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General Information一般资料

The term messiah comes from the Hebrew meshiach, meaning "anointed one."弥赛亚一词来源于希伯来语meshiach,意思是“受膏者”。In the Old Testament it was used of historical personages such as the anointed kings and priests of Israel.在旧约,它是用于历史人物,如膏国王和以色列的祭司。During the Babylonian Captivity (587 - 540 BC), Israelite hopes for a restored monarchy and priesthood flourished.在巴比伦圈养(587 - 540年),以色列希望恢复君主制,为蓬勃发展的祭司。With the return of the exiles to Jerusalem and the emergence of Zerubbabel and Joshua ben Jehozadak as political ruler and high priest, respectively, these hopes were to some extent realized.随着流亡者返回耶路撒冷和所罗巴伯的出现,作为政治统治者和大祭司约书亚贲Jehozadak,分别为这些希望都在一定程度上实现。

The later fortunes of Israel, especially under the Seleucids of Syria, kept alive the hope for a future and final deliverance, sometimes with and sometimes without a messianic figure.以色列以后的命运,特别是在叙利亚的塞留西士,不断为未来的生存和最终解脱的希望,有时,有时没有救世主的数字。The revolt of the Maccabees briefly kindled the hope that in the Hasmonean line an ideal priest - king had emerged.的马加比起义点燃了,在短暂的Hasmonean线的理想牧师希望 - 国王已经出现了。But the corruption of the later Hasmoneans led to the secession of part of the priestly caste to Qumram, where various forms of messianic hope were entertained, sometimes involving two messiahs - one from the house of Aaron (a priest) and one from the house of Israel (a king) together with a prophet.但后来的腐败哈斯摩年王朝导致部分的分裂国家的祭司种姓来Qumram,那里的救世主的希望各种形式获得受理,有时涉及二救世主 - 从房子从亚伦(祭司)的房子一和一以色列(国王)与先知在一起。The so called Psalms of Solomon, which expressed the piety of the Pharisees, looked only for a messiah descended from David.所罗门,其中表示虔诚的法利赛人,即所谓的诗篇只研究一个弥赛亚从大卫的后裔。

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After the death of Herod the Great (AD 4) and the incorporation of Judea into the Roman Empire, a nationalist resistance movement, the Zealots, hailed various leaders as the Messiah, the last being Bar Kochba during the great revolt of AD 132 - 35.后死亡的大希律王(公元4)和朱迪亚进入罗马帝国,一个民族抵抗运动的狂热团,被誉为公元132期间,大叛乱为弥赛亚,最后一次是酒吧Kochba各领导人 - 35 。

In the Books of Enoch, the figure of the Messiah coalesced with the apocalyptic "Son of Man," a supernatural judge and savior appearing at the end.在以诺书,该数字弥赛亚联合起来与世界末日“人子”的超自然法官和救世主在最后出现。

Whether Jesus Christ claimed to be the Messiah is disputed, though the Gospels affirm that he did (Mark 14:62).无论是耶稣基督自称为弥赛亚,是有争议的,虽然他并肯定福音(马可福音14:62)。The post Easter Christian community clearly ascribed the title Messiah to him (Acts 2:36) in a sense redefined by the crucifixion and resurrection faith.复活节后的基督教社会显然得益于他的标题弥赛亚(徒2:36)在受难和复活的信仰重新感。Translated into Greek, the title became Christos (Christ), which, improperly understood, became a proper name.翻译成希腊文,标题成为克里斯托(基督),其中,不正确的理解,成为一个适当的名称。

Reginald H Fuller雷金纳德ħ富勒

Bibliography 参考书目
O Cullmann, The Christology of the New Testament (1959); RH Fuller, The Foundations of New Testament Christology (1965); M Hengel, The Son of God: The Origin of Christology and the History of Jewish - Hellenistic Religion (1976); S Mowinckel, He That Cometh (1954); G Scholem, The Messianic Idea in Judaism (1972).Ø Cullmann,在新约圣经(1959年)基督教;相对湿度富勒,新约圣经christology(1965年)基础;米亨格尔,上帝的儿子:起源的基督和犹太历史 - 希腊宗教(1976年); S莫温克尔,他将到(1954)100肖勒姆,在犹太教的弥赛亚思想(1972年)。


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Messiah (Heb. mashiah), in all the thirty-nine instances of its occurring in the Old Testament, is rendered by the LXX.弥赛亚(希伯来书mashiah),在所有的39个在旧约,是由提供的LXX发生的情况。"Christos."“克里斯托。”It means anointed.这意味着受膏者。Thus priests (Ex. 28:41; 40:15; Num. 3:3), prophets (1 Kings 19:16), and kings (1 Sam. 9:16; 16:3; 2 Sam. 12:7) were anointed with oil, and so consecrated to their respective offices.因此,司铎(出埃及记28:41; 40:15。序号3:3),先知(王上19:16),国王(1萨姆9:16。16:3;撒下12:7)。抹了油,所以奉献给各自的办事处。The great Messiah is anointed "above his fellows" (Ps. 45:7); ie, he embraces in himself all the three offices.伟大的弥赛亚是受膏者“上面他的同伴”(诗篇45:7),即他是在自己所有的三个办事处的拥抱。The Greek form "Messias" is only twice used in the New Testament, in John 1:41 and 4:25 (RV, "Messiah"), and in the Old Testament the word Messiah, as the rendering of the Hebrew, occurs only twice (Dan 9:25, 26; RV, "the anointed one").希腊形式的“弥赛亚”是唯一两次使用在新约,在约翰1:41和4:25(风疹病毒,“弥赛亚”),并在旧约弥赛亚一词,因为希伯来文渲染,仅发生两次(丹9:25,26;风疹病毒,“受膏的人”)。 The first great promise (Gen. 3:15) contains in it the germ of all the prophecies recorded in the Old Testament regarding the coming of the Messiah and the great work he was to accomplish on earth.第一个伟大的诺言(创3:15)包含在它的所有记录在旧约的预言关于弥赛亚的来临和伟大的工作,他完成了地球上的萌芽。

The prophecies became more definite and fuller as the ages rolled on; the light shone more and more unto the perfect day.预言变得更为明确和充分的推出对年龄;光照耀着越来越多的祂完美的一天。Different periods of prophetic revelation have been pointed out, (1) the patriarchal; (2) the Mosaic; (3) the period of David; (4) the period of prophetism, ie, of those prophets whose works form a part of the Old Testament canon.不同时期的先知性的启示已经指出,(1)父权;(2)马赛克;(3)大卫的期限;(4)prophetism,即那些先知,他的作品,期间形成的一部分旧约佳能。 The expectations of the Jews were thus kept alive from generation to generation, till the "fulness of the times," when Messiah came, "made of a woman, made under the law, to redeem them that were under the law." In him all these ancient prophecies have their fulfilment.犹太人的期望,从而保持了一代又一代活着,直到时代来了,“当弥赛亚”,充满了“法律作出作出下,一个女人,赎回,并根据该法。”他,所有这些古老的预言有其履行。 Jesus of Nazareth is the Messiah, the great Deliverer who was to come. (Comp. Matt. 26:54; Mark 9:12; Luke 18:31; 22:37; John 5:39; Acts 2; 16:31; 26:22, 23.) 拿撒勒人耶稣是弥赛亚,伟大的拯救者谁是来26:54。(可比;马特。马克21:12;路加福音18:31,22:37,约翰5:39,徒2,16:31; 26:22,23)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


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The study of the rise and development of the figure of the Messiah is primarily historical, and then theological.派的兴起和弥赛亚的数字主要是历史发展的研究,然后神学。Confusion arises when specifically Christian ideas about the Messiah invade the OT data. Jesus' concept of his messianic mission did not accord with contemporary popular Jewish expectation.产生了困惑在谈到具体基督教思想弥赛亚入侵加时赛数据。 耶稣的弥赛亚使命的概念,他并没有期望符合当代流行犹太人。

In the OT在加时赛

"Messiah" is the hellenized transliteration of the Aramaic mesiha'.“弥赛亚”是阿拉姆mesiha'希腊化的音译。 The underlying Hebrew word masiah is derived from masah, "to anoint, smear with oil."底层的希伯来字masiah来自masah“,以膏,油涂抹。”This title was used sometimes of non-Israelite figures eg, Cyrus in Isa.这个称号是用来有时非以色列人的数字,例如,在伊萨赛勒斯。45:1 sometimes of the altar as in Exod.45:1有时作为在exod祭坛。29:36, sometimes of the prophet as in I Kings 19:16.有时也发生在我国王19时16先知29:36。But most frequently it referred to the king of Israel as in I Sam.但最频繁,它提到了以色列在我心王。26:11 and Ps.26:11和Ps。 89:20.89:20。It is noteworthy that the word "messiah" does not appear at all in the OT (the AV of Dan. 9:25 is incorrect; it ought to read "an anointed one"), and only rarely in the intertestamental literature.值得注意的是,单词“救世主”并不在所有出现的催产素(即丹9时25分AV是不正确的;。它应该改为“一圣人”),并在intertestamental文献很少。 The primary sense of the title is "king," as the anointed man of God, but it also suggests election, ie, the king was chosen, elect, and therefore honored.标题的主要意义是“王”,作为上帝的恩膏的人,但它也表明选举,即国王选择,选举,因此荣幸。It could scarcely be otherwise than that it referred to a political leader, for in its early stages Israel sought only a ruler, visible and powerful, who would reign here and now.否则得几乎比它指的是一个政治领导者在其早期阶段,以色列只要求一个统治者,可见光和强大,谁就会统治此时此地。But the entire evidence of later Judaism points to a Messiah not only as king but as eschatological king, a ruler who would appear at the end time.但后来犹太教点整证据不仅作为一个救世主的末世国王,但国王,统治者谁就会出现在结束时间。David was the ideal king of Israel, and as such he had a "sacral" character, and this sacral characteristic came to be applied to the eschatological king who was to be like David.大卫是以色列王的理想,因此他有一个“荐”字,这骶特征后来被应用到末世国王谁是要像大卫。

How did the national Messiah come to be a future ideal king?弥赛亚是怎么来的国家是一个未来的理想王吗?After the death of David, Israel began to hope for another like him who would maintain the power and prestige of the country.大卫死亡后,以色列开始希望像他这样一个谁还会维持权力和国家的威望。But Israel came into hard times with the rupture of the kingdom, and with this event there arose a disillusionment concerning the hope for a king like David.但是,以色列进入了艰难时期与国度的破裂,与此事件有出现幻灭关于对像大卫国王的希望。Then after the Exile, Zerubbabel, a descendant of David, took the leadership of Judah, but it developed that he was not another David.然后后,流亡国外,所罗巴伯,一大卫的后裔,采取了犹大的领导,但它发展,他不是一个大卫。 Gradually the hope was projected into the future, and eventually into the very remote future, so that the Messiah was expected at the end of the age.渐渐地希望,预计到未来,并最终进入非常遥远的未来,让弥赛亚是在时代结束时的预期。

This is the mood of the messianic expectations in the latter part of the OT. 这是旧约心情的一部分,后者的救世主预期。Such prophecies are common.这种预言是常见的。For example, Jer. 例如,张哲。33 promises a continuation of the Davidic line; Isa. 33承诺续行的davidic;伊萨。9 and 11 foresee the regal splendor of the coming king; Mic.9日和11预见未来国王之尊的;麦克风。5:2 looks forward to the birth of the Davidic king in Bethlehem; and Zech. 5:2期待的davidic国王在伯利恒诞生;及撒加利亚。9 and 12 describe the character of the messianic kingdom and reign.9日和12描述字符的救世主统治王国和。

The Son of man figure in Daniel is not to be identified with the Messiah; it is later in the history of Judaism that the two figures were seen to be one.在丹尼尔人子数字并非要与弥赛亚确定的,它是在犹太教的历史后,这两个数字被认为是一。The suffering servant of Isaiah by reason of his role is yet another figure. So the Messiah, or future ideal king of Israel, the Son of man, and the suffering servant were three distinct representations in the OT.痛苦的角色由他的仆人以赛亚原因是另一个数字。 因此,弥赛亚,人的理想或未来的以色列国王的儿子,和痛苦的仆人在加时赛三个不同的意见。

