Methodism循道

General Information一般资料

Methodism is the name given to a group of Protestant churches that arose from the 18th century Wesleyan movement in England led by John and Charles Wesley and George Whitefield.卫理公会的名字是乔治Whitefield的一组给定的新教运动的教堂源于18世纪的卫斯理和英国为首的约翰和查尔斯韦斯利。 Although centered in the British Isles and North America, Methodism has spread worldwide.虽然在英伦三岛和北美为中心,循道已蔓延全球。The total world community is estimated at more than 38 million; the largest single group is the United Methodist Church in the United States, with about 10 million members.世界社会总估计超过3800万,最大的一组是美国基督教卫理公会在美国大约有10万成员。

The origins of Methodism are inseparable from the careers of the Wesley brothers.作者:卫理公会的起源是从卫斯理兄弟的事业是分不开的。In 1738, influenced by the Moravians, they organized small "societies" within the Church of England for religious sharing, Bible study, prayer, and preaching. 1738年,由摩拉维亚的影响,他们组织内的英格兰教会小“社会”宗教交流,研究圣经,祈祷,宣讲。Doctrine was based on an Arminian interpretation of the Thirty Nine Articles but emphasized personal experience of conversion, assurance, and sanctification.教义是基于对39条阿民念主义的解释,但强调的转换,保证和成圣的亲身经历。The Wesleys and their associate Whitefield traveled widely, preaching to large and enthusiastic crowds of working people.该wesleys及其协理Whitefield的游历,鼓吹劳动人民大批热情的人群。The movement spread through most of England.该运动传播到英格兰最。A striking growth took place in Ireland, and to lesser extent in Wales and Scotland.一个突出的增长发生在爱尔兰举行,并在威尔士和苏格兰较小的程度。To preserve personal fellowship, "bands" and "class meetings" were formed, and the whole was brought together (1744) by John Wesley in the British Conference.为了维护个人奖学金,“带”和“阶级会议”的形成,整个是邀集了约翰卫斯理(1744)在英国会议。

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When John Wesley died in 1791 the relationship between the Methodists and the Church of England was unclear, although Wesley's ordination of "clergy" for work in America made a breach likely.当约翰卫斯理在1791年去世之间的卫和英格兰教会的关系不明确,虽然韦斯利的“神职人员”在美国工作的协调作出了违反可能。 The separation was formalized when the Conference of 1795 asserted that Methodist preachers could administer sacraments without ordination by the Church of England.在分离的时候,1795年正式会议可以断言,循道卫理牧师没有协调管理由英国教会圣礼。

A number of divisions soon took place among the Methodists.一个即将发生数师卫之间的地方。 The Methodist New Connection, the Primitive Methodist Church, and the Bible Christians separated from the Conference between 1797 and 1815.循道卫理新的连接,原始基督教卫理公会,圣经,从1797年和1815年之间的会议分开基督徒。They were reunited in two mergers (1907, 1932) with the main branch to form the Methodist Church in Britain, which today has a membership of about 800,000.他们团聚两项合并与主科(1907年,1932年),形成于英国,今天有大约80万会员的卫理公会。The central organization is the British Conference.中央组织是英国会议。This church has recently engaged in ecumenical negotiations with the Church of England.这座教堂最近从事与英国教会合一的谈判。

Whitefield conducted several preaching tours in North America and was an influential figure in the Great Awakening.怀特菲尔德在北美进行一些说教之旅,是一种在大觉醒有影响力的人物。Wesleyan Methodism was later established in America by unofficial lay missionaries such as Philip Embury, Barbara Heck, Robert Strawbridge, and Thomas Webb; and by missionaries appointed by John Wesley, of whom the chief were Francis Asbury, Richard Boardman, Joseph Pilmore, and Thomas Rankin.卫斯理循道后来在美国设立由非官方奠定如菲利普恩伯里,芭芭拉哎呀,罗伯特斯特劳布里奇,韦伯和托马斯传教士,以及由约翰卫斯理任命传教士被行政是弗朗西斯阿斯伯里,理查德博德曼,约瑟夫Pilmore,和托马斯兰金。 In 1784, Wesley's actual ordination of two missionaries and appointment of Thomas Coke as "superintendent" for America led to the formation of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Baltimore. 1784年,韦斯利的两位传教士和托马斯被任命为可口可乐“院长”为美国的实际协调导致卫理公会在巴尔的摩的形成。(Coke's adoption of the title bishop was not approved by Wesley; the British church did not adopt an episcopal structure.)(可口可乐的主教的称号通过不获批准,由韦斯利的,英国教会没有采取主教结构。)

