Lutheranism,Lutheran Church路德会 教会

General Information一般资料

Lutheranism is the branch of Protestantism that generally follows the teachings of the 16th century reformer Martin Luther.路德教是基督教的一个分支,一般情况下的16世纪的改革家马丁路德的教诲。 The Lutheran movement diffused after 1517 from Saxony through many other German territories into Scandinavia.路德运动扩散后,1517年从萨克森州通过其他许多斯堪的纳维亚到德国领土。In the 18th century it spread to America and, thereafter, into many nations of the world, and it has come to number more than 70 million adherents.在18世纪传入美国,此后,为世界上许多国家,它已经到了人数超过7000万信徒。As such, it lays claim to being the largest non Roman Catholic body in the Western Christian church.因此,它号称是最大的非罗马天主教教会在西方的基督教机构。

Lutheranism appeared in Europe after a century of reformist stirrings in Italy under Girolamo Savonarola, in Bohemia under John Huss, and in England under the Lollards.路德教出现在欧洲的改革派stirrings后在意大利下吉罗拉莫萨沃纳罗拉在波西米亚,根据约翰胡斯世纪,在英国的罗拉德派。 The personal experience of the troubled monk Luther gave shape to many of the original impulses of the Protestant Reformation and colors Lutheranism to the present.陷入困境的和尚的个人经验形成了路德的新教改革和颜色路德教到现在许多原始的冲动。Like many people of conscience in his day, Luther was disturbed by immorality and corruption in the Roman Catholic church, but he concentrated more on reform of what he thought was corrupt teaching.就像他在一天许多人的良心,路德感到不安的不道德和腐败的罗马天主教会,但他更是什么,他的想法是腐败的集中教学改革。 After he experienced what he believed to be the stirrings of Grace, he proclaimed a message of divine promise and denounced the human merits through which, he feared, most Catholics thought they were earning the favor of God.之后,他经历了他认为是stirrings的恩典,他宣布了一项讯息的神圣诺言,并谴责人类的优点,通过它,他担心,大多数天主教徒认为他们赢得了上帝的青睐。

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Lutheranism soon became more than the experience of Luther, but it never deviated from his theme that people are made right with God sola gratia and sola fide - that is, only by the divine initiative of grace as received through God's gift of faith. Because Luther came across his discoveries by reading the Bible, he also liked to add to his motto the exhortation sola scriptura, which means that Lutherans are to use the Bible alone as the source and norm for their teachings.路德教很快就超过了路德的经验,但它从来没有偏离主题,从他那人是由真正的权利与上帝索拉特惠和索拉-是,只有神圣的信仰。倡议的宽限期为透过礼物神的,因为路德发现碰到他所读的圣经,他也喜欢添加到他的格言告诫,唯独圣经,这意味着lutherans是用他们的教导圣经仅作为源和规范。

The Lutheran movement gained popularity quickly in Germany at a time of rising nationalism among people who resented sending their wealth to Rome.路德运动普及很快,在德国的崛起在人们之间谁反感,将自己的财富去罗马的民族主义的时间。The early Lutherans were strongly based in the universities and used their learning to spread the faith among an international community of scholars.早期路德会强烈设在大学,用他们的学习,以传播学者之间的国际社会的信心。By 1530 they were formulating their own Confessions of Faith and proceeding independently amid the non Lutheran reform parties that proliferated across most of northern Europe.到1530年,他们分别制定自己的供述中的信仰和诉讼中,非路德改革横跨欧洲最北部各方繁衍独立。By 1580 and through the next century, these confessions became increasingly rigid scholastic expressions, designed to define the church in formal terms. Ever since, Lutheranism has been known as a doctrinal and even dogmatic church.由1580年并通过了下个世纪,这些供词成为日益僵化的学业表现,旨在确定教堂正式条款英寸从那时起,一直路德教教堂被称为理论,甚至教条式的。

Lutheranism did not and could not live only by the teaching of its professors.路德教没有也不可能生活所教学的教授而已。In the late 17th century its more gentle side, which grew out of the piety of Luther, appeared in the form of a movement called Pietism.在晚17世纪它更温柔的一面,它的前身是对虔诚的路德,出现在所谓pietism一种运动形式。Nominally orthodox in belief and practice, the Pietists stressed Bible reading, circles of prayer and devotion, and the works of love.名义上东正教信仰与实践,虔诚强调圣经读,祈祷和奉献圈,爱的作品。This pietism was somewhat unstable; in its downgrading of doctrine it helped prepare Lutherans for the age of Enlightenment, when many leaders and some of the faithful turned to rationalism.这pietism有点不稳,在其学说的降级对于准备启蒙的时候,许多领导和部分忠实转向理性主义时代的lutherans。 Subsequently, theology under Lutheran influence has often taken on a radical character, especially in Germany.随后,在路德神学的影响,往往采取激进的性格,尤其是在德国。As a result, there is often a considerable gap between intellectual expressions of Lutheranism and the liturgy and preaching of its congregations.因此,经常存在着之间的智力表现路德教和礼仪,并鼓吹其毕业典礼相当大的差距。

From the beginning, Lutheranism had to wrestle with the problem of its relation to civil authorities.从一开始,路德教不得不角力与问题,它关系到民事当局。Although Luther was a rebel against papal teaching, he was docile about reforming the civil order and rejected radical revolts by the peasants (Peasants' War).虽然路德是一个反抗教皇教学,他对改革民事秩序温顺和拒绝了农民(农民战争)激进的反抗。Fearing anarchy more than authoritarianism, the Lutherans gravitated to biblical teachings that stressed the authority of the state more than the civil freedom of its citizens.不怕无政府状态以上的威权,路德会吸引到它强调超过了其公民公民自由国家的权威圣经的教导。Most of them were content not to separate church and state, and in the Peace of Augsburg (1555) approved the principle that the ruler determined the faith of the ruled.他们大多是内容不独立的教会和国家,在和平的奥格斯堡(1555)通过的原则,决定了统治者统治的信心。Later Lutherans have enthusiastically embraced republican and democratic government as applications of the principle that God is active in different ways through the two realms of civil and churchly authority.后来lutherans热情拥抱的共和党政府,并作为原则,即上帝是通过民间和教会当局的两种不同的方式积极应用领域的民主政府。 Many German Lutherans were silent or cooperative, however, when the Nazi regime took over the church; only the Confessing Church, led by Martin Niemoller, opposed the regime outright.许多德国lutherans保持沉默或合作的,然而,当纳粹政权接管了教堂,只有承认的教会,马丁尼默勒领导,反对该政权顾左右而言他。

Lutherans have been more ready than many other Christians to see the permanence of evil in the powers of the created and fallen world, that is, the world under the influence of sin.lutherans已比其他许多基督徒更愿意看到在权力的邪恶持久性创造了大跟头的影响下,罪恶的世界,那就是世界。 Consequently, they have put more of their energies into works of welfare and charity - into orphanages, hospitals, and deaconesses' movements - than into social schemes to transform the world.因此,他们把更多的精力到社会福利和慈善工程 - 到孤儿院,医院和执事的动作 - 比纳入社会计划,以改造世界。

In Europe most Lutheran churches are episcopal, that is, ruled by bishops, and the churches of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden are established.在欧洲最路德教会主教,也就是统治的主教,以及丹麦,芬兰,冰岛,挪威和瑞典教会成立。In North America and elsewhere Lutherans prefer congregational and synodical forms of government, in which local churches link together for common purposes.在北美和其他地区的lutherans宁愿堂和synodical形式的政府,在这种地方教会连结在一起,共同的目的。 In the United States, Lutherans have united in three main bodies: the Lutheran Church in America (membership, 2.9 million), the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod (2.6 million), and the American Lutheran Church (2.3 million).在美国,lutherans曾在美国三个主要机构:路德教会在美国(会员2.9万美元),路德教会 - 密苏里州主教(260万),和美国路德教会(230万)。The American Lutheran Church, the Lutheran Church in America, and a third group, The Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches, united in 1987 to form the Evangelical Lutheran Church of America.美国路德教会,路德教会在美国,第三组,该福音派路德教会联合会,联合国在1987年,形成了美国福音信义会。

Lutheranism is generally friendly to the Ecumenical Movement, and with some exceptions, Lutheran churches have participated in worldwide gatherings of Christians across confessional and denominational boundaries. Lutherans consider themselves to be both evangelical and catholic because they have points in common with the other Protestant churches on the one hand, and with Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Anglican Christians on the other. In the ecumenical age, however, they have kept a very distinct identity through their general loyalty to the teachings of 16th century Lutheranism.路德教是一般的友好的基督信仰合一运动,并有一些例外,路德会教堂和教会的界限在参加聚会,世界各地的基督徒教派之间。lutherans认为自己既是福音派和天主教的,因为他们对基督教点,其他有共同的一方面,与东正教,罗马天主教和其他。圣公会基督徒在基督教中年龄,然而,他们都保持了16世纪的路德教一个非常独特的身份,通过教导他们的一般忠诚。

Martin E Marty马丁é马蒂

Bibliography 参考书目
ET / M Bachmann, Lutheran Churches in the World: A Handbook (1989); C Bergendoff, The Church of the Lutheran Reformation (1967); E Lueker, ed., Lutheran Cyclopedia (1987).东部/ M期巴赫曼,在世界路德教会:。一个手册(1989条),c伯根多夫,教会的路德改革(1967),电子商务Lueker,版,路德cyclopedia的(1987年)。


The Lutheran Tradition路德传统

Advanced Information先进的信息

This term, or "Lutheranism," is employed to refer to the doctrine and practices authoritative in the Lutheran Churches and as a broad term for those churches throughout the world in general.这个名词,即“路德教,”是用来指的理论和实践在路德教会的权威,并作为整个世界的教会一般广义的术语。 The name "Lutheran" was not self chosen but was initially applied by the enemies of Martin Luther in the early 1520s.命名为“信义”,并不是自我选择的,但最初在1520年代初在马丁路德适用的敌人。Only when he felt that the identification was understood to mean recognition of the truth of his teaching did Luther suggest, "If you are convinced that Luther's teaching is in accord with the Gospel, then you should not discard Luther so completely, lest with him you discard also his teaching, which you nevertheless recognize as Christ's teaching."只有当他认为这个鉴定的理解,就是对真理的认识,他的教学路德建议,“如果你确信路德的教学是符合福音, 那么你不应该抛弃路德如此彻底,以免你跟他一起也抛弃他的教学,你不过是作为基督的教诲承认。“

This teaching of Luther, forged from his discovery that the righteousness of God is not a righteousness that judges and demands but the righteousness given by God in grace, found its systematic expression in the formularies incorporated in the Book of Concord.这种路德教学,从他的发现,神的义,是不是一个正义的法官和要求,但上帝给的恩典义,发现在这本书的康科德及其系统纳入了处方表达伪造的。 All these documents, with the exception of the Formula of Concord, were written between 1529 and 1537 by Luther and Philip Melanchthon.所有这些与该公式的康科德文件,除写之间的1529和1537年由路德和菲利普梅兰希。They reflect the emphasis on justification by grace and the correction of abuses in the life of the church while at the same time "conserving" the church's catholic heritage (through explicit commitment to the ancient creeds, traditional forms of worship, church government, etc.).它们反映了强调理由,由恩典和滥用在该教堂,而在同一时间“节约”的教会的天主教文物(生命修正通过明确承诺古老信条,传统形式的崇拜,教会,政府等)。

During the years following Luther's death in 1546, theological conflicts increasingly plagued his followers.在随后路德在1546年去世后,神学冲突日益困扰他的追随者。The Formula of Concord, composed of the Epitome of the Articles in Dispute and the Solid Declaration of Some Articles of the Augsburg Confession, sought to resolve those disputes in terms of the authentic teaching of Luther.该公式的康科德,在纠纷中的一个缩影条款和对一些文章的奥格斯堡自白固体宣言组成,设法解决在教学方面路德正宗的纠纷。 Subscription to these "symbolical" writings of the Book of Concord as true expositions of the Holy Scriptures has historically marked the doctrinal positions of Lutheranism.订阅这些“象征意义”的康科德,作为真正的论述圣经书籍著作历来标志着路德教教义立场。

Doctrines教义

The distinctive doctrines of Lutheran theology have commonly been related to the classical leitmotifs of the Reformation: sola Scriptura, sola gratia, sola fide. 路德神学独特的教义有常见的是与古典leitmotifs改革:唯独圣经,索拉特惠,索拉诚意。

The theology of Lutheranism is first a theology of the Word. Its principle of sola Scriptura affirms the Bible as the only norm of Christian doctrine. The Scripture is the causa media by which man learns to know God and his will; the Word is the one and the only source of theology.路德教神学首先是一个字神学的意愿。 及其原则唯独圣经申明基督教圣经为唯一标准 ; 学说。圣经,是起因媒体,其中男子得知知道上帝和他的这个词是一和神学的唯一来源。Lutheranism pledges itself "to the prophetic and apostolic writings of the Old and New Testaments as the pure and clear fountain of Israel, which is the only norm according to which all teachers and teachings are to be judged and evaluated" (Formula of Concord, Epitome).To be sure, the authority of Scripture had been emphasized prior to Luther and the Reformation.路德教承诺本身,“为了在新旧约的先知和使徒的以色列,这是唯一的准则,根据所有的教师和教诲,是衡量和评价纯净清泉著作”(康科德,缩影公式)。可以肯定的,圣经的权力已被强调,之前路德和改造。 However, when Lutheranism referred to the Bible as the divine Word, brought to man through the apostles and prophets, it spoke with a new conviction regarding the primacy of the Word.然而,当路德教称为圣言的圣经,使透过使徒和先知的人,它以一种新的关于这个词的首要地位的信念。Luther recognized that the authority of Scripture was valid even where it was opposed by pope, council, or tradition.路德认为圣经的权威是有效的,即使它是由教皇,理事会,或传统的反对。

The Lutheran understanding of this principle should be distinguished from bibliolatry.这项原则的路德会了解应有别于bibliolatry。Historic Lutheranism viewed Scripture as the organic foundation of faith.历史路德教视为信仰的有机基础经文。It is the source of theology in an instrumental sense.这是神学在器乐感来源。It is not the cause of the being of theology; that would truly be a deification or worship of a book.这是不是导致了目前的神学,这将真正成为神化或本本主义。Rather, God is the first cause of theology; he is the principium essendi, its foundation, its beginning, and its end.相反,上帝是神学第一个原因,他是原理essendi,它的基础,它的开始,其目的。The Scripture is the principium cognoscendi, for from Scripture theology is known and understood.圣经,是原理cognoscendi,从圣经神学,是认识和了解。Furthermore, the Lutheran view of the Bible is to be distinguished from a legalistic orientation.此外,路德圣经的看法是,从法律上被定位区别开来。Christ is at the center of the Bible.基督是圣经的中心。Essential to understanding the Word of God is accepting the promises of the gospel by faith.有必要了解神的话语,正是接受因信福音的承诺。If this faith is lacking, the Scriptures cannot be correctly understood.如果这种信仰是匮乏的,念经,不能正确理解。

The second doctrinal distinctive of Lutheranism is the doctrine of justification. According to Luther there are two kinds of righteousness, an external righteousness and an inner righteousness. 第二个理论鲜明的路德教是中庸的理由。据路德有两种正义,公义的外部和内部的义。External righteousness, or civil righteousness, may be acquired through just conduct or good deeds.对外正气,或民间正义,可通过收购刚刚行为或做好事。However, inner righteousness consists of the purity and perfection of the heart.不过,党内正义构成的纯度和完美的心。Consequently, it cannot be attained through external deeds.因此,它不能达到通过外部事迹。This righteousness is of God and comes as a gift of his fatherly grace.这是正义的神,并作为礼物,他慈父般的恩典来。This is the source of justification.这是源头上的理由。