In Intertestamental Writings在Intertestamental著作

The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha are the literary remains of the evolution of messianic hopes within Judah between the testaments.伪经与Pseudepigrapha是文学的犹太救世主的希望在进化之间的见证遗迹。As in the OT the formal use of "Messiah" is rare.正如在加时赛的“弥赛亚”正式使用是罕见的。It is well to remember that in this literature there is a distinction between Messiah and messianic; a book may have a messianic theme but lack a Messiah.这是要记住,在这个文学之间存在着救世主弥赛亚和区别;一本书可能有一个主题,但缺乏救世主弥赛亚。The book of Enoch is best known for its doctrine of the Son of man, which has many messianic overtones.以诺书最出名的是其对人子,那里有很多救世主色彩的学说。Yet he is not the Messiah, but a person much like Daniel's Son of man.然而,他不是救世主,但就像丹尼尔的人子的人。It remained to the Psalms of Solomon (ca.48 BC) to provide the one confirmed and repeated evidence of the technical use of the term in the intertestamental literature.这将持续到所罗门诗篇(ca.48年),以提供一个确认和反复的任期在intertestamental文献技术使用的证据。 This literature demonstrates, therefore, a diffuse expectation about the Messiah.这些文献表明,因此,关于弥赛亚弥漫的期望。It speaks of a Messiah of David, of Levi, of Joseph, and of Ephraim.它讲一个大卫利维约瑟,弥赛亚,和以法莲。The Dead Sea Scrolls add to the confusion by referring to a Messiah of Aaron and Israel.死海古卷增加了混淆,指的是亚伦和以色列的弥赛亚。

Out of the welter of messianic hopes in this period there emerges a pattern: two kinds of Messiah came to be expected.走出救世主的希望寄托在这一时期出现混乱有一个模式:二种弥赛亚来到意料之中。On one hand, there arose an expectation of a purely national Messiah, one who would appear as a man and assume the kingship over Judah to deliver it from its oppressors.一方面,有出现了一个纯粹的国家弥赛亚,谁就会出现一个期望作为一个男人,并承担了犹大王权交付它从它的压迫者。 On the other hand, there was a hope for a transcendent Messiah from heaven, part human, part divine, who would establish the kingdom of God on earth.另一方面,有一个为一个超越弥赛亚从天上,一部分人,一部分神圣的,谁愿意在地上建立神的国度的希望。To the popular Jewish mind of the first two centuries before and after Christ these two concepts were not mutually hostile, but tended rather to modify each other.与流行的前两个世纪前,后,基督犹太人心目中这两个概念并不相互敌视,但往往而是要修改对方。It has been argued by some scholars that the conflation of the concepts of Messiah and suffering servant took place in the intertestamental period, but the sole evidence for this is from the Targums, which are post-Christian.有人认为一些学者认为,对弥赛亚观念和痛苦的仆人混为一谈took在intertestamental内举行,但是,这sole证据从Targums,这是后基督徒。

In the NT在新台币

It remained for Jesus to fuse the three great eschatological representations of the OT, Messiah, suffering servant, and Son of man, into one messianic person. Apart from this truth there is no explanation for the confusion of the disciples when he told them he must suffer and die (Matt. 16:21ff.). 它仍然是耶稣,融合三大痛苦的仆人末世交涉的催产素,弥赛亚,和儿子的人,成为一个救世主的人。除了这个真理,没有弟子解释为混乱的时候,他告诉他们,他必须受苦和死亡(太16时21分几段)。。 That Christ knew himself to be the Messiah is seen best in his use of the title Son of man; in Mark 14:61-62 he equates the Christ and the Son of man.基督知道自己是弥赛亚,是从他使用的标题人子最好;在马可福音14:61-62他等同于基督和人的儿子。"Christ" is simply the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew "messiah."“基督”仅仅是希腊相当于希伯来文“弥赛亚”。John 1:41 and 4:25 preserve the Semitic idea by transliterating the word "messiah."约翰1:41和4:25由音译保留字的反犹思想“弥赛亚”。Jesus willingly accepted the appellation Son of David, a distinct messianic title, on several occasions, the cry of blind Bartimaeus (Mark 10:47ff.), the children in the temple (Matt. 21:15), and the triumphal entry (Matt. 21:9), to name but a few.耶稣愿意接受多次的大卫,一个独特的救世主称号,称谓的儿子,哭瞎巴底买(马克10时47分几段)。,在寺庙(太21:15)的儿童,而凯旋条目(马特。21:9),仅举几例。 It has long been wondered why Jesus did not appropriate the title Messiah to himself instead of the less clear title of Son of man.一直以来,不知道为什么耶稣没有适当的标题弥赛亚自己,而不是对人子不太清楚称号。The former was probably avoided out of political considerations, for if Jesus had publicly used "Messiah" of himself it would have ignited political aspirations in his hearers to appoint him as king, principally a nationalistic figure, and to seek to drive out the Roman occupiers.前者可能是避免了政治上的考虑,因为如果耶稣曾公开用“弥赛亚”,他自己将点燃他的听众中的政治诉求任命为国王,他主要是一个民族主义的人物,并争取到了罗马占领者。 This is precisely the import of the Jews' action at the triumphal entry.这正是犹太人的行动,在凯旋的进口入境。Jesus seized on the title Son of man to veil to his hearers his messianic mission but to reveal that mission to his disciples.耶稣抓住了人的称号儿子面纱,以他的听众他的救世主的使命,但透露这一使命,他的弟子。

The first generation of the church did not hesitate to refer to Jesus as the Christ, and thereby designate him as the greater Son of David, the King.教会的第一代毫不犹豫地称之为基督耶稣,从而指定为大卫的更大的儿子,国王本人。The word was used first as a title of Jesus (Matt. 16:16) and later as part of the personal name (eg, Eph. 1:1).先用这个词是作为耶稣的标题(太16:16),后来的个人名称(例如,弗。1:1)的一部分。Peter's sermon at Pentecost acknowledged Jesus not only as the Christ, but also as Lord, and so the fulfillment of the messianic office is integrally linked to the essential deity of Jesus.彼得在五旬节讲道不仅承认耶稣是基督,而且作为主,所以对救世主的办公室的建成是密不可分的耶稣的基本神性。Acts 2:36 affirms that Jesus was "made" Christ, the sense of the verb being that by the resurrection Jesus was confirmed as the Christ, the Messiah of God.徒2:36申明,耶稣是“造”基督,对被认为是耶稣的复活是基督,是神​​的弥赛亚证实动词意义。Rom.光盘。1:4 and Phil.1:4和菲尔。 2:9-11 contain the same thought. 2:9-11含有同样的思想。Other messianic titles attributed to Jesus include Servant, Lord, Son of God, the King, the Holy One, the Righteous One, and the Judge.其他救世主职称归功于耶稣包括仆人,主,神,国王,圣者,正义的一个儿子,和法官。

DH Wallace卫生署华莱士

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
S. Mowinckel, He That Cometh; V. Taylor, The Names of Jesus; TW Manson, Jesus the Messiah and The Servant-Messiah; F. Hahn, The Titles of Jesus in Christology; RN Longenecker, The Christology of Early Jewish Christianity; H. Ringgren, The Messiah in the OT; HL Ellison, The Centrality of the Messianic Idea for the OT; HH Rowley, The Servant of the Lord; BB Warfield, "The Divine Messiah in the OT," in Biblical and Theological Studies; J. Klausner, The Messianic Idea in Israel; E. Schurer, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ, vol.学莫温克尔,他这人来了;诉泰勒,耶稣的名称;荃湾曼森,耶稣的弥赛亚和仆人,弥赛亚;楼哈恩,在基督耶稣的名称;护士朗格内克,早期犹太基督教基督教;阁下Ringgren,在旧约弥赛亚; HL埃利森,在加时赛为救世主的思想核心;个HH rowley,主的仆人沃菲尔德,“在加时赛神圣弥赛亚”,在圣经和神学研究; j的克劳斯内尔,以色列的救世主的思想;大肠杆菌Schurer,在耶稣基督的,第一卷时代犹太人历史。2 (rev.).2(修订版)。


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Messiah (noun), "anointed one; Messiah."弥赛亚(名词),“圣人;弥赛亚”。Of the 39 occurrences of masiah, none occurs in the wisdom literature.对masiah的39事件,没有发生在智慧文学。They are scattered throughout the rest of biblical literary types and periods.他们分散在整个圣经文学类型和时期休息。

First, masiah refers to one who is anointed with oil, symbolizing the reception of the Holy Spirit, enabling him to do an assigned task.首先,masiah是指一个谁是抹油,象征着圣灵的接待,使他能够做一个指定的任务。Kings (1 Sam. 24:6), high priests, and some prophets (1 Kings 19:16) were so anointed: "If the priest that is anointed do sin according to the sin of the people."国王队(1。山姆24:6),高神父,和一些先知(王上19:16)如此膏:“如果是受膏的祭司做罪根据人民罪 ” (Lev. 4:3, the first biblical appearance).(利未记4:3,第一个圣经外观)。In the case of Cyrus, he was anointed with God's Spirit only and commissioned an "anointed deliverer" of Israel (Isa. 45:1).在赛勒斯的情况下,他被选定与上帝的圣灵只委托“受膏者拯救”以色列(以赛亚书45:1)。The patriarchs, too, are called "anointed ones": "Touch not mine anointed, and do my prophets no harm" (Ps. 105:15).的始祖,也被称为“受膏者”:“不是我的触摸膏,并没有伤害我的先知”(诗篇105:15)。

Second, the word is sometimes transliterated "Messiah."其次,有时音译词是“弥赛亚”。After the promise to David (2 Sam. 7:13) masiah refers immediately to the Davidic dynasty, but ultimately it points to the "messiah," Jesus the Christ: "The kings of the earth [take their stand], and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord, and against his Anointed."承诺之后,大卫(2萨姆7点13。)masiah指立即向大卫王朝,但最终指向“弥赛亚”耶稣基督:“世上的君王[考虑他们的立场],和统治者共同商议对主,对他的受膏者, “ (Ps. 2:2).(诗篇2:2)。In Dan.在丹。9:25 the word is transliterated: "Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince." 9:25这个词是音译:“知道,当明白,即从正在进行的出令重新建造耶路撒冷,直到弥赛亚王子 ”The New Testament also attests the word in this latter meaning (John 1:41).新约也证明了这后一种意义(约翰1:41)字。Most frequently in the New Testament the word is translated ("Christ") rather than transliterated ("Messiah").最常见的在新约中的字是翻译(“基督”),而不是音译(“弥赛亚”)。


Advanced Information先进的信息

Messiah (noun), "anointment."弥赛亚(名词),“涂油。”This noun occurs 21 times and only in Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers.这个名词出现在21倍只出埃及记,利未记,数字和。It always follows the Hebrew word for oil.它总是遵循石油希伯来文。The first occurrence is Exod.第一次出现是Exod。25:6: "Oil for the light, spices for anointing oil, and for sweet incense."“石油换光,为膏油的香料,香的。”:25:6


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Messiah (verb), to smear with oil or paint, anoint." This verb, which appears 69 times in biblical Hebrew, has cognates in Ugaritic, Akkadian, Aramaic, and Arabic. The objects of this verb are people, sacrificial victims, and objects of this verb in Exod. 30:30: "And thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons, and consecrate them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office."弥赛亚(动词),涂抹油或油漆,膏。“这个动词,它似乎是在希伯来文圣经69次,先后在乌加里特文,阿卡得,阿拉姆语和阿拉伯语的同源词。这个动词的对象是人,殉葬品,和这个动词在exod对象30:30:。。“你要膏亚伦和他的儿子,圣他们,使他们服事在牧师的办公室我”


Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观资料

The Name.的名称。

The name or title of the ideal king of the Messianic age; used also without the article as a proper name-"Mashiaḥ" (in the Babylonian Talmud and in the midrash literature), like Χριστός in the Gospels.的名称或救世主的时代理想王称号;使用没有文章还作为一个适当的名称“Mashiaḥ”(在巴比伦塔木德和米德拉士文学),如在福音Χριστός。 The Grecized Μεσσιας of the New Testament (John i. 41, iv. 25) is a transliteration of the Aramaic form, Aramaic being the spoken language of Palestine in the time of Jesus.新约圣经(约翰一41,四。25)GrecizedΜεσσιας是阿拉姆语形式,即巴勒斯坦在耶稣时代的口语阿拉姆的音译。 "The Messiah" (with the article and not in apposition with another word) is, however, not an Old Testament expression, but occurs for the first time in apocalyptic literature. “弥赛亚”(与文章,而不是在与另一个词沉积)的,不过,不是旧约的表达,但在世界末日的文献中首次出现。Similarly, in all probability the use of the word "Mashiaḥ" to denote the Messianic king is not found earlier than the apocalyptic literature.同样,在所有的概率单词“Mashiaḥ”来表示救世主的国王没有发现早于世界末日文学。 In the Old Testament the earliest use of the word is with Yhwh (or with a pronominal suffix referring to Yhwh) as a title of the ruling sovereign Meshiaḥ Yhwh ("God's anointed one"; I Sam. ii. 10, 35; xii. 3, 5; xvi. 6; xxvi. 9, 11, 16, 23; II Sam. i. 14, 16; xix. 21; II Chron. vi. 42; Ps. xviii. 51 [AV 50]; xx. 7 [AV 6]; cxxxii. 17 [applying to David]; Lam. iv. 20).在旧约一词最早使用是耶和华(或以代词后缀指耶和华),作为执政的标题主权Meshiaḥ耶和华(“神的受膏者。”;我心二10,35;。十二。三,五;十六6;。。二十六9,11,16,23;二山姆一14,16;。十九21;。二慢性六42;。。诗十八51 [视听50]。。二十。 7 [影音6]; cxxxii 17 [适用于大卫]。榄四20)。。。In post-exilic times, the high priest, filling the place formerly occupied by the king, is spoken of as "ha-Kohen ha-Mashiaḥ" (the anointed priest; Lev. iv. 3, 5, 16; vi. 5), also (Dan. ix. 25, 26) as "Mashiaḥ Nagid" (an anointed one, a ruler) and simply "Mashiaḥ" (an anointed one), referring to Onias III.在后放逐倍,大祭司,填补了以前被占领的地方的国王,是口语的,因为“公顷Kohen夏mashiaḥ”(受膏的祭司;列弗四第3,5,16;。。。六5) ,也(Dan.九。25,26)为“MashiaḥNagid”(一个受膏者,一个统治者)和简单的“Mashiaḥ”(一受膏者)提到阿尼亚三。 As the anointing of the high priest consecrated him above all his brethren to God's service and gave him immediate access to God (comp. Lev. viii. 12, xxi. 10-12; Zech. iii. 7), so the anointing of the king made him Meshiaḥ Yhwh, placed him in a special relationship to God, and established him as the one chosen by God to represent His rulership in Israel and to bear witness to His glory before the nations (comp. II Sam. vii. 8-11, 14; Isa. lv. 4; Ps. lxxxix. 4, 21-29).作为大祭司恩膏首先他的弟兄奉献给上帝的服务他,给他立即进入神(可比列夫第八十二,二十一10-12;。。。。。撒加利亚三7),所以在恩膏王让他Meshiaḥ耶和华,放置在一个特殊的关系,以上帝他,神所设立的代表他选择在以色列统治,并见证他的荣耀之前的国家(comp.二山姆一个他七8。。 - 11,14;赛低压4;。。诗lxxxix 4,21-29)。。。As "God's anointed one" the king was sacrosanct and inviolable (comp. I Sam. xxvi. 9).作为“神的受膏者”国王是神圣不可侵犯的,不可侵犯(可比我萨姆。十六。9)。Hence the later applications of the title "Meshiaḥ Yhwh" in the Old Testament.因此,作者的题目是“Meshiaḥ耶和华”在旧约以后的应用程序。

In Isa.在伊萨。xlv.第四十五。1 Cyrus is called "God's anointed one," because God has called him and given him victory after victory for the distinct purpose of putting an end to the Babylonian kingdom and the worship of idols, of setting free exiled Israel, and thus introducing the new era of God's universal dominion.一居鲁士被称为“上帝的受膏者”,因为上帝已经打电话给他,给他后,在结束的巴比伦王国和偶像崇拜设置免费流亡以色列,不同用途的胜利,从而引入新的时代上帝的普遍统治。 In Ps.在PS。cv.简历。15 the Patriarchs are called "God's anointed ones" because they are under the special protection of God and therefore inviolable.15始祖被称为“神的受膏者”,因为他们在神的特殊保护,因此不容侵犯的。Finally, in Hab.最后,哈。 iii.三。13, Ps.13,聚苯乙烯。xxviii.二十八。8, lxxxiv.8,lxxxiv。 10 (AV9), and possibly in lxxxix.10(AV9),并可能在lxxxix。39, 52 (AV 38, 51), the title is applied to Israel, God's chosen people. 39,52(影音38,51),标题是对以色列,上帝的选民。See Anointing.见恩膏。

"Mashiaḥ" (anointed one of God) in Ps.“Mashiaḥ”(神的受膏者一)在PS。ii.二。2, which was formerly thought to have Messianic reference, is now taken as referring either to a Hasmonean king or to Israel.2,以前被认为有救世主的参考,是指无论是现在作为一个Hasmonean国王或以色​​列。The latter interpretation is that prevailing in the Midrash (comp. Midr. Rabbah and Tanḥuma, Emor; Yalḳuṭ, Toledot, near end; Midr. Shoḥer Ṭob, ad loc.), though the Messianic interpretation occurs in the eschatological description (Pesiḳ. Zuṭarta, Balaḳ).后者的解释是,在米德拉士现行(可比Midr拉巴和Tanḥuma,Emor。Yalḳuṭ,Toledot,近结束。。MidrShoḥer尖,广告同上),虽然在eschatological救世主的解释说明(pesiḳ.二Zuṭarta发生,巴勒)。

The Ideal in Isaiah.在以赛亚理想。

But though the name is of later origin, the idea of a personal Messiah runs through the Old Testament.不过,虽然后来的原产地的名称是一个个人弥赛亚思想贯穿旧约。It is the natural outcome of the prophetic future hope.这是预言未来的希望的自然结果。The first prophet to give a detailed picture of the future ideal king was Isaiah (ix. 1-6, xi. 1-10, xxxii. 1-5).第一个先知,给出了未来理想的国王详细照片是以赛亚(ix. 1-6,十一。1-10,三十二。1-5)。Of late the authenticity of these passages, and also of those passages in Jeremiah and Ezekiel which give expression to the hope in a Messiah, has been disputed by various Biblical scholars (comp. Hackmann, "Die Zukunftserwartung des Jesaiah"; Volz, "Die Vorexilische Jahweprophetie und der Messias"; Marti, "Gesch. der Israelitischen Religion," pp. 190 et seq.; idem, "Das Buch Jesaia"; Cheyne, "Introduction to Isaiah," and edition and transl. of Isaiah in "SBOT").近来的真实性,这些通道,和那些在耶利米和以西结通道的体现在一个救世主的希望,也一直通过各种有争议的圣经学者(可比哈克曼,“模具Zukunftserwartung德​​Jesaiah”;福尔茨,“模具Vorexilische Jahweprophetie und明镜弥赛亚“,马蒂,的”Gesch明镜Israelitischen宗教“,第190页起。同上,”。达斯布赫Jesaia“;进益”,“。与编辑和译以赛亚在”引进来以赛亚SBOT “)。

The objections of these scholars, however, rest principally on the hypothesis that the idea of the Messiah is inseparably bound up with the desire for universal dominion, whereas, in reality, this feature is not a characteristic of the Messianic hope until a later stage of its development.这些学者的反对,然而,休息的,该弥赛亚思想是密不可分的约束与普遍统治的欲望,而在现实中,假设主要是,这个功能是不是救世主的希望,直到特点后一阶段它的发展。 The ideal king to whom Isaiah looks forward will be a scion of the stock of Jesse, on whom will rest the spirit of God as a spirit of wisdom, valor, and religion, and who will rule in the fear of God, his loins girt with righteousness and faithfulness (xi. 1-3a, 5).他们的理想王赛期待将是耶西的股票接穗,将其余的人作为一个智慧,勇气,精神和宗教精神的上帝,谁就会统治对上帝的敬畏,他的腰girt公义和诚实(xi. 1 - 3A型,5)。He will not engage in war or in the conquest of nations; the paraphernalia of war will be destroyed (ix. 4); his sole concern will be to establish justice among his people (ix. 6b; xi. 3b, 4).他不会参与战争或征服的国家,战争的工具将被销毁(ix. 4),他唯一关心的将是他的人民之间建立司法(ix. 6B型。朱熹第3B,4)。The fruit of his righteous government will be peace and order throughout the land.他的公义的政府将是和平的水果和整个土地秩序。 The lamb will not dread the wolf, nor will the leopard harm the kid (xi. 8); that is, as the following verse explains, tyranny and violence will no longer be practised on God's holy mountain, for the land will be full of the knowledge of God as the water covers the sea (comp. xxxii. 1, 2, 16).羔羊不会害怕狼,豹也不会伤害孩子(xi. 8),也就是说,如下面的诗句解释说,专制和暴力将不再实行上帝的圣山上,在土地将以饱满的神识为水覆盖海(可比三十二。一,二,16)。The people will not aspire to political greatness, but will lead a pastoral life (xxxii. 18, 20).人们不会渴望政治伟大,但将率领一个田园生活(xxxii. 18,20)。Under such ideal conditions the country can not but prosper, nor need it fear attack from outside nations (ix. 6a, xxxii. 15).在这种理想的条件下,国家不能不繁荣,也不需要担心它攻击以外的国家(ix. 6a中,三十二。15)。The newly risen scion of Jesse will stand forth as a beacon to other nations, and they will come to him for guidance and arbitration (xi. 10).耶西的新兴接穗会站出来作为对其他国家的灯塔,他们会来指导和仲裁(xi. 10)给他。He will rightly be called "Wonderful Counselor," "Godlike Hero," "Constant Father," "Prince of Peace" (ix. 5).他将理所当然地被称为“奇妙,策士”,“神圣的英雄”,“恒之父”,“和平之王”(ix. 5)。

The "Immanuel" Passage.在“以马内利”通道。

This picture of the future fully accords with Isaiah's view, that the judgment will lead to a spiritual regeneration and bring about a state of moral and religious perfection; and it agrees also with the doctrine, which, in his bitter opposition to the alliances with Assyria and Egypt, he preached to his people-the doctrine, namely, that their sole concern should be God and their sole reliance be on Him, for thus, and thus only, might they endure (vii. 9; comp. also v. 4, viii. 13, xxx. 15).这是完全符合赛的看法未来的景象,该判决将导致精神的再生和带来的道德和宗教的完美状态,并且它也很赞同一种学说,在他的强烈反对与亚述的联盟和埃及,他鼓吹他的人的学说,即他们唯一关心的应该是他们唯一的依靠上帝和他上,因为这样,所以只,可能他们忍受(vii. 9;。比赛也诉4 ,八。13日,三十。15)。The prophets advocated a government which would be in conformity with God's will and be regulated by His laws of righteousness.先知们倡导的政府将在符合上帝的旨意,由他的法律规范的正义。In connection with Isaiah's Messianic hope it remains to be observed that the "Immanuel" passage, Isa.在与赛的救世主的希望方面,它仍然是指出,“沐”通道,伊萨。vii.七。14, which is interpreted in Matt.14,这是在马特解释。i.23 as referring to the birth of Jesus, has, as Robertson Smith ("The Prophets of Israel," pp. 271 et seq., 426 et seq.) and others have pointed out, no Messianic import whatever. 23指的是耶稣的诞生,正如罗伯逊史密斯(“以色列的先知,”页271起。,426起。)和其他人所指出的,没有什么救世主进口。The name has reference merely to events of the immediate present.该名称具有参考只是眼前的事件。He means to give a token by which the truth of his prophetic word may be tested, saying that any young woman giving birth to a son in the near future will call him "Immanuel" (= "God with us"), in remembrance of the withdrawal of the Syrian-Ephraimitic armies from the country (v. 16).他的意思给它一个字,他的预言真相可能被测试的道理,他说,任何年轻女子,生下一个儿子,在不久的将来会称呼他为“沐”(=“神与我们”)在我的记忆,从国(16节)的叙利亚军队撤出Ephraimitic。 "'Almah" does not mean "virgin" (as given in AV and other versions; the only word meaning this is "betulah"), but "a young woman sexually mature," whether married or unmarried; the article "ha-" of "ha-'almah" is the generic article. “'Almah”并不等于“处女”(如在AV和给予其他版本,唯一的词的含义,这就是“betulah”),但“一个年轻女子性成熟”,不论已婚或未婚;文章“公顷”对“公顷'almah”是通用的文章。