In 1830, in a controversy over episcopal authority, the Methodist Protestant Church was formed by a strongly liberal minority.1830年,在比主教的权力争议,卫新教教会由一个强烈的自由少数。 In 1843 the Wesleyan Methodist Church of America was started by a group of antislavery Methodists.在1843年的卫斯理循道卫理教会的美国是由一开始的反对奴隶制的卫群。The next year the General Conference split over issues related to slavery and episcopal authority, and the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, was formed at the Louisville convention in 1845.次年,大会对相关分裂奴役和主教的权力问题,以及卫理公会,南,是在路易斯维尔公约于1845年成立。In 1860 came the Free Methodist Church, which was antislavery and theologically perfectionist.在1860年出现了循理会,这是反对奴隶制和神学完美主义者。The Methodist Episcopal Church was troubled by controversy over sanctification and interpretation of the Bible (fundamentalism).卫理公会在困扰着圣洁的圣经(原教旨主义)项的解释争议。Three large black churches were also organized, largely in protest against racial prejudice: the African Methodist Episcopal Church (1816), the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church (1820), and the Colored (later Christian) Methodist Episcopal Church (1870).三个大黑人教堂还组织了,主要是在反对种族偏见的抗议:非洲卫理公会(1816),非洲卫理主教锡安教会(1820),和彩色(后来的基督教)卫理公会(1870年)。

With the formation of the Methodist Church in 1939 by the Northern and Southern branches and the Methodist Protestants, reunion was achieved.随着卫理公会在1939年形成的北部和南部分行及循道卫新教徒,留尼汪岛已经实现。A racially identified central jurisdiction remained a source of controversy until its abolition in 1968.中央确定的司法管辖区的种族,直到1968年废除了争议。In that year the church merged with the Evangelical United Brethren Church to form the United Methodist Church.在这一年,教会合并与美国福音教会的弟兄组成联合卫理教会。The church maintains a large Methodist publishing house, Abingdon Press, hospitals and homes, and institutions of higher learning, including 13 theological seminaries.教会保持着强劲的卫出版社,阿宾登出版社,医院和家庭,高等教育机构,包括13所神学院学习。

Both the British Methodist Missionary Society and the American Board of Global Ministries have conducted worldwide missionary efforts.无论是英国循道传教士协会和美国全球教会理事会进行了世界各地的传教努力。The Methodist churches stand in close relation to each other in the World Methodist Conference, which elects the World Methodist Council, as well as in the World Council of Churches.循道卫理教会的立场密切相关,在世界卫会议,该会议选举产生世界循道会对方,以及在世界基督教协进会。

Frederick A Norwood冯检基甲诺伍德

Bibliography 参考书目
F Baker, From Wesley to Asbury (1976); CS Bucke, ed., The History of American Methodism (1964); RE Davies, Methodism (1976); RE Davies, ed., A History of the Methodist Church in Great Britain (1965); FA Norwood, The Story of American Methodism (1974); H Richardson, Dark Salvation (1976); B Semmel, The Methodist Revolution (1973). F贝克,从韦斯利到阿斯伯里(1976年)。政务司司长Bucke,海关,美国methodism(1964年)历史,重新戴维斯,卫理公会(1976年);。稀土戴维斯,教育署,在英国历史卫理公会教堂( 1965年);足总杯诺伍德,美国卫理公会的故事(1974年),高h理查森,黑暗2018(1976年);乙Semmel,循道卫理革命(1973年)。


