Lord's Prayer, Paternoster, Our Father主祷文,帕特诺斯特,我们的父亲

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General Information一般资料

The Lord's Prayer, or Our Father, is the only formula of Prayer attributed to Jesus Christ. It appears twice in the New Testament: in Matt. 主祷文,或我们的父亲,是唯一公式祈祷归功于耶稣基督:。两度出现在新约中的马特。6:9 - 13 and in a shorter version in Luke 11:2 - 4.6:9 - 13,并在较短的版本在路加福音11:2 - 4。In Matthew the prayer is composed of an invocation and seven petitions, the first three asking for God's glorification, the last four requesting divine help and guidance.在马修的祈祷是由一个调用和七请愿,前三个为上帝的荣耀,在过去四年请求神的帮助和指导要求。A final doxology, "For thine is the kingdom. . .," is found in some ancient manuscripts.最后三一颂“,是为你的王国。。。,”在一些古老的手稿。Protestants customarily include the doxology in their recitation of the prayer; Roman Catholics do not, although it is added in the new order of Mass. The prayer, known in Latin as the Pater Noster, is the principal prayer and a unifying bond of Christians.新教徒通常包括在他们的祈祷朗诵三一颂,罗马天主教徒不这样做,虽然是增加了在拉丁美洲的马萨诸塞州被称为父亲noster祷告,新秩序,是主要的祈祷,基督徒联结的纽带。

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Bibliography 参考书目
L Boff, The Lord's Prayer (1983).L博夫,主祷文(1983年)。


Lord's Prayer主祷文

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The Lord's Prayer is the name given to the only form of prayer Christ taught his disciples (Matt. 6:9-13).主祷文是考虑到祈祷的基督的唯一形式的名称教导他的门徒(太6:9-13)。The closing doxology of the prayer is omitted by Luke (11: 2-4), also in the RV of Matt.祈祷的最后三一颂是省略了卢克(11:2-4),也是在马特房车。6:13.6:13。This prayer contains no allusion to the atonement of Christ, nor to the offices of the Holy Spirit.这种祷告中没有基督的赎罪典故,也不是圣灵的办公室。"All Christian prayer is based on the Lord's Prayer, but its spirit is also guided by that of His prayer in Gethsemane and of the prayer recorded John 17. The Lord's Prayer is the comprehensive type of the simplest and most universal prayer." “所有基督徒祷告的基础上,主祷文,但它的精神也是遵循他的祷告,在gethsemane和记录约翰17祷告。主的祷告是最简单,最普遍的祈祷全面的类型。”

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Lord's Prayer主祷文

Advanced Information先进的信息

The meaning of Jesus' pattern for prayer in Matt.耶稣的祈祷模式,在马特的意义。6:9-13 needs to be sought in the wider context of the units 6:5-13 and 6:1-18. 6:9-13需要寻求在该单位6:5-13和6:1-18更广的范围。The larger units indicate that Jesus is contrasting surface language with depth language in worship of God.较大的单位对比表明,耶稣是上帝的表面与崇拜的深度语言。The prayer is not a set form that he himself prayed or asked his disciples to pray, but illustrates the type of prayer appropriate to the person who worships deeply without hypocrisy.祷告是没有固定的格式,他本人祈祷或要求他的弟子们祈祷,祈祷,但说明了深深崇拜类型的适当谁不虚伪的人。The entire Sermon on the Mount (Matt. 5-7) takes its cue from Jesus' declaration in 5:20: "For I tell you, unless your righteousness exceeds that of the Scribes and Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven."山上(5-7)从耶稣整个说教发生在5:20宣言及其线索:“我告诉你,除非你的公义超过了文士和法利赛人,你将永远不会进入天国“。 Three expressions of genuine worship are given in germinal form in 6:1-18: (1) almsgiving (2-4); (2) prayer (5-6, with 7-15 as pattern); and (3) fasting (16-18).三是真正崇拜的表达形式,给出了生发6:1-18:(1)施舍(2-4),(2)祷告(5-6,以7-15为模式)和(3)空腹( 16-18)。The theme of 5:20 is applied to these three areas and is articulated in the warning, "Beware of practicing your piety before men in order to be seen by them; for then you will have no reward from your Father who is in heaven" (6:1).在5:20的主题是适用于这三个领域,并阐述了警告,“小心你的虔诚人前练习,以便被他们看见,那么你就不能得你们天父的赏赐谁在天堂” (6:1)。The warning is against play acting before a human audience; those who give, pray, or fast superficially will have their reward (refrain a, repeated in 6:2, 5, 16).该警告是针对一个人的观众面前发挥作用;谁给的,祈祷,或快速表面将有他们的报酬(副歌一,反复在6时02分,5,16)。 Those who pray genuinely will receive their reward from God who sees en to krypto, "in secret" (refrain b, repeated in 6:3-4, 6, 17-18).谁真正的祈祷会收到他们的报酬由上帝谁看到恩给krypto,“秘密”(不要B,在6:3-4,6,17-18重复)。 The sentence and paragraph flow of 6:1-18 (with 6:19-21 as summary) brings out the antithetic contrasts of surface/depth motifs and illustrates the dominical pattern of Jesus' teaching that is picked up by Paul in his contrasts of living kata sarka, "according to the flesh," and kata pneuma, "according to the Spirit" (eg, Gal. 5:16-24).对句子和段落流通6:1-18(6:19-21作为摘要)带出偶表面/深度图案对比和说明了耶稣的教导dominical格局,即拿起保罗在他对比了生活字sarka,“根据肉”字元气,“根据这个建议的精神”(例如,半乳糖。5:16-24)。

The eschatological age has broken in with the coming of Jesus, and now the law is no longer inscribed in stone but in the heart (Jer. 31:33).该eschatological年龄已突破与未来的耶稣,以及现在的法律已不再是在石头,但在心里(耶31:33)上的作品。 True prayer is to be a deep and spontaneous response to God, not a superficial game played out in public simply to curry favor with the world.真正的祈祷是一个深刻的和自发的回应上帝,而不是肤浅的游戏,在公众场合只是为了讨好世界失宠。The flow of thought in the larger unit of 6:1-18, with the summary of 6:19-21, makes clear the serious contrast of opposites in which the Lord's Prayer is to be understood.在流动中的思想与较大的单位6:1-18的6:19-21归纳,明确了对立面,其中主祷文是可以理解的严重反差。

Luke's location of the corresponding prayer (Luke 11:1-4) in the immediate context of Mary and Martha ("Martha, Martha, you are anxious and troubled about many things; Mary has chosen the good portion, which shall not be taken away from her," 10:41-42) and the importuned friend and related sayings ("Ask, and it will be given you," 11:9; "how much more will the heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him," 11:13) indicates his similar understanding of the underlying meaning of Jesus' ordering of values in the new age.卢克的相应祈祷的玛丽和玛莎(“玛莎,立即上下文(路加福音11:1-4)的位置您容易焦虑,对很多事情困扰; 玛丽选择了很好的部分,不得采取远离她,“10:41-42)和importuned朋友和相关的说法(”你们祈求,就给你“,11时09分,”何况天父圣灵给那些谁问他:“11:13),表明他对耶稣的价值排序中的新时代同样了解背后的含义。

Viewed in context of Jesus' eschatological contrasts, the Lord's Prayer provides a summary model for properly ordering the priorities of the kingdom.在上下文看耶稣的末世论的对比,主祷文为妥善订购王国的优先事项的总结模式。Both Matt.双方马特。6:9-13 and Luke 11:2-4 preserve Jesus' order: first God, then human needs. 6:9-13和卢克11:2-4保存耶稣的命令:第一上帝,那么人的需要。While Jesus makes use of Jewish sources in forming the prayer, he does not design it to be used as a set liturgical piece but as a model for the responsive heart in view of the demands of the new age.而耶稣的形成,使犹太人的来源使用的祈祷,他不设计,它是作为一套礼仪一块,但作为在新时代的需求来看反应心脏模型使用。 The prayer follows a common outline in both Matthew and Luke:祷告都遵循共同的马修和卢克大纲:

  1. Petition to the Father for his glory请愿书给父亲为他的荣耀

  2. Address to the Father for human needs地址为人类需要父

The doxology commonly used to conclude the prayer is not well attested in the manuscript traditions, though it is consonant with the original theme.该doxology常用结束祷告是没有得到很好的证明,在这份手稿的传统,虽然它与原来的主题是一致的。

RG Gruenler的RG Gruenler

Bibliography 参考书目
J. Calvin, Institutes 3.20.34ff.; F. Chase, The Lord's Prayer in the Early Church; R. Guelich, The Sermon on the Mount; J. Jeremias, The Lord's Prayer; E. Lohmeyer, The Lord's Prayer; W. Luthi, The Lord's Prayer, an Exposition. j的卡尔文学院3.20.34ff。大通楼,主的,在早期教会祈祷;河Guelich,山上宝训的J. jeremias,主祷文,E大Lohmeyer,主祷文;瓦特Luthi,主祷文,世界博览会。