In Jeremiah and Ezekiel.在耶利米和以西结。

The idea of a personal Messiah is not met with again until the time of Jeremiah and Ezekiel (the Messianic picture of Micah v. 1, 3-8, as is proved by the fact that in it Israel and the Messiah hold dominion over the nations, according to this view can not be a pre-exilic product of prophecy; in fact, it must have originated late in post-exilic times).一个个人的想法是不符合弥赛亚再次直至与耶利米和以西结(即米卡诉1,3-8救世主的照片时间,是由事实证明,在以色列和它在国家的统治弥赛亚举行根据这种观点不能成为预言前放逐的产品,事实上,它必须起源于后放逐时间晚)。 Jeremiah's picture of the Messiah is not a detailed one; but, like his future hope in general, it agrees in all essentials with that of Isaiah.耶利米的图片的弥赛亚,是不是一个详细的一个,但是,像他一般的未来充满希望,它与所有的必需品以赛亚同意。The Messiah will be "a righteous sprout of David," who will establish just judgment and wise government in the country, and whose name will be (= "God is our salvation"; xxiii. 5, 6; these two verses recur in almost the same form in xxxiii. 15, 16, but in the latter verse the name is applied to Jerusalem, an application which did not originate with Jeremiah. Ch. xxx. 9 et seq., 21 does not claim consideration here, as it is of later origin).弥赛亚将是“正义的大卫萌芽,”谁在该国建立公正的判断和明智的政府,其名称将是(=“上帝是我们的救赎”,二十三,五,六。这两个诗句几乎重演在三十三相同的形式。15,16,但在后者的诗的名字是适用于耶路撒冷,应用程序,它并不是由耶利米。通道。三十。9起。,21考虑不主张在这里,因为它是后来的原产地)。

In Ezekiel, the Messiah is a purely passive figure, the only personal reference to him being in xvii.在以西结书,弥赛亚是一个纯粹被动的数字,唯一对他个人参考第十七福祉。23-"he will become a mighty cedar" (Hebr.).23 - “他将成为一个强大的雪松”(Hebr.)。The regeneration of the people, like their restoration, is exclusively the work of God.人民的再生,像他们的恢复,完全是神的工作。

But in xxxiv.但在三十四。23 et seq., xxxvii. 23起。,三十七。24 et seq., which passages date from exilic times, there is an entirely new feature-the prophecy that David will be the king of the future state. 24起。,这段落从放逐时代至今,有一个全新的功能,大卫的预言将成为未来的国王。As after the decline of the Holy Roman Empire the saga arose of the return of the emperor-hero Barbarossa, so, after the fall of the nation, the Jews of the Exile dreamed of the coming of a second David, who would reestablish them as a glorious nation.后,在神圣罗马帝国的衰亡佐贺县的皇帝,英雄巴巴罗萨,因此,后与祖国的命运,对未来的流亡犹太人的第二个大卫,谁想到它们会重新建立起来的回报一个光荣的国家。 So Ezekiel lays emphasis on the fact that the future Israel is to be a united nation as it was under David of old.因此,以西结书规定的事实,未来以色列将是一个团结的民族,因为它在旧大卫强调。The hope in the return of David is expressed also in the spurious passage mentioned above (Jer. xxx. 9) and in the gloss to Hos.在返回的大卫希望还表示,在上述的虚假通道(耶三十。9)和居屋的光泽。iii.三。5 ("and David their king"), and ismet with sporadically also in Neo-Hebraic apocalyptic literature (see below). 5(“和他们的王大卫”),并ismet与零星的理学希伯来还世界末日文学(见下文)。In post-exilic prophetic literature the hope in a Messiah is found only in the first two prophets of the post-exilic community, Haggai and Zechariah, and in Deutero-Zechariah, ch.在后放逐先知文学中的一个救世主的希望是发现,只有在首两期后exilic社会,哈和撒迦利亚先知,并在氘,撒迦利亚,甲烷。 ix., which, probably, dates from the time of the Seleucids.九。,这可能是,从塞留西士时间日期。Haggai and Zechariah see in Zerubbabel the promised "sprout of David"; but they state merely that he will rebuild the Temple and attain great eminence as a ruler (Hag. ii. 23; Zech. iii. 8, vi. 12).哈该和撒迦利亚看见所罗巴伯所承诺的“萌芽大卫”,但他们的状态,他只是将重建圣殿,达到作为统治者的伟大隆起(ḥag.二23;。。撒加利亚8三,六12。。)。

Deutero-Zechariah's Messiah has much in common with Isaiah's.氘-撒迦利亚的弥赛亚在以赛亚书有很大的共同。He is described (Zech. ix. 9, 10) as a righteous Prince of Peace, who will rise from the ranks of the pious and oppressed, who will ride into Jerusalem not in military splendor, but on an ass (comp. Jesus' entry into Jerusalem on an ass, and also Ibn Ḳuṭaibah's account of Salman, the governor of Medina at the time of the dissensions of the califs, who rode upon an ass in order to show his advocacy of peace).他被描述(亚九。9,10)为和平正义的王子,谁的崛起对队伍的虔诚和压迫,谁不是在耶路撒冷骑军事辉煌,但在一驴(comp.耶稣进入耶路撒冷的一屁股,也伊本Ḳuṭaibah的萨尔曼时,在麦地那的califs,谁骑在驴,以显示他对和平宣传)的纠纷时总督帐户。 For, unlike worldly rulers, he will not maintain his dominion by the sword-he will destroy all the instruments of war (if, instead of , is read in accordance with the LXX. , 3d sm); but, by his jurisdiction, which will extend to the ends of the earth, he will establish peace among the nations.因为,不同于世俗统治者,他将不会维持其统治的剑,他会摧毁所有的战争工具(如果不是,是符合规定的LXX阅读,三维平方米。),但是,他的管辖权,这将延伸到天涯海角,他将建立各国之间的和平。 Thus Deutero-Zechariah's conception of the Messiah combines Isaiah's conception with the hope of world-dominion cherished by his own age.因此,氘,撒迦利亚的弥赛亚观念结合以赛亚与世界由他统治的希望珍惜自己的年龄概念。

Ideal of the Second Isaiah.理想第二以赛亚。

The personal Messiah does not figure at all in the future hope of Deutero-Isaiah, whose lofty universalism marks the final step in the development of the religious ideas of the Prophets.个人弥赛亚不图所有的氘,以赛亚,其崇高的普遍性标志着在对先知的宗教思想发展的最后一步未来的希望。 The salvation of mankind is the goal of history, and Israel's prerogative becomes but the privilege of suffering for the good of the whole world.人类的救赎是历史的目标,以色列的特权变成但对于整个世界的好痛苦的特权。God has called Israel for the realization of His purpose toward man.上帝曾要求他对人的目的的实现以色列。Israel, and not an individual, is "the servant of God" (Isa. xlii. 1-6, xlix. 1-6, l. 4-9, lii. 13-liii. 12), through whom the regeneration of mankind will be accomplished, who will spread the true religion among all nations, convert all men into willing servants of God, and lead all tongues to confess Him (xlv. 23).以色列,而不是个人,是“上帝的仆人”(以赛亚书四十二。1-6,第四十九届。1-6湖4-9崇礼。13 liii。12),通过他们对人类的再生将要完成,谁所有国家之间传播真正的宗教,神愿意转化为公务员所有的人,舌头和铅含量均承认他(xlv. 23)。 Naturally, not the actual Israel of the present is meant, but the ideal Israel of the future, risen to spiritual heights in consequence of his wonderful deliverance by God.当然,不是目前的实际以色列的意思,但对以色列未来的理想,在他上升到神奇妙的后果精神解脱的高度。For this high destiny Israel has been especially fitted by reason of the religious experience which God has stored up in him in the course of his history; and, by submitting, in accordance with God's will, to suffering and ignominy, he fulfils his mission and advances toward his final goal.对于这样高的命运,以色列一直特别是宗教经验是上帝存放在他,在他的历史进程的原因安装;并提交,与上帝的意志的规定,痛苦和耻辱,他履行他的使命,进步对他的最终目标。 In Isa.在伊萨。ii.二。1-4 and Micah iv. 1-4和弥迦四。1-4 there is the same picture of the Messianic future as in Deutero-Isaiah-Jerusalem as the religious center of the world, whence salvation will radiate to all men-but contain the additional promise that universal peace will ensue in consequence thereof. 1-4是有前途的救世主在氘,以赛亚,耶路撒冷作为世界的宗教中心,将辐射到那里拯救所有的人,但包含的额外承诺,将在世界和平及其随之而来的后果相同的图片。 In like manner the post-exilic prophets Trito-Isaiah, Malachi, and Joel, and the post-exilic Apocalypse of Isaiah, xxiv.-xxvii., have no personal Messiah.同样地,后exilic先知Trito -以赛亚书,玛拉基书,约珥,和以赛亚后放逐启示,xxiv. -十七。,没有个人的救世主。According to them, God Himself, without the instrumentality of a man, will redeem Israel from his present misery and bring about the new era of salvation.据他们说,上帝,没有一个人工具性,将赎回,从他目前的苦难以色列,带来了救赎的新时代。The conclusion, however, of Malachi (the authorship of which is doubtful) speaks of a messenger, Elijah, whom God will send to convert men and thus pave the way for His own coming.得出的结论,但是,讲的使者,以利亚,就是上帝会派男人,从而转化为自己铺平了未来的方式玛拉基(即著作权的是怀疑)。

In the Apocrypha.在伪经。

As in the prophetic writings just enumerated, so in the Apocrypha of the Old Testament the figure of the Messiah has no prominence whatever.正如预言的著作刚才列举的,所以在旧约的弥赛亚人物伪经,没有什么突出。In I Maccabees there is a brief general reference to the promise given to David, that his throne would be reestablished (ii. 57), but Ecclesiasticus, Judith, Tobit, Baruch, II Maccabees, and the Wisdom of Solomon contain no mention of the Davidic hope.在我马加比有一个简短的一般性参考的承诺给大卫,他的王位将重建(白介素57),但Ecclesiasticus,朱迪思,托比,巴鲁克,二马加比,和所罗门的智慧不包含的提大卫希望。 The Hellenistic author of the Wisdom of Solomon is so thoroughly universalistic that the idea of a Messiah is precluded.对智慧的所罗门古希腊作家是如此彻底普遍性,一个弥赛亚思想是排除。His eschatological picture shows no nationalistic feature whatever.图为他的末世论民族主义没有任何功能。

Alexander as Messiah.亚历山大是弥赛亚。

The natural deduction from the facts thus far outlined is that while from the time of the Prophets the belief in an ideal future determined the character and tendency of Jewish religious life and thought to such an extent that this belief may be called the special characteristic of the Jewish genius, still, in the periods thus far covered, the idea of a personal Messiah is far from having that general prominence which one would, at first, be inclined to assume.从迄今所概述的事实是,从自然演绎的先知的信仰决定了性质和犹太宗教生活的倾向,认为这样的程度,这种信念可能是所谓的特别有特点的时间,而一个理想的未来犹太天才,但是,在迄今所涵盖的期间,一个个人的救世主的想法是,一​​般不必突出哪一个会,在第一,倾向于承担远。 Further, it has been seen how Deutero-Isaiah heralded Cyrus as the favorite of God, the hero called by God to introduce the new era of universal bliss.此外,它已经看到了如何氘-以赛亚被誉为神,神叫引进的普遍幸福的新时代的英雄,最喜欢的赛勒斯。In like manner, no doubt, as Kampers has shown in his "Alexander der Grosse und die Idee des Weltimperiums in Prophetie und Sage," the Jewish contemporaries of Alexander the Great, dazzled by his glorious achievements, hailed him as the divinely appointed deliverer, the inaugurator of the period of universal peace promised by the Prophets.在这样的态度,毫无疑问,在他作为Kampers显示“亚历山大明镜格洛斯在Prophetie有限公司模具有限公司衣蝶圣人德Weltimperiums,”亚历山大大帝同时代的犹太人,他的光辉业绩眼花缭乱,被誉为拯救了他的神圣的任命,在和平时期的普遍的开创者所承诺的先知。 Proof of this is: (1) The legend related in Josephus ("Ant." xi. 8) and in the Talmud (Yoma 67b) of the audience of the high priest Jaddua (in the Talmud it is Simon the Just) with Alexander the Great in Gaza.这证明是:(。“。蚂蚁”十一8)(1)在有关的传说和约瑟夫在塔木德(山脉67b)的大祭司Jaddua观众(在犹太法典,它是西蒙公正)与亚历山大在加沙大。 Alexander recognizes in the high priest the man who had appeared to him in a dream, urging him to the conquest of Asia and promising him that he himself would lead his army and deliver the Persian kingdom into his hands; he prostrates himself to worship God, whose name he sees inscribed on the plate of gold on the high priest's cidaris, accompanies the high priest to Jerusalem to sacrifice to God in His Temple, and is there shown the Book of Daniel, in which it is written that the Persian kingdom will be conquered by a Greek-a prophecy which Alexander applies to himself.亚历山大承认,在大祭司的谁曾出现在他面前的一个梦想,希望他的征服亚洲和充满希望的他,他本人将带领他的军队交在他手中的波斯王国的人,他叩头自己崇拜的神,他的名字,他认为对黄金的大祭司的cidaris板刻,伴随着耶路撒冷大祭司牺牲在他的殿里神,有显示了但以理书,其中写到,波斯国,必征服了一个希腊亚历山大一个预言,适用于自己。 (2) The various sagas which sprang up about Alexander, chiefly among the Jews in Alexandria, and out of which the Alexander romance of pseudo-Callisthenes grew, the only explanation of which is that Alexander had once been the central figure in their future hope. (2)各种传奇的兴起,主要是关于亚历​​山大亚历山大之间的犹太人,并指出其中伪Callisthenes亚历山大浪漫的增长,唯一的解释的是,亚历山大曾经是未来的希望在他们的核心人物。 (3) The apocalyptic traditions about Alexander the Great in medieval apocalyptic literature and also in the midrashic literature-for example, the tradition (mentioned by Josephus) of Alexander imprisoning Gog and Magog behind the mountains of darkness in the far north. (3)关于亚历山大大帝在中世纪的世界末日世界末日的文学传统,也是在Midrashic文学,例如,传统的亚历山大(由约瑟夫提到的)囚禁在遥远的北方背后的黑暗山区歌革和玛。 The version of this legend given by Jacob of Serug (521 CE) and in the Koran, sura 18 (comp.Kampers, lc pp. 73, 76 et seq.) leaves no doubt that it was purely of apocalyptic origin.由对西鹿(521 CE)的雅各布和可兰经,苏拉18(comp.Kampers,立法会第73,76起。)鉴于这个传说的版本毫无疑问地,这是纯粹的世界末日的起源。

