the gospel and Christ who is its subject are called "the word."这并不是偶然的,无论是福音和基督谁是它的主题被称为“这个词。”But the use of "Logos" in the contemporary hellenistic world made it a useful "bridge" word.但是,“逻各斯”在当今世界上使用希腊使它成为有用的“桥”字。

In two NT passages where Christ is described in terms recalling Philo's Logos, the word Logos is absent (Col. 1:15-17; Heb. 1:3).在两个新台币那里有基督在回顾斐洛的逻各斯条款所述的通道,字标识是缺席(歌1:15-17;希伯来书1:3)。。Its introduction to Christian speech has been attributed to Apollos.它的引入,以基督教的发言被归因于阿波罗。

Logos in Early Christian Use在早期基督教标志使用

The apologists found the Logos a convenient term in expounding Christianity to pagans.辩护士发现的标识在阐述基督教的异教徒方便的术语。They used its sense of "reason," and some were thus enabled to see philosophy as a preparation for the gospel.他们利用其意义上的“理由”,并因此使一些人看作为福音编制理念。The Hebraic overtones of "word" were under-emphasized, though never quite lost. “言”的弦外之音是根据希伯来强调,尽管没有完全迷失了方向。Some theologians distinguished between the Logos endiathetos, or Word latent in the Godhead from all eternity, and the logos prophorikos, uttered and becoming effective at the creation.一些神学家区分的标志endiathetos,或Word中从所有永恒的神性潜,以及标志prophorikos,说出并成为在创建有效的。 Origen seems to have used Philo's language of the deuteros theos.奥利似乎已经使用斐洛的deuteros theos的语言。In the major Christological controversies, however, the use of the term did not clarify the main issues, and it does not occur in the great creeds.在各大基督争议,但是,对长期使用没有明确的主要问题,并不会发生在伟大的信条。

AF Walls自动对焦墙
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
RG Bury, The Logos Doctrine and the Fourth Gospel; CH Dodd, The Fourth Gospel; WF Howard, Christianity According to St. John; Commentaries on John by BF Westcott, JH Bernard, CK Barrett; RL Ottley, Doctrine of the Incarnation; A. Debrunner, TDNT, IV, 69ff.; H. Haarbeck et al., NIDNTT, III, 1078ff.; FE Walton, The Development of the Logos Doctrine in Greek and Hebrew Thought.的RG埋葬,标识学说和第四福音; CH多德,第四福音;永丰霍华德,基督教据圣约翰;由高炉Westcott,Jh的伯纳德,对照Barrett约翰评设计RL奥特利,学说的化身,一个。Debrunner,TDNT,四,69ff。。阁下Haarbeck等,nidntt,三,1078ff;。有限沃尔顿,对希腊和希伯来理性主义发展观。


The Word在Word

Advanced Information先进的信息

The Word (Gr. Logos), is one of the titles of our Lord, found only in the writings of John (John 1:1-14; 1 John 1:1; Rev. 19: 13).字(Gr.徽标),是我们主的游戏之一,只有在发现约翰的著作(约翰福音1:1-14; 1约翰1:1;牧师19:13)。 As such, Christ is the revealer of God.因此,基督是神的启示者。His office is to make God known.他的办公室是让上帝知道。"No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him" (John 1: 18).“从来没有人见过神在任何时候,唯一的独生子,在父怀里的,他已经宣布他”(约翰福音一:18)。This title designates the divine nature of Christ.这个称号指定基督的神性。As the Word, he "was in the beginning" and "became flesh."因为这个词,他“是在开始”和“成了肉身。”"The Word was with God " and "was God," and was the Creator of all things (comp. Ps.33: 6; 107:20; 119:89; 147:18; Isa. 40:8).“这个词是与上帝”,“是上帝”,是万物的创造者(可比Ps.33:6; 107:20; 119:89; 147:18;赛40:8)。。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


The Logos逻各斯

Catholic Information天主教新闻

The word Logos is the term by which Christian theology in the Greek language designates the Word of God, or Second Person of the Blessed Trinity.字标识是任期,其中基督教神学在希腊语指定神的话语,或第二人的祝福三。Before St. John had consecrated this term by adopting it, the Greeks and the Jews had used it to express religious conceptions which, under various titles, have exercised a certain influence on Christian theology, and of which it is necessary to say something.前圣约翰它采用了奉献这个词,希腊人和犹太人用它来表达,而根据不同的职称,有行使一定的影响对基督教神学的宗教观念,并且其中有必要说些什么。

I. THE LOGOS IN HELLENISM一,在希腊的标志

It is in Heraclitus that the theory of the Logos appears for the first time, and it is doubtless for this reason that, first among the Greek philosophers, Heraclitus was regarded by St. Justin (Apol. I, 46) as a Christian before Christ.正是在赫拉克利特的理论的标识首次出现,它无疑是这个原因,首先在希腊哲学家赫拉克利特认为是由圣贾斯汀原因(Apol.我,46)作为一个基督徒在基督之前。 For him the Logos, which he seems to identify with fire, is that universal principle which animates and rules the world.对于他的标志,他似乎认同火,是普遍的原则和规则的动画世界。This conception could only find place in a materialistic monism.这个概念只能找到在一个物质一元论的地方。The philosophers of the fifth and fourth centuries before Christ were dualists, and conceived of God as transcendent, so that neither in Plato (whatever may have been said on the subject) nor in Aristotle do we find the theory of the Logos.第五和第四世纪的哲学家公元前二元论,并设想上帝超越,因此,在柏拉图既不(无论可能已就此事说的),也不在亚里士多德我们找到了理论的标志。