The ground for justification is Christ, who by his death made satisfaction for the sins of mankind. The Apology of the Augsburg Confession defines justification as meaning "to absolve a guilty man and pronounce him righteous, and to do so on account of someone else's righteousness, namely, Christ's." 其理由理由是基督,谁对他的逝世使人类满意罪为。口供道歉的奥格斯堡定义正义的理由,意思是“为开脱心虚男子,并宣告他的正义,以及我们做其他等考虑别人,即基督的。“ Thus God acquits man of all his sins, and he does this not because man is innocent; rather God justifies us and declares man to be righteous for Christ's sake, because of his righteousness, his obedience to God's law, and his suffering and death.因此上帝acquits他的所有罪孽的人,他这样做,因为人是无辜的,而是上帝证明我们并宣布男子被正义为基督的缘故,是因为他的正义感,他服从上帝的法律,以及他的痛苦和死亡。 When God justifies, he not only forgives sins, but he also reckons to man Christ's perfect righteousness. God declares sinners to be righteous, apart from human merit or work, for the sake of Christ (forensic justification).当上帝的理由,他不仅宽恕罪孽,但他也研判,以人为基督的完美正义。 上帝宣告罪人受到正义的,除了人的优点或工作),为基督的缘故理由(法医。

Related to this teaching is the third significant hallmark of Lutheranism: sola fide.与此相关的教学是第三个显着标志,路德教:索拉诚意。The means whereby justification accrues to the individual is faith. The gospel, as Lutheranism confessed it, made faith the only way by which man could receive God's grace. 该方法的理由,归个人信仰。福音,因为路德教承认它,使信心的唯一途径,其中男子可以得到神的恩典。In the medieval scholastic tradition theologians spoke of faith as something that could be acquired through instruction and preaching (fides acquisita).在中世纪的学术传统神学以信仰为东西可以通过收购指令和说教(惹人acquisita)。This was distinguished from infused faith (fides infusa), which is a gift of grace and implies adherence to all revealed truth.这是区别于注入信仰(惹人infusa),这是一个礼物的宽限期,并且意味着遵守所有发现的真理。 Lutheranism repudiated this distinction.路德教推翻这种区别。The faith which comes by preaching coincides with that which is justifying; it is wholly a gift of God. Justifying faith is not merely a historical knowledge of the content of the gospel; it is acceptance of the merits of Christ.信仰,这是由说教,刚好与这其中的理由是,它是全护短礼物神。 信仰不单单是对历史知识的内容,它是基督福音的优点接受的。Faith, therefore, is trust in the mercy of God for the sake of his Son. 信仰,因此,是儿子在他的信任神的慈悲为缘故。

Lutheranism has persistently refused to see faith itself as a "work". Faith is receptivity, receiving Christ and all that he has done. It is not man's accomplishment that effects his justification before God.路德教坚持不肯见工作“信仰本身作为一个”。 信仰是感受性,接受基督和他所做的一切。这是不是人为的成果,影响他的理由上帝面前。Faith is instead that which accepts God's verdict of justification: "Faith does not justify because it is so good a work and so God - pleasing a virtue, but because it lays hold on and accepts the merit of Christ in the promise of the holy Gospel" (Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration).信仰是说,而是接受上帝的理由判决:“信念没有理由,因为它是那么好一项工作,所以上帝 - 令人欣慰的是一种美德,而是因为它规定,坚持和接受的许诺圣福音基督的优点“(公式康科德,固体宣言)。

The article of justification by grace through faith challenged the Roman Catholic tradition, which asserted that faith was pleasing to God only if it were accompanied by good works and perfected by love. At the Council of Trent in 1545 the Lutheran view was condemned and the medieval Roman Church reiterated its doctrine that justification is a state of grace in which human good works have merit. For Lutheranism, faith and works certainly cannot be separated; however, they must be distinguished. The righteousness of faith refers to man in his relation to God (coram Deo). 本文通过信仰理由的宽限期,以挑战罗马天主教的传统,主张信心是神所喜悦的只有当它是伴随着良好的工作和爱情完美的。中世纪的谴责,并在理事会的遄达路德会在1545年罗马教会重申了其学说,理由是一个优雅的状态中,人的优秀作品有可取之处。路德教,信仰和工程肯定不能分开,但他们必须加以区分的神的正义的信仰,是指男子在他的关系(科勒姆迪奥)。 The righteousness of good works refers to man in relation to his neighbor (coram hominibus).正义的优秀作品,是指男子在与他的邻居(科勒姆hominibus)。

These must not be confused so as to intimate that man will seek to become just in the sight of God on the strength of his good deeds, nor in such a way that he will attempt to conceal sin with grace.这些绝不能混淆等,以体内,该名男子将谋求成为刚刚在上帝的力量,他的善行视线,也以这样一种方式,他将试图掩盖罪恶与恩典。 Thus, with respect to justification strictly speaking, good works must be clearly distinguished.因此,关于理由严格来说,好的作品必须有明确的区分。But faith cannot be apart from works. Where there is faith in Christ, love and good works also follow.但是,信仰不能除了工程。 哪里有信心在基督里,爱情和好的作品也随之而来。

In one way or another the three fundamental doctrines of Lutheranism, sola Scriptura, sola gratia, sola fide, determine the shape of other distinctive teachings.在这种或那种方式的三个基本路德教教义,唯独圣经,索拉特惠,索拉诚意,确定其他独特的教义的形状。For example, the position of Lutheranism on man's free will is understood in the light of the doctrine of justification.例如,路德教对人的自由意志的立场是理解的学说的理由光。Man is completely without a free will with respect to the "spiritual sphere" (that which concerns salvation).人是完全没有关于“精神领域的”自由意志(即涉及救恩)。Salvation depends exclusively on the omnipotent divine will of grace.救世军完全取决于全能神的恩典。Man does not have freedom to do the good in the spiritual sense.男子没有自由,这样做,在精神意义上的好。Similarly, the Lutheran understanding of the Lord's Supper must be viewed in light of the principle of sola Scriptura.同样,主的晚餐路德会了解必须从唯独圣经的原则下。Lutheranism has consistently battled against every denial of the real and essential presence of Christ's body and blood in the Supper.路德教一贯争夺对每一个基督的身体和血液中的晚餐真正的和必要的存在的否定。

An important element of Lutheran biblical interpretation is that one takes words of command and promise literally unless there is some compelling reason for not doing so. If the words of institution at the Supper were to be taken figuratively, simply because they appear to conflict with reason or common sense (eg, the Reformed axiom of the finite being incapable of the infinite), one could do so with any command or promise of God. 一种解释圣经的重要元素,是一个以信义字面上字的命令,并承诺,除非有一些令人信服的理由这样做不。如果机构在晚餐的话的人将要采取的形象,只是因为他们似乎有冲突的原因或常识(例如,有限被无能的无限改革公理),就可以这样做的任何命令或上帝的承诺。 Thus, Lutheranism has insisted on the doctrine of the "real presence" on the basis of Christ's plain words.因此,路德教,坚持了“真实存在”在基督的纯文字的基础理论。Also, the Lutheran view of grace contributed to the retention of infant baptism.此外,路德会的宽限期有助于保留婴儿的洗礼。Baptism expresses the participation of the Christian in the death and resurrection of Christ.洗礼,表达了基督教在死亡和复活的基督的参与。Baptism, like the gospel, is powerful to confer the very faith it calls for with its promises, and in each case the Holy Spirit works faith through the instruments of his choosing, namely baptism and the gospel.洗礼,像福音,是强大的,授予十分真诚地与自己的诺言电话,并在每个情况下圣灵工程通过他的选择,即洗礼和福音的工具的信心。 In Lutheran understanding it is no more difficult for him to work faith in infants through the gospel promise attached to the water of baptism than in adults alienated from God through the proclamation of the gospel in preaching.在路德会理解它已不再是他难以工作,通过附加比来自上帝隔绝了,传福音的宣讲成年人水的洗礼,在婴儿的福音承诺的信心。

History历史

These doctrines of Lutheranism were subject to a variegated history in the centuries following the Reformation era.这些学说路德教,曾受到一个杂色历史在百年之后,改革的时代。In the seventeenth century they were elaborated in a scholastic mold.在十七世纪,他们在学术上的模具阐述。Lutheran orthodoxy, whose classical period began about the year 1600, was an extension of the tradition represented by the Lutheran confessional writings.路德正统,其古典时期1600年开始,是一个由路德自白著作为代表的传统的延伸。It was, however, profoundly influenced by the neo Aristotelianism which had secured a foothold in the German universities.这是,但是,深刻的新亚里士多德曾获得德国大学中立足的影响。This German scholastic philosophy accented the intellectual strain which characterized Lutheran orthodoxy and prompted a more pronounced scientific and metaphysical treatment of theological questions.这德语士林哲学口音的智力应变特点路德正统,并促使有更深刻的科学和形而上学的神学问题的处理。However, scholastic methodology did not lead to the surrender of Lutheran emphasis on the Bible.但是,在学术方法,并没有导致路德对圣经的重视投降。

The dogmatic works of the orthodox period were based on the principle of sola Scriptura.正统时期的教条式的作品的基础上,唯独圣经的原则。There was an effort to systematize an objective form of theology (theology defined as a "teaching about God and divine things").有努力,系统化的客观形式的神学(作为“上帝和神圣的东西教”的定义神学)。Revelation, as codified in the Bible, provided the point of departure for the orthodox theologians.启示,编纂成圣经,提供了正统的神学家的出发点。The chief representatives of this period of Lutheranism included Johann Gerhard, Nikolaus Hunnius, Abraham Calov, and David Hollaz.这一期间的路德教首席代表约翰包括总理,nikolaus Hunnius,亚伯拉罕Calov,和大卫Hollaz。

The period of Lutheran orthodox gave way to the pietist movement in the latter part of the seventeenth century.期间,路德正统让位给虔信运动在十七世纪后半叶。Pietism was a reaction to what was perceived as an arid intellectualism in the orthodox theologians.虔诚主义是对的是一位正统的神学家在干旱知识分子自觉的反应。Philipp Jakob Spener's Pia desideria called for a reform movement within Lutheranism.菲利普雅各布Spener的皮娅desideria呼吁在路德教改革运动。According to Spener, experience is the basis of all certainty.据Spener,经验是完全肯定的基础。Therefore, the personal experience of the pious is the ground of certainty for theological knowledge.因此,虔诚的个人经验是知识的确定性神学基础。This led to the pietist critique of the metaphysical questions treated by the orthodox fathers as well as their traditional philosophical underpinnings.导致,作为他们的传统哲学基础以及东正教的父亲对待虔信批判形而上学的问题,这。For the pietist Lutherans inner spiritual phenomena and individual experiences elicited the greatest interest.对于虔信lutherans内在精神现象和个人的遭遇引起了极大的兴趣。Since Spener and his followers assumed that theological knowledge could not be acquired apart from the experience of regeneration, their theological expositions dealt mainly with empirical religious events.自spener和他的追随者认为神学知识不能被收购的再生的经验外,他们的神学论述,主要处理与实证的宗教活动。

In the eighteenth century theological rationalism appeared in Germany.在十八世纪的神学理性主义出现在德国。Christian Wolff, utilizing the Leibnizian principle of "sufficient reason," argued that learning must be based on clear and distinct concepts and that nothing should be set forth without proof.基督教沃尔夫,利用“充分理由”,莱布尼兹的原则,认为学习的基础必须是明确和清楚的概念,并没有什么不应该设置的证明等等。 Wolff's thought had a great impact on theological activity.沃尔夫的思想产生了很大的影响,对神学的活动。Harmony between faith and reason was assumed, and the natural knowledge of God led to the idea of special revelation while the rational proofs for the truth of Scripture demonstrated that the Bible is the source of this revelation.信仰与理性之间的和谐假设是,人与神的自然知识导致想法特别启示,而对圣经真理的理性证明证明圣经是本启示之源。 While Wolff intended to defend traditional doctrine, the consequence of his method was the acceptance of reason as a final authority.而沃尔夫打算捍卫传统学说认为,他的方法的后果是,作为一个最终的权力接受的理由。This conclusion was extended by Johann Semler, who applied a historicocritical method to the Bible and inserted it totally into the framework of human development.这个结论是由约翰延长塞姆勒,谁适用了historicocritical方法圣经,并插入到人类发展的框架内完全。

Many Lutherans saw the influence of rationalism behind the Prussian Union of 1817.许多lutherans看到了背后的1817年普鲁士联盟理性主义的影响。Frederick William III announced the union of the Lutherans and the Reformed into one congregation at his court in celebration of the three hundredth anniversary of the Reformation and appealed for similar union throughout Prussia.弗雷德里克威廉三世宣布为一个在他的法庭聚集了lutherans和改革联盟在改革的三个百周年庆祝活动和类似的联盟呼吁整个普鲁士。 The union was the impetus for a revival of Lutheran confessionalism which reacted to an increasing doctrinal indifference in some quarters of German Lutheranism as well as a growing interest in biblical criticism that threatened to remove the doctrinal foundations of Luther's church.该联盟是一个复苏的路德自白这反应在一些德国路德教宿舍,以及在​​圣经的批评越来越大的兴趣,扬言要罢免的路德教堂的教义的理论基础,越来越冷漠的动力。 Prominent figures in the effort to restore historical Lutheranism were CP Caspari, EW Hengstenberg, and CFW Walther.在努力恢复历史路德教被处长卡斯帕里著名人士,电子战亨斯,和CFW的瓦尔特。Walther joined an emigration of Saxons to the United States in 1838 to escape the theological legacy of rationalism and the union.Walther称加入的撒克逊人,1838年移居美国,以躲避理性和工会神学遗产。

Apart from Germany, where two thirds of the population had accepted Lutheranism by the end of the sixteenth century, the expansion of Lutheranism through Sweden, Denmark, and Norway left national churches that have endured in strength.除了德国之外,其中两个三分之二的人口已经接受了十六世纪的路德教到去年底,在路德教通过瑞典,丹麦和挪威扩张留下的有实力经受国家的教会。 From these nations Lutherans migrated to the United States and Canada.从这些国家的lutherans移民到美国和加拿大。The earliest Lutherans in America can be traced back to the seventeenth century.最早lutherans在美国可以追溯到17世纪。 In Delaware, Swedish Lutherans had settled as early as 1638.在美国特拉华州,瑞典语lutherans已经解决了像1638年年初。In Georgia, almost a hundred years later, a group of refugee Lutherans from Salzburg established residence.在佐治亚州,将近一百年以后,难民的lutherans从萨尔茨堡成立住宅群。Colonies of Lutherans also settled in upper New York and in Pennsylvania by the time of the Revolution.殖民地的lutherans也落户在上纽约和宾夕法尼亚州的由当时的革命。Henry Melchoir Muhlenberg organized the first synod of Lutherans on American soil.亨利melchoir米伦贝格在美国领土上举办的第一次主教会议的lutherans。