But while all these hopes centering in Alexander the Great bear witness to the liberality and broad-mindedness of the Jews of that time, they, on the other hand, corroborate the conclusion, expressed above, that the hope in the Messiah had, as yet, no definite form and can not have been commonly an article of faith.但是,尽管所有这些希望围绕在亚历山大大帝见证了慷慨和广泛的那个时代的犹太人意识,他们,另一方面,证实了结论,表示以上,即有希望在弥赛亚,尚未没有一定的形式和不能得到普遍的信条。 This is true, not only of the time of Alexander the Great, but even as late as the first period of apocalyptic literature, and is proved by the absence of a personal Messiah in the oldest apocalyptic writing, the Book of Daniel, as well as in the oldest part of the Book of Enoch ("The Apocalypse of the Ten Weeks") and in the Book of Jubilees, which also date from the Maccabean period, apart from the fact, pointed out above, that in the contemporaneous apocrypha there is but vague reference to the Messiah.这是真的,不仅是亚历山大大帝的时间,但即使到了世界末日文学第一期晚了,是由一个个人的救世主没有证明在最古老的世界末日的写作,但以理书,以及在以诺书最古老的部分(以下简称“十周的启示”),并在的jubilees,这也日期从maccabean期间,除了从这一事实,指出以上,这在当时的伪经书有但含糊的弥赛亚。 The "one of the likeness of man" ("ke-bar enash") of Dan.在丹(“克列enash”)“是从人的肖像之一”。vii.七。13 (Hebr.), to whom the rulership in the divine world-monarchy will be entrusted, is, according to the author's own explanation (vii. 18, 22, 27), the nation of God's holy ones (ie, the faithful Jews).13(Hebr.),向谁在神圣的世界,将委托君主统治,是根据作者自己的解释(vii. 18,22,27),上帝的神圣的国家(即忠实犹太人)。These constitute the earthly representatives of God in the "civitas Dei," and in contrast to the other nations of the world, who are represented under the figures of animals, they are represented under the figure of a man in order to signify that in them the divine ideal of manhood has preserved itself most faithfully.这些构成了上帝的人间代表“荒野棣”,并在对比世界其他国家,谁是根据动物的数字代表,他们是根据一个人为了图所代表的象征,在他们神圣的理想的男子气概最忠实地保留了自己。

Rise of Popular Belief in a Personal Messiah.崛起在个人弥赛亚民间信仰。

Not until after the fall of the Maccabean dynasty, when the despotic government of Herod the Great and his family, and the increasing tyranny of the Roman empire had made their condition ever more unbearable, did the Jews seek refuge in the hope of a personal Messiah.直到后马加比王朝,当希律大帝和他的家庭专制的政府,以及越来越多的罗马帝国暴政作出了自己的状态越来越难以承受的下降,没有犹太人寻求在个人弥赛亚希望避难。 They yearned for the promised deliverer of the house of David, who would free them from the yoke of the hated foreign usurper, would put an end to the impious Roman rule, and would establish His own reign of peace and justice in its place.他们渴望的是大卫,谁免费从他们憎恨外国篡权的枷锁,房价将结束向不虔诚拯救罗马统治承诺,并建立他的和平与正义的地方自己的统治。 In this way their hopes became gradually centered in the Messiah.他们希望通过这种方式逐渐成为集中在弥赛亚。As evidence that in the Roman period the Messianic hope had become universal among the Jews may be adduced: (1) Jesus' conviction that he was the Messiah, a conviction inspired in him by the current belief in a Messiah, as is shown by the fact that on his entry into Jerusalem the populace hailed him as such; (2) the testimony of Josephus ("BJ" vi. 5, § 4), Tacitus ("Hist." v. 13), and Suetonius (Vespasian, iv.) regarding the Messianic belief of the Jewish people at that time; (3) the fact that even in Philo's picture of the future, in spite of its moralistic tendency, the Messianic king has a place (comp. "De Præmiis et Pœnis," § 16).作为证据,在罗马时期的救世主的希望有可能成为普遍中援引的犹太人:(1)耶稣的信念,他是救世主,他的灵感来自于在当前一个救世主的信仰是一种信念,所表现出的事实上,在他进入耶路撒冷民众誉为等他;(二)约瑟夫的证词(。“北京”六五,§ 4),塔西佗(“历史。”诉13),苏埃托尼乌斯(维斯帕先,四。)关于当时的犹太人民救世主的信仰;(3)事实上,即使在斐洛的图片的前途,尽管它的道德倾向,救世主的国王有一个地方(可比“德Præmiis等Pœnis, “§ 16)。It may be noted in this connection that the "Prayer for the Coming of the Messiah," as the version of it given both in the Babylonian and in the Palestinian recensions of the Shemoneh 'Esreh shows (see Nos. 14 and 15 respectively), can not have become an integral part of the daily prayers later than the time immediately following the destruction of the Temple, for in that period the "Shemoneh 'Esreh" received its present form.可以指出在这一方面,作为它的无论是在巴比伦和在Shemoneh'Esreh显示了巴勒斯坦的recensions定版本“,为即将到来的弥赛亚,祈祷”(见第14和15元),不能成为其不可分割的一部分,每天祷告的时间不迟于紧接在此期间,“Shemoneh'Esreh”获得了目前的形式,在圣殿被毁。 Hillel's assertion (Sanh. 98b) that there would be no future Messiah for Israel since the latter had had its Messiah in the days of Hezekiah, can have no weight as a contrary argument, as Hillel lived in the reign of Herod the Great, at the beginning of the period which marks the development of the popular belief in the Messiah.希勒尔的断言(Sanh. 98b)表示,以色列将是没有前途的弥赛亚,因为后者不得不在希西家的日子里它的救世主,不可能有任何作为一个相反的论点重量,希勒尔住在大希律王统治,在这一时期标志着中的弥赛亚的民间信仰发展的开始。

Development of Conception.发展构想。

As the future hopes of the Jews became Messianic in character the figure of the Messiah assumed a central and permanent place in apocalyptic literature; and as apocalyptic literature in general, so the Messiah-concept in particular, embodies a multitude of bizarre fantasies which can not possibly be reconciled or woven into anything like a connected picture.作为未来的希望成为犹太人的救世主性质的弥赛亚人物承担了中央在世界末日的文学和永久地;和一般,所以弥赛亚,尤其是世界末日的文学概念,体现了许多稀奇古怪的幻想,不能可能不甘心或图片连接到像什么编织。 There are many factors which contributed to this manifold and variegated imagery.有些是促成了这种多方面的,杂色图像的因素很多。Not only was all the Messianic and quasi-Messianic material of the Scriptures collected, and out of it, by means of subtle combinations, after the manner of the Midrash, a picture of the Messiah sedulously drawn, but everything poetical or figurative in the Prophets' descriptions of the future was taken in a literal sense and expounded and dogmatized accordingly.不仅所有的救世主和准救世主的圣经材料收集,并指出它,通过微妙的组合方式,后米德拉士,一个刻意的弥赛亚图片绘制的方式,但一切都诗意或在先知比喻对未来的描述拍摄于字面意义,并阐述了相应的和教条化。 Many foreign elements, moreover, crept in at this time and became part of the general potpourri of imagery relating to the Messiah.许多外国的元素,此外,蹑手蹑脚在这个时候,成为一般的意象与弥赛亚花香的一部分。This being the case, an exceedingly complex and difficult question arises-where, in the Messiah-pictures, and, indeed, in the pictures of the future in general, presented by apocalyptic literature, has one to deal with organic development from prophetic ideas, and where with foreign religious elements?在这种情况下,一个极其复杂和困难的问题是,凡在弥赛亚,图片,而且的确在未来的世界末日一般文学主办,图片,有一个预言,处理有机的发展思路,并在与外国宗教内容是什么? At present it is not possible to form a final judgment in regard to the place of origin of these foreign ideas.目前它是不可能形成关于这些外国思想产地终审判决。The material from the Assyro-Babylonian religion and mythology which has been offered in recent years by Assyriologists shows what an involved question is presented in this one point, and that a series of preliminary and exhaustive studies is necessary before a final decision can be reached regarding it or the various questions bound up with it.从亚述,巴比伦的宗教和神话已在最近几年所提供的材料显示Assyriologists一个棘手的问题是怎样提出这一点,一个初步的和详尽的一系列研究是必要的最后决定前,就可以达到它的各种问题或与它联系在一起。 The one thing safe to maintain in this connection is, perhaps, that, according to the time at which the heterogeneous character of the conceptions becomes noticeable in the literature, Alexandria must have had a prominent part in the fusion of the native and foreign elements, since that city had been from the time of Alexander the Great the seat of religious syncretism as well as the intellectual metropolis of the civilized world.安全的一件事情,以维持在这方面,或许是,根据当时在其中的概念异质性格变得明显在文学,亚历山大必须有一个在本地和外来元素的融合重要组成部分,因为这个城市已经从时间的亚历山大大帝的宗教融合以及文明世界的知识大都市席位。

For the better understanding of the Messianic pictures in apocalyptic literature it is important to point out that, although frequently interlaced, two distinct sets of ideas may be traced-the one set concerned with this world, hence realistic and national; the other directed to the world to come, hence transcendent and universalistic.为了在世界末日的文学救世主的图片更好地理解重要的是要指出的是,虽然经常交错,两个显着不同的思想可追溯到- the concerned设置一个与这个世界上,因此,现实和国家,其他定向到世界来,从而超越性和普遍性。The Messiah presents a correspondingly double character.弥赛亚提出了相应的双重性格。Side by side with the traditional idea of an earthly king of the house of David is the new conception of a heavenly preexistent Messiah, from which it follows that in regard to the question of the Messiah the older apocalyptic literature, as well as the younger rabbinical branch, falls naturally into two groups.通过与一个在地上的王大卫的房子并排的传统观念是一个天上先在弥赛亚的新概念,从它在如下方面的弥赛亚世界末日文学老问题,以及年轻的犹太教科,属于自然分为两组。