It reappears in the writings of the Stoics, and it is especially by them that this theory is developed.它会重新出现在斯多葛学派的著作,这是他们特别是这一理论是发展。God, according to them, "did not make the world as an artisan does his work, but it is by wholly penetrating all matter that He is the demiurge of the universe" (Galen, "De qual. incorp." in "Fr. Stoic.", ed. von Arnim, II, 6); He penetrates the world "as honey does the honeycomb" (Tertullian, "Adv. Hermogenem", 44), this God so intimately mingled with the world is fire or ignited air; inasmuch as He is the principle controlling the universe, He is called Logos; and inasmuch as He IS the germ from which all else develops, He is called the seminal Logos (logos spermatikos).神,据他们说,“并没有使世界为一个工匠做他的工作,但它是由全穿透所有物质,他是宇宙的造物主是”(盖伦,“德资格赛。incorp。”中的“神父。斯多葛。“主编冯阿尼姆,二,六);。他穿透了世界”作为蜂蜜是否蜂窝“(良,”腺病毒Hermogenem“,44),这个神如此密切地与世界交融,是火灾或点燃空气。 ;因为他是宇宙的原则控制,他被称为标志;并因为他是从哪个胚芽一切的发展,他被称为(标志spermatikos)开创性的标志。This Logos is at the same time a force and a law, an irresistible force which bears along the entire world and all creatures to a common end, an inevitable and holy law from which nothing can withdraw itself, and which every reasonable man should follow willingly (Cleanthus, "Hymn to Zeus" in "Fr. Stoic." I, 527-cf. 537).这标志是一种力量和法律,不可抗拒的力量负有沿整个世界和所有的动物,一个共同的目的,一个必然的和神圣的法律没有任何东西可以从中提取自己,每一个合理的人应遵循自愿在同一时间(Cleanthus,“宙斯的赞歌”中的“神父。斯多葛。”我,527 -比照。537)。Conformably to their exegetical habits, the Stoics made of the different gods personifications of the Logos, eg of Zeus and above all of Hermes. Conformably其训诂习惯,斯多葛学派提出了不同的神拟人的标识,宙斯和爱马仕所有如以上。At Alexandria, Hermes was identified with Thoth, the god of Hermopolis, known later as the great Hermes, "Hermes Trismegistus", and represented as the revealer of all letters and all religion.在亚历山德里亚,爱马仕是与托提,对赫尔莫普利斯的神,被称为伟大的赫尔墨斯后来证实,“爱马仕Trismegistus”,并表示为所有字母和所有的宗教启示者。 Simultaneously, the Logos theory conformed to the current Neoplatonistic dualism in Alexandria: the Logos is not conceived of as nature or immanent necessity, but as an intermediary agent by which the transcendent God governs the world.同时,理性的理论符合当前的亚历山大Neoplatonistic二元:标识不作为的性质或内在必然性的设想,但作为一个中介,其中超越的神统治全世界。 This conception appears in Plutarch, especially in his "Isis and Osiris"; from an early date in the first century of the Christian era, it influenced profoundly the Jewish philosopher Philo.这个概念出现在普鲁塔克,尤其是在他的“伊希斯和奥西里斯”,从一个在公元一世纪初至今,它深刻地影响犹太哲学家斐洛。

II.二。THE WORD IN JUDAISM字中的犹太教

Quite frequently the Old Testament represents the creative act as the word of God (Genesis 1:3; Psalm 32:9; Sirach 42:15); sometimes it seems to attribute to the word action of itself, although not independent of Jahveh (Isaiah 55:11, Zechariah 5:1-4; Psalm 106:20; 147:15).相当频繁旧约表示与上帝的话(创1:3;诗篇32:9;西拉奇42:15);创造性的行为有时似乎属性,以自身的行动一词,虽然不是Jahveh(以赛亚独立55:11,撒迦利亚书5:1-4;诗篇106:20; 147:15)。In all this we can see only bold figures of speech: the word of creation, of salvation, or, in Zacharias, the word of malediction, is personified, but is not conceived of as a distinct Divine hypostasis.在这一切的讲话,我们可以看到只有大胆的数字:这个词的创造,救赎,或在撒迦利亚,这个词的诅咒,是人格化的,但不是作为一个独特构思的神圣本质。 In the Book of Wisdom this personification is more directly implied (xviii, 15 sq.), and a parallel is established (ix, 1, 2) between wisdom and the Word.在这本书的智慧的化身,是更直接的暗示(18,15平方米),以及一个并行建立(九,1,2)智慧与这个词。