Contemporary Lutheranism seems to have entered on an age of unification.当代路德教似乎有一个时代的统一输入。The various waves of immigrants to America led to a proliferation of Lutheran bodies.移民到美国的各种波导致了路德机构的扩散。However, there have been a number of mergers between these groups, which are now mainly included in the Lutheran Church in America (1962), the American Lutheran Church (1960), and the Lutheran Church, Missouri Synod (1847).然而,一直是这些集团之间,而现在主要在美国路德教会(1962年),美国路德教会(1960年),和路德教会,密苏里州主教(1847年)包括兼并数量。 The Lutheran World Federation, founded in 1947.世界路德教会联合会,成立于1947年。cultivates world unity and mutual assistance among its fifty or more member churches.培养在其五十以上成员教会世界团结互助。Lutheranism throughout the world constitutes the largest of the churches that have come out of the Reformation, numbering some seventy million members, of whom between nine and ten million live in the United States and Canada.世界各地的路德教构成了已走出了改造出最大的教堂,编号,一些72万会员,其中九至1000万美国和加拿大的生活。

JF Johnson怡富约翰逊
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
W Elert, The Structure of Lutheranism; EW Gritsch and RW Jenson, Lutheranism; B Hagglund, History of Theology; CP Krauth, The Conservative Reformation and Its Theology; RD Preus, The Theology of Post - Reformation Lutheranism; TG Tappert, ed., The Book of Concord; RC Wolf, ed., Documents of Lutheran Unity in America; EC Nelson, ed., The Lutherans in North America. W瓦特elert,路德教结构;东西gritsch和rw简森,路德教,B期hagglund,神学的历史;处长krauth,保守的改革及其神学;号普罗伊斯,神学的职位 - 改造路德教;甘油三酯appert,版。这本书的康科德。钢筋狼,版,路德在美国统一的文件;。欧共体纳尔逊,教育署在北美该lutherans。


Lutheranism路德教

General Information一般资料

Lutheranism is a major Protestant denomination, which originated as a 16th-century movement led by Martin Luther.路德教是一个重大的新教教派,它作为马丁路德领导的16世纪运动的起源。Luther, a German Augustinian monk and professor of theology at the University of Wittenberg in Saxony (Sachsen), originally had as his goal the reformation of the Western Christian church.路德,一个德国奥古斯丁和尚以及在大学的维滕贝格在萨克森州(萨克森)神学教授,原本为他的目标是西方基督教教会改革。 Because Luther and his followers were excommunicated by the pope, however, Lutheranism developed in a number of separate national and territorial churches, thus initiating the breakup of the organizational unity of Western Christendom.因为路德和他的追随者被逐出教会的教皇,但是,路德教发达,在一些单独的国家和领土的教堂,从而开创了西方基督教团结组织的解体。

The term Lutheran was deplored by Luther, and the church originally called itself the Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession or simply the Evangelical Church.任期路德是痛惜路德,和教会最初叫本身的奥格斯堡自白福音教会或干脆福音教会。Scandinavian Lutherans adopted the names of their countries for their churches (for example, the Church of Sweden).斯堪的纳维亚lutherans通过为他们的教会,他们的国家名称(例如,瑞典教会)。As a result of the missionary movement of the 18th and 19th centuries, Lutheranism has become a worldwide communion of Christians and the largest Protestant denomination in the world, with about 80 million members.作为第18届和19世纪的传教运动的结果,路德教已成为一个由基督教徒和世界上最大的新教教派世界性的共融,大约有8000万会员。

Doctrine and Practices学说与实务

Lutheranism affirms the ultimate authority of the Word of God (as found in the Bible) in matters of faith and Christian life and emphasizes Christ as the key to the understanding of the Bible.路德教申明的神的话语在信仰和基督信徒生活,最终权威(在圣经中找到),并强调作为进入圣经的理解的关键基督。

Salvation by Faith救世军的信仰

Salvation, according to Lutheran teaching, does not depend on worthiness or merit but is a gift of God's sovereign grace.救赎,据路德教学,不依赖于老有所为或好处,而是一个神的主权的恩典的礼物。All human beings are considered sinners and, because of original sin, are in bondage to the powers of evil and thus unable to contribute to their liberation (see Justification).所有的人都认为是罪人,因为原罪,在束缚的权力的邪恶,因此无法作出贡献自己的解放(见理由)中。 Lutherans believe that faith, understood as trust in God's steadfast love, is the only appropriate way for human beings to respond to God's saving initiative.路德会相信真诚,如神的相互理解,坚定的爱,是唯一适当的方式,为人类作出回应上帝的节能倡议。Thus, "salvation by faith alone" became the distinctive and controversial slogan of Lutheranism.因此,“救赎信仰单”成为鲜明的路德教和有争议的口号。

Opponents claimed that this position failed to do justice to the Christian responsibility to do good works, but Lutherans have replied that faith must be active in love and that good works follow from faith as a good tree produces good fruit.反对者称,这一立场没有公平对待基督教的责任,切实做好工作,但效果lutherans都回答说,信念,必须积极参与爱心和良好的后续工程,从信仰是一个好树结好果子。

Worship崇拜

The Lutheran church defines itself as "the assembly of believers among which the Gospel is preached and the Holy Sacraments are administered according to the Gospel" (Augsburg Confession, VII).路德会定义为:(奥格斯堡供述,七)“的其中福音,是倡导和圣圣礼是经管据福音信徒大会”本身。From the beginning, therefore, the Bible was central to Lutheran worship, and the sacraments were reduced from the traditional seven to baptism and the Lord's Supper (see Eucharist), because, according to the Lutheran reading of the Scriptures, only these two were instituted by Christ (see Sacrament).从一开始,因此,圣经是中央向路德崇拜,圣礼,是从传统的7降至洗礼和主的晚餐(见圣体),因为,根据路德读了圣经,只有这两个被提起由基督(见圣礼)。 Worship was conducted in the language of the people (not in Latin as had been the Roman Catholic tradition), and preaching was stressed in the divine service.崇拜进行了语言的人(而不是在拉丁语作为一直是罗马天主教的传统),并鼓吹在神圣的服务强调。Lutheranism did not radically change the structure of the medieval mass, but its use of vernacular language enhanced the importance of the sermons, which were based on the exposition of the Scriptures, and encouraged congregational participation in worship, especially through the singing of the liturgy and of hymns.路德教没有从根本上改变了中世纪的岩体结构,但其使用的乡土语言增强,特别是通过礼仪唱的说教,这是对圣经的论述为基础的重要性,并鼓励堂参加礼拜,并赞美诗。 Luther himself contributed to this development by writing popular hymns (for instance, "A Mighty Fortress Is Our God").路德亲自促成了写流行赞美诗了它的发展(例如,“坚强的堡垒是我们的上帝”)。

In the Lutheran celebration of the Eucharist, the elements of bread and wine are given to all communicants, whereas Roman Catholics had allowed the wine only to priests.在路德会庆祝圣体,面包和酒的内容是给所有communicants,而罗马天主教会曾允许葡萄酒只有神父。In contrast to other Protestants, particularly the Anabaptists, however, Lutherans affirm the real bodily presence of Christ "in, with, and under" the elements of bread and wine at the Lord's Supper.相比之下其他新教徒,尤其是anabaptists,不过,lutherans申明真正的基督身体在场“中,,并根据”在主的晚餐的面包和酒的元素。 Christ is sacramentally present for the communicant in the bread and the wine because of the promise he gave at the institution of Holy Communion, when he said, "This is my body" and "This is my blood" (Matthew 26:26-28).基督是sacramentally为在面包沟通性和承诺,因为他在圣餐时,他说,目前的机构给了酒:“这是我的身体”,“这是我的血”(马太26:26-28 )。

Baptism洗礼

Lutheranism affirms the traditional practice of infant baptism as a sacrament in which God's grace reaches out to newborn children.路德教申明,作为一个圣餐中上帝的恩典,以新生儿童,婴儿的洗礼的传统做法。For Lutherans, baptism signifies God's unconditional love, which is independent of any intellectual, moral, or emotional achievements on the part of human beings.对于路德会,洗礼标志着上帝的无条件的爱,这是对人类的任何部分智力,道德,或情绪上的成就无关。

Christian Life For Lutheranism基督教生活路德教

Saints do not constitute a superior class of Christians but are sinners saved by grace through faith in Jesus Christ; every Christian is both saint and sinner.圣人不构成优越阶层的基督徒,但在得救的恩典,透过相信耶稣基督罪人;每一个基督徒既是圣人和罪人。The Lutheran doctrine of the priesthood of all believers is related to baptism, by which all Christians, both male and female, are made priests of God, serving him during their entire life in their chosen vocations, all of which are to be understood as equal opportunities for discipleship.路德教义的所有信徒的圣职是与洗礼,其中所有基督徒,无论是男性还是女性,是由神的祭司,是他任职期间,他们的整个生活在自己选择的职业,所有被理解为平等门徒训练的机会。 The office of the pastor is a special office in Lutheranism based on a call from God and from a congregation of Christians.牧师的办公室是一个特殊的办公室,在路德教的基础上,请上帝和教会的基督徒。Unlike Roman Catholic priests, Lutheran clergy may marry.不像罗马天主教神父,路德会神职人员可以结婚。

Doctrinal Texts教义文本

Although Lutherans accept the canonical books of the Bible as "the only rule and norm according to which all doctrines and teachers alike must be judged" (Formula of Concord), they also recommend the books of the Apocrypha of the Old Testament for Christian edification and have traditionally included them in vernacular versions of the Bible.虽然lutherans接受圣经的规范书“,唯一的规则和准则,根据所有的教义和教师都必须作出判断”(公式康科德),他们还推荐了旧约伪经的书籍和基督教的熏陶传统上包括在圣经白话文的版本。 Lutherans accept the authority of the three ecumenical creeds (Apostles', Nicene, Athanasian) and use the first two regularly in worship services.路德会接受三个合一信条(使徒',尼西亚,亚他那修)和使用服务的前两个礼拜定期。The special doctrinal statements of Lutheranism are Luther's Schmalkald Articles (1537), Small Catechism (1529), and Large Catechism (1529); Melanchthon's Augsburg Confession (1530), Apology of the Augsburg Confession (1531), and Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope (1529); and the Formula of Concord (1577), which was written by a commission of theologians after the deaths of the original reformers.在路德教特殊教义声明路德的schmalkald文章(1537),小问答(1529年)和大问答(1529年);梅兰希顿的奥格斯堡自白(1530),对道歉的奥格斯堡自白(1531),以及伤寒论权力和至高无上的教宗(1529年)和公式的康科德(1577),它是由一个委员会的神学家后,原来的改革者死亡。 Together with the creeds, these documents constitute The Book of Concord, adopted by Lutheran princes and cities in 1580.连同信条,这些文件构成协和书,城市通过路德王子和1580年。Only the creeds, the Augsburg Confession, and Luther's two catechisms, however, have been recognized by all Lutheran churches.只有信条,奥格斯堡供述,路德的两个catechisms,然而,被大家公认的路德教会。

Church Organization and Government教会组织和政府

Because of their origin in the 16th century, the older European Lutheran churches are closely tied to their respective governments as established churches, either exclusively, as in the Scandinavian countries, or in a parallel arrangement with Roman Catholicism, as in Germany.由于他们在16世纪起源,老欧洲路德教会息​​息相关向各自的政府确立的教堂,要么完全,因为在斯堪的纳维亚国家,或在与罗马天主教平行排列,如德国。 (In both situations other religious groups have complete freedom of worship but not the same support and supervision from the government.) In non-European countries, Lutheran churches are voluntary religious organizations. (在这两种情况下其他宗教团体拥有完全的信仰自由,但并不等于支持,并从政府的监督。)在非欧洲国家,路德教会都是自愿的宗教组织。A uniform system of church government has never developed in Lutheranism; congregational, presbyterian, and episcopal structures all exist, although a tendency has emerged in the 20th century to give the title of bishop to elected leaders of judicatories (synods, districts, churches).一个统一系统的教会,政府从来没有研制,在路德教;堂会,长老会,圣公会和结构都存在,但一种趋势已经出现在20世纪给标题主教当选领导人的judicatories(主教,区,教堂)。

History and Influence历史及影响

The early development of Lutheranism was greatly influenced by political events.早期开发的路德教是影响很大的政治事件。 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V was unable to undertake the forceful suppression of Lutheranism because the empire was being threatened by the Turks.神圣罗马帝国皇帝查理五世是无法进行有力的制止路德教,因为帝国正在受到土耳其人的威胁。Despite the Edict of Worms (1521), which placed the Lutherans under imperial ban, the movement continued to spread.尽管公告中的蠕虫(1521年),它放在下帝国禁令的lutherans,不结盟运动继续蔓延。Intermittent religious wars followed, ending in the Peace of Augsburg (1555), which stipulated that the religion of the ruler of each territory within the Holy Roman Empire was to be the religion of his subjects, thus in effect sanctioning the Lutheran churches and also establishing the territorial princes as primates of their churches.间歇性的宗教战争之后,在和平的奥格斯堡(1555),其中规定了每个领土的统治者在宗教是神圣罗马帝国的是,他的科目因此,在宗教的影响,制裁的路德教会,并确立结束作为灵长类动物,他们的教堂领土王子。 The Formula of Concord (1577), prepared by theologians to resolve disputes among Lutherans, was signed by political leaders to ensure Lutheran unity at a time when renewed religious warfare threatened.该公式的康科德(1577),准备由神学家,以解决纠纷,其中lutherans是由政治领导人签署,以确保香港信义团结在一个时间时,重新宗教战争的威胁。 The survival of Lutheranism after the Thirty Years' War was the result of the intervention of the Lutheran Swedish king Gustav II Adolph and of Roman Catholic France on the side of the Protestants.该路德教经过三十年战争生存的是瑞典国王古斯塔夫路德二世阿道夫和罗马天主教法国的新教徒方干预的结果。 The Peace of Westphalia (1648) brought an end to the religious wars in Europe.在威斯特伐利亚和约(1648)结束了在欧洲的宗教战争。

Beginning in the late 17th century, the reform movement called Pietism, which stressed individual conversion and a devout way of life, revitalized Lutheranism in Germany and spread to other countries. 17世纪中后期开始,改革运动中的所谓pietism,即强调个人的转换和虔诚的生活方式,振兴路德教在德国和蔓延到其他国家。Lutheran theology, during the 18th century, reflected the rationalism of the Enlightenment.路德神学的,在18世纪,反映了启蒙运动的理性主义。During the 19th century, the German theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher, who emphasized universal religious experience, exercised a major influence on liberal Lutheran theologians.在19世纪,德国神学家弗里德里希施莱尔马赫,谁强调,世界宗教的经验,行使了自由路德神学产生重大影响。 At the same time, idealism, the dominant movement of modern German philosophy, had a profound effect on Lutheran theological thought.与此同时,唯心论,现代德国哲学的主要运动,有一对路德神学思想产生深远的影响。In the 20th century, the neoorthodoxy of the Swiss theologian Karl Barth and existentialism have been the most prominent theological developments.在20世纪,瑞士神学家卡尔巴特和存在主义neoorthodoxy一直是最突出的神学发展。

The political ascendancy of Prussia among the German states by the early 19th century led to the establishment (1817) of the Church of the Prussian Union, which united Calvinists and millions of German Lutherans into one church.普鲁士的政治优势之间的德国各州对十九世纪初,导致成立(1817)世纪的普鲁士联盟,其中美国成一个教会加尔文与德国路德教会百万。 This development was bitterly opposed by a large number of Lutherans, some of whom broke away to establish a separate church.这一事态发展,强烈反对由路德会,其中一些人打破,以建立一个独立的教会多。The crisis of German politics in the 20th century gravely affected German Lutheranism.德国在20世纪的政治危机严重影响了德国路德教。Hitler's attempt to control German churches led to the split of the German Lutheran Church and to the internment of some Lutherans (such as Martin Niemöller) in concentration camps and the execution of others (notably the theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer).希特勒试图控制导致分裂的德国路德教会,并拘留在集中营的一些路德宗(如李柱铭尼默勒)和其他人(尤其是神学家迪特里希朋霍费尔)执行德国教堂。 Lutheran leaders in Norway and Denmark took major roles in the resistance to Nazi occupation of their countries, and the German Confessing Church, which had resisted Hitler, made an important contribution to the reconstruction of West Germany (now part of the united Federal Republic of Germany) after World War II.在挪威和丹麦信义领导人参加了纳粹占领他们的国家,以及德国承认的教会,其中有反抗希特勒阻力主要角色,作出了重要贡献,是西德(现为美国的一部分,德意志联邦共和国重建)第二次世界大战后。