Lord's Prayer主祷文

Advanced Catholic Information先进天主教信息

Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not seem to have been generally familiar in England before the Reformation.虽然拉美来说oratio多米尼加日期是早,把“主祷文”,似乎并没有得到普遍熟悉的英格兰前改造。 During the Middle Ages the "Our Father" was always said in Latin, even by the uneducated.在中世纪的“父亲”总是说,在拉丁美洲,即使是没有受过教育。Hence it was then most commonly known as the Pater noster .因此,这是当时最常见的noster称为佩特 The name "Lord's prayer" attaches to it not because Jesus Christ used the prayer Himself (for to ask forgiveness of sin would have implied the acknowledgment of guilt) but because He taught it to His disciples.命名为“主祷文”,重视它,并不是因为耶稣基督用自己(对于要求赦罪将意味着承认有罪),但因为他教给他的门徒祷告。 Many points of interest are suggested by the history and employment of the Our Father.很多兴趣点建议,由历史和我们的父亲就业。With regard to the English text now in use among Catholics, we may note that this is derived not from the Rheims Testament but from a version imposed upon England in the reign of Henry VIII, and employed in the 1549 and 1552 editions of the "Book of Common Prayer".对于英文文本中使用的天主教徒现在,我们可以注意到,这是源自不是从兰斯全书但是,从强加在英国的亨利八世统治一个版本,并在“书1549年和1552年版本的聘用共同祈祷。“ From this our present Catholic text differs only in two very slight particulars: "Which art" has been modernized into "who art", and "in earth" into "on earth".从这个我们目前的天主教文本的不同,只有在两个很轻微的细节:“艺术”已成为现代化的“谁的艺术”和“地球”到“人间”。 The version itself, which accords pretty closely with the translation in Tyndale's New Testament, no doubt owed its general acceptance to an ordinance of 1541 according to which "his Grace perceiving now the great diversity of the translations (of the Pater noster etc.) hath willed them all to be taken up, and instead of them hath caused an uniform translation of the said Pater noster, Ave, Creed, etc. to be set forth, willing all his loving subjects to learn and use the same and straitly commanding all parsons, vicars and curates to read and teach the same to their parishioners".该版本本身,它给予相当密切与丁道尔的新约,拖欠其普遍接受的一项条例的第1541根据该“他的恩典感知现在极大的多样性,翻译(对父亲noster等)祂所毫无疑问翻译有决心,他们都被采纳,而不是他们祂所造成一个统一的翻译说,父亲noster,大道,信仰等须载明,愿意他的所有爱好科目的学习和使用,同时并切切的指挥全部帕森斯,副主教和curates阅读和教导,他们的教友“相同。 As a result the version in question became universally familiar to the nation, and though the Rheims Testament, in 1581, and King James's translators, in 1611, provided somewhat different renderings of Matthew 6:9-13, the older form was retained for their prayers both by Protestants and Catholics alike.其结果是版本问题,已成为普遍熟悉的国家,虽然兰斯遗嘱,在1581年,国王詹姆斯的翻译家,在1611年提供的马修6:9-13,旧的形式被保留供其有所不同透视祈祷都新教徒和天主教徒一样。

As for the prayer itself the version in St. Luke, xi, 2-4, given by Christ in answer to the request of His disciples, differs in some minor details from the form which St. Matthew (vi, 9-15) introduces in the middle of the Sermon on the Mount, but there is clearly no reason why these two occasions should be regarded as identical.至于祷告自己的版本在圣路加,十一,2-4,由基督给予答复,要求他的弟子,从不同的形式,圣马太(六,9月15日)介绍了一些小细节在登山宝训,中间但很明显没有理由这两个场合,应被视为是相同的原因。 It would be almost inevitable that if Christ had taught this prayer to His disciples He should have repeated it more than once.这将是不可避免的,如果基督教这种祷告,以他的弟子,他应该重复它一次以上。It seems probable, from the form in which the Our Father appears in the "Didache" (qv), that the version in St. Matthew was that which the Church adopted from the beginning for liturgical purposes.似乎有可能,从形式,其中我们的父亲在“十二使徒遗训”出现(请参阅),该版本在圣马太是该教会的礼仪用途,从开始时通过的。 Again, no great importance can be attached to the resemblances which have been traced between the petitions of the Lord's prayer and those found in prayers of Jewish origin which were current about the time of Christ.再次,没有高度重视,可以连接到已与主的祈祷请愿和祈祷的犹太血统的约有当前的时候,基督追查发现这些相似之处。There is certainly no reason for treating the Christian formula as a plagiarism, for in the first place the resemblances are but partial and, secondly we have no satisfactory evidence that the Jewish prayers were really anterior in date.当然是有没有抄袭当作一个基督教公式,摆在首位的相似之处,不过是局部的,其次,我们并没有令人满意的证据,证明犹太人祈祷真的日期前的原因。

Upon the interpretation of the Lord's Prayer, much has been written, despite the fact that it is so plainly simple, natural, and spontaneous, and as such preeminently adapted for popular use.后,主祷文的解释,许多人已书面,尽管事实上,它是如此赤裸裸地简单,自然,自发的,正因为如此坦白,勇敢的普遍使用改编。 In the quasi-official "Catechismus ad parochos", drawn up in 1564 in accordance with the decrees of the Council of Trent, an elaborate commentary upon the Lord's Prayer is provided which forms the basis of the analysis of the Our Father found in all Catholic catechisms.在半官方“Catechismus广告parochos”,制定了根据1564年与安理会的遄达,一经主祷文详细评论的法令是提供哪些形式的对我们的父亲分析的基础上发现,在所有天主教要理问答。 Many points worthy of notice are there emphasized, as, for example, the fact that the words "On earth as it is in Heaven" should be understood to qualify not only the petition "Thy will be done", but also the two preceding, "hallowed be Thy name" and "Thy Kingdom come".通知有许多共同点,值得强调,因为,例如,说:“在地上,如同在天上”一词应理解事实资格不仅请愿“,你会做”,而且前两次, “愿人都尊你的名字”和“你的国降临”。

The meaning of this last petition is also very fully dealt with.这个最后的请愿书的意义也很充分,处理。The most conspicuous difficulty in the original text of the Our Father concerns the interpretation of the words artos epiousios which in accordance with the Vulgate in St. Luke we translate "our daily bread", St. Jerome, by a strange inconsistency, changed the pre-existing word quotidianum into supersubstantialem in St. Matthew but left quotidianum in St. Luke.我们的父亲在最显眼的文本的难度在原来涉及“解释的话artos epiousios根据武加大这与圣卢克我们翻译:”我们每天的面包,圣杰罗姆,一个奇怪的矛盾,一改前存在的左quotidianumquotidianumsupersubstantialem在圣马太,但在圣卢克。 The opinion of modern scholars upon the point is sufficiently indicated by the fact that the Revised Version still prints "daily" in the text, but suggests in the margin "our bread for the coming day", while the American Committee wished to add "our needful bread".在后的一点现代学者的意见是充分显示了一个事实,即修订版仍版画“人民日报”,在文本,但在保证金“我们为即将到来的日子面包”建议,而美国委员会希望加上“我们的要紧的面包“。 Lastly may be noted the generally received opinion that the rendering of the last clause should be "deliver us from the evil one", a change which justifies the use of "but" in stead of "and" and practically converts the two last clauses into one and the same petition.最后可以指出,普遍收到认为绘制的最后条款应为“救我们脱离凶恶”,一改,这是合理使用“,而是”代替“,并”切实转换最后两项条款的同一个请愿书。 The doxology "for Thine is the Kingdom", etc., which appears in the Greek textus receptus and has been adopted in the later editions of the "Book of Common Prayer", is undoubtedly an interpolation.该doxology“为你的,是王国”等,这似乎是在希腊Web网站receptus,并已“采取的共同祈祷在后来的”版本的书,无疑是一个插。

In the liturgy of the Church the Our Father holds a very conspicuous place.在教会礼仪的父亲拥有一个非常显眼的地方。Some commentators have erroneously supposed, from a passage in the writings of St. Gregory the Great (Ep., ix, 12), that he believed that the bread and wine of the Eucharist were consecrated in Apostolic times by the recitation of the Our Father alone.有论者错误地以为,从一个圣高利大(插曲,九,12)通过的著作,他认为,面包和酒的圣体圣在使徒时代所背诵的,我们的父亲孤单。 But while this is probable not the true meaning of the passage, St. Jerome asserted (Adv. Pelag., iii, 15) that "our Lord Himself taught His disciples that daily in the Sacrifice of His Body they should make bold to say 'Our Father' etc."不过,虽然这可能不是真正意义的通过,圣杰罗姆断言(2002上海高考Pelag。,三,15岁)说:“我们的主亲自教他的弟子,在他的身体每天牺牲他们应该大胆地说'我们的父亲'等“ St. Gregory gave the Pater its present place in the Roman Mass immediately after the Canon and before the fraction, and it was of old the custom that all the congregation should make answer in the words "Sed libera nos a malo".圣格雷戈里给了佩特后,立即佳能和前部分的肿块时,在罗马举行,它的旧习俗,所有会众应作出答复的话“桑达自由行为双数一联络办公室”。 In the Greek liturgies a reader recites the Our Father aloud while the priest and the people repeat it silently.在希腊语liturgies读者朗诵了父亲自言自语,而牧师和人民的重复,它默默。Again in the ritual of baptism the recitation of the Our Father has from the earliest times been a conspicuous feature, and in the Divine Office it recurs repeatedly besides being recited both at the beginning and the end.再次,在仪式的洗礼了背诵的父亲已经从一个突出特点是最早的时候,并在神圣的办公室,它一再复发,除了背诵都在开始和结束两个。

In many monastic rules, it was enjoined that the lay brothers, who knew no Latin, instead of the Divine office should say the Lord's Prayer a certain number of times (often amounting to more than a hundred) per diem .在许多寺院的规则,它是受命说,奠定兄弟,谁知道没有拉丁语倍,而不是神的办事处应该说,在主祷文一定数目(通常达一百多每日津贴To count these repetitions they made use of pebbles or beads strung upon a cord, and this apparatus was commonly known as a "pater-noster", a name which it retained even when such a string of beads was used to count, not Our Fathers, but Hail Marys in reciting Our Lady's Psalter, or in other words in saying the rosary.指望这些重复的,他们用卵石或珠子串成一条线后使用,该仪器是通常所说的“佩特- noster”之称,一个名字,它保留了,甚至当这样一串珠子被用来计数,而不是我们的父辈,但在冰雹玛丽斯话说,在背诵圣母念珠的psalter的,或在其他的话。