In Palestinian Rabbinism the Word (Memra) is very often mentioned, at least in the Targums: it is the Memra of Jahveh which lives, speaks, and acts, but, if one endeavour to determine precisely the meaning of the expression, it appears very often to be only a paraphrase substituted by the Targumist for the name of Jahveh.在巴勒斯坦Rabbinism字(为门拉)是很经常提到的,至少在Targums:它是为门拉Jahveh其中生活,说话和行为,但是,如果一个人的努力,以确定准确的表达的意思,似乎很往往只能是由名称Targumist的Jahveh取代意译。 The Memra resembles the Logos of Philo as little as the workings of the rabbinical mind in Palestine resembled the speculations of Alexandria: the rabbis are chiefiy concerned about ritual and observances; from religious scruples they dare not attribute to Jahveh actions such as the Sacred Books attribute to Him; it is enough for them to veil the Divine Majesty under an abstract paraphrase, the Word, the Glory, the Abode, and others.类似的为门拉如在巴勒斯坦犹太教运作小记标识的斐洛亚历山大相似的猜测:拉比是chiefiy约仪式和纪念活动有关的,从宗教的顾忌,他们不敢属性,如属性圣书Jahveh行动给他,这是足以让他们的面纱下一个抽象的意译,这个词,荣耀,精舍,和其他人的神圣陛下。 Philo's problem was of the philosophic order; God and man are infinitely distant from each other, and it is necessary to establish between them relations of action and of prayer; the Logos is here the intermediary.斐洛的问题是哲学的秩序,神和人是无限远离对方,并有必要建立它们之间的关系和行动祈祷的标志是这里的中介。

Leaving aside the author of the Book of Wisdom, other Alexandrian Jews before Philo had speculated as to the Logos; but their works are known only through the rare fragments which Christian authors and Philo himself have preserved.撇开的智慧书的作者,其他亚历山大的犹太人斐洛之前曾推测至于标志;但他们的作品只能通过其中基督教作家和斐洛自己有保存稀有的片段而闻名。 Philo alone is fully known to us, his writings are as extensive as those of Plato or Cicero, and throw light on every aspect of his doctrine; from him we can best learn the theory of the Logos, as developed by Alexandrian Judaism.斐洛单是我们完全知道,他的著作一样,柏拉图或西塞罗的广泛,并把他的学说的每个方面,光,从他身上,可以更好地学习理论的标识的,由亚历山大犹太教发展。 The character of his teaching is as manifold as its sources:他的教学特点是多方面的来源:

sometimes, influenced by Jewish tradition, Philo represents the Logos as the creative Word of God ("De Sacrific. Ab. et Cain"; cf. "De Somniis", I 182; "De Opif. Mundi", 13);有时,由于犹太传统的影响,斐洛代表作为上帝创造Word中的标识(“德Sacrific抗体等该隐。。”;。比照“德Somniis”,我182;“。德Opif曼迪”,13);

at other times he describes it as the revealer of God, symbolized in Scripture by the angel of Jahveh ("De Somniis", I, 228-39, "De Cherub.", 3; "De Fuga", 5; "Quis rer. divin. haeres sit", 201-205).在其他时候,他形容为神的启示者在经文标志着由Jahveh天使(“德Somniis”,我,228-39,“德切鲁布。”,3,它,“德风雅”,5,“Quis汇率。divin。haeres坐“,201-205)。

Oftener again he accepts the language of Hellenic speculation; the Logos is then, after a Platonistic concept, the sum total of ideas and the intelligible world ("De Opif. Mundi", 24, 25; "Leg. Alleg.", I, 19; III, 96),从前不常他又接受了希腊投机的语言,理性,然后,经过Platonistic概念,思想的总和和可理解的世界(“德Opif曼迪。”,24,25;“。。腿Alleg”,我, 19;三,96),

or, agreeably to the Stoic theory, the power that upholds the world, the bond that assures its cohesion, the law that determines its development ("De Fuga", 110; "De Plantat. Noah," 8-10; "Quis rer. divin. haeres sit", 188, 217; "Quod Deus sit immut.", 176; "De Opif. Mundi", 143).或者,愉快的斯多葛理论,权力,维护世界,债券,保证其凝聚力,使法律,决定了它的发展(“德风雅”,110;“德Plantat诺亚。”8-10“; Quis汇率。。divin haeres坐“,188,217;”狴杀出坐immut“,176;”。。德Opif曼迪“,143)。

Throughout so many diverse concepts may be recognized a fundamental doctrine: the Logos is an intermediary between God and the world; through it God created the world and governs it; through it also men know God and pray to Him ("De Cherub.", 125; "Quis rerum divin. haeres sit", 205-06.) In three passages the Logos is called God ("Leg. Alleg.", III, 207; "De Somniis", I, 229; "In Gen.", II, 62, cited by Eusebius, "Praep. Ev.", VII, 13); but, as Philo himself explains in one of these texts (De Somniis), it is an improper appellation and wrongly employed, and he uses it only because he is led into it by the Sacred Text which he comments upon.纵观这么多不同的概念可能是公认的基本原则:一,标识是上帝和世界之间的中介,通过它上帝创造了世界,并规范它,通过它也男人知道上帝和祈祷他(,“德切鲁布。” 125;“。Quis rerum divin haeres坐”,205-06在三个通道的标识被称为神(“腿Alleg。。”,三,207);。“德Somniis”,我,229;“在将军”第一,二,62岁,引优西比乌,“Praep电子伏特。。”,七,13),但由于斐洛,自己在这些文本(德Somniis)一解释说,这是一个不正确的错误称谓和就业,他用它只因为他是领导到它的神圣文本,他的意见时。 Moreover, Philo does not regard the Logos as a person; it is an idea, a power, and, though occasionally identified with the angels of the Bible, this is by symbolic personification.此外,斐洛并不认为一个人的标志,它是一种思想,一种力量,而且,虽然偶尔发现与圣经的天使,这是由象征性的人格化。