In the Older Apocalyptic Literature.在老的世界末日的文学。

In the older apocalyptic literature the first book to be mentioned in which the Messiah figures as an earthly king is "The Vision of the Seventy Shepherds of the Book of Enoch" (ch. lxxxv.-xc.) of the time of John Hyrcanus (135-105 BC).在老世界末日文学的第一本书中被提及弥赛亚的数字作为一个俗世的国王“的愿景以诺书的第七十一牧羊人”(章lxxxv. -越野。)的约翰hyrcanus时间( 135-105年)。The Messiah appears under the figure of a white bull at the conclusion of the world-drama (xc. 37 et seq.) and commands the respect and fear of all the heathen, who eventually become converted to God.弥赛亚出现在一个白色的牛图在世界戏剧(xc. 37起。)结论和命令的尊重和敬畏所有的异教徒,谁最终成为转换为神。Yet he does not take any actual rôle.然而,他并没有采取任何实际作用。It is God Himself who wards off the last attack of the heathen against Israel, gives judgment, and establishes the world-dominion of Israel.这是上帝亲自谁离开病房对以色列的异教徒的最后一次进攻,给人的判断,并建立了世界对以色列的统治。Second in this group come those parts of the Sibylline Books whose date, as Geffken's recent critical analysis has established ("Komposition und Entstehungszeit der Oracula Sibyllina," pp. 7-13), is about the year 83 BC The Messiah is pictured (verses 652-666) as a king sent by God from the rising of the sun, who will put an end to war all over the earth, inasmuch as he will destroy some peoples and make permanent treaties with the others; in all his actions he will be solicitous not to follow his own counsel, but to obey the commands of God.二来在这一组的知未来的图书,其日期的部分,作为Geffken最近建立了批判性分析(“Komposition有限公司Entstehungszeit明镜Oracula Sibyllina,”页7-13),是被描绘(诗句约公元前83年弥赛亚652-666)作为上帝派来从太阳升起,一个国王谁去结束战争在地球上所有的,因为他会破坏一些民族,并与其他永久性条约;在他的一切行动,他将被殷勤不跟着自己的律师,但要服从神的命令。 The writer then describes at length the attack by the heathen nations on the magnificent Temple of God and on the Holy Land, and the annihilation of the nations by God; the Last Judgment, with the ensuing conversion of the heathen to God; the establishment of God's eternal kingdom over all men and the reign of universal peace; but, strange to say, throughout the description there is no mention of the Messiah.然后介绍笔者在长度由对上帝的宏伟的庙宇和圣地的异教徒国家的攻击,和由神的国家湮没;与转换的异教徒随后向上帝最后的审判;的成立神的永恒国度对所有男人和世界和平的统治,但是,说来奇怪,在整个说明没有提及的弥赛亚。 In fact, in verses 781 et seq.事实上,在诗781起。the Israelites are spoken of as the prophets of God, the judges of mankind, and the just kings who will put an end to the sway of the sword upon earth.以色列人是口语的,因为神的先知,人类的法官,以及刚刚国王将结束谁的剑在地球上的摇摆。

In the Psalms of Solomon.在所罗门的诗篇。

"The Vision of the Seventy Shepherds" and Sibyllines, iii.和sibyllines,三“第七十一牧羊人视野”。652 et seq.652起。say nothing whatever about the lineage of the earthly Messiah, but in the Psalms of Solomon (xvii.), which were called forth by the conquest of Jerusalem by Pompey (63 BC), he is designated as the "son of David," who will appear at a time known only to God.什么也不说,对宗族的人间的救世主,但在所罗门诗篇(xvii.),它被称为是由耶路撒冷的庞培征服(公元前63年)的规定,他被指定为“大卫的儿子,”谁将出现在只有神知道的时间。 These Psalms (lc) contain a more detailed description of his personality and of his reign than any other writing of that period.这些诗篇(立法会)载有他的个性和他比任何其他书写这一时期的统治更详细的说明。The Messiah will first crush the unjust rulers and rid Jerusalem of, and destroy, the impious heathen.弥赛亚将初恋摆脱不公正的统治者和耶路撒冷,并毁坏,不虔诚异教徒。Then he will gather the scattered ones of Israel, distribute them through the land according to their tribes, and found his own kingdom of peace and justice.然后,他将招聚以色列的分散的,通过分发根据他们自己的部落土地,发现他对和平与正义的王国。No wicked person will be tolerated in his kindgom nor will foreigners be allowed to dwell there.没有人会容忍恶人在他kindgom也不会允许外国人住在那里。He will subject the heathen nations to his rule, glorify the Lord before the whole world, and make Jerusalem pure and holy as of old, so that the nations will come from the ends of the earth to witness God's glory.他将受到异教徒国家对他的统治,在全世界面前赞美主,使耶路撒冷纯洁和神圣的老,使各国将来自,见证神的荣耀天涯海角。 The description which follows of his righteous reign shows the influence of Isa.其中描述了他正义的统治下显示伊萨的影响。 xi.十一。1 et seq.1起。Free from sin, strong in the divine fear, and filled with the spirit of God, of valor, and of justice, he will tend the flock of the Lord faithfully, hold the higher officers in check, and make sinners cease by the power of his word, so that injustice and tyranny will not be practised in the land.摆脱罪恶,强在神圣的恐惧,与上帝的圣灵充满的勇气和正义,他将倾向于主的羊群忠实,把握在较高的检查人员,并通过权力的罪人停止他的话,那么这种不公正和暴政不会在土地实行。 He will not rely upon horses and warriors, nor heap up gold and silver to wage war, nor keep armies.他不会依靠马匹和战士,也堆积黄金和白银发动战争,也不保留军队。In God alone will he place his trust, and his strength will be in Him.在他的地方,只有上帝将他的信任,他的力气将他。

In the Apocalypse of Baruch (70-100 CE) the earthly Messiah will appear at the close of the fourth (ie, the Roman) world-empire and destroy it.在巴鲁克启示录(70-100 CE认证)俗世的弥赛亚将出现在第四(即罗马)关闭世界帝国,并摧毁它。The last ruler of the empire will, after his hosts have been destroyed, be brought in chains before the Messiah on Mount Zion, and there, after the impiousness of his rule has been pointed out to him, he will be put to death by the Messiah's own hand.帝国的最后一位统治者的意志,他的东道主后已被销毁,带来连锁前在锡安山弥赛亚,和那里,他的统治后,已impiousness向他指出,他将所提出的死刑弥赛亚自己的手。 Of the other nations, those hostile to Israel will be put to the sword and the remainder subjected to the rule of the Messiah, who will establish himself on the throne of his kingdom, inaugurate the reign of morality and bliss, and hold dominion until the end of time, that is, until the consummation of the present world (xxix. 3, xxxix. 5-xl. 3, lxxii.-lxxiii. 4. Ch. xxx. 1 is to be taken, with Volz ["Jüdische Eschatologie," pp. 37, 203], as Christian interpolation).其他国家,对以色列的敌对将付诸剑,受到法治的弥赛亚,谁建立在自己的宝座,他的王国,开创道德和幸福的统治,统治,直到持有其余结束的时间,也就是直到当今世界圆满(xxix. 3,第39届。5 - xl的。三,lxxii. - lxxiii。4。通道。三十。一要采取福尔茨[“Jüdische文学Eschatologie, ,“页37,203],作为基督教插补)。

In the Testaments of the Patriarchs.在始祖的见证。

The Testament of Levi (ch. viii. and xviii.) shows a unique conception of the Messiah.该遗嘱的利维(第八章。及十八。)显示了独特的弥赛亚观念。He is not, as in the Testament of Judah (see below) and according to the popular belief, a descendant of David, but a priestly king of the tribe of Levi.他并不像在犹大(见下文),并根据民间信仰,从大卫的后裔,但在利未支派祭司王约。His character and activity are altogether spiritual.他的性格和活动共有精神。The pouring out of the spirit and knowledge of the Lord over all mankind and the cessation of sin and evil will be the fruit of his ideal priesthood, which will last for all eternity.浇注的精神和知识的主对所有人类和停止罪恶和邪恶,将是他理想​​的祭司,将持续为所有永恒的果实。He himself will open the doors of paradise, cast aside the sword threatening Adam, and give the saints to eat of the tree of life.他本人也将打开天堂之门,抛开剑威胁亚当,给信徒,吃的生命树。He will chain up Belial and will give his children power to trample on the evil spirits.他将链上恶魔,并给他的子女的权力,对邪灵践踏。The picture of the Messiah in the Testament of Judah (ch. xxiv.), although far more brief, resembles, in its spiritual character and in its universalistic tendency, that in the Testament of Levi.在全书的犹大图片的弥赛亚(章二十四。)虽然更为简单,类似于在其精神品格,并在其普遍性的倾向,在遗嘱的利维。The sole mission of the Messiah will be the regeneration of mankind, and his kingdom will be one of justice and salvation for the whole world.弥赛亚的唯一使命将是人类的再生,和他的王国将是公正和整个世界的救恩之一。 If, as Bousset sought to prove ("Zeitschrift für die Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft," i. 193 et seq.), the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs date mainly from the time of the Maccabees, then the Messiahconception of the Testament of Levi is easily accounted for; the author expects that the future Savior will be a prince of the reigning priestly house of the Maccabees.如果像Bousset试图证明(“Zeitschrift毛皮死Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft,”岛193起。),主要从马加比时,则该遗嘱的利维Messiahconception的十二始祖日期旧约很容易占为,笔者预计,未来救世主将是一个执政祭司的马加比房子王子。

The Heavenly Messiah.在天上的弥赛亚。

The oldest apocalypse in which the conception of a preexistent heavenly Messiah is met with is the Messiological section of the Book of Enoch (xxxvii.-lxxi.) of the first century BC The Messiah is called "the Son of Man," and is described as an angelic being, his countenance resembling a man's, and as occupying a seat in heaven beside the Ancient of Days (xlvi. 1), or, as it is expressed in ch.最古老的启示,其中的一个先在天上的弥赛亚观念是会见是在以诺书(xxxvii. - lxxi。)的公元前一世纪的弥赛亚是所谓的Messiological节“人子”,是描述作为一个天使,他的脸上象一个人的,在天上作为占用座位旁边的天古(xlvi. 1),或者,因为它是在CH表示。xxxix.三十九。7, "under the wings of the Lord of spirits."7,“根据本烈酒主的翅膀。”In ch.在CH。xlviii.48。3, 6, xlix.3,6,第四十九届。 2b it is stated that "His name was called before the Lord of spirits before the sun and the signs of the zodiac were created, and before the stars of heaven weremade"; that "He was chosen and hidden with God before the world was created, and will remain in His presence forevermore" (comp. also lxii. 6); and that "His glory will last from eternity unto eternity and his might from generation unto generation" (that "his name" in xlviii. 3 means really "son of man" is evident from verse 6; comp. the similar use of "Shem Yhwh" for "Yhwh" in Isa. xxx. 27).据称,第2B“他的名字已经出现在面前的太阳神和十二生肖的迹象耶和华召被创造出来,和之前的天星weremade”,即“他选择了与上帝隐藏在世界面前的创建,将永远留在他的存在“(comp.也第六十二号6。),并认为”他的荣耀将持续直到永恒,从永恒他从那里一代一代可能会“(即”他的名字“。在四十八3意味着真正”人子“是显而易见的,从第6节。可比的类似用途的”闪耶和华“为”耶和华“在ISA xxx 27)。。。He is represented as the embodiment of justice and wisdom and as the medium of all God's revelations to men (xlvi. 3; xlix. 1, 2a, 3).他是代表作为正义和智慧的化身,并作为所有上帝的启示中,以男性(xlvi. 3;。第四十九届第1,2 A,3)。At the end of time the Lord will reveal him to the world and will place him on the throne of His glory in order that he may judge all creatures in accordance with the end to which God had chosen him from the beginning.在年底的时候,耶和华必向世界透露了他,并会放在他荣耀的宝座,以便他可以判断与该神选择了他从一开始停止一切按照他的生物。 When he rises for the judgment all the world will fall down before him, and adore and extol him, and give praise to the Lord of spirits.当他的判断上升全世界都塌下来他面前,崇拜和歌颂他,赞美上帝的精神。The angels in heaven also, and the elect in the Garden of Life, will join in his praise and will glorify the Lord.在天上的天使也和在生命花园选出,将加入他的赞美,将荣耀主。"He will judge all hidden things, and no one will be able to make vain excuses to him"; he will judge also Azazel, with all his associates and all his hosts. “他会判断所有隐藏的东西,没有人能够使他徒劳的借口”,用他所有的同事和他的所有主机,他将法官还阿撒兹勒。The wicked ones of the earth, especially all kings and potentates, he will give over to damnation, but for the just and chosen ones he will prepare eternal bliss, and he will dwell in their midst for all eternity (xlv. 3, 4; xlvi. 4-6; xlviii. 4-10; xlix. 4; li. 3; lv. 4; lxi. 7-lxii. 14).世上的恶人的,特别是一切国王和当权者,他会给交给诅咒,但选择的公正和永恒的幸福,他将准备,他将住在他们中间的永恒(xlv. 3,4;四十六4-6;。四十八4-10。第四十九届4。李三。吕4;。LXI的7 -第六十二号14)。。。