Lutheranism in America路德教在美国

Lutheranism arrived in America with the early European settlers.路德教抵达美国与欧洲早期的定居者。In 1625 some Dutch, German, and Scandinavian Lutherans settled in New Amsterdam (now New York City).在1625年一些荷兰语,德语和斯堪的纳维亚lutherans定居在新阿姆斯特丹(现在的纽约市)。In 1638 another early Lutheran settlement was founded by Swedes in what is now Delaware.在另外的1638年初路德沉降是由瑞典人在现在的特拉华州。At the beginning of the 18th century German Lutherans settled in large numbers in Pennsylvania.在18世纪初德国lutherans定居在宾夕法尼亚州的大量涌现。In 1742 Pastor Henry Melchior Muhlenberg arrived from Germany and soon founded (1748) the first Lutheran synod in North America.在1742牧师亨利梅尔希muhlenberg抵达德国,即将成立(1748年)第一届路德主教在北美。 After the American Revolution (1775-1783), each successive group of Lutheran immigrants founded its own churches and synods and conducted its services in the language of its country of origin.之后,美国独立战争(1775至1783年),每个组连续的路德教会移民创立自己的教会和主教会议,并进行了其原籍国语言的服务。 Because of the large numbers of immigrants to the United States and Canada in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the integration of Lutherans into North American society went slowly, and Lutheranism was divided into numerous German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, and Slovak groups.由于在19世纪和20世纪初移民到美国和加拿大的大数字,lutherans到北美社会中去慢慢地融合,并路德教被分成无数德国,瑞典,挪威,丹麦,芬兰,斯洛伐克组。 Following World War I (1914-1918), however, unification and integration proceeded rapidly.第一次世界大战后(1914-1918),但是,统一和一体化进展迅速。The process accelerated after World War II (1939-1945), and by the early 1980s mergers had consolidated most Lutherans in the United States and Canada into five major bodies: the Lutheran Church in America (LCA), Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod (LCMS), the American Lutheran Church (ALC), the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS), and the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches (AELC).后加速的过程第二次世界大战(1939-1945),并在80年代初兼并合并主要机构美国和加拿大到五个最lutherans在: 在美国路德教会 (组), 路德教会,密苏里州主教 (学习内容管理系统), 美国路德教会 (ALC), 威斯康辛基督教香港信义主教 (韦尔斯)和) 协会福音派路德教会 (AELC。In 1988 the LCA, ALC, and AELC merged after five years of preparatory work, forming the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA).1988年,生命周期分析,酒精含量,并aelc合并,经过五年的筹备工作多年,形成了美国福音信义 ​​教会 (福音路德教会)。In the early 1990s the ELCA reported a membership of more than 5.2 million in about 11,000 churches.在20世纪90年代初福音路德教会报告了超过520万美元,约11000教会的成员。Membership in the LCMS was about 2.6 million, and in the WELS about 417,000.在学习内容管理系统会员约260万,大约在41.7万的韦尔斯。Lutheranism is the third largest Protestant denomination in the United States.路德教是全球第三大的美国新教教派。

In 1997 the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America agreed to share full communion with three other Protestant denominations - the Presbyterian Church (USA), the United Church of Christ, and the Reformed Church in America. 1997年,基督教香港信义会在美国同意共享与其他三,充分交流,新教教派 - 基督教长老会(美国),美国基督教会,并在美国归正教会。The agreement meant that the churches could exchange clergy and that members could worship and receive sacraments at the other churches.该协议意味着教会可以交换神职人员和大家能崇拜,并接受在其他教会圣礼。

Canadian Churches加拿大教会

The Lutheran churches in the United States have Canadian counterparts.在美国路德教会加拿大同行。The newly formed Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, composed of wings of the former LCA and ALC churches, reported membership of 199,600 in the early 1990s.新成立的基督教香港信义会在加拿大,前LCA及的ALC教堂组成联队,报告在90年代初199600会员。The Lutheran Church-Canada was originally a member of the LCMS but became autonomous in 1988.路德教会原本是加拿大的学习内容管理系统的成员,但在1988年成为自治区。Reported membership is about 79,400.报道会员约79,400。

World Lutheranism世界路德教

Although a majority of the world's Lutherans still live in the traditionally Lutheran countries of central and northern Europe, Lutheranism has been growing most rapidly in Africa and Asia.虽然世界上大多数的lutherans仍处于传统路德的中部和北部欧洲国家的生活,路德教一直持续增长最为迅速,在非洲和亚洲。 Indeed, the only country outside of Europe where a majority of the population is Lutheran is Namibia in southern Africa.事实上,欧洲以外的唯一的国家一人口的大多数,是路德纳米比亚是南部非洲。The Lutheran World Federation (LWF), headquartered in Geneva, coordinates the activities of almost all Lutheran churches in the world.世界路德教会联合会(联合会),总部设在日内瓦,负责协调在世界上几乎所有的路德教会的活动。 It oversees ecumenical relations, theological studies, and world service and is guided by an international executive committee.监管合一的关系,神学研究,为世界服务,是由国际执行委员会的指导。Most Lutheran churches are also members of the World Council of Churches.最路德教会也是世界基督教协进会的成员。

Cultural Influence文化影响

Lutheranism has always been concerned with the cultural and intellectual aspects of the Christian faith.路德教一向关注与基督教信仰的文化和智力方面。Its influence on music through such composers as Johann Sebastian Bach, Dietrich Buxtehude, Michael Praetorius, and Heinrich Schütz has been as profound as it was on philosophy.对音乐的影响,通过诸如巴赫,迪特里希Buxtehude的,迈克尔托里亚斯,和作曲家许茨等已被深刻,因为它是对哲学。 Thinkers of Lutheran background, such as Immanuel Kant, JG Fichte, GWF Hegel, and Søren Kierkegaard, articulated their ideas in dialogue with and often in opposition to the Lutheran tradition.路德背景思想家,如康德,jg费希特,黑格尔,瑟伦克尔凯郭尔,阐述自己的想法与对话,反对路德传统频繁。Lutheranism has also produced a number of notable biblical scholars, such as DF Strauss and Albert Schweitzer, and theologians, such as Albrecht Ritschl, Adolf von Harnack, Rudolf Otto, Rudolf Bultmann, and Paul Tillich.路德教同时也产生了显着的圣经学者,如测Strauss和史怀哲,和神学家,如阿尔布雷希里奇尔,阿道夫冯的Harnack,鲁道夫奥托,鲁道夫布特曼,保罗蒂利希,数量。

George Wolfgang Forell乔治沃尔夫冈Forell


Lutheranism路德教

Catholic Information天主教新闻

The religious belief held by the oldest and in Europe the most numerous of the Protestant sects, founded by the Wittenberg reformer, Martin Luther.宗教信仰的历史最悠久,在欧洲是最众多的新教教派举行,由维滕贝格的改革者,马丁路德创立。The term Lutheran was first used by his opponents during the Leipzig Disputation in 1519, and afterwards became universally prevalent.路德一词最早是由他的反对者在莱比锡纠纷1519年,后来就成了普遍盛行。Luther preferred the designation "Evangelical", and today the usual title of the sect is "Evangelical Lutheran Church".路德推荐指定的“福音”,而今天该教派惯常的标题是“基督教香港信义会”。In Germany, where the Lutherans and the Reformed have united (since 1817), the name Lutheran has been abandoned, and the state Church is styled the Evangelical or the Evangelical United.在德国,那里lutherans和改革,有美国(自1817年),路德已被废弃的名字,和国家的教堂是风格的福音派或美国福音。

I. DISTINCTIVE TEACHINGS一,特色优势TEACHINGS

In doctrine official Lutheranism is part of what is called orthodox Protestantism, since it agrees with the Catholic and the Greek Churches in accepting the authority of the Scriptures and of the three most ancient creeds (the Apostles' Creed, the Nicene Creed, and the Athanasian Creed).官方路德教是在学说是所谓的正统基督教的一部分,因为它与天主教和在接受权威的经文和三个最古老的信条希腊教会(使徒们的信条,尼西亚,以及亚他那修同意信条)。 Besides these formulæ of belief, Lutheranism acknowledges six specific confessions which distinguish it from other churches:除了这些信仰的公式,路德教承认六项具体的自白书,其中区别于其他教会它:

the unaltered Augsburg Confession (1530),在不变的奥格斯堡自白(1530),

the Apology of the Augsburg Confession (1531),该道歉的奥格斯堡自白(1531),

Luther's Large Catechism (1529),路德的大问答(1529年),

Luther's Catechism for Children (1529),路德的教义问答的儿童(1529年),

the Articles of Smalkald (1537), and对Smalkald文章(1537年),以及

the Form of Concord (1577).康和表格(1577)。

These nine symbolical books (including the three Creeds) constitute what is known as the "Book of Concord", which was first published at Dresden in 1580 by order of Elector Augustus of Saxony (see FAITH, PROTESTANT CONFESSIONS OF).这九个(含三信条)象征书籍构成所谓的“康科德的书”,这是第一次发表在1580年由选民在德累斯顿的萨克森奥古斯都以命令的(见信仰新教的自白)。 In these confessions the Scriptures are declared to be the only rule of faith.在这些供词圣经被宣布为唯一的法治信仰。The extent of the Canon is not defined, but the bibles in common use among Lutherans have been generally the same as those of other Protestant denominations (see CANON OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES).佳能的程度没有定义,但在共同使用lutherans的圣经已作为其他新教教派大致相同(见圣经佳能)。 The symbols and the other writings not contained in Scripture do not possess decisive authority, but merely show how the Scriptures were understood and explained at particular times by the leading theologians (Form of Concord).这些符号,而不是在其他著作中包含的经文不拥有决定性的权力,而只是显示如何念经人的理解和由(康科德表格)领导的神学家在特定时间解释。

The chief tenet of the Lutheran creed, that which Luther called "the article of the standing and falling Church", has reference to the justification of sinful man.路德教义的主要宗旨,这其中路德所谓的“对常委会和属于教会的文章”,已参考了罪孽深重的人的理由。Original sin is explained as a positive and total depravity of human nature, which renders all the acts of the unjustified, even those of civil righteousness, sinful and displeasing to God.原罪是解释,是一个人的性质,这使得所有的行为是没有道理的,甚至那些民间正义,罪孽深重不快神积极和彻底堕落。Justification, which is not an internal change, but an external, forensic declaration by which God imputes to the creature the righteousness of Christ, comes only by faith, which is the confidence that one is reconciled to God through Christ.理由的,而不是一个内部的变化,而是一个外来的,法医宣言,其中神责难的生物基督的义,只能由信仰,这是一个是调和神借着基督的信心。 Good works are necessary as an exercise of faith, and are rewarded, not by justification (which they presuppose), but by the fulfilment of the Divine promises (Apology Aug. Conf.).好的作品是作为行使信仰必要的,而且是回报,而不是由理由(即它们预先假定),而是由履行的神圣诺言(道歉八月机密。)。

Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are:路德教会的其他独特的理论是:

consubstantiation (although the symbols do not use this term), ie the real, corporeal presence of Christ's Body and Blood during the celebration of the Lord's Supper, in, with, and under the substance of bread and wine, in a union which is not hypostatic, nor of mixture, nor of local inclusion, but entirely transcendent and mysterious; (虽然符号不使用这个词),即在主的晚餐庆祝,中,与真实的,基督的身体和血液有形的存在,在面包和酒的物质,并在一个联盟,这是不本质的,也不是混合物,也对当地的包容性,但完全是超越性和神秘;

the omnipresence of the Body of Christ, which is differently explained by the commentators of the Symbolical Books.在基督的,这是有不同的象征意义,书籍由评论员解释身体无所不在。

Since the official formulæ of faith claim no decisive authority for themselves, and on many points are far from harmonious, the utmost diversity of opinion prevails among Lutherans.由于官方的公式信仰的要求为自己没有决定性的权力,并在许多问题上都远远和谐的,极其不同的意见之间普遍存在路德。 Every shade of belief may be found among them, from the orthodox, who hold fast to the confessions, to the semi-infidel theologians, who deny the authority of the Scriptures.每一个遮荫的信仰可能会发现,其中从正统的,谁坚守的供词,到半异教徒的神学家,谁否认圣经的权威。

II.二。HISTORY历史

Lutheranism dates from 31 October, 1517, when Luther affixed his theses to the church door of the castle of Wittenberg.路德教的日期从1517年10月31日,当路德贴在他的论文送到城堡的维滕贝格教堂的门。 Although he did not break with the Catholic Church until three years later, he had already come substantially to his later views on the plan of salvation.虽然他没有打破,直到三年后与天主教教会,他已开始大幅向他的意见,后来就拯救的计划。The new teachings, however underwent a great change after Luther's return from Wartburg (1521).新的教义,但经历了后,路德从瓦特堡(1521)返回很大的变化。Before he died (18 Feb., 1546), his teachings had been propagated in many states of Germany in Poland, in the Baltic Provinces, in Hungary, transylvania, the Netherlands, Denmark and Scandinavia.在他去世(1546年2月18日),他的教诲一直宣扬的,在德国许多州在波兰,波罗的海省份,在匈牙利,特兰西瓦尼亚,荷兰,丹麦和斯堪的纳维亚。 From these European countries Lutheranism has been carried by emigration to the New World, and in the United States it ranks among the leading Protestant denominations.从这些欧洲国家路德教已进行了由移民到新的世界,并在美国,它跻身于领先的新教教派行列。

(1) The Lutherans in Germany(1)lutherans在德国

(a) First Period: From the appearance of Luther's Theses to the adoption of the Formula of Concord (1517-80)(一)第一期:从路德的论文外观到该公式的康科德(1517至1580年)通过

Favoured by the civil rulers, Lutheranism spread rapidly in Northern Germany.由民间统治者优惠,路德教迅速蔓延,在德国北部。After the Diet of Speyer (1526) the Elector of Saxony and other princes established Lutheran state Churches.后斯派尔饮食(1526)选民萨克森州政府和其他诸侯国建立了路德教会。An alliance between these princes was concluded at Torgau in 1526, and again at Smalkald in 1531.诸侯联盟的关系,这些结论在托尔高,在1526年,并再次在1531年Smalkald。The Protestant League was continually increased by the accession of other states, and a religious war broke out in 1546, which resulted in the Peace of Augsburg (1555).新教联盟正在不断增加,对其他国家的加入,以及在1546年战争爆发宗教,这在奥格斯堡(1555)和平造成了。This treaty provided that the Lutherans should retain permanently what they then possessed, but that all officials of ecclesiastical estates, who from that time forth should go over to Protestantism would be deposed and replaced by Catholics.这一条约规定,应保留永久的lutherans然后,他们拥有什么,而是由教会屋,谁从那个时候提出要到对面的所有官员将新教和天主教徒被废黜取代。 This latter provision, known as the "Reservatum Ecclesiasticum", was very unsatisfactory to the Protestants, and its constant violation was one of the causes that lead up to the Thirty Years War (1618-48).这后一项规定,作为“Reservatum Ecclesiasticum”之称,是非常不理想,以新教徒,其不断侵犯的原因,导致了向一个三十年战争(1618至1648年)。