III.三。THE LOGOS IN THE NEW TESTAMENT在新约中的标志

The term Logos is found only in the Johannine writings: in the Apocalypse (19:13), in the Gospel of St. John (1:1-14), and in his First Epistle (1:1; cf. 1:7 - Vulgate).这个词的标志是发现,只有在johannine著作:在启示录(19:13),在圣约翰福音(1:1-14),并在他的第一书信(1:1;比照1:7。 - 武加大)。But already in the Epistles of St. Paul the theology of the Logos had made its influence felt.但是,已经在圣保罗书信神学的标识作出了其影响力的感觉。This is seen in the Epistles to the Corinthians, where Christ is called "the power of God, and the wisdom of God" (1 Corinthians 1:24) and "the image of God" (2 Corinthians 4:4); it is more evident in the Epistle to the Colossians (1:15 sqq.); above all in the Epistle to the Hebrews, where the theology of the Logos lacks only the term itself, that finally appears in St. John.这是出现在书信向科林蒂安,在那里基督被称为“权力的神,神的智慧”(林前1:24)和“神的形象”(林后4:4),它是更明显的书信向歌罗西书(1:15 sqq。)以上的所有书信的希伯来人,其中的标志神学只差这个词本身,最终出现在圣约翰。In this epistle we also notice the pronounced influence of the Book of Wisdom, especially in the description which is given of the relations between the Son and the Father: "the brightness of his glory, and the figure of his substance" (cf. Wisdom 7:26).在这书信,我们也注意到了这本书的智慧显着影响,尤其是在这之间的儿子和父亲的关系给予描述:“他荣耀的光辉,和他的物质图”(见智慧7:26)。 This resemblance suggests the way by which the doctrine of the Logos entered into Christian theology; another clue is furnished by the Apocalypse, where the term Logos appears for the first time (19:13), and not apropos of any theological teaching, but in an apocalyptic vision, the content of which has no suggestion of Philo but rather recalls Wisdom 18:15.这种类似的方式表明其中的标识学说到基督教神学订立;另一条线索是由启示,在该条款标识首次出现的家具(19:13),而不是任何神学教学中肯,但在一种世界末日的视野,内容,而没有斐洛暗示,而是回忆智慧18:15。

In the Gospel of St. John the Logos appears in the very first verse without explanation, as a term familiar to the readers, St. John uses it at the end of the prologue (i, 14), and does not mention it again in the Gospel.在圣若望福音的标志出现在第一首诗没有任何解释,作为一个术语熟悉的读者,圣约翰使用在序幕(一,14)结束这一切,并没有提到它再次在福音。 From this Harnack concludes that the mention of the Word was only a starting-point for the Evangelist, and that he passed directly from this Hellenic conception of the Logos to the Christian doctrine of the only Son ("Ueber das Verhältniss des Prologs des vierten Evangeliums zum ganzen Werk" in "Zeitschrift fur Theol. und Kirche", II, 1892, 189-231).从这个哈纳克的结论是,提到这个词,只是一个出发点的传播者,他通过从这个概念的标识直接向希腊的唯一儿子(“Ueber格Verhältniss德Prologs德vierten Evangeliums基督教教义zum ganzen韦尔克“在”杂志毛皮Theol。与教会“,第二章,1892年,189-231)。This hypothesis is proved false by the insistence with which the Evangelist comes back on this idea of the Word, it is, moreover, natural enough that this technical term, employed in the prologue where the Evangelist is interpreting the Divine mystery, should not reappear in the sequel of the narrative, the character of which might thus suffer change.这一假说是证明了坚持与该传播者回来就这个意思的观点不正确,它是,而且,这自然足够的技术术语,在开场白解释其中的传播者,是神圣的奥秘就业,不应该再出现在续集的叙述,人物,其中可能因此受到改变。

What is the precise value of this concept in the writings of St. John?什么是这个概念的著作的圣约翰精确值?The Logos has not for him the Stoic meaning that it so often had for Philo: it is not the impersonal power that sustains the world, nor the law that regulates it; neither do we find in St. John the Platonistic concept of the Logos as the ideal model of the world; the Word is for him the Word of God, and thereby he holds with Jewish tradition, the theology of the Book of Wisdom, of the Psalms, of the Prophetical Books, and of Genesis; he perfects the idea and transforms it by showing that this creative Word which from all eternity was in God and was God, took flesh and dwelt among men.此标志也没有为他的斯多葛意义,它经常为斐洛了:这不是客观的力量,支撑着世界,也没有法律规定它,我们也没有在圣约翰找到的标识Platonistic概念世界的理想模型,这个字眼对他来说是上帝的话,从而他持有与犹太传统,神学的智慧书的预言书,作者的诗篇,并创世纪,他的想法完善通过展示和转换这种创造性的字,从所有永恒的上帝,是神,把其中的肉,住它。