Publication information出版信息
Written by Herbert Thurston.瑟斯顿书面赫伯特。Transcribed by Tomas Hancil.转录的托马斯汉奇尔。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.天主教百科全书,体积九。Published 1910.1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,十月一日,1910年。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


Lord's Prayer主祷文

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观资料

Name given by the Christian world to the prayer which Jesus taught his disciples (Matt. vi. 9-13; Luke xi. 1-4).由基督教世界的祈祷耶稣教导他的弟子名(太六9-13。路加福音十一1-4)。。According to Luke the teaching of the prayer was suggested by one of Jesus' disciples who, on seeing him holding communion with God in prayer, asked him to teach them also to pray, as John the Baptist had similarly taught his disciples a certain form of prayer.据卢克祈祷的教学建议是由耶稣的弟子谁,看见他正与上帝祈祷交流,问他还教他们祈祷之一,因为施洗约翰教导他的弟子有类似某种形式的祈祷。 Obviously, then, the latter was of a similar character.很明显,那么,后者是一个类似的性质。From the Talmudic parallels (Tosef., Ber. iii. 7; Ber. 16b-17a, 29b; Yer. Ber. iv. 7d) it may be learned that it was customary for prominent masters to recite brief prayers of their own in addition to the regular prayers; and there is indeed a certain similarity noticeable between these prayers and that of Jesus.从塔木德相似之处(Tosef.,误码率三7。。误码率第16B - 17A条,29B款。。。。也门里亚尔误码率四7天)可以得知这是为突出主人习惯性地背诵,除了自己的简短的祈祷要经常祈祷,并确实存在一定的相似性之间的祈祷和耶稣的明显。

As the following extracts from the Revised Version show, the prayer in Luke is much shorter than that in Matthew, from which it differs, too, in expression.由于从修订版本显示摘录如下,祷告在路加比,在马修,从哪些不同,也表达短。Possibly both were in circulation among the early Christians; the one in Matthew, however, is of a later origin, as is shown below:也许,他们都有在早期基督徒流通;在马太之一,然而,是一个后来出身,作为如下:

Matthew马修 Luke卢克
Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name.我们在天上的父,尊你的名字。 Father, Hallowed be thy name.父亲,神圣被你的名字。
Thy Kingdom come.你来英国。Thy will be done, as in heaven so on earth.你会做的,所以在地球上的天堂。 Thy Kingdom come.你来英国。
Give us this day our daily [Greek: apportioned or needful] bread.让我们在这一天,我们每天[希腊:摊派或要紧]面包。 Give us day by day our daily [apportioned] bread.让我们每天都在我们的日常[分配]面包。
And forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors.免我们的债,如同我们免了人的债。 And forgive us our sins: for we ourselves also forgive every one that is indebted to us.赦免我们的罪过:为我们自己,也赦免凡亏欠我们的人。
And bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one.使我们不要叫我们遇见试探,救我们脱离凶恶。[Addition in many manuscripts: For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. [在许多手稿加法:是国度,权柄,荣耀,以前,为你的。Amen.]阿门。] And bring us not into temptation.使我们不要变成诱惑。
The prayer is a beautiful combination or selection of formulas of prayer in circulation among the Hasidæan circles; and there is nothing in it expressive of the Christian belief that the Messiah had arrived in the person of Jesus.祷告是一个美丽的组合或流通中的公式祈祷当中has​​idæan界的选择,以及有什么也没有的基督教认为,弥赛亚已在耶稣的人来表达。 On the contrary, the first and principal part is a prayer for the coming of the kingdom of God, exactly as is the Ḳaddish, with which it must be compared in order to be thoroughly understood.相反,首先和主要部分是一个神的国度来祷告,正是因为是ḳaddish的,与它必须加以比较,以便彻底了解。

Original Form and Meaning.原来的形式和意义。

The invocation "Our Father" = "Abinu" or Abba (hence in Luke simply "Father") is one common in the Jewish liturgy (see Shemoneh 'Esreh, the fourth, fifth, and sixth benedictions, and comp. especially in the New-Year's ritual the prayer "Our Father, our King! Disclose the glory of Thy Kingdom unto us speedily").援引“我们的父亲”=“abinu”或阿爸(因此在路加简单的“父亲”)是一个在犹太礼拜仪式(见shemoneh'Esreh,第四,第五,六届benedictions,可比。特别是在新的共同年的祭祀祷告:“我们的父亲,我们的国王!透露你的王国进荣耀里去我们迅速”)。 More frequent in Hasidæan circles was the invocation "Our Father who art in heaven" (Ber. v. 1; Yoma viii. 9; Soṭah ix, 15; Abot v. 20; Tosef., Demai, ii. 9; and elsewhere: "Yehi raẓon mi-lifne abinu she-bashamayim," and often in the liturgy).更频密hasidæan界是援引“我们的父亲谁的艺术的天堂”(ber.诉1;山脉八9;soṭah九,15人; abot诉20; Tosef,Demai,二9;和其他地方。。。: “yehiraẓon米- lifne abinu社- bashamayim”,而且往往在礼仪)。 A comparison with the Ḳaddish ("May His great name be hallowed in the world which He created, according to His will, and may He establish His Kingdom . . . speedily and at a near time"; see Baer, "'Abodat Yisrael," p. 129, note), with the Sabbath "Ḳedushshah" ("Mayest Thou be magnified and hallowed in the midst of Jerusalem . . . so that our eyes may behold Thy Kingdom"), and with the "'Al ha-Kol" (Massek. Soferim xiv. 12, and prayer-book: "Magnified and hallowed . . . be the name of the supreme King of Kings in the worlds which He created, this world and the world to come, in accordance with His will . . . and may we see Him eye to eye when He returneth to His habitation") shows that the three sentences, "Hallowed be Thy name," "Thy Kingdom come," and "Thy will be done on earth as in heaven," originally expressed one idea only-the petition that the Messianic kingdom might appear speedily, yet always subject to God's will.与ḳaddish的(比较“可能是他的伟大的名字在世界,他创建的,根据他的意愿神圣的,而且可能他建立他的王国,并迅速在附近的时候。。。”,见Baer的,“'Abodat Yisrael, “第129页,注)与安息日,”Ḳedushshah“(”Mayest你被放大和神圣的耶路撒冷中。。。让我们的眼睛能看见你的王国“),并与”'基地公顷科尔“(Massek. Soferim十四12和祈祷书:”。。。。放大和神圣是至高无上的国王国王的名义在其中他创造的世界,这个世界和世界来,按照他的意愿。。。和可能,我们看到他的眼眼时,他returneth到他的住处“)显示,三句话,”神圣被你的名字“,”你来英国,“和”愿你的旨意行在地上如同在天上, “原本只表达一个想法,在请愿书,可能会出现的弥赛亚王国迅速,但始终受到上帝的意志。The hallowing of God's name in the world forms part of the ushering in of His kingdom (Ezek. xxxviii. 23), while the words "Thy will be done" refer to the time of the coming, signifying that none but God Himself knows the time of His "divine pleasure" ("raẓon"; Isa. lxi. 2; Ps. lxix. 14; Luke ii. 14).该哈洛宁波恩神的名字在世界上的一部分,在迎来了他的王国(结三十八。23),而改为“你会做”指的是未来的时间,标志着没有,但上帝知道一次他的“神乐”(“理性报”;赛LXI的2。。诗lxix 14;。。路加福音二14。)。

The problem for the followers of Jesus was to find an adequate form for this very petition, since they could not, like the disciples of John and the rest of the Essenes, pray "May Thy Kingdom come speedily" in view of the fact that for them the Messiah had appeared in the person of Jesus.对于耶稣的追随者问题是要找到这个请愿书的适当形式,因为他们不可能像约翰的门徒和其余的essenes,祈求“愿你来英国迅速”在这样一个事实:查看他们的弥赛亚已经出现在耶稣的人。 The form reported to have been recommended by Jesus is rather vague and indefinite: "Thy Kingdom come"; and the New Testament exegetes explain it as referring to the second coming of the Messiah, the time of the perfection of the kingdom of God (comp. Luke xxii. 18).报告的形式已被耶稣的建议是相当模糊和不确定:“你来英国”,以及新约解经家解释为指的弥赛亚,对神(赛王国第二次来完善它的时间。路加福音二十二。18)。 In the course of time the interpretation of the sentence "Thy will be done" was broadened in the sense of the submitting of everything to God's will, in the manner of the prayer of R. Eliezer (1st cent.): "Do Thy will in heaven above and give rest of spirit to those that fear Thee on earth, and do what is good in Thine eyes. Blessed be Thou who hearest prayer!"在时间过程中的句子解释:“你会做”是在一切神的扩大将提交感在河埃利泽(第1次以上。)祈祷的方式:“你愿你的旨意在天上,给其余的精神,在地球上那些害怕你,做什么是在你的眼睛好。有福是谁听见了你的祷告!“ (Tosef., Ber. iii. 7). (Tosef.,误码率。三。7)。