It is worthy of special note that in the appendix to the Messiological section of Enoch, the latter himself is the Son of Man = Messiah (lxxi. 14), and, as in the Slavonic Book of Enoch and the Hebrew Book of Enoch (see Jew. Encyc. i. 676, sv Apocalyptic Literature), as well as throughout rabbinical literature, Enoch is identical with Meṭaṭron = Μετάθρονος or Μετατύρανος (ie, the highest, ministering spirit, who stands next to God and represents His rulership over the universe), so there is an important connecting-link between the conception of the Son of Man = Messiah, and the Logos, which appears repeatedly in Philo in place of the earthly future king (comp., eg, his interpretation of "ẓemaḥ," Zech. vi. 12, in "De Confess." § 14; see Memra).这是值得特别注意,在以诺Messiological的附录部分,后者本人是人=弥赛亚(lxxi. 14),圣子,如以诺书和斯拉夫伊诺克希伯来书(见犹太人。Encyc。岛676,希沃特世界末日文学),以及整个犹太教文学,以诺与梅塔特隆=Μετάθρονος或Μετατύρανος(即相同最高,服事的精神,谁站在旁边的神,代表着宇宙他的统治),所以有一个重要的连接之间的人的儿子=弥赛亚观念环节,标识,它反复出现在斐洛到位的人间未来的国王(comp.,例如,他的“ẓemaḥ,”解释撒加利亚六12,§ 14。。“德承认。”,见为门拉)。The Fourth Book of Ezra (about 100 CE) presents both the pre-existent and the earthly Messiah.的以斯拉(约100 CE)的第四本书介绍了两个前存在的和世俗的弥赛亚。The latter is seen in ch.后者被认为是在CH。vii.七。28, xi.28日,十一。37-46, xii.37-46,十二。 31-34, where the Messiah is represented as the Lion "who will spring from the seed of David," will destroy the fourth (ie, the Roman) world-monarchy, will rule 400 years till the end of the Messianic interim, and then will die, together with all men. 31-34,那里的弥赛亚是狮子代表“谁的春天从大卫的后裔”,将破坏第四次(即罗马)世界君主制,将统治直到救世主的中期结束400年,并然后将死去,连同所有的人。 The former appears in the vision of the man rising from the sea (ch. xiii.).前者出现在从海中崛起的人视力(第十三章。)。Here, as in the Messiological section, the Messiah is described as "one resembling a man" and is called "ille homo" or "ipse homo" (verses 3, 12).在这里,如Messiological节,弥赛亚被描述为“一个类似的人”和被称为“伊尔同质”或“ipse同源”(诗三,12)。 The statement is made also (under the influence of Dan. vii. 13) that he "flew with the clouds of heaven."该声明是也(下丹的影响。七。13),他“天上的云彩飞去。”Other points of contact with the Messiological Book are: the statement that "he is the one whom the Most High has reserved for many ages to deliver creation" (verse 26); the reference to his being hidden with God (verse 52)-"Even as no one can fathom nor learn what is in the depths of the sea, so none of the inhabitants of earth can see My son nor his escort [ie, the host of angels who will accompany him when he appears upon earth], unless it be at the appointed hour"; and, finally, the obvious reference to his preexistence in heaven, where the promise is given to Ezra, "Thou wilt be taken from among men [to heaven] and wilt dwell with My son and with thy comrades until the end of time" (xiv. 9).与Messiological留言联系其他要点是:声明说:“他是谁的最高级有许多不同年龄人士提供一个创作保留”(26节),而他的被隐藏引用与神(诗52) - “即使没有人可以捉摸,也不了解什么在海洋深处,所以对地球的居民都可以看到我的儿子还是他的护送[即谁的天使将陪伴他,当他出现在地球上的主机],除非它是在约定的时间“,以及最后,显然参考了他在天上,在那里的承诺是考虑到以斯拉前世,”你就从中间[天堂],与我的儿子和你的病住男人做出同志们,直到时间“(xiv. 9)结束。

In Rabbinic Literature.在拉比文学。

Whether the Messiah in Sibyllines v. 415-430, where he is called "a blessed man coming from heaven," is the preexistent or the earthly Messiah can not be determined.无论在Sibyllines诉415-430,在那里他被称为弥赛亚“,祝福从天上来的人”,是先在地上的弥赛亚或无法确定。 In the Assumptio Mosis, however (c. 4 BC), it may be concluded, on the ground of the identification of the Son of Man = Messiah with Enoch = Meṭaṭron in Enoch lxxi.在Assumptio Mosis,但是,(约公元前四),可以得出结论,在此次与诺=梅塔特隆人子=弥赛亚在伊诺克lxxi识别地面。14, that it is the preexistent Messiah who is referred to (x. 2), for it is stated that, at the end of the last tribulation, when God's dominion will be established over all creation, "the hands of the angel who stands in the highest place will be filled, and he will immediately avenge them [Israel] on their enemies." 14日,即先在弥赛亚是谁被称为(十2),因为它是说,在过去的磨难,当神的统治将超过所有的创造成立,“站在谁的天使之手结束在最高的地方将被填满,他将立即报复自己的敌人他们[以色列]。“ As the author of the Fourth Book of Ezra (xiii.), as well as the author of the Messiological Book, evidently had Dan.作为以斯拉(xiii.)四书,以及作为Messiological一书的作者,作者显然曾经丹。vii.七。13 in mind when he described the preexistent Messiah, it may be mentioned here that, while the Messianic interpretation of this passage prevails in the rabbinic literature (the oldest example is the Messianic tradition in Sanh. 98a, for which Joshua b. Levi is mentioned as authority), the Greek text of Dan.考虑到13时,他形容的preexistent弥赛亚,它可能会提到这里,而这段话解释的救世主拉比文学盛行(最古老的例子是在sanh。98A条救世主的传统,其中提到约书亚乙利维作为权威),希腊文的丹。 vii.七。13 presents not only the Messianic interpretation of "Bar Nash," but unmistakably also, in καὶ ὡς παλαιὸς ἡμερῶν παρῆυ added after ὡς υἱὸς ἀνϑρώπου ἥρχετο, the conception of the preexistent Messiah. 13礼物不仅是救世主的解释“酒吧纳什”,但也明白无误地在καὶὡςπαλαιὸςἡμερῶνπαρῆυ,后增加ὡςυἱὸςἀνθρώπουἥρχετο,先在弥赛亚的概念。 Moreover, contrary to the view held by many that all the passages concerning the Son of Man = Messiah in the Book of Enoch and IV Ezra are of Christian origin, it may be pointed out that the phrase "Bar Nash" (= "Son of Man") must have been a common name for an angel of the highest order among the Palestinian Jews of the first Christian centuries.此外,相反许多人认为所有通道关于在以诺和第四以斯拉书的男子=弥赛亚的儿子是基督教的起源所持的观点,它可能需要指出的是这句话“酒吧纳什”(=“儿子人“)必须是一个为最高命令中的第一个基督教百年巴勒斯坦犹太人天使的通用名称。 Yer.也门里亚尔。Yoma v. relates that, when reference was made in the bet ha-midrash to Simon the Just's having, every year of the forty during which he was high priest, been accompanied into the Holy of Holies on the Day of Atonement by an "aged one," veiled and garbed in linen (ie, by a heavenly being; comp. the "labush ha-badim" in Ezek. ix. 1, 3 et al.), R. Abbahu objected: "Does not the prohibition, 'No man shall be present in the Tabernacle when the high priest enters the sanctuary,' extend to those of whom it is said, 'the appearance of their countenance was that of a man's countenance'?"五,涉及山脉,当有人提到,在第2,3公顷米德拉士向西蒙公正的拥有,每一个在此期间,他是第四大祭司,伴随着今年在赎罪日进入至圣所的“老龄“(; labush公顷badim之一。通过天上的神灵,即比赛的含蓄和身着麻布”“。。。在ezek九1,3等),河Abbahu反对:”不禁止'没有人应当到场,在帐幕当大祭司进入避难所,'延伸到那些人,这是说,'他们的面容出现,是一个人的面貌?“ (Lev. xvi. 17; Ezek. i. 10). (利未记十六17;。以西结书一10。)。Whereupon the rejoinder was made, "Who says that that being was Bar Nash? It was the All Holy Himself."于是作出了反驳,“谁说的,作为纳什是酒吧?这是全德自己。”It may be noted in passing that this haggadah is of importance for the Greek text of Dan.它可以顺便指出,这哈加达为丹希腊文的重要性。vii.七。13 as well as for the identification of the Son of Man = Messiah with Enoch = Meṭaṭron. 13以及对于人类=弥赛亚儿子,以诺=梅塔特隆鉴定。

In the rabbinical apocalyptic literature the conception of an earthly Messiah is the prevailing one, and from the end of the first century of the common era it is also the one officially accepted by Judaism.在犹太教世界末日文学中的一个人间的弥赛亚观念是一个普遍存在的,并从时代的共同世纪末也是犹太教正式接受一个。 As proof of this may be given: (1) "The Prayer for the Coming of the Messiah," mentioned above, inwhich the Messiah is called "descendant of David."作为这方面的证据可以考虑:(1)“为未来的救世主的祈祷”,上面提到的,不能容忍的弥赛亚是所谓的“大卫的后裔。” (2) The information given in the second century by Justin ("Dialogus cum Tryphone," ch. xlix.) and by the author of "Philosophumena" (ix. 30). (2)在第二个世纪由Justin提供的资料(“dialogus暨tryphone,”胆固醇。第四十九届。)以及以“Philosophumena”(ix. 30)的作者。Both writers state expressly that, contrary to the belief of the Christians, the Jews emphasize the human origin of the Messiah, and the author of "Philosophumena" adds that they expect him to be descended from David.两个作家明确规定,违反了信仰的基督徒,犹太人的弥赛亚强调人类起源,以及“Philosophumena”的作者补充说,他们希望他能够从大卫的后裔。 (3) The liturgy of later times, which, like the Daily Prayer, calls him the descendant of David throughout. (3)在稍后的时间,其中,像每天祈祷,呼吁他的后裔大卫整个礼仪。His mission is, in all essential respects, the same as in the apocalypses of the older period: he is to free Israel from the power of the heathen world, kill its ruler and destroy his hosts, and set up his own kingdom of peace (comp. the descriptions of him in Jew. Encyc. i. 675, sv Apocalyptic Literature, Neo-Hebraic).他的使命是,在所有重要方面,如在旧时期的启示一样:他是要摆脱以色列的异教徒的世界大国,它的统治者杀死,破坏他的东道主,并成立了自己的王国和平(比赛。在犹太人。Encyc的描述他。岛675,希沃特世界末日的文学,理学希伯来)。

Heavenly Preexistence.天上的前世。

The conception of the preexistent Messiah is met with in Pesiḳ.作者:先在弥赛亚的概念是会见在Pesiḳ。 R. xxxiii., xxxvi.河三十三。,三十六。(pp. 152b, 162, ed. Friedmann; comp. Yalḳ. i. 339).(第152b,162,教育署弗里德曼。。比赛Yalḳ岛339。)。In accordance with the Messiological section of Enoch the former of these two passages says: "At the beginning of the creation of the world was born the King Messiah, who mounted into God's thoughts before the world was made"; and in the latter passage it is related that God contemplated the Messiah and his works before the creation of the world and concealed him under His throne; that Satan, having asked God who the Light was under His throne, was told it was the one who would bring him to shame in the future, and, being then allowed, at his request, to see the Messiah, he trembled and sank to the ground, crying out, "Truly this is the Messiah who will deliver me and all heathen kings over to hell."在与以诺这两个通道前Messiological按照该条说:“在世界创立之初就诞生了国王的救世主,谁成神的思想装在世界面前作出”,并在后者的去路,有关设想之前,上帝创造了世界的救世主,他的作品和他藏在他的宝座,这撒旦,经询问,上帝谁轻是根据他的宝座,被告知这是一个谁会给他带来的耻辱中未来,并正在然后允许,在他的要求,看到弥赛亚,他颤抖,倒在地上,哭了,“这真是谁是弥赛亚将提供我和所有异教徒国王到地狱。” God calls the Messiah "Ephraim, my righteous Messiah."上帝召唤弥赛亚“以法莲,我公义的弥赛亚。”