At the time of the Peace of Augsburg Lutherans predominated in the north of Germany, while the Zwinglians or Reformed were very numerous in the south.在在德国北部为主和平的奥格斯堡lutherans,时间分别为改革而Zwinglians或在南方非常多。Austria, Bavaria, and the territories subject to spiritual lords were Catholic, although many of these afterwards became Protestant.奥地利,巴伐利亚州和领土受到精神上议院天主教,尽管其中许多后来成为新教徒。Several attempts were made to effect a reunion.多次尝试了效果团聚。In 1534 Pope Paul III invited the Protestants to a general council.在1534年教皇保罗三,请新教徒向总理事会。Emperor Charles V arranged conferences between Catholic and Lutheran theologians in 1541, 1546, and 1547.皇帝查尔斯五世安排在1541年和路德神学家之间的天主教会议,1546年,和1547。His successor, Ferdinand I (1556-64), and many private individuals such as the Lutheran Frederick Staphylus and Father Contzen, laboured much for the same end.他的继任者,费迪南德(1556至1564年),以及诸如路德冯父Contzen staphylus和许多个人,辛劳多的同一目标。All these efforts, however, proved fruitless.所有这些努力,但徒劳无功。Melanchthon, Crusius, and other Lutheran theologians made formal proposals of union to the Greek Church (1559, 1574, 1578), but nothing came of their overtures.梅兰希顿,克鲁修斯和其他路德神学家提出正式建议,以工会希腊教会(1559,1574,1578),但没有他们的姿态来了。 From the beginning bitter hostility existed between the Lutherans and the Reformed.从一开始的痛苦敌意之间存在lutherans和改革。This first appeared in the Sacramentarian controversy between Luther and Zwingli (1524).这首先出现在路德和茨温利之间(1524)Sacramentarian争议。

They met in conference at Marburg in 1529, but came to no agreement.他们会见了在招待会上马尔堡在1529年,但最后并没有达成协议。The hopes of union created by the compromise formula of 1536, known as the Concordia Wittenbergensis, proved delusive.该联盟由1536年的妥协方案为协和Wittenbergensis众所周知,创造希望,证明虚妄。Luther continued to make war on the Zwinglians until his death.路德继续做出直到他的死亡中Zwinglians战争。The Sacramentarian strife was renewed in 1549 when the Zwinglians accepted Calvin's view of the Real Presence.该sacramentarian争斗延续,在1549年时zwinglians接受加尔文的真实存在的看法。The followers of Melanchthon, who favoured Calvin's doctrine (Philippists, Crypto-Calvinists), were also furiously denounced by the orthodox Lutherans.对梅兰希追随者,谁主张卡尔文的教义(philippists,隐-加尔文),也疯狂地谴责了正统路德会。During these controversies the State Church of the Palatinate, where Philippism predominated, changed from the Lutheran to the Reformed faith (1560).在这些争议的皇帝行宫遗址,那里philippism为主,改为由路德向改革信仰(1560年),国家教会。From the beginning Lutheranism was torn by doctrinal disputes, carried on with the utmost violence and passion.从一开始被拆除,由路德教教义纠纷,进行了以最大的暴力和激情的。They had reference to the questions of sin and grace, justification by faith, the use of good works, the Lord's Supper, and the Person and work of Christ.他们提到的因信罪和恩典,理由提出的问题,好作品的使用,主的晚餐,和负责人及工作基督。The bitterest controversy was the Crypto-Calvinistic.最痛苦的争论是加密加尔文。To effect harmony the Form of Concord, the last of the Lutheran symbols, was drawn up in 1577, and accepted by the majority of the state Churches.要对和谐的,和谐,最后的路德符号,形式是在1577年制定,并经国家教会大多数人所接受。The document was written in a conciliatory spirit, but it secured the triumph of the orthodox party.该文件是写在怀柔精神,但它获得了正统党的胜利。

(b) Second Period: From the Adoption of the Form of Concord to the Beginning of the Pietistic Movement (1580-1689) (二)第二个时期:从协和表格的pietistic运动(1580年至1689年)年初通过

During this period Lutheranism was engaged in bitter polemics with its neighbours in Germany.在此期间,路德教是从事与德国与其邻国激烈论战。Out of these religious discords grew the horrors of the Thirty Years War, which led many persons to desire better relations between the churches.在这些宗教矛盾的前身是三十年战争,这使得很多人的愿望,更好教会之间的关系的恐怖。A "charitable colloquy" was held at Thorn in 1645 by Catholic, Lutheran, and Calvinist theologians, but nothing was accomplished.“慈善座谈会”举行眼中钉1645年由天主教会,路德,加尔文主义和神学家,但没有完成。The proposal of the Lutheran professor, George Calixtus, that the confessions organize into one church with the consensus of the first five centuries as a common basis (Syncretism), aroused a storm of indignation, and, by way of protest, a creed was accepted by the Saxon universities which expressed the views of the most radical school of Lutheran orthodoxy (1655).的路德教授,乔治Calixtus,认为自白书,组织成一个教会同前五个世纪以来作为一个共同的基础(合)达成共识,提案引起了一场风波的愤慨,并通过抗议的方式,一个信条被接受由撒克逊大学表达了最激进的学校路德正统(1655年)的意见。 The Lutheran theologians of this period imitated the disorderly arrangement of Melanchthon's "Loci Theologici", but in spirit they were with few exceptions loyal supporters of the Form of Concord.这一时期的路德神学家模仿的梅兰希顿的“个位点theologici”无序排列,但在精神上,他们几乎没有例外的康科德表忠诚的支持者。 Although the writings of Luther abound with diatribes against the speculative sciences, his followers early perceived the necessity of philosophy for controversial purposes.虽然路德的著作,打击投机性科学抨击比比皆是,他的追随者早期知觉的必要性哲学为具争议性的目的。

Melanchthon developed a system of Aristoteleanism, and it was not long before the Scholastic method, which Luther had so cordially detested, was used by the Evangelical theologians, although the new Scholasticism was utterly different from the genuine system.梅兰希顿开发出的aristoteleanism系统,它未向学术上的方法,其中路德有这么亲切憎恶,是由基督教神学家,使用寿命长,虽然新士林哲学是完全不同的,从真正的制度。 Lutheran dogmatics became a maze of refined subtleties, and mere logomachy was considered the chief duty of the theologian.路德dogmatics成为迷宫的精致微妙之处,仅仅logomachy被认为是神学家行政责任。The result was a fanatical orthodoxy, whose only activity was heresy-hunting and barren controversy.其结果是一个狂热的正统,而他们唯一的活动是异端,狩猎和荒芜的争议。New attempts were made to unite the Evangelical Churches.新的尝试作了团结的福音教会。Conferences were held in 1586, 1631, and 1661; a plan of union was proposed by the Heidelberg professor Pareus (1615); the Reformed Synod of Charenton (1631) voted to admit Lutheran sponsors in baptism.会议分别于​​1586年,1631年和1661年,一个计划的联盟,由海德堡教授pareus(1615)提出;的charenton改革主教(1631)投票承认路德会赞助商的洗礼。 But again the doctrine of the Lord's Supper proved an obstacle, as the Lutherans would agree to no union that was not based upon perfect dogmatic consensus.但同样主的晚餐学说证明是一个障碍,为lutherans会同意不,这是不是基于完美的教条式的共识为基础的联盟。 By the Peace of Westphalia (1648) the concessions which had been made to the Lutherans in 1555 were extended to the Reformed.通过对威斯特伐利亚和约(1648)该在1555年已取得的路德优惠扩大到改革。

(c) Third Period: From the Beginning of the Pietistic Movement to the Evangelical Union (1689-1817)(三)第三个时期:从pietistic运动,以福音派联盟(1689年至1817年)开始

Pietism, which was a reaction against the cold and dreary formalism of Lutheran orthodoxy, originated with Philip Spener (1635-1705).虔诚主义,这是对正统的路德冷战的悲凉形式主义弘spener(1635至1705年)起源,反应。In sermons and writings he asserted the claims of personal holiness, and in 1670, while dean at Frankfort-on-the-Main, he began to hold little reunions called collegia pietatis (whence the name Pietist), in which devotional passages of the Scriptures were explained and pious conversation carried on by those present.在讲道和著作,他所主张的个人圣洁的索赔,并在1670年,而院长在法兰克福发表了主,他开始进行小团聚所谓collegia虔团契(何时名称虔信),其中灵修通道的圣经进行了解释和虔诚的谈话进行,由在座的研究。 His follower, August Francke, founded in 1694 the University of Halle, which became a stronghold of Pietism.他的跟随者,八月弗朗克,成立于1694年的哈勒,从而成为一个虔诚主义的堡垒大学。The strict Lutherans accused the Pietists of heresy, a charge which was vigorously denied, although in fact the new school differed from the orthodox not only in practice, but also in doctrine.严格lutherans被告虔诚的异端,一个是大力否认收费,但事实上,在新学年开始有别于正统不仅在实践中,而且在教义。 The first enthusiasm of the Pietists soon degenerated into fanaticism, and they rapidly lost favour.在虔诚的首热情很快堕落成为狂热的,他们很快失去了赞成票。Pietism had exercised a beneficial influence, but it was followed by the Rationalistic movement, a more radical reaction against orthodoxy, which effected within the Lutheran, as in other Protestant communions, many apostasies from Christian belief. pietism行使了一次有益的影响,但它是由理性主义运动,是对正统更激进的反应,从而影响内路德,如在其他新教圣餐,从基督教信仰许多apostasies。 The philosophy of the day and the national literature, then ardently cultivated, had gradually undermined the faith of all classes of the people.当天和民族文学,那么殷切地栽培,哲学已逐渐削弱了各阶层人民的信心。The leaders in the Church adjusted themselves to the new conditions, and soon theological chairs and the pulpits were filled by men who rejected not only the dogmatic teaching of the Symbolical Books, but every supernatural element of religion.在教会的领导人调整自己以适应新的条件,并尽快神学椅子和pulpits男子谁拒绝了,不仅是象征意义,书籍教条式的教学,但每一个宗教超自然元素填补。 A notable exception to this growing infidelity was the sect of Herrnhuters or United Brethren, founded in 1722 by Count von Zinzendorf, a follower of the Pietistic school (see BOHEMIAN BRETHREN).一个值得注意的例外,这一日益严重的不忠,是该herrnhuters或协成立于1722年,由计数冯辛生铎夫,一个学校的虔诚信徒,节(见波希米亚弟兄)。 The critical state of their churches caused many Protestants to long for a union between the Lutherans and the Reformed.他们的教堂造成了临界状态之间lutherans和改革联盟的许多新教徒长。The royal house of Prussia laboured to accomplish a union, but all plans were frustrated by the opposition of the theologians.普鲁士王室的辛劳,完成了工会,但所有的计划是由神学家反对沮丧。There were for a time prospects of a reconciliation of the Hanoverian Lutherans with the Catholic Church.对于有一个路德宗的汉诺威与天主教会和解时间的前景。Negotiations were carried on between the Catholic Bishop Spinola and the Lutheran representative Molanus (1691).进行了谈判对两国天主教主教斯皮诺拉和路德代表Molanus(1691)。A controversy on the points at issue followed between Bossuet and Leibniz (1692-1701), but no agreement was reached.作者之间bossuet和莱布尼茨(1792至01年),其次争论点的争议,但没有达成任何协议。

(d) Fourth Period: From the Evangelical Union (1817) to the Present (d)第四个时期:从福音派联盟(1817),以目前

The chief events in the Lutheran Churches in Germany during the nineteenth century were the Evangelical Union and the revival of orthodoxy.在德国路德教会,在十九世纪的主要事件是福音派联盟和正统的复兴。During the celebration of the tercentenary of the Reformation in 1817, efforts were made in Prussia to unite Lutherans and Reformed.在对tercentenary的改革在1817年的庆祝活动,努力在普鲁士团结lutherans和改革。Frederick William III recommended the use of a common liturgy by the two churches, and this proposal gradually won acceptance.腓特烈威廉三世的建议,由两个教会的一个共同的礼仪用途,而这项建议逐步赢得了验收。There was much opposition, however, to the service-book published by royal authority in 1822.有许多反对,但是,以服务业为图书出版由皇家管理局于1822年。John Scheibel, deacon in Breslau, refused to accept it, and, being deposed from office, founded a separatist sect known as the "Old Lutherans" (1830).约翰scheibel,执事在布雷斯劳,拒绝接受它,并正在由办公室废黜,创立了有分裂教派的“老lutherans”之称(1830)。 The Government used very oppressive measures against these nonconformists, but in 1845 the new king, Frederick William IV, recognized them as an independent Lutheran sect.政府用来对付这些新教徒非常压迫性措施,但在1845年新国王,腓特烈威廉四,承认作为一个独立的路德派他们。In 1860 the Old Lutherans were greatly reduced in numbers by the defection of Pastor Diedrich, who organized the independent Immanuel Synod.在1860年的旧lutherans被大大降低,数量由牧师迪德里奇,谁组织独立伊曼纽主教叛逃。There were also separatist movements outside of Silesia.也有分离主义运动以外的西里西亚。Free Lutheran Churches were established by dissenters in Hesse, Hanover, Baden, and Saxony.免费路德教会成立了由在黑森州,汉诺威,巴登和萨克森州的持不同政见者。A supernaturalist movement, which defended the Divinely inspired character of the Bible, started a reaction against the principle of rationalism in theology.阿t运动,捍卫了神圣的品格圣经,开始了对理性神学反应的原则。The centenary jubilees of 1817 and the following years, which recalled the early days of Lutheranism, brought with them a revival of former orthodoxy.百年jubilees的1817年和随后的几年中,其中回顾早年的路德教,带来了他们的前正统的复兴。The theological faculties of several universities became strictly Lutheran in their teachings.几所大学神学系成为他们的教导,严格路德。Since then there has been a persistent and bitter struggle between rationalistic and Evangelical tendencies in the United and Free Churches.从那时起,一直是双方在美国和自由的理性主义和基督教教会持续了艰苦卓绝的斗争的倾向。

(2) The Lutherans in Denmark and Scandinavia.(2)在丹麦和斯堪的纳维亚路德。

(a) Denmark(一)丹麦

By the Union of Calmar (1397), Sweden, Norway, and Denmark became a united kingdom under the King of Denmark.到了卡尔马联盟(1397),瑞典,挪威和丹麦成为一个在英国的丹麦国王。The despotic Christian II (1513-23) endeavoured to introduce the Reformation, but was overthrown by his barons.专制基督教二(1513年至1523年)引进的改革努力,但被他的贵族推翻。Frederick I of Schleswig-Holstein, his successor, openly professed Lutheranism in 1526.弗雷德里克的德国石荷州,他的继任者,我曾公开宣称在1526路德教。At the Diet of Odense (1527) he obtained a measure which guaranteed equal rights to his coreligionists, and two years later he proclaimed Lutheranism the only true religion.在国会的欧登塞(1527),他获得了一项措施,保证平等权利,以他的coreligionists,两年后,他宣布路德教唯一真正的宗教。 Under his successor, Christian III (1533-59), the Catholic bishops were deprived of their sees, and the Lutheran Church of Denmark was organized with the king as supreme bishop.在他的继任者,基督教三(1533年至1559年),天主教主教被剥夺了他们认为,和丹麦路德教会主教与国王作为最高权力机构组织的。 The Diet of Copenhagen (1546) enacted penal laws, which deprived Catholics of civil rights and forbade priests to remain in Denmark under pain of death.哥本哈根的饮食(1546)颁布了刑法,剥夺天主教徒的公民权利,并禁止神职人员向留在丹麦,违者处死。The opposition of Iceland to the new religion was put down by force (1550).冰岛的反对新的宗教是提出压低(1550)。German rationalism was propagated in Denmark by Clausen.德国理性主义所宣扬的是在丹麦的克劳森。Among its opponents was Grundtvig, leader of the Grundtvigian movement (1824), which advocated the acceptance of the Apostles' Creed as the sole rule of faith.在它的对手是Grundtvig,在Grundtvigian运动的领导人(1824年),其中主张的使徒们的信条作为唯一的法治信仰的验收。 Freedom of religious worship was granted in 1849.宗教信仰自由是​​理所当然于1849年。