Relation to Messianic Expectation.关于弥赛亚的期望。

The rest of the prayer, also, stands in close relation to the Messianic expectation.祈祷的休息,同时,站在密切的关系,以救世主的期望。Exactly as R. Eliezer(Mek.: "Eleazar of Modin") said: "He who created the day created also its provision; wherefore he who, while having sufficient food for the day, says: 'What shall I eat to-morrow?'完全按照河埃利泽(Mek.:“的莫丁埃莱亚萨”)说:“他是谁创造了​​天也创造了其规定;因此,他谁,而这一天有足够的食物,说:'我该吃什么明天?' belongs to the men of little faith such as were the Israelites at the giving of the manna" (Mek., Beshallaḥ, Wayassa', ii.; Soṭah 48b), so Jesus said: "Take no thought for your life, what ye shall eat or . . . drink. . . . . O ye of little faith. . . . Seek ye first the Kingdom of God, . . . and all these things shall be added to you" (Matt. vi. 25-34; Luke xii. 22-31; comp. also Simeon b. Yoḥai, Mek. lc; Ber. 35b; Ḳid. iv. 14).属于小信的人,如参加了给予的甘露以色列人“(。Mek.,Beshallaḥ,Wayassa',二;Soṭah48B条),所以耶稣说:”对自己的人生没有想到,你们要什么吃或喝小信的人啊,你们你们要先求上帝的王国,而所有这些东西都要加给你们了“(太六25-34。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。;路加福音十二22-31;。比赛也西麦乙yoḥai,丁酮立法会;。。误码率35B条。。孩子四14)。。 Faith being thus the prerequisite of those that wait for the Messianic time, it behooves them to pray, in the words of Solomon (Prov. xxx. 8, Hebr.; comp. Beẓah 16a), "Give us our apportioned bread" ("leḥem huḳḳi"), that is, the bread we need daily.信仰正因此,对于那些等待救世主的时候先决条件,就应当他们祈祷,在所罗门的话(箴xxx 8,黑布尔。。。比赛beẓah16A条),“给我们,我们摊派面包”(“伯利恒huḳḳi“),也就是每天的面包,我们需要。

Repentance being another prerequisite of redemption (Pirḳe R. El. xliii.; Targ. Yer. and Midr. Leḳah Ṭob to Deut. xxx. 2; Philo, "De Execrationibus," §§ 8-9), a prayer for forgiveness of sin is also required in this connection.悔改的先决条件是另一个赎回(pirḳe传译下午四十三。。。塔尔格也门里亚尔和MidrLeḳah尖到申xxx 2。。。。斐洛,“德execrationibus,”§ § 8-9),一个宽恕的祈祷单是在这方面也需要。But on this point special stress was laid by the Jewish sages of old.但是,在这一点上特别强调了所规定的旧犹太圣人。"Forgive thy neighbor the hurt that he hath done unto thee, so shall thy sins also be forgiven when thou prayest," says Ben Sira (Ecclus. [Sirach] xxviii. 2). “原谅你的邻居的伤害,他向你所行的,所以应当也可以原谅你的罪你prayest时说,”本西拉(ecclus. [西拉奇]二十八。2)。"To whom is sin pardoned? To him who forgiveth injury" (Derek Ereẓ Zuṭa viii. 3; RH 17a; see also Jew. Encyc. iv. 590, sv Didascalia). “谁是谁的罪赦免对他赦免伤害吗?”(德里克埃雷兹足踏八3。铑17A条,还见犹太人Encyc四590,希沃特didascalia认为。。。)。

Accordingly Jesus said: "Whensoever ye stand praying, forgive, if ye have aught against any one; that your Father also which is in heaven may forgive you your trespasses" (Mark xi. 25, RV).因此耶稣说:“whensoever叶站着祷告,请原谅,如果你们有听取任何反对任何一个叫你们在天上的父,也可以原谅你的过犯”(可十一25,风疹病毒。)。 It was this precept which prompted the formula "And forgive us our sins ["ḥobot" = "debts"; the equivalent of "'awonot" = "sins"] as we also forgive those that have sinned ["ḥayyabim" = "those that are indebted"] against us."正是这种信条促使公式“,并宽恕我们的罪过[”ḥobot“=”债务“,相当于”'awonot“=”罪孽“],因为我们也原谅那些有犯罪[”ḥayyabim“=”的有负债“对我们]。”

Directly connected with this is the prayer "And lead us not into temptation."直接关系,这是祈祷“,并带领我们不要变成诱惑。”This also is found in the Jewish morning prayer (Ber. 60b; comp. Rab: "Never should a man bring himself into temptation as David did, saying, 'Examine me, O Lord, and prove me' [Ps. xxvi. 2], and stumbled" [Sanh. 107a]).这也是在今天上午的犹太人祈祷(ber. 60B条;比赛Rab的说:。“永远不要一个人应该使自己的诱惑,因为大卫那样,说:'看看我,主啊,证明我'[诗二十六2。。 ]和偶然“[葬身。107a])。And as sin is the work of Satan (James i. 15), there comes the final prayer, "But deliver us from the evil one [Satan]."随着罪是撒旦的工作(詹姆斯一15),到了最后的祈祷“,但脱离那恶者[撒旦]我们。”This, with variations, is the theme of many Hasidæan prayers (Ber. 10b-17a, 60b), "the evil one" being softened into "yeẓer ha-ra'" = "evil desire," and "evil companionship" or "evil accident"; so likewise "the evil one" in the Lord's Prayer was later on referred to things evil (see commentaries on the passage).这与变化,是许多密hasidæan祈祷主题(Ber.的10b - 17A条,第60B),“邪恶”被纳入“yeẓer公顷岭”=“邪恶的欲望”和“邪恶的同伴”或“软邪恶的意外“,所以同样的”邪恶的一个主祷文“,后来就称为邪恶的事情(见关于通过评注)。 The doxology added in Matthew, following a number of manuscripts, is a portion of I Chron.该doxology补充说,在马太福音,承接手稿数量,是我的一部分专栏。xxix.二十九。11, and was the liturgical chant with which the Lord's Prayer was concluded in the Church; it occurs in the Jewish ritual also, the whole verse being chanted at the opening of the Ark of the Law.11,而且是礼仪高唱与该主祷文是在教会的结论,它在犹太教仪式也发生时,正在高喊整个诗句在法律方舟开放。

On closer analysis it becomes apparent that the closing verses, Matt.仔细分析很明显,右诗句,马特。vi.六。14-15, refer solely to the prayer for forgiveness.14-15日,是指纯粹的宽恕祈祷。Consequently the original passage was identical with Mark xi.因此原定的机票是与马克席相同。25; and the Lord's Prayer in its entirety is a later insertion in Matthew.25;和上帝祷告的全部是在马太后插入。 Possibly the whole was taken over from the "Didache" (viii. 2), which in its original Jewish form may have contained the prayer exactly as "the disciples of John" were wont to recite it.可能是整个被接管的“十二使徒遗训”(viii. 2),在其原来的犹太形式可能包含完全一样“,约翰的门徒”是惯于背诵祷告。

Kaufmann Kohler考夫曼科勒
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版01年至1906年之间。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
FH Chase, The Lord's Prayer in the Early Church, in Texts and Studies, 3d ed., Cambridge, 1891; Charles Taylor, Sayings of the Jewish Fathers, 1897, pp. 124-130; A. Harnack, Die Ursprüngliche Gestalt des Vaterunser, in Sitzungsberichte der Königlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, Berlin, 1904.K.跳频大通,主祷文,在早期教会,在文本和研究,三维版,剑桥,1891年;。查尔斯泰勒的犹太父亲,1897年,第124-130熟语的A.哈纳克,模具Ursprüngliche格式塔德Vaterunser在Sitzungsberichte明镜Köni​​glichen琪明镜学问,柏林,1904.K.


Kaddish ḳaddish的

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观资料

Name of the doxology recited, with congregational responses, at the close of the prayers in the synagogue; originally, and now frequently, recited after Scripture readings and religious discourses in schoolhouse or synagogue.该doxology吟诵的名称,与堂会的反应,在会堂里的祈祷结束;原来,现在经常读经文后,在校舍或犹太教宗教的论述背诵。 It is, with the exception of the last clause, composed in Aramaic.这是,随着最后条款组成,在阿拉姆语,异常。The following is the translation:以下是翻译:

"Magnified and sanctified [comp. Ezek. xxxviii. 23] be His Great Name in the world which He hath created according to His will. May He establish His Kingdom during your life and during your days, and during the life of the whole household of Israel, even speedily and in a near time! So say ye 'Amen.'" “放大和圣洁[可比。以西结书。三十八。23]是他在世界上伟大的名字哪祂所创造的,根据他的意愿。愿他建立在你在你的生活和他的王国,并在整个家居生活以色列,甚至迅速在附近的时候!所以说,叶'阿门'。“

Response: "Let His Great Name be blessed forever and unto all eternity!"回应:“让他的伟大的名字永远和你们所有的祝福永恒!”

"Blessed, praised, and glorified, exalted, extolled, and honored, uplifted and lauded, be the name of the Holy One, blessed be He ! above all the blessings and hymns [benedictions and psalms], the praises and consolations [the prophetic words], which are uttered in the world. So say ye 'Amen.'" “有福了,称赞和歌颂,崇高,赞颂,并荣幸,抬升和赞扬,得到了名字圣地之一,被祝福上述所有祝福和圣诗[祝福和诗篇]他!,歌颂和慰藉[预言话],这是讳莫如深,在世界。所以说,叶'阿门'。“

"May the prayers and supplications of all Israel be accepted by their Father, who is in Heaven! So say ye 'Amen.'" “五月的祈祷和supplications所有以色列他们的父亲,谁在天堂接受!所以说,叶'阿门'。”

Ḳaddish di-Rabanan: "Upon Israel, and the masters and their disciples, and the disciples of their disciples, and upon all those that occupy themselves with the Torah, whether in this place or in any other place, come peace and favor, and grace and mercy, and a long life and ample sustenance, and redemption, from their Father, in Heaven. So say ye 'Amen.'"ḳaddish迪- Rabanan:“当以色列和美国名人赛和自己的弟子,其弟子的弟子,并呼吁所有那些占据自己的律法无论是在这个地方还是在任何其他地方来的和平和青睐,并恩典和怜悯,和长久的生命和充足的食粮,救赎在天上,从他们的父亲。所以说,叶'阿门'。“

"May there be abundant peace from Heaven and life [the Portuguese liturgy inserts: "and plenty, salvation and consolation, redemption and healing, forgiveness and pardon, freedom and safety"] for us and all Israel! So say ye 'Amen!'" “可能有丰富的和平,从天上和生活[葡萄牙语礼仪中插入:”!'!阿门',丰收,拯救和安慰,赎回和治疗,宽恕和赦免,自由和安全“],为我们所有的以色列所以说,你们“

Response: "He who maketh peace in His Heights, may He make peace for us and all Israel! So say ye 'Amen!'"回应:“他谁使和平在他的高地,可他作出的为我们所有的以色列和平就这么说,叶'阿门!”