This difference is not the only one which distinguishes the Johannine theology of the Logos from the concept of Philo, to which not a few have sought to liken it.这种差异是不是唯一一个有别于概念的斐洛johannine神学的标志,对此不能有少数人试图把它比作。The Logos of Philo is impersonal, it is an idea, a power, a law; at most it may be likened to those half abstract, half-concrete entities, to which the Stoic mythology had lent a certain personal form.标识的斐洛是客观的,它是一种思想,一种力量,一种法律,至多只可以比喻那些半抽象,半具体的实体,其中斯多葛神话借给某个人的形式。 For Philo the incarnation of the Logos must have been absolutely without meaning, quite as much as its identification with the Messias.对于斐洛的逻各斯化身必须是绝对没有意义,相当与尽可能多的messias鉴定。For St. John, on the contrary, the Logos appears in the full light of a concrete and living personality; it is the Son of God, the Messias, Jesus.对于圣约翰,相反,该标识出现在一个具体的生活充满个性的光,它是上帝的儿子,弥赛亚,耶稣。Equally great is the difference when we consider the role of the Logos.同样巨大的区别是当我们考虑的标识作用。The Logos of Philo is an intermediary: "The Father who engendered all has given to the Logos the signal privilege of being an intermediary (methorios) between the creature and the creator . . . it is neither without beginning (agenetos) as is God, nor begotten (genetos) as you are [mankind], but intermediate (mesos) between these two extremes "(Quis rer. divin. haeres sit, 205-06).标识的斐洛是中介:“父亲给了谁产生所有的生物和理性之间的创造者的作为一个中介机构(methorios)信号的特权既不是无始(agenetos)为是上帝。。。也不独生(genetos)你是这两个极端之间“[人类],但中间(mesos)(Quis汇率。divin。haeres坐,205-06)。 The Word of St. John is not an intermediary, but a Mediator; He is not intermediate between the two natures, Divine and human, but He unites them in His Person; it could not be said of Him, as of the Logos of Philo, that He is neither agenetos nor genetos, for He is at the same time one and the other, not inasmuch as He is the Word, but as the Incarnate Word (St. Ignatius, "Ad Ephes.", vii, 2).的圣约翰的话是不是中介,而是一个中介,他是不是两者之间的性质,神和人中间,但他都团结在他的人他们,不能被他说,作为标识的斐洛,他是既不agenetos也不genetos,因为他是在同一时间,另一种,而不是因为他这个词,但作为圣道(圣依纳爵,“广告Ephes。”第七章,2)。

In the subsequent history of Christian theology many conflicts would naturally arise between these rival concepts, and Hellenic speculations constitute a dangerous temptation for Christian writers.在随后的历史基督教神学自然会产生许多冲突与这些对手的概念,构成了希腊揣测基督教作家危险的诱惑。 They were hardly tempted, of course, to make the Divine Logos an impersonal power (the Incarnation too definitely forbade this), but they were at times moved, more or less consciously, to consider the Word as an intermediary being between God and the world.他们几乎没有动心,当然,使神圣的标志是客观的功率(也绝对禁止的化身,这一点),但他们有时提出,或多或少自觉地考虑作为上帝和世界之间的中介字被。 Hence arose the subordinationist tendencies found in certain Ante-Nicene writers; hence, also, the Arian heresy (see NICAEA, COUNCIL OF).因此,出现在某些休息室尼西亚作家发现的subordinationist倾向,因此,同时,亚略异端(见尼西亚,安理会的)。