The preexistent Messiah is presented also in the Haggadah (Pes. 54a; Ned. 39a; Yalḳ. i. 20; et al.), where the name of the Messiah is included among the seven things created before the world was made, and where he is called "Yinnon," reference being made to Ps.的preexistent弥赛亚还提出了在haggadah(Pes. 54A条;奈德39A条。Yalḳ一20;。等。),其中的弥赛亚名称在世界面前创造了七件,包括了言,并在他被称为“Yinnon,”举出的是聚苯乙烯。 lxxii.lxxii。17 (which passage probably was in the mind of the author of the Messiological section of Enoch when writing xlviii. 3).17(这可能是在通过对以诺Messiological写作时四十八条的作者。三脑子)。That, contrary to the view of Weber ("Jüdische Theologie," 2d ed., p. 355) and others, it is actual preexistence which is meant here, and not predestination, is evident from the additional remark-"According to another view, only the Torah and the Throne of Glory were [actually] created; as to the other [five] things the intention was formed to create them" (Yalḳ., lc; in regard to "the name of the Messiah" compare the comment above to Enoch, xlviii. 3).这,这违背了韦伯视图(“Jüdische神学,”2版。,第355页)等人,这是前世的实际意思是在这里,而不是宿命,是显而易见的,从额外的注解,“根据另一种观点,只有托拉那荣耀的宝座是[真正]创建的;至于其他[五]事物的目的是形成以创建它们“(Yalḳ.,立法会,在关于”弥赛亚的名字“的评论比较上述以诺,48。3)。 Finally, the preexistence of the Messiah in paradise is minutely described in "The Revelation of R. Joshua b. Levi" (see Jew. Encyc. i. 680), in Midrash Konen (Jellinek, "BH" ii. 29), and in "Seder Gan Eden" (ib. iii. 132 et seq., 195).最后,在天堂的弥赛亚前身为每分钟描述“的传译约书亚乙利维的启示”(见犹太人。Encyc。一680),在米德拉士Konen(耐克,“波黑”二。29),在“塞德甘伊甸园”(ib.三。132起。,195)。 In the first two, regardless of the apparent anomaly, the preexistent Messiah is called "Messiah ben David."在头两,无论明显异常,先在弥赛亚是所谓的“弥赛亚本大卫。”

Earthly Preexistence.人间前世。

The conception met with in the rabbinical literature of an earthly preexistence of the Messiah must be distinguished from that of his heavenly preexistence.概念会见了在一个世俗前世的弥赛亚犹太教文学必须从他在天上的前身是区分开来。It occurs in various forms, representing, probably, different stages of development.它发生在各种形式的代表,也许不同的发展阶段。First, he is expected to lead a hidden life and then to step forth suddenly.首先,他将带领一个隐藏的生活,然后突然迈步向前。 (On this conception of the sudden, unexpected appearance of the Messiah comp. Matt. xxiv. 27, 43-44, where it is said that the Messiah will come like a thief in the night or like a flash of lightning.) This is the conception of him in Ex. (关于这个突如其来的,弥赛亚的比赛突然出现的概念。马特。二十四。27,43-44,它是说,弥赛亚来到,好像在夜间或像一道闪电贼。)这是在他的前概念。 R. i.河岛and in Tan., Shemot, both of which say that as Moses, the first deliverer, was reared at the court of Pharaoh, so the future deliverer will grow up in the Roman capital; in agreement with this, in the Agadat ha-Mashiaḥ (Jellinek, lc iii. 142) it is said that the Messiah will suddenly be revealed to Israel in Rome. 。与谈,Shemot,它们都表示,随着摩西,第一发货,被饲养在法老的法庭,因此未来发货将增长资本上,在罗马,在与本协议,在Agadat夏mashiaḥ (耐克,立法会三。142)这是说,弥赛亚会突然发现在罗马以色列。Then, again, the Messiah is represented as born, but not yet revealed.然后,又是代表弥赛亚的出生,但尚未​​透露。This conception appears as early as the second century in Justin Martyr's "Dialogus cum Tryphone" (ch. viii.), and in accordance with it is the passage Sanh.这个概念似乎只要在贾斯汀烈士的“dialogus暨tryphone”第二世纪初(第八章。),并在按照它是通过葬身。 98b, where R. Joshua ben Levi is quoted as saying that the Messiah is already born and is living in concealment at the gates of Rome.98b,其中传译约书亚贲利维的话说,是弥赛亚已经是土生土长的,是在隐瞒住在罗马的大门引用。In Targ.在塔尔格。Yer.也门里亚尔。to Micah iv.到米卡四。8 the Messiah is on the earth, but because of the sins of the people he is still in hiding. 8弥赛亚在地上,而是因为人民的罪恶,他仍然躲藏。Finally, the Messiah is thought of as born at a certain time in the past.最后,弥赛亚是认为是在过去一段时间出生的。This is the case in Yer.这是也门里亚尔的情况。Ber.误码率。ii., which states that the Messiah was born at Bethlehem on the day the Temple was destroyed, and in the Apocalypse of Zerubbabel (see Jew. Encyc. i. 682), which declares he was born in the days of King David and is dwelling in Rome.二。,其中指出弥赛亚出生于伯利恒的圣殿被毁的日子,在所罗巴伯的启示(见犹太人。Encyc。一682),宣称他曾在国王大​​卫的日子出生,是住在罗马。

The notion, traceable to Ezek.这个概念,可追溯至以西结书。xxxiv.三十四。23 et al., that David himself is the Messiah, is another variation of the conception of earthly preexistence. 23,等。大卫自己是弥赛亚,是另一种概念的人间前世的变化。It occurs in the apocalyptic fragment of the "Siddur" of R. Amram (see Jew. Encyc. i. 678, sv Apocalyptic Literature, 2) and in Yer.它在“Siddur”阿姆拉姆世界末日片段的河发生(见犹太人。Encyc。岛678,希沃特世界末日的文学,2)和也门里亚尔。 Ber.误码率。ii.二。The latter states that whether the King Messiah belongs to the living or to the dead, his name is David.国王的救世主,是否属于生活或死了,他的名字是大卫后者状态。

Messiah ben Joseph.弥赛亚贲约瑟夫。

Finally, there must be mentioned a Messianic figure peculiar to the rabbinical apocalyptic literature-that of Messiah ben Joseph.最后,必须提到一个救世主人物特有的犹太教世界末日文学,认为弥赛亚贲约瑟夫。The earliest mention of him is in Suk.他最早的一提的是在淑。52a, b, where three statements occur in regard to him, for the first of which R. Dosa (c. 250) is given as authority.52A条,B,其中三个语句就出现在他为其中升入河(长250)作为权威的首位。In the last of these statements only his name is mentioned, but the first two speak of the fate which he is to meet, namely, to fall in battle (as if alluding to a well-known tradition).在只有他的名字被提及这些语句的最后一个,但前两个发言的命运,而他是为了满足,即在战斗中下降(好像暗指一个众所周知的传统)。 Details about him are not found until much later, but he has an established place in the apocalypses of later centuries and in the midrash literature-in Saadia's description of the future ("Emunot we-De'ot," ch. viii.) and in that of Hai Gaon ("Ṭa'am Zeḳenim," p. 59).关于他的细节都没有发现,直到晚得多,但他在后来的几个世纪的启示,并在midrash建立地方文献中Saadia的未来(“Emunot我们- De'ot,”胆固醇。八。)和描述在海Gaon(“Ṭa'amZeḳenim,”第59页)的。According to these, Messiah b.针对这些问题,弥赛亚湾Joseph will appear prior to the coming of Messiah b.约瑟夫会出现​​之前的弥赛亚的来临湾David; he will gather the children of Israel around him, march to Jerusalem, and there, after overcoming the hostile powers, reestablish the Temple-worship and set up his own dominion.大卫,他将以色列人聚集在他周围,游行到耶路撒冷,在那里,在克服敌对势力,重新建立寺朝拜,并成立了自己的统治。 Thereupon Armilus, according to one group of sources, or Gog and Magog, according to the other, will appear with their hosts before Jerusalem, wage war against Messiah b.于是Armilus,根据一组的来源,或歌革和玛各,根据对方,会出现与前耶路撒冷发动战争的主机湾弥赛亚Joseph, and slay him.约瑟夫,杀了他。His corpse, according to one group, will lie unburied in the streets of Jerusalem; according to theother, it will be hidden by the angels with the bodies of the Patriarchs, until Messiah b.他的尸体,根据一组,将躺在埋葬在耶路撒冷街头,据换另一支,这将是隐藏在身体的始祖,直到弥赛亚,天使湾David comes and resurrects him (comp. Jew. Encyc. i. 682, 684 [§§ 8 and 13]; comp. also Midr. Wayosha' and Agadat ha-Mashiaḥ in Jellinek, "BH" i. 55 et seq., iii. 141 et seq.).大卫来了,复活他(comp.犹太人Encyc岛682,684 [§ § 8和13]。。。。。比赛也Midr Wayosha'和耶利内克Agadat夏mashiaḥ,“波黑”一55起,三。141起。)。

When and how this Messiah-conception originated is a question that has not yet been answered satisfactorily.何时及如何弥赛亚,概念起源是一个尚未得到令人满意的答案的问题。It is not possible to consider Messiah b.这是不可能考虑弥赛亚湾Joseph the Messiah of the Ten Tribes.约瑟的十个部落弥赛亚。He is nowhere represented as such; though twice it is mentioned that a part of the Ten Tribes will be found among those who will gather about his standard.他表示因此无处,虽然两度提到,那十部落的一部分将是那些谁将会发现收集有关他的标准。There is a possibility, however, as has been repeatedly maintained, that there is some connection between the Alexander saga and the Messiah b.有一种可能性,但是,由于已多次维修,有一些传奇和亚历山大之间的连接湾弥赛亚Joseph tradition, for, in the Midrash, on the strength of Deut.约瑟夫的传统,在米德拉士,在申命记实力。xxxiii.三十三。17, a pair of horns, with which he will "strike in all directions," is the emblem of Messiah b. 17日,一对牛角,他将与“严打全方位,”是弥赛亚会徽湾Joseph (comp. Pirḳe R. El. xix.; Gen. R. lxxv.; Num. R. xiv.; et al.), just as in the apocalyptic Alexander tradition in the Koran (referred to above) the latter is called "The Double-Horned" ("Dhu al-Ḳarnain").约瑟夫(可比pirḳe传译下午十九。。创传译lxxv。。编号河第十四。等。),就像在世界末日亚历山大传统在可兰经(见上文),后者被称为“双角的”(“东华大学铝Ḳarnain”)。 See also Eschatology; Jesus; Judaism.另见末世,耶稣;犹太教。

Joseph Jacobs, Moses Buttenwieser约瑟夫雅各布斯,摩西Buttenwieser
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版01年至1906年之间。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
R. Smend, Alttestamentliche Religionsgesch.; W. Nowack, Die Zukunftshoffnung Israels in der Assyrischen Zeit; Hühn, Die Messianischen Weissagungen; Fr.河Smend,Alttestamentliche Religionsgesch。瓦特Nowack的,模具Zukunftshoffnung以色列在明镜Assyrischen宰特;哈恩,模具Messianischen Weissagungen;神父。Giesebrecht, Der Knecht Jahwe's in Deutero-Jesaia; Schürer, Gesch.吉泽布雷希特,明镜尼赫特Jahwe在氘- Jesaia; Schürer,Gesch。3d ed., ii.三维版。,二。29; W. Bousset, Die Religion des Judentums im Neutestamentlichen Zeitalter, part 3, ch. 29;美国Bousset,模具宗教德Judentums即时Neutestamentlichen Zeitalter,第3部分,甲烷。ii.-v.; part 6, pp. 474 et seq.; P. Volz, Jüdische Eschatologie von Daniel bis Akiba, §§ 34-35; HJ Holtzmann, Lehrbuch der Neutestamentlichen Theologie, i. ii.-v.第6部分,第474页起;。体育福尔茨,Jüdische文学Eschatologie冯丹尼尔秋叶之二,§ § 34-35;黄建忠Holtzmann,Lehrbuch明镜Neutestamentlichen神学岛68-85; W. Baldensperger, Die Messianisch-Apokalyptischen Hoffnungen des Judentums; F. Weber, Jüdische Theologie auf Grund des Talmud, etc., ch. 68-85;瓦特Baldensperger,模具Messianisch - Apokalyptischen Hoffnungen德Judentums;楼韦伯,Jüdische神学奥夫Grund的德木德等通道。xxii.-xxiii.; GH Dalman, Der Leidende und der Sterbende Messias; idem, Die Worte Jesu, pp. 191 et seq.; Kampers, Alexander der Grosse und die Idee des Weltimperiums in Prophetie und Sage; B. Beer, Welchen Aufschluss Geben die Jüdischen Quellen über den "Zweigehörnten" des Korans?xxii. -二十三。生长激素达尔曼,明镜Leidende und明镜Sterbende弥赛亚;同上,模具又写道耶稣,第191页起。Kampers,亚历山大明镜格洛斯衣蝶德Weltimperiums und模具有限公司在Prophetie圣人;乙啤酒,Welchen Aufschluss Geben死Jüdischen Quellen黚书斋“Zweigehörnten”德古兰经?in ZDMG ix.在ZDMG九。791 et seq.791起。

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