In place of the first paragraph, the Ḳaddish recited after burial has the following:在地方的第一段,背诵的ḳaddish后埋葬有以下几点:

"Magnified and sanctified be His Great Name in the world that is to be created anew when He will revive the dead and raise them up into life eternal, and when He will rebuild the city of Jerusalem and establish His Temple in the midst thereof, and uproot all false worship from the earth, and restore the worship of the true God. May the Holy One, blessed be He! reign in His sovereignty and glory during your life and in your days, and in the days of the whole household of Israel, speedily and at a near time. So say ye 'Amen!'" “放大和圣洁是他在世界上是要建立新的时候,他将重振死亡和提高它们进入永恒的生命,而当他将重建耶路撒冷城和树立自己的庙宇中的中间段,和伟大的名字从地球上铲除一切虚假崇拜,并恢复被崇拜的真神。愿圣地之一,被祝福他!在他的主权和在你的生活和荣耀的统治在你的天,并在以色列整个家庭的日子,并迅速在附近的时候。所以说,叶'阿门!“

Origin.起源。

The Ḳaddish has a remarkable history.该ḳaddish有一个了不起的历史。Originally, it had no relation whatsoever to the prayers, and still less to the dead.最初,它没有任何关系的祈祷,还有少死人。It was the doxology recited by the teacher or preacher at the close of his discourse, when he was expected to dismiss the assembly with an allusion to the Messianic hope, derived especially from the Prophets and the Psalms.这是该doxology由老师或在他的话语,当他将解散与典故,以救世主的希望大会,来自先知和传教士背诵诗篇特别密切。 Therefore Ezek.因此,以西结书。 xxxviii.三十八。23 is employed; and as the last redemption of Israel was, like the first, brought in connection with the Holy Name (see Pes. 50a; Pesiḳ. 92a; Ex. iii. 15), the emphasis was put upon the congregational response, "May His Great Name be praised for all eternity!" 23就业;并作为最后的救赎以色列是,像第一,与连接所带来的圣名(见狗50A条。Pesiḳ92A条。。。前三15),重点是在堂会响应说, “愿他的伟大的名字被称赞为所有永恒!”(see Sifre, Deut. 306). (见Sifre,申命记。306)。So great was the value attached to this response that the Talmud (Soṭah 49a) declares: "Since the destruction of the Temple the world has been sustained by the Ḳedushshah of the liturgy and the 'yehe shemeh rabba' [the Ḳaddish response] of the haggadic discourse."如此之大,附加价值,这种反应塔木德(Soṭah49A条)宣称:“由于破坏了该庙世界已由Ḳedushshah的礼仪和'叶赫shemeh rabba'[的ḳaddish反应]持续阿haggadic话语。“"Joining loudly and in unison in the congregational response 'yehe shemeh rabba' has the power of influencing the heavenly decree in one's favor, or of obtaining for one forgiveness," assert R. Joshua b.“加入大声疾呼,在堂会回应'叶赫shemeh rabba'齐声具有影响着一个人的赞成天命,或为获取一个宽恕的力量”,断言传译约书亚乙Levi and R. Johanan (Shab. 119b; comp. Midr. Mishle x. 10, xiv. 4).利维和R.约哈难(Shab. 119B条。。比赛Midr Mishle十,十,十四4。)。When Israel enters the synagogue or the schoolhouse and responds, "Let His Great Name be praised!"当以色列进入犹太教堂或校舍和回应,“让他的伟大的名字被称赞!”the Holy One, blessed be He!圣地之一,被祝福他!says: "Happy the king who is thus lauded in his house!"说:“快乐的因此谁在他家称赞国王!”(Ber. 3a).(Ber. 3A)条。 The name "Ḳaddish" for the doxology occurs first in Masseket Soferim xvi.命名为“ḳaddish的”为三一颂发生在Masseket Soferim十六世第一次。12, xix. 12,十九。1, xxi.一,21。6; the Ḳaddish at funerals is mentioned ib.6,在葬礼ḳaddish是提到国际文凭。xix.十九。12: being addressed to the whole assembly, it was spoken in the Babylonian vernacular (see Tos. Ber. 3a). 12:正在给整个大会,这是说,在巴比伦白话(见陶氏苏贝3A条。。)。The two paragraphs preceding the last, which is a late addition, were originally simple formulas of dismissal by the preacher (comp. M. Ḳ. 21a).这两段倒数,这是一个晚此外,原本简单的公式,由牧师解雇(可比先生K表。21A条)。The "Ḳaddish of the students" still shows its original connection with the schoolhouse, and is a prayer for the scholars; occasionally, therefore, special prayers were inserted for the "nasi" or the "resh galuta," or for distinguished scholars like Maimonides (see Ibn Verga, "Shebeṭ Yehudah," ed. Wiener; "Sefer Yuḥasin," ed. Filipowski, p. 219).而“学生的ḳaddish”仍然显示其原涉嫌与校舍,是祈祷,为学者,偶尔,因此,特别祈祷的“纳斯”或插入“雷什galuta”,或为杰出的学者愿意迈蒙尼德(见伊本维尔加,“shebeṭyehudah,”海关维纳。“之书Yuḥasin,”海关Filipowski,第219页。)。

The Ḳaddish for the dead was originally recited at the close of the seven days' mourning, with the religious discourses and benedictions associated with it, but, according to Masseket Soferim xix.对于死者的ḳaddish背诵原本在7天哀悼,随着宗教的论述和benedictions与此相关,但据Masseket Soferim十九。12, only at the death of a scholar; afterward, in order not to put others to shame, it was recited after every burial (Naḥmanides, "Torat ha-Adam," p. 50; see Mourning). 12只在死亡的一个学者;后来,为了不把别人的耻辱,这是背诵后,每个墓地(naḥmanides,“torat公顷,亚当”,第50页;见丧)。

In the course of time the power of redeeming the dead from the sufferings of Gehenna came to be ascribed, by some, to the recitation of the Ḳaddish.在时间的过程中,救赎来自地狱的痛苦死要归功于上台,一些人,到了背诵的ḳaddish。

Redeeming Powers Ascribed to the Ḳaddish.兑换的权力归因于该ḳaddish的。

In "Otiyyot de-R. 'Aḳiba," a work of the geonic time, it is said, under the letter "zayin," that "at the time of the Messiah God shall sit in paradise and deliver a discourse on the new Torah before the assembly of the pious and the angelic hosts, and that at the close of the discourse Zerubbabel shall rise and recite the Ḳaddish with a voice reaching from one end of the world to the other; to which all mankind will respond 'Amen.'在“Otiyyot德- R的。'秋叶”的若尼克时间工作,这是说,在字母“zayin”,即“在上帝的弥赛亚时间应坐在天堂和交付新的话语,圣经前的虔诚大会和天使般的主机,而在话语所罗巴伯须起立,并用一个声音朗诵从一个世界的尽头,延伸到其​​他的ḳaddish密切,这是所有人类将回应'阿门。' All souls of Jews and Gentiles in Gehenna will respond with 'Amen,' so that God's mercy will be awakened and He will give the keys of Gehenna to Michael and Gabriel, the archangels, saying: 'Open the gates, that a righteous nation which observeth the faith may enter' [Isa. xxvi. 2, "shomer emumim" being explained as "one that sayeth 'Amen'"]. Then the 40,000 gates of Gehenna shall open, and all the redeemed of Gehenna, the wicked ones of Israel, and the righteous of the Gentiles shall be ushered into paradise."犹太人和地狱外邦人所有的灵魂将回应'阿门',使上帝的怜悯将被唤醒,他将给予的地狱的钥匙迈克尔和加布里埃尔,天使,说:'打开大门,是一个正义的国家的observeth信仰可进入'[伊萨。十六。2,“朔默emumim”被解释为“一个sayeth'阿门'”]。然后40000的地狱门,应打开,所有的地狱赎回,邪恶的以色列和正义的外邦人应领进天堂。“ The following legend is later: Akiba met a spirit in the guise of a man carrying wood; the latter told Akiba that the wood was for the fire in Gehenna, in which he was burned daily in punishment for having maltreated the poor while tax-collector, and that he would be released from his awful torture if he had a son to recite the Bareku and the Ḳaddish before a worshiping assembly that would respond with the praise of God's name.下面的传说是后来:秋叶会见了一名男子携带木幌子的精神,后者告诉秋叶的木材在地狱火,他被烧毁,每天因被虐待的惩罚穷人而税务集电极,他将被释放,从他的可怕的酷刑,如果他有一个儿子背诵崇拜大会之前,将回应上帝的名义赞美bareku和ḳaddish。 On learning that the manhad utterly neglected his son, Akiba cared for and educated the youth, so that one day he stood in the assembly and recited the Bareku and the Ḳaddish and released his father from Gehenna (Masseket Kallah, ed. Coronel, pp. 4b, 19b; Isaac of Vienna, "Or Zarua'," ed. Jitomir, ii. 11; Tanna debe Eliyahu Zuṭa xvii., where "R. Johanan b. Zakkai" occurs instead of "R. Akiba"; "Menorat ha-Ma'or," i. 1, 1, 1; Manasseh ben Israel, "Nishmat Ḥayyim," ii. 27; Baḥya ben Asher, commentary on Shofeṭim, at end; comp. Testament of Abraham, A. xiv.).在得知manhad完全置之不理他的儿子,秋叶照顾和教育青少年,所以,有一天,他在大会上站起来朗诵了bareku和ḳaddish,并发表了他的父亲从地狱(Masseket Kallah,编辑。科罗内尔,第4B条,19B条;维也纳以撒“或Zarua',”海关Jitomir,二11;。。坦纳debe埃利亚胡足踏十七,其中“河Johanan湾Zakkai”而不是“传译秋叶”的发生。“Menorat公顷麻'或“一,1,1,1;玛拿西本以色列,”NishmatḤayyim,“二27;。巴希耶伊奔舍,在Shofeṭim评论,在结束;。。比赛亚伯拉罕,甲十四约)。