Methodism循道

Advanced Information先进的信息

Methodism is a name designating several Protestant groups.卫理公会是一个名称,指定几个新教团体。 Methodism has its roots in the work of John and Charles Wesley, sons of an Anglican rector and his wife, Susannah.循道已在约翰和查尔斯韦斯利工作的根,圣公会大学校长和他的妻子苏珊娜的儿子。A friend and Oxford classmate of the Wesleys, George Whitefield, was also instrumental in forming the Holy Club (c. 1725), which stressed "inward religion, the religion of the heart."一个朋友和牛津大学的韦斯利斯,乔治Whitefield的,同学中也形成了神圣俱乐部(约1725年),其中强调工具性“外来宗教,心灵的宗教。” These awakenings coupled with the club's insistence on exacting discipline in scholastic as well as spiritual matters earned its members the jeering title of "Methodists" by 1729.与俱乐部的严格纪律,对学校以及精神方面的坚持加上这些觉醒获得其成员的“卫”由1729年的嘲弄称号。

In 1735 the Wesleys sailed to America as missionaries, but not before John, a somewhat troubled young Anglican priest, noted: "My chief motive is the hope of saving my own soul."在1735年的韦斯利斯驶往美国的传教士,却没有注意到在约翰,一个年轻的英国圣公会牧师有些困扰:“我的主要动机是拯救自己的灵魂的希望。” In the spring of 1738 John Wesley returned to England filled with a troubled sense of failure.在1738年春天约翰韦斯利回到一个充满失败感困扰英格兰。He was attracted to the piety and feelings of inward assurance so notably evidenced among the Moravians.他被吸引到了虔诚和外来的保证使尤其是其中摩拉维亚证明感情。Wesley knew this was lacking in his own life despite his outward discipline.韦斯利知道这是在他自己的生活,尽管他缺乏向外纪律。 He saw himself failing to bear fruits of "inward holiness."他看到自己不承担水果“向内圣洁。”Convinced of the necessity for faith and the inner witness, Wesley passed through a torturous spring, fearing that at the advanced age of thirty five both life and God were passing him by.为信仰和对证人的内在必然性深信,韦斯利通过一个曲折的春天,他们担心,在三十五岁都生活和上帝年事已高路过他的。

Unwillingly, he writes later, he was persuaded to attend a Bible study meeting on May 24, 1738, in Aldersgate Street, where an unknown layman was expounding on Luther's commentary on Romans.不情愿,他写道后,他被说服参加一个1738年5月24日会议研究圣经奥尔德斯盖特街,那里是一个未知的门外汉对路德的罗马书评论阐述。 There, Wesley writes, "I felt my heart strangley warmed. I felt I did trust Christ, Christ alone for salvation; and an assurance was given me that He had taken away my sins."在那里,韦斯利写道,“我觉得我的心strangley温暖,我觉得我没有相信基督的救恩,基督独自。给予保证和我说,他拿走我的罪过。” The Aldersgate experience, definitely a turning point in Wesley's life, was not so much an outright conversion experience of the type that came to be associated with the revival movements of England and America as it was a firm receiving of assurance of this priest's own salvation.该奥尔德斯盖特经验,绝对是一个在韦斯利的人生的转折点,就没有那么多类型的一个直接转换的经验,开始与英国和美国的复兴运动相关的,因为它是一个坚定的这个牧师的自救保证接收。 Aldersgate was what Wesley needed.奥尔德斯盖特正是韦斯利需要。

By 1739 the distinct and aggressively evangelistic and highly disciplined Methodist movement spread like wildfire through field preaching, lay preaching, bands, and societies.由1739年的独特和积极的福音和高度纪律循道卫理布道野火一样通过实地运动的传播,奠定说教,乐队,和社会。 The "Rules of Bands" demanded a highly disciplined life, an exacting schedule of meetings in which the society members were expected to share intimate details of their daily lives, to confess their sins to one another, to pray for each other, and to exhort members of the class toward inner holiness and good works.而“乐队规则”要求的高度纪律的生活,在其中一个社会成员分享,预计他们的日常生活的细枝末节的会议,严格的时间表,忏悔自己的罪孽彼此为对方祈祷,并叮咛对内部成员的圣洁和良好的工程类。 The enthusiasm of the revivals came under the control of the bands or societies.该复兴的积极性受到了乐队或社会控制。 The weekly prayer meetings; the use of an itinerary system of traveling preachers; the annual conferences; the establishment of chapels; the prolific outpouring of tracts, letters, sermons, and hymns; and the general superintendency of John Wesley became the hallmark of what emerged as a worldwide Methodist movement.每周一次的祈祷会,在行程的旅行传教士系统的使用,年会议;在教堂编制,多产流露的传单,信件,布道,和赞美诗,以及约翰卫斯理的监管成为普遍出现的标志是什么作为全球循道卫理运动。