IV.四。THE LOGOS IN ANCIENT CHRISTIAN LITERATURE在古老的基督教文学的标志

The Apostolic Fathers do not touch on the theology of the Logos; a short notice occurs in St. Ignatius only (Ad Magn. viii, 2).使徒父亲不触及神学的标志,一个简短的通知只发生在圣依纳爵(广告励磁八,2。)。The Apologists, on the contrary, develop it, partly owing to their philosophic training, but more particularly to their desire to state their faith in a way familiar to their readers (St. Justin, for example, insists strongly on the theology of the Logos in his "Apology" meant for heathens, much less so in his "Dialogue with the Jew Tryphon").辩护士,相反,发展它,部分原因是他们的哲学训练,但更多的尤其是他们渴望国家的方式熟悉他们的读者(圣贾斯汀,例如,坚持强烈的神学信仰的标志在他的“道歉”是指为异教徒少得多,所以在他的“对话与犹太人Tryphon”)。 This anxiety to adapt apologetic discussion to the circumstances of their hearers had its dangers, since it was possible that in this way the apologists might land well inside the lines of their adversaries.这种焦虑适应歉意讨论的情况下,他们的听众有其危险性,因为它可能在这样的辩护可能到他们的对手土地的线条很好。 As to the capital question of the generation of the Word, the orthodoxy of the Apologists is irreproachable: the Word was not created, as the Arians held later, but was born of the very Substance of the Father according to the later definition of Nicaea (Justin, "Dial.",128, Tatian, "Or.", v, Athenagoras, "Legat." x-xviii, Theophilus, "Ad Autolyc.", II, x; Tertullian "Adv. Prax.", vii).至于一代的Word资本的问题,是正统的辩护士无可指责:这个词是没有创建,随后举行的白羊座,但在很物质的父亲出生根据后来的尼西亚的定义(贾斯汀,“拨号”。,128,塔蒂安“或。”,五,哥拉,“莱盖特。”×,十八,西奥菲勒斯,第一,二,X“的广告Autolyc。”;“。。高级普凯”良,七) 。Their theology is less satisfactory as regards the eternity of this generation and its necessity; in fact, they represent the Word as uttered by the Father when the Father wished to create and in view of this creation (Justin, "II Apol.", 6; cf. "Dial.",6162; Tatian, "Or.", v, a corrupt and doubtful text; Athenagoras, "Legat.", x; Theophilus, "Ad Autolyc.", II, xxii; Tertullian, "Adv. Prax.", v-vii).他们的神学不太理想,关于这一代和永恒的必要性,事实上,它们所代表的字由父亲说出的时候,父亲希望创造和鉴于这一创造(贾斯汀,6“二,亚太线上。” ;比照“拨号。”,6162。塔蒂安“或。”,五,腐败的和可疑的文本;哥拉,“莱盖特。”中,x,西奥菲勒斯,“广告Autolyc。”第一,二,二十二,良,“腺病毒。普凯。“,五至七)。 When we seek to understand what they meant by this "utterance", it is difficult to give the same answer for all Athenagoras seems to mean the role of the Son in the work of creation, the syncatabasis of the Nicene Fathers (Newman, "Causes of the Rise and Successes of Arianism" in "Tracts Theological and Ecclesiastical", London, 1902, 238), others, especially Theophilus and Tertullian (cf. Novatian, "De Trinit.", xxxi), seem quite certainly to understand this "utterance" as properly so called.当我们寻求理解他们的这种“话语”的含义,很难给所有哥拉相同的答案似乎意味着子在创作工作中,父亲syncatabasis尼西亚(​​纽曼,“导致角色的兴起与成功的阿里乌主义“,在”大港神学和教会“,伦敦,1902年,238),其他人,尤其西奥菲勒斯和良(参见诺瓦蒂安,”德Trinit。“,三十一),似乎相当肯定明白这个”话语“的所谓正确。 Mental survivals of Stoic psychology seem to be responsible for this attitude: the philosophers of the Portico distinguished between the innate word (endiathetos) and the uttered word (prophorikos) bearing in mind this distinction the aforesaid apologists conceived a development in the Word of God after the same fashion.斯多葛心理学心理残余似乎是这种态度负责:哲学家的门廊区分先天字(endiathetos)和说出字(prophorikos)铭记这一区别上述辩护士设想在神的话语之后的发展以同样的方式。 After this period, St. Irenæus condemned very severely these attempts at psychological explanation (Adv. Haeres., II, xiii, 3-10, cf. II, xxviii, 4-6), and later Fathers rejected this unfortunate distinction between the Word endiathetos and prophorikos [Athanasius (?), "Expos. Fidei", i, in PG, XXV, 201-cf.在此之后,圣Irenæus很严厉谴责这些企图在心理上的原因(2002上海高考Haeres。第一,二,十三,3-10,比照。二,二十八,4-6),后来父亲拒绝了这一不幸的词之间的区别endiathetos和prophorikos [亚他那修(?),“世博会。Fidei”,我在编号,二十五,201 -比照。"Orat.", II, 35, in PG, XXVI, 221; Cyril of Jerusalem "Cat.", IV, 8, in PG, XXXIII, 465-cf. “由于以下原因造成。”第一,二,35岁,在编号,26,221;“。猫”西里尔耶路撒冷,四,八,在编号,三十三,465 -比照。"Cat.", XI, 10, in PG, XXXIII, 701-cf.“猫。”十一,10编号,三十三,701个比照。Council of Sirmium, can.西锡尔米乌姆会的,可以的。viii, in Athan., "De Synod.", 27-PG, XXVI.八,在Athan。,“德主教。”,27 -前列腺素,二十六。

As to the Divine Nature of the Word, all apologists are agreed but to some of them, at least to St. Justin and Tertuilian, there seemed to be in this Divinity a certain subordination (Justin, "I Apol.", 13-cf. "II Apol.", 13; Tertullian, "Adv. Prax.", 9, 14, 26).至于字的神性,所有的支持者都同意,但对其中一些,至少在圣贾斯汀和Tertuilian,似乎在这神得到一定从属(贾斯汀,“我亚太线上。”13 -比照。“二亚太线上。”13人;良,“高级普凯。。”,9,14,26)。