The idea that a son or grandson's piety may exert a redeeming influence in behalf of a departed father or grandfather is expressed also in Sanh.这个想法,一个儿子或孙子的孝道可能施加的影响力代表赎回离开父亲或祖父也表示在sanh。104a; Gen. R. lxiii.; Tanna debe Eliyahu R. xvii.; Tanna debe Eliyahu Zuṭa xii.; see also "Sefer Ḥasidim," ed.104A条,创传译lxiii。坦纳debe利亚河十七。坦纳debe利亚足踏十二;。又见“之书的ḥasidim,”版。 Wiztinetzki, No. 32. Wiztinetzki,第32号。In order to redeem the soul of the parents from the torture of Gehenna which is supposed to last twelve months ('Eduy. ii. 10; RH 17a), the Ḳaddish was formerly recited by the son during the whole year (Kol Bo cxiv.).为了挽回父母的灵魂从地​​狱的折磨,这是为了过去十二个月内('Eduy二10;。。铑17A条),以前的ḳaddish吟诵由儿子在整个一年(科尔博cxiv。 )。Later, this period was reduced to eleven months, as it was considered unworthy of the son to entertain such views of the demerit of his parents (Shulḥan 'Aruk, Yoreh De'ah, 376, 4, Isserles' gloss; see Jahrzeit).后来,这一时期减少至11个月,因为它被认为是不值得的儿子招待记过处分,他的父母等次(Shulḥan'Aruk,Yoreh De'ah,376,4,伊塞莱斯'光泽,见Jahrzeit)。The Ḳaddish is recited also on the Jahrzeit.该ḳaddish是背诵的Jahrzeit也。The custom of the mourners reciting the Ḳaddish in unison is approved by Jacob Emden, in his "Siddur," and that they should recite it together with the reader is recommended by Ẓebi Hirsch Ḥayot, in "Minḥat Ḳena'ot," vii.该背诵的哀悼者齐声ḳaddish的风俗是由雅各布埃姆登批准,在他的“Siddur”,而他们应该背诵它连同读者推荐Ẓebi赫希Ḥayot在“MinḥatḲena'ot,”七。 1.1。That the daughter, where there is no son, may recite the Ḳaddish was decided by a contemporary of Jair Ḥayyim Bacharach, though it was not approved by the latter (Responsa, No. 123; "Leḥem ha-Panim," p. 376).他的女儿,那里是没有儿子,可朗诵ḳaddish的决定是由一个睚Ḥayyim巴哈拉赫当代,虽然这不是由后者批准(Responsa 123号,“伯利恒公顷Panim”,页376) 。A stranger, also, may recite the Ḳaddish for the benefit of the dead (Joseph Caro, in "Bet Yosef" to Yoreh De'ah, lc).一个陌生人,也可能背诵为死人的利益(约瑟夫卡罗在“打赌优素福”,以Yoreh De'ah,立法会)的ḳaddish。 For the custom in Reform congregations see Reform.对于习惯在改革教友看到改革。

Bibliography: M. Brück, Pharisäische Volkssitten und Ritualien, 1840, pp. 94-101; Hamburger, RBT ii.; Landshuth, Seder Biḳḳur Ḥolim, 1853, pp. lix.-lxvi.; Zunz, GV 1892, p.参考书目:米布鲁克,Pharisäische Volkssitten有限公司Ritualien,1840年,页94-101;汉堡,仙踪林二; Landshuth,塞德BiḳḳurḤolim,1853年,第lix. - lxvi;聪茨,货车1892年,页。。387.AK387.AK

-Ritual Use:-仪式用途:

There are five forms of the Ḳaddish: (1) Ḳaddish di-Rabanan (Scholar's Ḳaddish); (2) Ḳaddish Yaḥid (Individual, or Private, Ḳaddish); (3) Ḳaddish de-Ẓibbur (Congregational Ḳaddish; this form of the Ḳaddish has two divisions-the Ḥaẓi Ḳaddish [Semi-Ḳaddish] and the Ḳaddish Shalem [Full Ḳaddish]); (4) the Burial Ḳaddish (the Mourner's First Ḳaddish); (5) Ḳaddish Yatom (Orphan's Ḳaddish), or Ḳaddish Abelim (Mourner's Ḳaddish).有五种形式的ḳaddish:(1)ḳaddish迪- Rabanan(学者的ḳaddish的),(2)ḳaddishyaḥid(个人,或私人的,ḳaddish)(3)ḳaddish德-ẓibbur(堂ḳaddish,这种形式的ḳaddish有两个师,在Ḥaẓi的ḳaddish[半的ḳaddish]和ḳaddishhalem [全文ḳaddish的])(4)土葬的ḳaddish(哀悼者的第一ḳaddish的),(5)的ḳaddish亚托姆(孤儿的ḳaddish的),或ḳAbeli​​m(送葬者的ḳaddish的)。

Forms of Ḳaddish and Their Use.ḳaddish的形式和它们的使用。

1. 1。

The Scholar's Ḳaddish is recited upon the completion of a division of the Mishnah or of a masseket of the Talmud, or of a lecture by the rabbi or maggid.学者的ḳaddish是背诵经一师的mishnah完成或masseket的犹太法典,或由法师或maggid讲座。 The students of the various yeshibot, or private scholars, are frequently called upon to recite a chapter of the Mishnah, after which, as a rule, the baraita of R. Hananiah b.三,各个yeshibot学生,或私人学者,是经常被要求背诵的一章的mishnah,之后,作为一个规则,baraita的湾河哈拿尼雅 'Akashya (end of Makkot) is read, followed by Ḳaddish di-Rabanan, for the repose of the souls of the dead. 'Akashya(附Makkot结束),是阅读,由ḳaddish迪- Rabanan遵循了死者的灵魂安息。

2. 2。

The Ḳaddish Yaḥid usually preceded a supplication for the satisfaction of worldly needs.该ḳaddishYaḥid之前通常为祈求世俗需要的满足。The beginning of the so-called "Lord's Prayer" is an example of the formula used in early times, and resembles that contained in Tanna debe Eliyahu Rabbah (eg, in ch. v. and xiv.).对所谓的“主祷文”的开始是在早期时代所用的公式例子,类似于在Tanna的debe埃利亚胡拉巴载(例如,在CH。诉和第十四条。)。 The Ḳaddish Yaḥid was also a response to the Ḳaddish recited by the synagogal reader.该ḳaddishYaḥid也是对响应的ḳaddish背诵的synagogal读者。The prayer-book of Amram Gaon of the ninth century contains various forms (pp. 3, 10, 12, 13, 14, and 18, ed. Warsaw, 1865).在祈祷的阿姆拉姆第九届世纪gaon的书包含(第3,10,12,13,14和18版。华沙,1865年)的各种形式。 The response of the congregation has since been curtailed to "Yehe Shemeh Rabbah."会众的反应已经被缩减,以“叶赫shemeh拉巴。”

3. 3。

The Ḳaddish de-Ẓibbur is recited by the ḥazzan at public prayer.本德的ḳaddish-Ẓibbur由ḥazzan背诵在公开祈祷。This Ḳaddish consists of Ḥaẓi Ḳaddish and Ḳaddish Shalem.这ḳaddish的由Ḥaẓi的ḳaddish和ḳaddish的Shalem。The Ḥaẓi Ḳaddish, up to "Titḳabbal," is said by the ḥazzan: (1) before "Bareku"; (2) after the morning "Taḥanun" (prostration); (3) after the "Ashre" of the "Minḥah" (afternoon prayer); (4) before "Wehu Raḥum"; (5) before the "'Amidah" (standing prayer), in the evening; (6) before "Wi-Yehi No'am," on Saturday night; (7) before the "Musaf" prayer; (8) after reading the Torah.该Ḥaẓi的ḳaddish,直至“Titḳabbal”,是说,由ḥazzan:(1)在“Bareku”;(2)后,今天上午“Taḥanun”(虚脱),(3)后,“Ashre”的“Minḥah” (下午祷告)(4)在“WehuRaḥum”;(5)在“'Amidah”(站立祈祷),晚上(6)在“无线Yehi No'am,”周六夜;( 7)之前,“Musaf”祈祷;(8)在读的圣经。The Ḳaddish Shalem is recited: (1) after "U-ba le-Ẓiyyon," at morning prayer; (2) after the "'Amidah" of "Minḥah"; (3) after the "'Amidah" for the evening; (4) before "Weyitten Leka," on Saturday night; (5) after the "Musaf" prayer.该ḳaddishShalem是吟诵道:(1)在“U型巴乐Ẓiyyon”,在上午的祈祷;(2)后,“'Amidah”的“Minḥah”;(3)后,“'Amidah”的晚上; (4)在“Weyitten雷卡,”周六晚上,(5)后,“Musaf”祈祷。

4. 4。

The Burial Ḳaddish, recited immediately after the burial, is quoted in Soferim xix.埋藏的ḳaddish,背诵后,立即埋葬,是Soferim十九引用。(end).(完)。According to Maimonides this is the Rabanan Ḳaddish, and should be recited after study; this is the present practise of the Orient; but Western custom has reserved it for burials, at which the assembly joins in the recitation of the mourners up to the word "beḥayyekon" (Baer, "Seder 'Abodat Yisrael," p. 588).据迈蒙尼德这是Rabananḳaddish的,应当经研究背诵,这是东方的现行做法,但西方的习俗已预留埋葬它,在其中大会在背诵的哀悼者加入到这个词“ beḥayyekon“(Baer的,”塞德'Abodat Yisrael“,页588)。