Beginning with Church of England congregations banning John Wesley from their pulpits in 1738, before Aldersgate, tensions with the Established Church were inevitable and eventually disruptive.禁止与英国在1738年从他们的讲台前,奥尔德斯盖特约翰卫斯理教会教会开始,利用建立的教会是不可避免的紧张局势,并最终破坏。 Wesley's penchant for organization and discipline likely hastened the series of breaks that gave the people called Methodists their several denominations.韦斯利的组织和纪律的倾向有可能催生出一系列的突破给人们称为卫他们几个教派。

As the revivalistic awakening came to include Methodism, work extended from England to Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, where a Calvinistically oriented minority formally established themselves in 1764.由于revivalistic觉醒来包括循道,从英国延伸到爱尔兰,苏格兰工作和威尔士,凡Calvinistically的少数​​民族自己在1764年正式成立。 Soon lay preachers were active in America, establishing circuits along the midAtlantic states under the supervision of Francis Asbury, sent by Wesley in 1771.不久奠定传教士活跃在美国,建立下,弗朗西斯阿斯伯里监督韦斯利派在1771年,沿midAtlantic国电路。In 1744 a conference was held in London and standards for doctrine, liturgy and discipline were adopted.在1744年举行了一次会议在伦敦,教义,礼仪和纪律标准获得通过。The Wesleys maintained their personal ties (ordination) and devotion to the Church of England with its emphasis on the sacraments and its antipopery views.该wesleys维护他们的个人关系(协调)和献身精神,其对英国教会圣礼和其antipopery意见的重视。Episcopal in its organization, the Methodist Connexion was autocratically controlled by John Wesley.主教在其组织,循道卫理Connexion的独裁控制是由约翰卫斯理。

By 1784 Wesley concluded that no one individual would be a suitable successor.到1784年韦斯利的结论是没有一个人会是一个合适的继任者。He therefore moved to record a "Deed of Declaration" in which he declared a group of one hundred of his most able leaders (the "Legal Hundred") his legal successor.因此,他提出来记录“宣言契约”中,他宣布了一百他最能干的领导人(“法律百”)他的合法继承者组。This established that Methodist societies were now duly constituted as legal entities, conceived of as ecclesicla in ecclesia but formally separate entities from the Church of England.这证实,循道卫理社会现在已经正式组成的法律实体,作为ecclesicla在教会,而是来自英国教会正式独立的实体设想。 This also established the Annual Conference as the primary authority in the Methodist system.这也确立了作为卫系统的主要机关年度会议。

In September of that same year Wesley yielded to American pressure to have his preachers administer the sacraments by ordaining two lay helpers as elders and Thomas Coke as general superintendent without consulting with his conference.在同年九月韦斯利屈服于美国的压力使他的宣讲员管理由祝圣两名业外人士没有与他的会议咨询为长辈和托马斯焦炭作为一般院长助理的圣礼。 He was persuaded to this act by Peter King's Account of the Primitive Church (1691) that presbyters held the same spiritual authority as bishops to ordain in the early church and by the Bishop of London's refusal in 1780 to ordain any of Methodism's preachers in America.他说服本由彼得国王的原始教会(1691)帐户持有相同的精神权威,主教祝圣了早期教会,由伦敦在1780年拒绝主教长老,以阿拉维在美国卫理公会的传教士的任何行为。 The three newly ordained men were dispatched to build up the full work of Methodism in America.新祝圣三名男子被派往建立在美国的methodism充分的工作。At the Christmas Conference in Baltimore in 1784 Coke ordained Asbury, and the Methodist Episcopal Church was organized.在圣诞节会议在巴尔的摩受戒阿斯伯里1784焦,卫理公会举办。Coke and Asbury were elected general superintendents. A Sunday Service based on the Book of Common Prayer and Twenty five Articles of Religion abridged by Wesley from the Thirty nine Articles were adopted by the new denomination.可口可乐和阿斯伯里当选为总警司。 一个星期天服务的基础上共同祈祷书和二十五个宗教细则由韦斯利删节的新面额39条被采纳。