(b) Norway (二)挪威

Norway, which was united with Denmark, became Lutheran during the reigns of Frederick I and Christian III.挪威,这是美国与丹麦,成为冯本人在第三的统治和基督教路德。Rationalism, introduced from Denmark, made great progress in Norway.理性主义,介绍了来自丹麦,挪威取得很大进展。It was opposed by Hauge and by Norwegian followers of Grundtvig.它反对由豪格和挪威的Grundtvig追随者。A Free Apostolic Church was founded by Adolph Lammers about 1850, but later reunited with the state church.一个自由的使徒教会成立由阿道夫拉默斯约1850名,但后来教会与国家统一。Norway passed laws of toleration in 1845, but still excludes the Jesuits.挪威在1845年通过的法律的耐受性,但仍然不包括耶稣会士。

(c) Sweden (三)瑞典

Sweden was freed from the Danish yoke by Gustavus Vasa in 1521, and two years later the liberator was chosen king.瑞典是摆脱枷锁的古斯塔夫斯瓦萨丹麦在1521年,两年后的救星,被选为国王。Almost from the outset of his reign he showed himself favourable to Lutherans, and by cunning and violence succeeded in introducing the new religion into his kingdom.几乎从一开始就对他的统治,他表明自己有利lutherans和狡诈和暴力他的王国中引入了新的宗教成功。In 1529 the Reformation was formally established by the Assembly of Orebro, and in 1544 the ancient Faith was put under the ban of the law.在1529年改革正式成立,由厄勒布鲁大会,并在第1544古老的信仰是根据法律的禁令付诸表决。The reign of Eric XIV (1560-8) was marked by violent conflicts between the Lutherans and the Calvinists.作者:埃里克十四统治时期(1560-8)的标志之间lutherans和加尔文教派暴力冲突。The latter party was favoured by the king, and their defeat in 1568 was followed by Eric's dethronement.后者党是赞成由国王,他们的失败是在1568年由E​​ric的废立后。His successor, John III (1568-92), conferred with Gregory XIII on a reunion of Sweden with the Catholic Church, but, as the pope could not grant all the concessions demanded by the king, the negotiations were unsuccessful.他的继任者,约翰三世(1568年至1592年),赋予与格雷戈里十三,对瑞典与天主教教会的团聚,但是,正如教宗不能给予的一切优惠,要求由国王,谈判均告失败。 The next king, Sigismund (1592-1604), was a Catholic, but, as he lived in Poland (of which he was king from 1587), the Government of Sweden was administered by his uncle Duke Charles of Sudermanland, a zealous Lutheran, who used the power at his command to secure his proclamation as King Charles IX in the Assembly of Nordkoeping (1604).未来国王,西吉斯蒙德(1604),是一名天主教徒,但是,​​正如他住在波兰(他是从1587年王),瑞典政府是由他的叔叔查尔斯杜克Sudermanland,一个热心的路德会管理,谁使用在他的指挥,以确保在Nordkoeping大会(1604)他宣布为国王查尔斯九的权力。 The successor of Charles was the famous general and statesman, Gustavus Adolphus (1611-32).继承人的查尔斯是著名将领和政治家,古斯塔夫阿道夫(1611年至1632年)。For the part he took in the Thirty Years War, he is venerated by Lutherans as the religious hero of their Church, but it is now admitted that reasons of state led Gustavus into that conflict.对于一部分,他参加了三十年战争,他是由lutherans崇敬的英雄,他们的教会的宗教多年,但现在是承认的是,国家为理由,导致冲突古斯塔夫。 He was succeeded by his only daughter Christina, who became a Catholic and abdicated in 1654.他是接替他唯一的女儿克里斯蒂娜,谁成为天主教徒,于1654年退位。By a law of 1686 all persons in the kingdom were required under severe penalties to conform to the state Church.由1686年法律王国所有的人必须受到严厉处罚,以符合国家的教堂。A law passed in 1726 against religious conventicles was rigidly enforced against the Swedish Pietists (Läsare) from 1803 till its repeal in 1853.在1726年通过一项法律,对宗教conventicles是硬性强迫从1803年至今,其在1853年废除对(Läsare)瑞典虔诚。 The law against religious dissidents was not removed from the statute books till 1873.依法对宗教持不同政见者并没有从法典中删除,直到1873年。The Swedish Church is entirely controlled by the state, and the strict orthodoxy which was enforced prevented at first any serious inroads of Rationalism.瑞典教会是完全由国家控制,并严格正统起初被强迫任何理性的严重侵蚀预防。But since 1866 there has formed within the state Church a "progressive party", whose purpose is to abandon all symbols and to laicize the church.但自从1866年有形成国家教会“进步党”,其目的就是要放弃所有的符号,并laicize教堂。The two universities of Upsala and Lund are orthodox.的乌普萨拉大学和隆德二是正统。The Grand Duchy of Finland, formerly united to Sweden, but now (since 1809) a Province of Russia, maintains Lutheranism as the national Church.芬兰大公国,前身是美,瑞典,但是现在(自1809)是俄罗斯的省,作为国家维护路德教教会。

(3) Lutheranism in Other Countries of Europe(3)路德教在欧洲其他国家

(a) Poland (一)波兰

Lutheranism was introduced into Poland during the reign of Sigismund I (1501-48) by young men who had made their studies at Wittenberg.路德教传入波兰期间西吉斯蒙德我(1501年至1548年)的谁取得了他们的研究在维滕贝格年轻男子的统治。 The new teachings were opposed by the king, but had the powerful support of the nobility.新的教义都反对由国王,但有强大的贵族的支持。From Danzig they spread to the cities of Thorn and Elbing, and, during the reign of Sigismund II (1548-72), steadily gained ground.从泽他们散布在sigismund第二卷(1548年至1572年)统治的眼中钉和埃尔宾,以及城市,不断抬头。A union symbol was drawn up and signed by the Protestants at Sandomir in 1570, and three years later they concluded a religious peace with the Catholics, in which it was agreed that all parties should enjoy equal civil rights.工会的象征,是制定和签署,由新教徒在sandomir在1570年,三年后,他们结束了与天主教徒,其中与会者一致认为,各方都应该享有平等的公民权利,宗教的和平。 The peace was not lasting, and during two centuries there was almost continual religious strife which finally led to the downfall of the kingdom.和平是不会持久的,并在两个世纪,几乎持续宗教纷争,最终导致了王国的垮台。 With the connivance of Poland, Lutheranism was established in the territories of the Teutonic Order, East Prussia (1525), Livonia (1539), and Courland (1561).与波兰的纵容,路德教成立于条顿骑士团,东普鲁士(1525年),利沃尼亚(1539年),和库尔兰(1561年)的领土。

(b) Hungary, Transylvania and Silesia(二)匈牙利,特兰西瓦尼亚和西里西亚

The teachings of Luther were first propagated in these countries during the reign of King Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia (1516-26).遗训路德首先宣扬在这些国家中,国王路易二世的匈牙利和波西米亚(1516年至1526年)的统治。The king was strongly opposed to religious innovation, but after his death civil discords enabled the new doctrine to gain headway.国王强烈反对宗教革新,但在他死后民间刺耳使新军事学说获得进展。In Silesia Lutheranism was protected by the dukes, and in 1524 it was established in Breslau, the capital, by the municipal council.在西里西亚路德教是受保护的肿瘤,而在1524年,它是在布雷斯劳,首都,建立了市议会。Freedom of worship was granted in Transylvania in 1545, and in Hungary in 1606.礼拜的自由是理所当然的特兰西瓦尼亚在1545年,并在1606年匈牙利。The Lutherans were soon involved in quarrels with the Calvinists.该lutherans很快就参与了与加尔文争吵。The German element among the Protestants favoured the Augsburg Confession, but the Reformed faith had more adherents among the Hungarians and Czechs.在德国元素之间的新教徒主张奥格斯堡供述,但已悔改的信仰有捷克,匈牙利和捷克之间更多的信徒。In Silesia the Lutherans themselves were divided on the doctrine of justification and the Eucharist.在西里西亚的lutherans本身的分歧学说的理由和圣体。Gaspar Schwenkfeld (died 1561), one of the earliest disciples of Luther, assailed his master's doctrine on these points, and as early as 1528 Schwenkfeldianism had many adherents among Lutherans.加斯帕加斯帕尔schwenkfeld(死于1561年),最早的路德的门徒之一,在这些问题上抨击他的主人的学说,并早在1528 schwenkfeldianism有许多追随者其中lutherans。The memory of Schwenkfeld is still held in veneration in Silesia and in some Lutheran communities of Pennsylvania.该加斯帕尔schwenkfeld的记忆依然举行奉祀在西里西亚和宾夕法尼亚州一些路德社区。Lutheranism made some gains in the hereditary states of Austria and in Bohemia during the reigns of Ferdinand 1 (1556-64) and Maximilian II (1564-76).路德教费迪南德一期间(1556至1564)和马克西米利安二世(1564年至1576年)的统治在奥地利和波希米亚世袭一些国家的收益。 The Lutherans of Bohemia rebelled against the imperial authority in 1618, but were defeated, and the Catholic Faith was preserved in the Hapsburg dominions. lutherans的波西米亚反抗帝国管理局在1618年,但被打败,与天主教的信仰是在哈布斯堡王朝的领地保留。(See AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MONARCHY; HUNGARY.)(见奥匈牙利君主国,匈牙利)。

(c) Holland(三)荷兰

Holland was one of the first countries to receive the doctrines of Luther.荷兰是第一个国家接受路德的学说之一。Emperor Charles V, anxious to avert the disorders which followed the Reformation in Germany, used great severity against those who propagated Lutheranism in the Netherlands.皇帝查尔斯五世,焦虑,以避免疾病,其中在德国宗教改革后,用来对付那些谁宣扬路德教在荷兰伟大的严重性。 His son, Philip II of Spain (1556-98), was still more rigorous.他的儿子,西班牙国王腓力二世(1556至1598年),是更严格。The measures he employed were often despotic and unjust, and the people rose in a rebellion (1568), by which Holland was lost to Spain.他雇用措施往往专制和不公正的,与人的叛乱(1568),其中荷兰是输给了西班牙的玫瑰。Meanwhile the relations between the Lutherans and Calvinists were anything but cordial.与此同时关系lutherans和加尔文的关系是什么,但亲切。The Reformed party gradually gained the ascendancy, and, when the republic was established, their political supremacy enabled them to subject the Lutherans to many annoying restrictions.经过改革党逐渐取得支配地位,而且,当中华人民共和国成立后,他们的政治优势,使他们得以受到lutherans许多恼人的限制。 The Dutch Lutherans fell a prey to Rationalism in the eighteenth century.荷兰lutherans下降了猎物,以理性主义在十八世纪。 A number of the churches and pastors separated from the main body to adhere more closely to the Augsburg Confession.阿的教堂和主体分开,以更严格地遵守了奥格斯堡供认牧师数量。The liberal party has a theological seminary (founded in 1816) at Amsterdam, while the orthodox provide for theological training by lectures in the university of the same city.自由党在阿姆斯特丹有一个神学院(1816年创立),而正统的神学训练提供在同一城市大学讲座。

(4) Lutherans in America在美国(4)路德会

(a) Period of Foundation (1624-1742)(一)时期基金会(1624年至1742年)

Lutherans were among the earliest European settlers on this continent. lutherans其中在这个大陆上最早的欧洲定居者。Their first representatives came from Holland to the Dutch colony of New Netherlands about 1624.他们首先代表来自荷兰的荷兰新约1624年荷兰的殖民地。Under Governor Stuyvesant they were obliged to conform to the Reformed services, but freedom of worship was obtained when New Amsterdam (New York) was captured by the English in 1664.总督下斯泰弗森特他们责任,以符合改革后的服务,但信仰自由,获得当新阿姆斯特丹(纽约)是由英国在1664年拍摄。The second distinct body of Lutherans in America arrived from Sweden in 1637.第二个独特的机构的lutherans在美国抵达由瑞典于1637年。Two years later they had a minister and organized at Fort Christina (now Wilmington, Delaware), the first Lutheran congregation in the New World.两年后,他们有一个部长和堡斯蒂娜(现威尔明顿,特拉华州),第一次在新的世界路德教会组织。After 1771 the Swedes of Delaware and Pennsylvania dissolved their union with the Mother Church of Sweden.之后,1771年特拉华州和宾夕法尼亚州的瑞典人解散了与瑞典母亲教会联盟。As they had no English-speaking ministers, they chose their pastors from the Episcopalian Church.由于他们没有以英语为母语的部长们,他们选择了从圣公会教堂的牧师。Since 1846 these congregations have declared full communion with the Episcopalians. 1846年以来,这些教友已经宣布完全共融与episcopalians。The first colony of German Lutherans was from the Palatinate.德国路德会的第一个殖民地是从皇帝行宫遗址。They arrived in 1693 and founded Germantown, now a part of Philadelphia.他们来到1693年创立了日耳曼,现在是费城的一部分。 During the eighteenth century large numbers of Lutheran emigrants from Alsace, the Palatinate, and Würtemberg settled along the Hudson River.在18世纪,来自阿尔萨斯,皇帝行宫遗址,以及大量移民Würtemberg信义解决沿哈得逊河。On the Atlantic coast, in New Jersey, Virginia, North and South Carolina, were many isolated groups of German Lutherans.位于大西洋沿岸,在新泽西州,弗吉尼亚州,南卡罗来纳州北,德国路德会的许多孤立的群体。A colony of Lutherans from Salzburg founded the settlement of Ebenezer, Georgia, in 1734.一个殖民地的lutherans从萨尔茨堡成立于1734年的埃比尼泽,格鲁吉亚,结算。In Eastern Pennsylvania about 30,000 German Lutherans had settled before the middle of the eighteenth century.在东部宾夕法​​尼亚州约有30000名德国lutherans已经解决了中前十八世纪中叶。Three of their congregations applied to Europe for ministers, and Count Zinzendorf became pastor in Philadelphia in 1741.他们的毕业典礼三种适用于欧洲,为部长,并成为伯爵辛生铎夫在1741年在费城的牧师。

(b) Period of Organization (1742-87)(二)期间的组织(1742年至1787年)