5. 5。

The Ḳaddish Yatom, like the regular mourner's Ḳaddish, is the full Ḳaddish of the ḥazzan (with the exception of the "Titḳabbal" sentence), up to "Yehe Shelama."该ḳaddish亚托姆一样,经常送葬者的ḳaddish的,是ḥazzan(用了“Titḳabbal”句除外)全文ḳ,直至“叶赫Shelama。” The Ḳaddish after the "'Alenu" is usually recited by the orphan.后的“'Alenu”ḳaddish是通常由孤儿背诵。The Ḳaddish Yatom is said also after "Piṭṭum ha-Ḳeṭoret," "An'im Zemirot," the Daily Psalm, and "Bame Madliḳin" (on Friday night).该ḳaddish亚托姆后也说:“Piṭṭum公顷Ḳeṭoret”,“An'im Zemirot,”每日诗篇,以及“巴梅Madliḳin”(周五晚)。

Rules of Precedence.规则的优先顺序。

Concerning the precedence of the various classes of mourners as regards the right of saying Ḳaddish, there is a difference of opinion.有关各阶级的悼念优先至于说ḳaddish的权利,有不同的意见。The Ashkenazic custom gives the following order: (1) Jahrzeit; (2) the first seven days of mourning; (3) the first thirty days of mourning; (4) the first year, or rather eleven months, of mourning less one day.自定义的德裔给出了以下顺序:(1)Jahrzeit;(2)第一七哀悼三天(3)第一天的哀悼三十;(4)的第一年,或者更确切地说,十一个月,少一天的哀悼。 The Jahrzeit mourner has the precedence over all for one Ḳaddish.送葬者的Jahrzeit有超过一ḳaddish的所有优先。If several Jahrzeit mourners are represented, the Ḳaddishim are divided among them to the exclusion of others.如果几个Jahrzeit哀悼者的代表,在Ḳaddishim划分,其中对他人的排斥。If there are more Jahrzeit mourners than there are Ḳaddishim in the service, lots are drawn.如果有更多Jahrzeit哀悼者比有在服务Ḳaddishim,地段绘制。After each of the Jahrzeit mourners has recited one Ḳaddish the rest go to the seven-day mourners.送葬后,Jahrzeit各有背诵一ḳaddish的其余去看7天的哀悼。If there are no seven-day mourners, the thirty-day mourners recite them.如果没有七天哀悼,第三日哀悼背诵它们。The first-year mourner, in the absence of other mourners, recites one Ḳaddish after the Daily Psalm, and the Jahrzeit mourners all the rest.第一年送葬者送葬者在其他的情况下,朗诵一ḳaddish的后每日诗篇,以及Jahrzeit悼念所有的休息。A minor who is an orphan takes precedence over an older person.谁是一个未成年孤儿接管年龄大的人优先。A resident or a Jahrzeit mourner has the preference over a newcomer, unless the latter be a seven-day mourner, when their rights are equal.一个居民或Jahrzeit送葬者有过一个新人的偏好,除非后者是7天的哀悼者,当他们的权利是平等的。Mourners whose rights of precedence are equal decide among themselves by drawing lots.The Sephardic minhag, however, allows the mourners to recite the Ḳaddish jointly, but they are so distributed in the synagogue that the congregation may distinguish their voices at various points and respond "Amen."送葬的优先权利是平等之间自行决定以抽签lots.The塞法迪minhag,然而,让送葬者朗诵ḳaddish共同的,但他们是如此分布在犹太教堂的众可区分不同点他们的声音和回应“阿们。“ This custom is gradually being accepted by the Ashkenazic synagogues.这种习俗正逐渐被接受的德裔犹太会堂。In Seder R. Amram Gaon (p. 4) an explanation is given of the custom of bowing five times during the recital of Ḳaddish-at the words (1) "yitgadal," (2) "ba-agala," (3) "yitbarak," (4) "shemeh," (5) "'oseh shalom": the five inclinations correspond with the five names of God mentioned in Mal.在塞德河阿姆拉姆gaon的(第4页)一个解释是,由于对五的习俗鞠躬期间,演奏的ḳaddish,在的话(1)“​​yitgadal,”(2)“巴agala,”(3) “yitbarak,”(4)“shemeh,”(5)“'oseh沙洛姆”:五个倾向对应神在马累提到的五个名字。i.11.11。The seven synonyms of praise-"blessed," "praised," "glorified," "exalted," "extolled," "honored," and "uplifted" (the word "lauded" is omitted)-signify the seven heavens above.七同义词的好评,“祝福”,“称赞”,“光荣”,“开天辟地”,“赞颂”,“荣幸”和“隆起”(这个词“赞扬”省略),象征七个天以上。 See Jahrzeit.见Jahrzeit。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Baer, Seder 'Abodat Yisrael, p.贝尔,塞德'Abodat Yisrael,第16, Rödelheim, 1868; Dembitz, Jewish Services in the Synagogue and Home, pp. 105-111, Philadelphia, 1898; 16,Rödelheim,1868; Dembitz,在犹太教堂和犹太家庭服务,第105-111,费城,1898年;

Landshuth, Seder Biḳḳur Ḥolim, Introduction, § 31, and p.Landshuth,塞德BiḳḳurḤolim,引种,§ 31,第112, Berlin, 1867.AJDE112,柏林,1867.AJDE

-Musical Rendering:歌舞剧渲染:

From the position of the Ḳaddish at the conclusion of each service, and more particularly from the employment of its shorter form, "Ḳaddish Le'ela," as marking off each section of the service, more importance came to be attached to the particular form of its intonation as the accompanying circumstances varied, than was due even to the nature of the doxology and the responses necessitating its public intonation.从的ḳaddish在每个服务结束的位置,更特别是从它的较短的形式,“ḳaddish的Le'ela,”为标志交相辉映的服务类别的就业,更重要的后来被连接到特定形式经更改的语调伴随的情况下,比应有的,甚至到了该doxology因此需要反应的性质和它的公共语调。 Following, too, the fundamental constructive principle of all synagogal chants, explained under Cantillation and Ḥazzanut, in consequence of which the same text varies alike in tonality and in melodic outline according to the importance of the occasion and to the esthetic expression associated with it, there have gradually shaped themselves in each of the traditional uses a number of tuneful renderings of the Ḳaddish which have become in themselves typical melodies of the day or of the service.以下,也基本所有synagogal呼喊建设性的原则,解释和Ḥazzanut下Cantillation在后果,其中相同的文字,都在不同音调和旋律纲要根据重要性的场合和审美表达与此相关,逐步形成有在传统的每个使用了自己的本身已成为天或服务的典型ḳaddish的悦耳的旋律渲染数量。 As early as the fifteenth century such melodies were recognized; and the utmost importance was attached to their faithful reproduction at the point in the liturgy with which they had become traditionally associated (comp. MaHaRIL, ed. Sabbionetta, 43b, 49a, 61a, b, etc.).早在十五世纪初被确认这样的旋律,以及最重要的是附加在指向他们的忠实再现的礼仪与传统,他们已成为相关(可比MaHaRIL,海关Sabbionetta,43B条,第49A,61A条,乙。等)。

Fixed Melodies.固定的旋律。

These were probably the settings of the Ḳaddish, at least in outline, which are now most widely accepted; but most of those settings which exhibit formal construction are more likely later introductions due to the influence of contemporary folk-songs (see Music, Synagogal).这些人可能是设置的ḳaddish,至少在轮廓,这是目前最被广泛接受,但这些设置的展览的正式建设,是更可能是由于当代民俗歌曲,后来引进的影响最大(见音乐,Synagogal) 。For, originally, the model vocal phrase which, when amplified and developed to the text of the particular 'Amidah (comp. Ḥazzanut) with which it was associated, formed the intonation to which that prayer was recited, reproduced itself also in the Ḳaddish which immediately preceded the prayer.因为,原来,这个模式声乐一句,当扩增并发展到特定'Amidah文本(可比Ḥazzanut)与它的关联,形成了语调而祈祷是背诵,复制本身也是其中的ḳaddish紧跟祈祷。 Such, indeed, still are the intonations in the ordinary week-day services, in the Sabbath afternoon service, those at the close of the Psalms, etc., in the morning service, or those before the "Musaf" of Ṭal and Geshem or the Atonement Ne'ilah, in the Ashkenazic, as well as most of the intonations in the Sephardic use.因此,事实上,现在仍然是在普通的为期一周的日间服务语调在安息日下午的服务,那些在诗篇,等关闭,在上午的服务,或前“Musaf的”Tal和Geshem或那些赎罪Ne'ilah,在德裔,以及大部分的语调在sephardic使用。

Other settings of this class continue the intonation of the passage immediately preceding the Ḳaddish, as that for Sabbath eve in the Sephardic use (comp. De Sola and Aguilar, "Ancient Melodies," No. 9, London, 1852), or those of the New-Year and Atonement evening service in the Ashkenazic use.这个类的其他设置继续音调的通过之前ḳaddish,因为这为安息日前夕在sephardic使用(可比德索拉和阿吉拉尔,“古韵”,第9号,伦敦,1852年),或那些新的年期和赎罪的德裔利用晚上的服务。 Others, again, such as the powerful, if florid, recitative associated with the penitential "Musaf" (see music), have been developed from traditional material independently of the associated service.其他人,再次,如强大的,如果华丽,与悔罪“Musaf”(见音乐),相关的宣叙调已制定了从传统材料相关的服务独立。