The Alexandrian theologians, themselves profound students of the Logos doctrine, avoided the above mentioned errors concerning the dual conception of the Word (see, however, a fragment of the "Hypotyposes", of Clement of Alexandria, cited by Photius, in PG, CIII, 384, and Zahn, "Forschungen zur Geschichte des neutest. Kanons", Erlangen, 1884, xiii 144) and the generation in time; for Clement and for Origen the Word is eternal like the Father (Clement "Strom.", VII, 1, 2, in PG, IX, 404, 409, and "Adumbrat. in Joan.", i, 1, in PG, IX, 734; Origen, "De Princip.", I, xxii, 2 sqq., in PG, XI, 130 sqq.; "In Jer. Hom.", IX, 4, in PG, XIII, 357, "In Jo. ', ii, 32, in PG, XIV, 77; cf. Athanasius, "De decret. Nic. syn.", 27, in PG, XXV, 465). As to the nature of the Word their teaching is less sure: in Clement, it is true, we find only a few traces of subordinationism ("Strom.", IV, 25, in PG, VIII, 1365; "Strom.", VII, 3, in PG, IX, 421; cf. "Strom.", VII, 2, in PG, IX, 408); elsewhere he very explicitly affirms the equality of the Father and the Son and the unity (" Protrept.", 10, in PG, VIII 228, "Paedag.", I, vi, in PG, VIII, 280; I, viii, in PG, VIII, 325 337 cf. I, ix, in PG, VIII, 353; III, xii, in P. d., V*I, 680). Origen, on the contrary, frequently and formally defended subordinationist ideas (" De Princip.", I, iii, 5, in PG, XI, 150; IV, xxxv, in PG, XI, 409, 410; "In Jo." ii, 2, in PG, XIV, 108, 109; ii, 18, in PG, XIV, 153, 156; vi, 23, in PG, XIV, 268; xiii, 25, in PG, XIV, 44144; xxxii, 18, in PG, XIV, 817-20; "In Matt.", xv, 10, in PG, XIII, 1280, 1281; "De Orat.", 15, in PG, XI,464, "Contra Cels.", V, xi, in PG, XI,1197); his teaching concerning the Word evidently suffered from Hellenic speculation: in the order of religious knowledge and of prayer, the Word is for him an intermediary between God and the creature.亚历山大神学家,自己的标识学说深刻的学生,避免了上述的错误有关的字双概念(见,但是,对“Hypotyposes”,克莱门特的亚历山德里亚的片段,引由photius在编号,CIII, ,384,和zahn,“Forschungen楚历史馆万neutest Kanons。”,埃尔兰根,1884年,十三144)和在时间的产生;对克莱门特和渊源一词,是像爸爸(克莱门特永恒的,七,“斯特罗姆。” 1,2,在编号,第九,404,409和“Adumbrat琼。。”,一,1,在编号,第九,734。奥利“。德普林西普”,我,二十二,二sqq,在前列腺素,第十一,130 sqq。“。在哲坎。”,第九,第4,在编号,十三,357,“在乔,二,32,在编号,第十四条,77条;。。比照亚他那修,”德。。。decret尼克顺“。,27,在编号,二十五,465),至于他们的教学性质的Word不太肯定的:在克莱门特,这是事实,我们发现只有subordinationism的痕迹(”斯特罗姆。 “,四,25,在编号,第八,1365,”斯特罗姆“,七,三,在编号,第九,421;。比照”。斯特罗姆“,七,二,在编号,第九,408);。其他地方,他非常明确地肯定了在PG平等,父亲和儿子和团结(“Protrept。”,10,,八228,“Paedag。”,我,六,在编号,第八,280;第一,第八,在编号,第八条,325 337 CF I型,九,在编号,第八,353。。三,十二,相反在体育四,五*我,680)奥利,经常和正式辩护(“德subordinationist想法普林西普“,一,三,五,在编号,十一,150,四,三十五,在编号,十一,409,410;”。。在乔“二,二在编号,第十四条,108,109;二, 18,在编号,第十四条,153,156;六,23日,在编号,第十四条,268;十三,25,在编号,第十四条,44144;三十二,18日在编号,第十四条,817-20;在马特“。 “十五,10,在编号,十三,1280,1281;”。由于以下原因造成德“,15,在编号,十一,464,”魂斗罗透明片“,五,十一,在编号,十一,1197)。他的教学关于这个词显然受到希腊猜测:在宗教知识和祈祷秩序,这个词是上帝和动物之间的中介他。

Amid these speculations of apologists and Alexandrian theologians, elaborated not without danger or without error, the Church maintained her strict dogmatic teaching concerning the Word of God.在一片的辩护士和神学家亚历山大这些猜测,阐述了无危险或没有错误没有,她教会保持严格的教条式的教学关于神的话语。This is particularly recognizable in the works of those Fathers more devoted to tradition than to philosophy, and especially in St. Irenæus, who condemns every form of the Hellenic and Gnostic theory of intermediary beings (Adv. Haer., II, xxx, 9; II, ii, 4; III, viii, 3; IV, vii, 4, IV, xx, 1), and who affirms in the strongest terms the full comprehension of the Father by the Son and their identity of nature (Adv. Haer., II, xvii, 8; IV, iv, 2, IV, vi, 3, 6).这就是,特别是在圣依,谁谴责每一个中介的人(上海高考Haer希腊和诺斯理论的形式,特别是在那些父亲的作品更致力于识别比传统的哲学,二,三十,9。二,二,四,三,八,三,四,七,四,四,二十,1),谁最强烈地肯定了父亲的儿子和他们的身份的性质(2002上海高考Haer充分理解。第一,二,十七,八,四,四,二,四,六,三,六)。 We find it again with still greater authority in the letter of Pope St. Dionysius to his namesake, the Bishop of Alexandria (see Athan., "De decret. Nic. syn.", 26, in PG, XXV,461-65): "They lie as to the generation of the Lord who dare to say that His Divine and ineffable generation is a creation. We must not divide the admirable and Divine unity into three divinities, we must not lower the dignity and sovereign grandeur of the Lord by the word creation, but we must believe in God the Father omnipotent, in Christ Jesus His Son, and in the Holy Ghost, we must unite the Word to the God of the universe, for He has said: 'I and the Father are one', and again: 'I am in the Father, and the Father in me'. Thus we protect the Divine Trinity, and the holy avowal of the monarchy [unity of God]."我们找到更大的教皇圣修斯信他的名字命名的权威一遍,亚历山大主教(见Athan。,“德decret。网卡。顺。”,26,在编号,二十五,461 - 65) :“他们的谎言,以主代谁胆敢说,他的神圣和无法形容的一代,是一种创造,我们决不能分成三个神灵的令人钦佩的和神圣的团结,我们绝不能降低主尊严和主权的庄严肃穆。由这个词的创造,但我们必须相信上帝全能的父在基督耶稣他的儿子,在圣灵,我​​们必须团结起来文字对宇宙的神,因为他曾说过:'我与父原为一',又说:'。我在父里面,我心中的'父亲因此我们所保护的神圣三位一体,和君主制的[团结的上帝]神圣的誓词“。 The Council of Nicaea (325) had but to lend official consecration to this dogmatic teaching.理事会的尼西亚(325)有,但以官方奉献给这个教条式的教学。