In 1742 Rev. Henry Muhlenberg, a Hanoverian who is regarded as the patriarch of American Lutheranism, arrived in Philadelphia and succeeded Zinzendorf in the pastorate.亨利在1742年修订版米伦贝格,谁是被视为美国路德教教主,抵达费城,并成功地在牧师辛生铎夫认为汉诺威。 During the forty-five years of his ministry in America, Muhlenberg presided over widely separated congregations and erected many churches.在四五他的部在美国,米伦贝格主持了广泛分离的毕业典礼,并建立许多教堂。He began the work of organization among the Lutherans of America by the foundation of the Synod of Pennsylvania in 1748.他于1748年间的美国路德会的组织,由美国宾夕法尼亚主教基金会的工作。He also prepared the congregational constitution of St. Michael's Church, Philadelphia, which became the model of similar constitutions throughout the country.他还编写了圣迈克尔教堂,费城,从而成为该国的同类宪法模型公理的宪法。His son, Rev. Frederick Muhlenberg, afterwards speaker in the first House of Representatives, was the originator of the Ministerium of New York, the second synod in America (1773).他的儿子弗雷德里克米伦贝格牧师,后来在代表第一次众议院议长,是纽约的ministerium在美国(1773年)第二次主教会议的鼻祖。

(c) Period of Deterioration (1787-1817)(三)时期的恶化(1787年至1817年)

Muhlenherg and the other German pastors of his time were graduates of the University of Halle.Muhlenherg和他的时候其他德国牧师的哈勒大学的毕业生。The generation that succeeded them had made their studies in the same institution.一代成功,他们提出了在同一机构进修。 But the Pietism of the founders of Halle had now made way for the destructive criticism of Semler.但是,虔诚主义的创始人哈雷现已取得塞姆勒为破坏性的批评方式。The result was soon manifest in the indifferentism of the American Churches.结果很快就在美国教会indifferentism清单。The Pennsylvania Ministerium eliminated all confessional tests in its constitution of 1792.宾夕法尼亚州ministerium消除在其1792年宪法规定,所有教派的测试。The New York ministerium, led by Dr. Frederick Quitman, a decided Rationalist, substituted for the older Lutheran catechisms and hymn-books works that were more conformable to the prevailing theology.纽约的ministerium弗雷德里克奎特曼博士领导的一个决定理性主义,旧路德catechisms和圣歌书籍作品更符合当时的神学取代。 The agenda, or service-book adopted by the Pennsylvania Lutherans in 1818, was a departure from the old type of service and the expression of new doctrinal standards.议程,或者服务的图书通过了由宾夕法尼亚lutherans于1818年,是一个从老服务的类型和标准,表达新的理论出发。 The transition from the use of German to English caused splits in many congregations, the German party bitterly opposing the introduction of English in the church services.从德国过渡到使用英语造成许多教会分裂,德国党强烈反对英国在教会服务的介绍。They even felt that they had more in common with the German-speaking Reformed than with the English-speaking Lutherans, and some of them advocated an Evangelical Union such as was then proposed in Prussia.他们甚至认为,他们与讲德语的改革比英语为母语的lutherans在更多的共同点,其中一些主张是一个福音派联盟等,然后在普鲁士建议。

(d) Period of Revival and Expansion (1817-60)(四)复兴与扩张(1817至1860年)时期

To prevent the threatened disintegration, a union of all the Lutheran synods in America was proposed.为防止威胁的解体,对所有在美国路德主教会议,提出了工会。In 1820 the General Synod was organized at Hagerstown, Pennsylvania, but a few of the district synods stood aloof.在1820年的总主教是有组织在hagerstown,宾夕法尼亚州,但在一些地区主教会议站在超然。The new organization was regarded with suspicion by many, and in 1823 the mother synod of Pennsylvania itself withdrew from the general body.新的组织被认为是与猜疑,许多人,并在1823年,宾夕法尼亚主教母亲自己从一般的身体退席。 From the beginning there was a considerable element within the General Synod which favoured doctrinal compromise with the Reformed Church.从一开始,有一个在相当大的部分一般主教会议主张与改革教会教义的妥协。To strengthen the conservative party, the Pennsylvania Synod returned to the General Synod in 1853.为了加强保守党,宾夕法尼亚主教回归到一般主教于1853年。Meanwhile the General Synod had established the theological seminary at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (1825), and societies for home and foreign missions.同时一般主教建立在葛底斯堡,宾夕法尼亚州(1825)神学院,并为家庭和外国使团的社会。In the West several ecclesiastical organizations were formed by Lutheran emigrants from Saxony, Prussia, Bavaria, and the Scandinavian countries.在西部几个教会组织,形成了由萨克森,普鲁士,巴伐利亚州和斯堪的纳维亚国家路德移民。The Missouri Synod was founded by Rev. Carl Walther in 1847, and the same year opened a theological seminary at St. Louis.密苏里州主教是由牧师卡尔Walther称,在1847年,并于同年开设了在圣路易斯一神学院。A band of Old Lutherans, who resisted the Prussian union, emigrated from Saxony in 1839, and two years later founded the Buffalo Synod.一个老lutherans,谁抵抗普鲁士联盟,带移居海外,从萨克森州,在1839年,两年后成立了水牛主教。At first a union between the Missouri and the Buffalo synods was expected, but instead their leaders were soon engaged in doctrinal controversies which extended over many years.起初之间的密苏里州和水牛主教会议的工会是意料之中的,而是他们的领导人很快就超过多年从事理论争论,延续。In 1854 a party within the Missouri Synod, dissatisfied with what it regarded as the extreme congregationalism of that body and its denial of open questions in theology, seceded and formed the Iowa Synod with its theological seminary at Dubuque.在1854年在密苏里州主教,它作为该机构的极端公理及其拒绝公开问题,在神学,认为不满意,党的分裂,形成了其在爱荷华州迪比克神学院主教。 Ever since there has been conflict between these two synods.自从出现了这两者之间主教会议冲突。Travelling preachers of the Pennsylvania Ministerium founded in Ohio a conference in connexion with the mother synod in 1805.行的宾夕法尼亚ministerium传教士创办于1805年在俄亥俄州与主教的母亲在Connexion的会议。This conference was reorganized in 1818 into a synod which since 1833 has been known as the Joint Synod of Ohio.这次会议是在1818年成为改组其中1833年以来一直被视为已知俄亥俄州联合主教主教。The earliest synods formed by Scandinavian emigrants were:最早由北欧移民组成主教分别为:

the Norwegian Hauge Synod (1846),挪威豪格主教(1846年),

the Norwegian Synod (1863), and挪威议会(1863年),以及

the Scandinavian Augustana Synod (1860),斯堪的纳维亚奥古斯塔纳主教(1860年),

all in the states of the Middle West.在中东的所有西方国家。

(e) Period of Reorganization (since 1860)(五)时代的重组(1860年)

At the beginning of the Civil War the General Synod numbered two-thirds of the Lutherans in the United States, and hopes were entertained that soon all the organizations would be united in one body.在南北战争开始的总主教编号的美国两个路德会的三分之二,并希望获得受理很快所有组织,将在一个机构统一起来。These anticipations, however, were doomed to disappointment.这些预期的,但是,人注定要失望了。In 1863 the General Synod lost the five southern district synods, which withdrew and formed the "General Synod of the Confederate States".在1863年的总主教失去了5个南区主教会议,其中撤回,并形成了“总主教的邦联国家。” A more serious break in the General Synod occurred three years later.一,在总主教更严重的突破发生在三年之后。The disagreements between the liberal and the conservative elements in that body had not abated with time.之间的自由和在该机构中保守分子的分歧并没有随时间减弱。In 1864 the Ministerium of Pennsylvania established in Philadelphia a new seminary, thereby greatly reducing the attendance at the Gettysburg seminary of the General Synod.在1864年ministerium宾州费城建立了一个新的修道院,从而大大减少了在葛底斯堡神总主教出席。At the next convention (1866) it was declared that the Pennsylvania Synod was no longer in practical union with the General Synod.在未来的公约(1866年),它被宣布说,宾夕法尼亚主教是不再符合实际的工会一般主教。The Pennsylvania Ministerium at once sent out an invitation to all American and Canadian synods to join with it in forming a new general body.宾夕法尼亚ministerium立即发出了邀请所有美国和加拿大的主教会议,以与它一道形成了一个新的一般性的身体。 In response to this invitation a convention assembled at Reading the same year, and thirteen synods were consolidated into the "General Council".为响应这一邀请在读同年组建了一个公约,13名主教会议合并为“一般会”。With the close of the Civil War the Southern Lutherans might have returned to fellowship with their Northern brethren, but the controversy between the Northern synods determined them to perpetuate their own organization.随着内战结束南部lutherans可能已回到金与北方的兄弟,但争议之间北部主教会议确定的,他们要维持自己的组织。 In 1886 they reorganized their general body, taking the name of the "United Synod in the South", and stating their doctrinal position, which is essentially the same as that of the General Council.在1886年他们重组后,他们一般身体,以“在南方,美国主教”的名称,并说明自己的理论立场,它在本质上作为总理事会相同。 A fourth general body was formed in 1872, the "Synodical Conference", at present the strongest organization among the Lutheran Churches of America.第四条一般体成立于1872年,“区会会议”,目前在美国路德教会的强烈的组织。It takes as its basis the Formula of Concord of 1580, and comprises the Missouri and other Western synods.它以1580年的基础上,对公式的康科德,包括密苏里州和其他西方主教会议。A controversy on predestination led to the withdrawal of the Ohio Synod in 1881, and of the Norwegian Synod in 1884.关于宿命的争议导致俄亥俄主教于1881年撤出,并于1884年挪威议会。There are still many independent synods not affiliated with any of the general organizations.有没有与任何组织,下属一般仍有不少独立主教会议。Thus the Lutherans of the United States are divided into various conflicting bodies, each claiming to be a truer exponent of Lutheranism than the others.因此lutherans美国分为各种相互冲突的机构,每一个自称是一个比其他人更真实的路德教指数。The membership of the four principal organizations is almost exclusively of German descent.这四个主要组织成员几乎全部由德国血统。The main cause of separation is diversity of opinion regarding the importance or the interpretation of the official confessions.分离的主要原因是关于重要性或官方的供词解释意见的多样性。

III.三。ORGANIZATION AND WORSHIP组织和崇拜

In the early days of the Reformation the prevalent form of government was that known as the episcopal, which transferred the jurisdiction of the bishops to the civil ruler.在改革初期普遍存在的政府形式,是被称为主教,其中移送管辖的主教的民事统治者而闻名。It was followed by the territorial system, which recognized the sovereign as head of the church, in virtue of his office, both in administrative and doctrinal matters.其次是领土制度,承认为教会的头的主权,在他的办公室美德无论是在行政和理论问题。The collegial system of Pfaff (1719) asserts the sovereignty and independence of the congregation, which may, however, delegate its authority to the State.合议制的百福(1719)断言,会众,这可能,不过,授其权力,国家主权和独立。In the Lutheran state Churches the secular power is in fact the supreme authority.在路德教会,国家世俗权力是至高无上的权力,其实。The practical determination of religious questions rests with the national legislature, or with a consistorium whose members are appointed by the government.在实际测定宗教问题在于国家立法机关,还是与consistorium,其成员由政府任命。No Divinely constituted hierarchy is recognized, and in orders all the clergy are considered as equals.没有神圣的构成层次,是公认的,并在所有的神职人员都视为平等的订单。The Lutheran bishops of Sweden and Denmark, like the "general superintendents" of Germany, are government officials entrusted with the oversight of the pastors and congregations.路德主教的瑞典和丹麦一样,“总警司”的德国,都与教会的牧师和受托监督政府官员。In Holland and the United States, as among the Free Churches of Germany, the form of organization is synodical, a system of church polity which in its main features has been derived from the Reformed Church.在荷兰和美国,作为其中的德国自由教会,区会的组织形式,是一个教会政体制度,在其主要特点已经从改革教会而得。According to this plan, purely congregational matters are decided by the vote of the congregation, either directly or through the church council.根据这一计划,纯粹堂事项的决定是由会众投票,直接或通过教会理事会。In the United States the church council consists of the pastor and his lay assistants, the elders and deacons, all chosen by the congregation.在美国,教会理事会的牧师和他奠定助理,而长老和执事们,都选择了由众。 Affairs of more general importance and disputed questions are settled by the district synod, composed of lay and clerical delegates representing such congregations as have accepted a mutual congregational compact.更一般的重要性和有争议的问题都解决后,由管理区主教和代​​表等教友奠定文职代表,因为已接受了一项相互堂紧凑组成。 The congregations composing a district synod may unite with other district synods to form a more general body.该教友组成的一个地区主教可能团结其他地区主教会议,以组成一个更一般的身体。The powers of a general organization of this kind, in relation to the bodies of which it is composed, are not, however, in all cases the same.对这一类的一般组织有关的,它的组成机构,权力,都没有,但是在所有情况下,同样的。 The constitution of the Old Lutheran Church in Germany makes its General Synod the last court of appeal and its decisions binding.中环旧路德教会在德国宪法使其总主教最后上诉法院,其决定具有约束力。In the United States a different conception prevails, and in most instances the general assemblies are regarded simply as advisory conferences whose decisions require the ratification of the particular organizations represented.在美国不同的概念盛行,而且在大多数情况下一般集会只是作为其决定必须在批准的特定组织的代表咨询会议,。

Lutheran public worship is based on the service-book which Luther published in 1523 and 1526.信义公共崇拜,是立足于服务书,路德在1523年和1526出版。He retained the first part of the Mass, but abolished the Offertory, Canon, and all the forms of sacrifice.他保留了第一部分的群众,但取消了奉献,佳能,以及所有形式的牺牲。The main Lutheran service is still known as "the Mass" in Scandinavian countries.主要路德服务仍然是被称为斯堪的纳维亚国家在“地下”。The singing of hymns became a prominent part of the new service.唱圣诗,成为新的服务突出的部分。Many Catholic sequences were retained, and other sacred songs were borrowed from the old German poets.许多天主教序列被保留,和其他神圣的歌曲,从旧的德国诗人借来的。Luther himself wrote hymns, but it is doubtful whether he is really the author of any of the melodies that are usually ascribed to him.路德自己写的赞美诗,但它是令人怀疑他是否真的是作者认为,通常归因于他的旋律任何作者。Luther wished to retain the Elevation and the use of the Latin language, but these have been abandoned.路德希望保留高程和拉丁语言的使用,但这些都被放弃。The Collect, Epistle, and Gospel vary according to the Sundays of the year.该收集,书信,和福音依今年星期日。The Creed is followed by a sermon on the Scripture lesson of the day, which is the principal part of the service.该信条是其次是对一天,这是服务的主体讲道圣经教训。Ordinarily the Lord's Supper is administered only a few times during the year.通常主的晚餐是经管一年只有几次。 It is preceded, sometimes the day before, by the service of public confession and absolution, which consists in the promise of amendment made by the intending communicants, and the declaration of the minister that such as are truly penitent are forgiven.它的前面,有时在一天前,由公共忏悔和赦免,这是在对修正案所作的承诺,有意communicants包括服务,该部长表示,如真正的忏悔是情有可原的声明。 Only two sacraments are recognized by Lutherans, Baptism and the Lord's Supper; but Confirmation, Ordination, and Confession as just described are regarded as sacred rites.只有两个圣礼,是公认的lutherans,洗礼和主的晚餐,但确认,排序,并供认,因为刚才描述的作为视为神圣的仪式。 There are also ceremonies prescribed for marriage and burial.也有规定的结婚和安葬仪式。Christmas, Easter, Pentecost, the feast of the Twelve Apostles, the Commemoration of the Reformation (31 Oct.) are observed with religious services.圣诞节,复活节,圣灵降临节,十二使徒的,对改革(10月31日)纪念节日是观察与宗教服务。Pictures are permitted in the churches, and in Denmark vestments and lighted candles are used at the communion service.图片获准在教堂,并在丹麦总有一套,并点燃蜡烛,在共融的服务使用。The first complete ritual or agenda was that prepared for the Duchy of Prussia in 1525.第一个完整的祭祀或议程是为准备在1525年普鲁士公国。There is no uniform liturgy for the churches.没有统一的教会礼仪。In the United Evangelical Church of Germany the agenda of Frederick William III (1817) is the official form.在美国福音派教会的德国腓特烈威廉三世议程(1817年),是正式的形式。The services of the American Lutherans were for many years chiefly extemporaneous, but since 1888 a common service based on the liturgies of the sixteenth century has been used by almost all English-speaking Lutherans in this country.美国路德会的服务,主要是即兴多年,但自1888年共同服务的基础上十六世纪的礼拜仪式是由这个国家几乎所有的英语母语的lutherans使用。 It includes, besides the main service, matins and vespers.它包括的,除了其主要的服务,在晨祷和晚祷。