Representative Themes.代表主题。

More formal in structure, and thus more nearly allied to melody according to modern conceptions, are the later, and more numerous, settings of the Ḳaddish which have been adapted from, or built on similar lines to, contemporary folk-songs.更正式的结构,从而更接近结盟的旋律按照现代观念,是后来,越来越多不胜数,其中的ḳaddish已被改编,或到,当代民俗歌曲类似建行设置。 Several are far from solemn in character, as, for example, national or patriotic airs (the "Marseillaise" was employed for the Ḳaddish in Lorraine about 1830; and still more incongruous tunes have been used), or mere jingles like the festival evening melodies still utilized in England (comp. Mombach, "Sacred Musical Compositions," pp. 115, 117, London, 1881) or that often used in Germany after the Festival of the Reading of the Law (comp. Baer, "Ba'al Tefillah," No. 825, Göteborg, 1877; Frankfort, 1883).几个远离庄严性质,因为,例如国家或爱国摆架子(以下简称“马赛曲”被雇用的大约1830年的ḳaddish在洛林,以及更不协调的曲调已使用),或像春晚广告歌曲旋律单纯还利用在英国(可比Mombach,“神圣的乐曲”,第115,117,伦敦,1881),或经常采用德国后的读法(comp. Baer的,“Ba'al Tefillah节“825号,哥德堡,1877年;法兰克福,1883年)。Others, enriched with characteristically Hebraic adornment, majestic or pathetic in themselves, have in turn become representative themes, like the prayer-motives of the ḥazzanut, typifying the sentiment prominent in the service or occasion with which they are associated.其他人,典型希伯来装饰丰富,雄伟,或在自己可怜兮兮的,已经反过来成为代表性的主题,像祈祷的ḥazzanut动机,典型化的情绪在服务场合或与它们有关联的突出。 Such, for instance, are the obviously Spanish air known among Sephardim as "La Despidida," and sung as a farewell on the last day of each festival, and the beautiful melodies employed after the reading of the lesson from the Law among the northern Jews (see music).例如,举例来说,显然是西班牙空气中Sephardim被称为“香格里拉Despidida”,并作为对每节的最后一天告别演唱,以及之后的教训,从读法在北部犹太人聘用的优美的旋律(见音乐)。

A very curious and unesthetic custom formerly prevailed among the Ashkenazim of chanting the Ḳaddish, after the lessons on the rejoicing of the law, to a cento of phrases from melodies in use throughout the rest of the year, the version once employed in London (comp. Mombach, "Sacred Musical Compositions," p. 137) introducing fragments of no less than twelve such airs.一个很好奇和unesthetic定制前身之间普遍的ḳaddish德系犹太人的呼喊后,对法律的大喜的教训,在整个这一年其余的词句从旋律摘录使用,该版本曾受聘于伦敦(比赛。Mombach,“神圣的乐曲”,第137页)引入不低于十二播出的片段等。

The congregational responses were originally toneless, a mere loud acclaim.公理反应原本toneless,仅仅是大声喝彩。To Sulzer is due the casting of them into the generally accepted shape.为了苏尔寿,这是因为他们将普遍接受的形状铸造。Other composers also have presented suitable definite melodic phrases.其他作曲家也有一定的旋律提出合适的词组。The tendency is properly to model the responses upon the tuneful material of the particular Ḳaddish itself (comp. Baer, "Ba'al Tefillah," passim, and Cohen and Davis, "The Voice of Prayer and Praise," pp. xx. et seq., London, 1899).目前的趋势是正确的模型后,特定的ḳaddish本身(comp. Baer的,“Ba'al Tefillah,”各处悦耳材料的反应,以及科恩和戴维斯“的祈祷声和赞美,”页二十。等起。,伦敦,1899年)。

Cyrus Adler, Kaufmann Kohler, Judah David Eisenstein, Francis L. Cohen赛勒斯阿德勒,考夫曼科勒,犹大大卫艾森斯坦,弗朗西斯科恩属
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版01年至1906年之间。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Most collections of synagogal melodies present some form of the Ḳaddish or responses for it; see particularly those given in Baer, Ba'al Tefillah.最珍藏的synagogal旋律提出一些的ḳaddish或回复表格,见特别是在贝尔,Ba'al Tefillah给出的。Of especial interest, in addition to those enumerated above, are: Consolo, Canti d'Israele, Nos. 127, 302, Florence, 1892; as given in Sulzer, Shir Ẓiyyon, No. 128, Vienna, 1840; Naumbourg, Aggudat Shirim, No. 15, Paris, 1874; Baer, lc No. 1466 (both Polish and German forms); Marksohn and Wolf, Synagogal-Melodien., Nos. 11, 13, Leipsic, 1875; Naumbourg, lc No. 23; Pauer and Cohen, Traditional Hebrew Melodies, No. 11, London, 1892; Braham and Nathan, Byron's Hebrew Melodies, No. 3, London, 1815; Naumann, History of Music, Eng.的特殊利益,是除了上面列举的那些:索洛,Canti德Israele,第127,302,佛罗伦萨,1892年,在苏尔寿,事儿Ẓiyyon,128号,维也纳,1840年发出; Naumbourg,Aggudat Shirim 15号,巴黎,1874年,贝尔,​​立法会第1466(波兰和德国的形式); Marksohn和狼,Synagogal - Melodien,第11,13,普西克,1875年;。Naumbourg,立法会第23号; Pauer与科恩,传统希伯来旋律,第11号,伦敦,1892年,布拉汉及弥敦道,拜伦的希伯来文的旋律,第3号,伦敦,1815年,瑙曼,音乐史,英。 ed., p.教育署。,第82, London, 1886; Young Israel, i.82,伦敦,1886年,年轻的以色列岛243, ii.243,二。104 and 152, London, 1898-99; H. Zivi, Der Jahrkaddisch für Simchasthora, Leipsic, 1902; Nowakowsky, Schlussgebet für Jom Kippur, No. 1.AFLCḲADDISH (La Despidida)104和152,伦敦,1898年至1899年阁下; Zivi,明镜Jahrkaddisch献给Simchasthora,普西克,1902年; Nowakowsky,Schlussgebet献给Jom Kippur号1.AFLCḲADDISH(香格里拉Despidida)


Lord's Prayer (in English, translated from Greek)主祷文(英语,翻译从希腊文)

Orthodox Church Text东正教文本

Our Father, who art in heaven,我们的父亲,谁的艺术天堂,
Hallowed be Thy name.愿人都尊你的名。
Thy kingdom come.你来英国。
Thy will be done,愿你的旨意,
on earth as it is in heaven.在人间,如同在天上。
Give us this day让我们在这一天
our daily bread;我们每天的面包;
and forgive us our trespasses,求你宽恕我们的罪过,
as we forgive those who trespass against us;因为我们原谅那些对我们谁侵犯;
and lead us not into temptation,不叫我们遇见试探,
but deliver us from evil.但救我们脱离凶恶。


The Lord's Prayer主祷文

Historical Note历史注释

The exact wording of the Lord's Prayer the way YOU say it is PRECISELY CORRECT, right?该主祷文的确切措辞的样子,你说这恰恰是正确的,对不对?Well, probably not, for several reasons.嗯,大概不会,有几个原因。First, it is presented twice in the Bible, and the wording is different, as noted in the articles above.首先,它提出两次在圣经和措辞是不同的,正如上面的文章。Second, the final Doxology which is nearly always added in Protestant Churches but not used in Catholic Churches, is very poorly documented in early Manuscripts, as noted above.其次,这是最后的三一颂几乎总是加入基督教,但没有在天主教教会使用,是非常糟糕记录在早期手稿,如上所述。

But thirdly, careful historical research has discovered that NO really early Manuscript includes the words after the word 'temptation'.但第三,认真研究了历史的研究发现,早期的手稿,包括没有真正一词后'诱惑'的话。Christian scholars now nearly universally agree that an early Scribe apparently wished to add some clarifying text to the Prayer, and he added in those final words!基督教学者普遍同意,现在几乎抄写显然希望早日加入一些澄清文本的祈祷,他在这些最后的话添加!

This is not unheard of, as there are a number of other examples where it is very clear that Scribes had added or slightly modified wording during the process of Scribe-copying the Bible text.这不是闻所未闻的,因为有很多其他的例子数,其中一点是很清楚的文士已加入或稍加修改期间,抄写,复制圣经文本的过程措辞。 The changes never alter any actual meaning of any Verse, and generally were clearly intended to help later Christians better understand what (the Scribe felt that) the Original text had meant.这些变化从未改变诗的任何实际意义,一般人显然旨在帮助基督徒以后更好地了解什么(文士认为),原文的意思了。

So even though we say the Lord's Prayer in a way that is slightly different than the exact Original wording was, it is generally universally agreed among modern Christian scholars that it would be extremely disruptive to millions of Christians to try to Teach people to now alter their recitation of the Prayer!因此,即使我们说,在主的的方式略有不同,确切的原文是祈祷,但一般普遍认为在现代基督教学者,这将是非常打乱百万计的基督徒,试图教人现在改变自己背诵祈祷! Too many people would totally misunderstand the reasoning and instead take it as some sort of evidence that the exact wording of the Bible could not be trusted!太多的人会完全误解的推理,而是采取一些证据那种圣经的确切措辞不能信任它!So even though we recite the Prayer in a way that all modern Christian scholars know is very slightly incorrect, that situation will continue, probably forever!因此,即使我们背诵的方式,所有的现代基督教学者所知道的是很轻微不正确,这种情况将继续下去,可能永远的祈祷!

It does NOT suggest any weakness regarding the Lord, the Bible or Christianity!它没有提出任何有关上帝的弱点,或基督教的圣经!It merely points out that we are all humans, and therefore not Perfect!它只是指出,我们所有的人,因此并不完美!(Our Church sees this matter to be a valuable Lesson on that regard!)(我们会看到这个问题是一个关于这方面的宝贵教训!)


Also, see:此外,见:
Society of Friends (Quakers)社会上的朋友(贵格)

Book of Common Prayer本书的共同祈祷

Rosary 念珠

Prayer 祈祷


This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



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