V. ANALOGY BETWEEN THE DIVINE WORD AND HUMAN SPEECH五,封号考神圣的字眼与人类语言

After the Council of Nicaea, all danger of Subordinationism being removed, it was possible to seek in the analogy of human speech some light on the mystery of the Divine generation; the Greek Fathers especially refer to this analogy, in order to explain how this generation is purely spiritual and entails neither diminution nor change: Dionysius of Alexandria (Athan., "De Sent. Dion.", 23, in PG, XXV, 513); Athanasius ("De decret. Nic. syn.", 11, in PG, XXV, 444); Basil ("In illud: In principio erat Verbum", 3, in PG, XXXI, 476-77); Gregory of Nazianzus ("Or.", xxx,20,inP.G., XXXVI, 128-29) Cyril of Alexandria (" Thes." iv, in PG, LXXV, 56; cf. 76, 80; xvi, ibid., 300; xvi, ibid., 313; "De Trinit.", dial. ii, in PG, LXXV, 768 69), John Damasc.经过理事会的尼西亚,所有被删除的Subordinationism的危险,有可能寻求在人类言语上的一些神秘的神圣代光比拟的希腊教父,尤其是指这个比喻,为了解释这一代是纯粹的精神,并没有减弱,也不需要改变:;“。德decret尼克的SYN。。”亚历山大狄奥尼修斯(Athan.,“。。德发送翁”,23,在编号,二十五,513)亚他那修(,11,前列腺素,二十五,444);罗勒(“在illud:在普林奇皮奥erat拉丁文字语言”,3,在编号,三十一,476-77),格雷戈里的nazianzus(“或。”了XXX,20,inP.G.,三十六,128-29)西里尔亚历山大(“帖。”四在编号,LXXV,56,;。比照76,80;十六,同上,300。十六,同上,313。“。德Trinit”,拨号。二,在编号,LXXV,768 69),约翰Damasc。("De Fide Orthod.", I, vi, in PG, XCIV, 804).(“德善意正畸。”,我,六在编号,XCIV,804)。

St. Augustine studied more closely this analogy between the Divine Word and human speech (see especially "De Trinit.", IX, vii, 12 sq., in PL, XLII, 967, XV, x, 17 sq., ibid., 1069), and drew from it teachings long accepted in Catholic theology.圣奥古斯丁研究更加紧密地之间的这种神圣的字眼和人类语言的比喻(见特别是“德Trinit。”,第九,第七,在特等,四十二,967,十五,十,17平方米,12平方米同上,。, 1069),并从它吸引了长期接受天主教教义神学。He compares the Word of God, not to the word spoken by the lips, but to the interior speech of the soul, whereby we may in some measure grasp the Divine mystery; engendered by the mind it remains therein, is equal thereto, is the source of its operations.他比较了神的话语,而不是由嘴唇所传的话,而是心灵的,因此我们可能会在一定程度上把握神圣的奥秘内部讲话的精神仍是其中产生,等于注,是其业务来源。 This doctrine was later developed and enriched by St. Thomas, especially in "Contra Gent.", IV, xi-xiv, opusc.这一学说后来发展和丰富了圣托马斯,尤其是在“魂斗罗绅士。”,四,十一,十四,opusc。"De natura verbi intellectus"; "Quaest. disput. de verit."“德的Natura verbi智洋”;“。。Quaest德verit之争。”iv, "De potent.", ii-viii, 1, "Summa Theol.", II, xxvii, 2; xxxiv.四,“德强大的。”第一,二,八,1,“总结Theol。”第一,二,二十七,二;三十四。St. Thomas sets forth in a very clear way the identity of meaning, already noted by St. Augustine (De Trinit., VII, ii, 3), between the terms Son and Word: "eo Filius quo Verbum, et eo Verbum quo Filius" ("Summa Theol.", II, xxvii, 2, "Contra Gent.", IV, xi).圣托马斯阐述了一个非常明确的方式标识的意义,已经由圣奥古斯丁指出(德Trinit,七,二,三。),术语之间的儿子和词:“雇佣条例Filius现状拉丁文字语言,等埃奥拉丁文字语言现状Filius“(”总结Theol。“第一,二,二十七,二,”魂斗罗绅士。“,四,十一)。 The teaching of St. Thomas has been highly approved by the Church especially in the condemnation of the Synod of Pistoia by Pius VI (Denzinger, "Enchiridion", 1460).圣托马斯教学一直高度认可,特别是在教会的主教由比约六皮斯托亚(登青格,“便览”,1460)的谴责。(See JESUS CHRIST; TRINITY.) (见耶稣基督。三一)

Publication information Written by J. Lebreton.出版信息写了J.莱布雷顿。Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas.转录由约瑟夫托马斯。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.天主教百科全书,体积九。Published 1910.1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,十月一日,1910年。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


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