Continuing his work among the various societies, Wesley ordained a number of presbyters in Scotland and England, and for the mission field.继续他在各项社会工作,韦斯利受戒的苏格兰和英格兰,为团场长老数目。Unlike Methodism in America, no formal separation was consummated in England until after Wesley's death in 1791.不像在美国循道,没有正式的分离,完善后,才在英格兰韦斯利在1791年去世。A conciliar effort by the Church of England in 1793 prompted a formal "Plan of Pacification" in 1795.一个由英国教会在1793年conciliar的努力引起了正式的“和平计划”于1795年。But final separation occurred in 1797, as the Rubicon had been crossed in 1784, and the formal organization of Methodism was well under way by the beginning of the nineteenth century.但是,最后的分离发生在1797年,由于卢比孔河已经跨过1784年,与正式组织的methodism正在进行深受十九世纪初。

In England a number of Methodist bodies splintered from the main Methodism movement.在英国的循道卫理机构从主循道运动分裂数目。The Ecumenical Methodist Conferences formalized a renewed conciliar spirit.基督教卫理公会的会议正式重新conciliar的精神。 From 1907 to 1933 various groups united to become part of the Methodist Church.来自联合国,成为卫理公会教堂的部分07年至33年各种团体。On July 8, 1969, a plan calling for merger of the Methodist and Anglican communions faced defeat at the hands of the Anglican Convocations where the concept of historic episcopacy as an office and not an order proved unacceptable. 7月8日,1969年,计划为卫和英国圣公会圣餐合并调用所面对的英国圣公会征召手中那里的历史主教作为办公室,而不是为了证明不能接受失败的概念。 In Canada the Methodist Church of Canada joined with the Presbyterian Church and selected Union Churches together with the Congregational Churches to form the United Church of Canada.在加拿大,加拿大卫理公会联同基督长老教会与选择公理教会联盟与教会一起构成了加拿大联合教会。

In the United States numerous Methodist - oriented bodies exists.在美国众多的循道卫理 - 面向机构的存在。Some came into being in disputes over doctrinal issues.有的进入了超过理论问题的争端福祉。Others arose out of social concerns.其他引发出社会问题。The Wesleyan Methodist Church, organized in the 1840s, drew its inspiration from Orange Scott, a New Englander lacking formal education but committed to the Abolitionist movement.卫斯理循道卫理教会,在1840年举办,吸引了来自Orange斯科特,其灵感新英格兰缺乏正规教育,但致力于废除死刑的运动。 The Methodist Protestant Church, opposing the episcopacy, separated in 1828.循道新教教会,反对之故,在1828年分开。 By 1860 both doctrinal and social tensions were intense, and the Free Methodist Church was founded, largely under the inspiration of BT Roberts.到了1860年两教义和社会紧张局势加剧,循理会的成立主要是根据英国电信罗伯茨灵感。In 1844 the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, was formed over the slavery issue.1844年卫理公会,南,形成了奴隶制度的问题。

Other significant Methodist denominations in the United States are the African Methodist Episcopal (1816), the African Methodist Episcopal Zion (1820), and the Christian Methodist Episcopal (1870), all black, totaling more than 2.5 million members.其他重要循道面额在美国是非洲卫理主教(1816),非洲卫理主教锡安(1820),和基督教卫理(1870),全黑,总金额超过250万会员。 The year 1939 brought the reunion of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, the Methodist Protestant Church, and the Methodist Episcopal Church to form The Methodist Church.在1939年带来了卫理公会,南,循道卫理基督教教会,卫理公会团聚,形成了卫理公会。