IV.四。VARIOUS LUTHERAN ACTIVITIES各类信义活动

(1) Foreign Missions and Benevolent Organizations(1)外国使团和慈善组织

Foreign missionary activity has never been a very prominent characteristic of the Lutheran Church.外国传教士的活动从来就不是一个路德教会的突出特点。Its pioneer missionaries went from the University of Halle to the East Indies (Tanquebar) at the invitation of Frederick IV of Denmark in 1705.其先驱传教士来到该大学的哈雷到东印度群岛(Tanquebar)在冯四的丹麦在1705年邀请。During the eighteenth century Halle sent about sixty missionaries to Tanquebar.在十八世纪的哈勒派出约六十传教士Tanquebar。In later years the mission was supplied by the Leipzig Lutheran Mission.在多年后的使命是提供了莱比锡信义会。Another Danish mission was that of Pastor Hans Egede among the Greenlanders in 1721.另外丹麦的使命是对牧师汉斯Egede于1721年间格陵兰。During the nineteenth century several societies for foreign missions were founded: the Berlin Mission Society (1824), the Evangelical Lutheran Missionary Association of Leipzig (1836), the Hermansburg Society (1854), and a number of similar organizations in the Scandinavian countries.在十九世纪,外国使团的几​​个社团的成立是:柏林传教会(1824年),基督教路德派传教士协会的莱比锡(1836年),hermansburg协会(1854年),和一个类似的组织在斯堪的纳维亚国家。 In the United States a German Foreign Missionary Society was founded in 1837.在美国,德国的外国传教士协会成立于1837年。 The first Lutheran missionary from the United States was Dr. Heyer, who was sent to India in 1841.第一个从美国路德教会传教士海耶博士,谁在1841年被送往印度。At present missions to the heathen in Oceania, India, and East Africa, are maintained under the auspices of various American synods.在对在大洋洲,印度,非洲和东部非洲的异教徒,根据目前的任务是保持美国主教会议的各种主持。The sisterhood, known as the Lutheran Deaconesses, was founded by Pastor Fliedner at Kaiserwerth in 1833, its objects being the care of the sick, instruction, etc. They are now very numerous in some parts of Germany.姊妹,作为信义执事,始建由牧师fliedner在kaiserwerth于1833年,其宗旨是对病人,指导护理等,他们现在非常在德国的一些地方很多。 They were introduced in the United States in 1849.他们介绍了美国于1849年。

(2) Sacred Learning and Education(2)神圣的学习和教育

The study of exegetics, church history, and theology has been much cultivated by Lutheran scholars.在训诂学,教会历史的研究,神学已经大大培育的路德派学者。Among the exegetes the following are well known: Solomon Glassius (Philologia Sacra, 1623); Sebastian Schmid (died 1696), translator and commentator; John H. Michaelis (Biblia Hebraica, 1720); John A. Bengel (Gnomon Novi Testamenti, 1752); Havernick (died 1845), Hegstenberg (died 1869), and Delitzsch (died 1890), commentators.其中解经家以下是众所周知的:所罗门Glassius(Philologia萨克拉,1623);塞巴斯蒂安施密德(死于1696年),翻译家和评论家,约翰H米氏(Biblia Hebraica,1720),约翰A本格尔(时针诺维Testamenti,1752 );哈弗尼克(死于1845年),hegstenberg(死于1869年)和德里(死于1890年),评论员。Among the more important church historians may be mentioned: Mosheim (died 1755), sometimes called the "Father of Modern Church History", Schrockle (died 1808), Neander (died 1850), Kurtz (died 1890), Hase (died 1890).其中较重要的教会历史学家,可提到:mosheim(死于1755年),有时也被称为“现代教会的父亲史”,Schrockle(死于1808年),尼安德(死于1850年),库尔茨(死于1890年),长谷(死于1890年) 。The "Magdeburg Centuries" (1559) of Flacius Illyricus and his associates, the first church history written by Protestants, is very biased and has no historical value.在“马格德堡世纪”(1559)的Flacius illyricus和他的同伙,第一堂历史写的新教徒,是非常偏颇的,也没有历史价值。Numerous dogmatic works have been written by Lutheran theologians.许多教条式的作品曾先后撰写路德神学家。Among the dogmaticians most esteemed by Lutherans are: Melanchthon, whose "Loci Theologici" (1521) was the first Lutheran theology; Martin Chemnitz (died 1586) and John Gerhard (died 1637), the two ablest Lutheran theologians; Calovius (died 1686), champion of the strictest Lutheran orthodoxy; Quenstedt (died 1688); Hollaz (died 1713); Luthardt (died 1902); Henry Schmid, whose dogmatic theology (1st ed., 1843) in its English translation has been much used in the United States.其中最受爱戴lutherans dogmaticians是:梅兰希顿,他们的“个位点theologici”(1521)是第一个路德神学;马丁开姆尼茨(死于1586年)和约翰总理(死于1637年),两个最能干的路德神学家; calovius(死于1686年) ,严格的路德正统冠军;昆施泰特(死于1688年); Hollaz(死于1713年);卢特哈特(死于1902年),在其英文翻译亨利施密德,其教条式的神学(。第1版,1843年)已在美国多使用国。 The Lutheran Church still produces many dogmatic works, but very few of the modern divines hold strictly to the old formulæ of faith.路德教会仍产生许多教条式的作品,但只有极少数的现代divines进行严格的信仰旧公式。The Lutheran Churches deserve great credit for the importance they have always attached to religious instruction, not only in their many universities, but also and especially in the schools of elementary instruction.路德教会应有的,他们一直重视宗教教育的重要性,很大的功劳,不仅在他们的许多大学,而且特别是在学校的基础教学。 In Lutheran countries the education of the children is supervised by the religious authorities, since Lutherans act on the principle that religious training is the most important part of education.在路德国家的儿童教育监督,由宗教当局,因为lutherans的原则,即宗教培训是教育的最重要的部分行为。 The catechism, Biblical study, and church music have a prominent part in the everyday instruction.该问答,圣经研究,教会音乐,有一个突出的,在日常教学的一部分。In the United States the parochial school has been developed with great success among the congregations that still use the German and Scandinavian languages.在美国的教会学校已经发展起来的中教友表示,仍采用德国和斯堪的纳维亚语言的巨大成功。The Lutherans of Wisconsin and Illinois co-operated with the Catholics in 1890 in an organized resistance against legislation which would have proved injurious to the parochial schools.该lutherans合作,在1890年,在与天主教徒反对立法有组织的抵抗,将有伤证明向教会学校的威斯康星州和伊利诺伊州。

V. INFLUENCE OF RATIONALISM IN THE LUTHERAN CHURCHES五,影响理性主义的路德教会

The popular faith had been overthrown in the eighteenth century by the philosophy of Wolff (died 1754) and the criticism of Semler (died 1791).流行的信仰已被推翻,在十八世纪的哲学沃尔夫(死于1754年)和塞姆勒批评(死于1791年)。The principle of the supremacy of reason was used to tear down belief in the inspired character of Holy Writ.对理性至上的原则,采用推倒在激励着特征的圣经信仰。The literature and philosophy of the time show how great a blow was dealt to orthodox Lutheranism.文学和哲学的时间显示有多大的打击处理,以东正教路德教。Theology, now become the handmaid of philosophy, eagerly accepted amid the prevailing doubt and negation the system of Kant (died 1804), which made the essence of religion and the whole value of Scripture consist in the teaching of the morality of reason or natural ethics.神学的,现在变成了哲学的婢女,急切中普遍存在的怀疑和否定康德系统接受(死于1804年),这使得宗教的本质和整体价值的经文中的或自然的原因包括伦理道德教育。 Against this rationalistic theology there arose about the beginning of the nineteenth century two reactionary movements - Supernaturalism, which declared in favour of the undivided supremacy of faith, and the system of Schleiermacher (died 1834), which made sentiment or the feelings of the heart the criterion of religious truth.针对这种理性神学中产生了关于十九世纪二反动运动的开端 - 玄学,这在有利于充分的至高无上的信仰声明,并系统的施莱尔马赫(死于1834年),这使得情绪或感情的心宗教的真理标准。The teachings of Schleiermacher recast the existing theology, and gave it the bent which it afterwards followed.论施莱尔马赫改写现有的神学教义,并使它弯曲,它之后跟着。A still more thoroughgoing rationalism appeared in the writings of the Hegelian Strauss (died 1874) and of the Tübingen school, which aimed at the utter destruction of the Divine basis of Christian faith by explaining all that is supernatural in Scripture as merely natural or mythical.一个更加深入的理性黑格尔施特劳斯的作品出现(死于1874年)和蒂宾根大学的学校,这在基督教信仰完全神圣的基础上,旨在破坏的解释都认为是神灵在经文看作仅仅是自然人或神话。 These bold attacks were met by many able scholars, and they have long since been discredited.这些大胆的攻击,遭到许多无法学者,他们很早就被抹黑。Since the days of Strauss and Bauer (died 1860), the method known as Higher Criticism (see CRITICISM, BIBLICAL) has found favour in Germany, both with the rationalistic and the orthodox Protestant.由于施特劳斯和鲍威尔的日子(死于1860年),被称为高等批评的方法(见批评,圣经)备受欢迎,在德国无论是与理性主义和正统基督教。 Much that is of permanent value as an aid to the scientific study of the Bible has been accomplished, but at the same time Rationalism has been making constant gains, not only in the universities, but also amongst the masses.许多应该是作为对科学研究的圣经援助永久的价值已经完成,但在同一时间,理性主义一直在不断增长,不仅在大学,而且当中的群众。 The strictly confessional theology of the orthodox revival (1817), the neo-Lutheran movement, whose leanings toward the Catholic Faith gave it the name of German Puseyism, the Compromise Theology, which endeavoured to reconcile believers and Rationalists - all these more or less conservative systems are now to a great extent superseded by the modern or free theology, represented by Pfieiderer (died 1906), Wilhelm Hermann, Tröltsch, Harnack, Weinel, and others, which teaches a religion without creed or dogma.正统的复兴严格的自白神学(1817年),新路德运动,他们的倾向,对信仰天主教了,它的德国puseyism,妥协的神学,它力图调和信徒和理性 - 所有这些较为保守系统现在在很大程度上取代了现代或自由神学的Pfieiderer代表,取代(死于1906年),威廉赫尔曼,Tröltsch,哈纳克,魏内尔,和其他人,其中教的宗教教义或教条。 In Germany, especially in the cities, the Evangelical faith has lost its influence not only with the people, but in great part with the preachers themselves.在德国,特别是在城市中,福音派信仰已失去其影响力,不仅与人,但与传教士自己的很大一部分。The same is true to some extent in the Scandinavian countries, where Rationalism is making inroads on Lutheran orthodoxy.同样是真实的一些斯堪的纳维亚国家,理性主义,是进出对路德正统的程度。In the United States the Lutherans have been more conservative, and thus far have preserved more of their confessional spirit.在美国,lutherans一直较为保守,因此到目前为止,有保存的自白精神。

VI.六。STATISTICS统计

The number of Lutherans in the world is about fifty millions, a membership which far exceeds that of any other Protestant denomination.该lutherans在世界排名上约50万,会员制将远远超过任何其他新教教派。The chief Lutheran country today, as from the beginning, is Germany.行政路德国家的今天,作为从一开始,是德国。In 1905 the Evangelicals (Lutherans and Reformed) in the German Empire numbered 37,646,852.在1905年的德意志帝国新教徒(路德和改革),编号为37646852。The membership of the Lutheran churches in other European countries is as follows: Sweden (1900), 5,972,792; Russia, chiefly in Finland and the Baltic Provinces (1905), 3,572,653; Denmark (1901), 2,400,000; Norway (1900) 2,197,318; Hungary (1906), 1,288,942.在其他欧洲国家的路德教会的成员名单如下:瑞典(1900年),5972792,俄罗斯,主要是在芬兰和波罗的海省(1905年),3572653,丹麦(1901年),2,400,000,挪威(1900)2197318;匈牙利(1906年),1288942。 Austria and Holland have about 494,000 and 110,000 Lutherans respectively.奥地利和荷兰有大约494000和110000 lutherans。According to a bulletin of the Bureau of the US Census the total membership of the 24 Lutheran bodies in the United States in 1906 was 2,112,494, with 7841 ministers, 11,194 church edifices, and church property valued at $74,826 389 Dr. HK Carroll's statistics of the Churches of the United States for 1909 credits the Lutherans with 2,173,047 communicants.根据一项对美国人口普查局24路德在美国机构在1906年会员总数为2112494,与7841年的部长,11194教会华厦,和教会财产公告在七十四点八二六美元389博士港币卡罗尔的统计值教会的美国1909年贷款与2173047圣餐路德。

Publication information Written by JA McHugh.出版信息的书面由JA麦克休。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯j.波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.献给耶稣基督的圣心天主教百科全书,体积九。 Published 1910.1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,十月一日,1910年。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

I. JACOBS, The Book of Concord (Philadelphia. 1893); SCHAFF, The Creeds of Christendom (5th ed., New York, 1890), I, II; SCHMID, Doct.一,雅各布斯,这本书的康科德(Philadelphia. 1893年);沙夫,基督教(第五版,纽约,1890年。),我的信条二;施密德,Doct。Theol.Theol。of Evang.对埃旺。Luth.卢斯。Church (Philadelphia, 1889).教会(费城,1889年)。II.二。For the history of Lutheranism in Europe consult the bibliographies under the religious history of the various countries.对于路德教在欧洲历史上的协商下,各国宗教历史的书目。For the history of Lutheranism in the United States: JACOBS, History of the Evang.这在美国历史上的路德教:雅各布斯,埃旺历史。 Lutheran Church in the US (New York, 1893) in American Church History Series, IV (with extensive bibliog.); WOLF, The Lutherans in America (New York, 1889).路德教会在美国(纽约,1893年),在美国教会的历史系列,四(广泛bibliog。)狼,美国路德会(纽约,1889年)。 III.三。2.2。HORN, Outlines of Liturgies (Philadelphia, 1890).喇叭,概述了liturgies的(费城,1890年)。V. HURST, Hist.五,赫斯特,组织胺。 of Rationalism (New York, 1865); VIGOUROUX, Les Livres Saints et la Critique Rationaliste, II (Paris, 1886), 311-556.理性主义(纽约,1865年); VIGOUROUX,莱斯里弗圣徒等香格里拉批判Rationaliste,二(巴黎,1886年),311-556。VI.六。Kirchliches Jahrbuch (published at Gütersloh); Lutheran Church Annual; Lutheran Year Book.Kirchliches Jahrbuch(在居特斯洛出版);路德教会年度;信义年鉴。


Also, see:此外,见:
Martin Luther马丁路德
Luther's Small Catechism路德的小问答
Luther's 95 Theses路德的95篇论文
Formula of Concord公式康科德
Augsburg Confession奥格斯堡自白

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