A group of German pietists under Jacob Albright were attracted to Methodism and in 1807 organized the Newly Formed Methodist Conference or the German Methodist Conference.根据德国虔诚的雅各布奥尔布赖特集团被吸引到methodism和1807年举办了新成立的循道卫理会议或德国的会议。 The English speaking Methodist lay preachers were unable to serve this German speaking immigrant group, so the Evangelical Association was formed in 1816.讲英语的传教士卫奠定无法服务于这个德语移民群体,因此福音协会成立于1816年。During this same period Phillip Otterbein, friend of Asbury, together with Martin Boehm founded the United Brethren in Christ among German speaking immigrants with its organizing General Conference in 1815.在同一时期菲利普奥特伯恩,对阿斯伯里的朋友,一起在德国马丁贝姆说移民成立,其组织大会于1815年在基督教的弟兄。 In 1946 these two German immigrant churches merged to form the Evangelical United Brethren (EUB) Church.在1946年,这两个德国移民教会合并,成立了基督教协基(邑)教会。With its ethnic distinctiveness on the wane, and clearly Methodist in polity and theology, the EUB merged in 1968 with The Methodist Church to form The United Methodist Church.凭借其民族的独特性在减弱,并明确在政体和神学卫中,安邑合并卫理公会,形成联合卫理公会于1968年。

Active in social concerns, Methodism has followed in the footsteps of the Wesleys and Richard Watson.积极参与社会的关注,循道一直遵循在韦斯利斯和理查德沃森的脚步。The theological mandate espoused in the 1908 Social Creed continues as a challenge to Methodists and other Christian fellowships in the struggle for social justice.神学的任务在1908年的社会信条信奉继续作为卫和社会正义的斗争其他基督教奖学金的挑战。In ecumenical circles G Bromley Oxnam (1891 - 1963) and Frank Mason North (1850 - 1935) were instrumental in developing the Federal and National Council of Churches.在基督教界Ğ布罗姆利Oxn​​am(1891年至1963年)和弗兰克梅森北(1850年至1935年)是在发展教会联邦国民议会作用。 E Stanley Jones (1894 - 1973), evangelist extraordinary, was also instrumental in the worldwide ecumenical and evangelistic efforts of Methodism. é斯坦利琼斯(1894年至1973年),传道非凡,也是在世界范围内的基督教卫理公会的努力和布道工具。Former EUB bishop Reuben H Mueller (1897 - 1982) and Glenn R Phillips (1894 - 1970) were principals in the formative days of the Consultation on Church Union.前邑主教鲁本ħ穆勒(1897 - 1982)和格伦ř菲利普斯(1894 - 1970)在关于教会联盟协商的形成天的校长。John R Mott (1865 - 1955) figured prominently in the formation of the World Council of Churches, and Methodist Philip Potter is current general executive secretary of the council.约恩R莫特(1865 - 1955)占有突出地位,在世界教会理事会的组成,和卫菲利普波特是目前的理事会秘书长执行秘书。Within Methodism, the World Methodist Council meets at five year intervals and is composed of some fifty delegates representing some fifty million Methodists.在卫理公会,世界循道会五年时间开会,是代表了某种五千点零零零万卫五十一些代表组成。

Long distinguished by an emphasis on practical faith, Methodism and its various offshoots have sought to avoid a strict confessionalism.长期以来,重视对实际的信仰区分,methodism和它的各种分支已设法避免了严格的自白。The addition of a new section to the 1972 Discipline, "Our Theological Task," which formalizes a posture of doctrinal pluralism that appeals to Wesley's sermon "Catholic Spirit", was an acknowledgment of the wide diversity of views within modern Methodism over the proper balance of Wesleyan orthodoxy and a theology of experience.一个新的节除了1972年的纪律,“我们的神学的任务”,这形式化的理论多元化态势,为韦斯利的说教“天主教精神”,呼吁结束的适当平衡的的意见在现代循道广泛的多样性确认卫斯理正统神学的经验。

Concurrent with this development North American Methodism is undergoing the emergence of a neo Wesleyan theology associated with J Robert Nelson, Albert Outler, Robert Cushman, and Carl Michalson.与此并行的发展北美循道正处于一个新卫斯理与J罗伯特纳尔逊,阿尔贝Outler,罗伯特库什曼,和卡尔Michalson相关神学的出现。 African Methodist Episcopal minister James Cone combines the insights of black theology with his Methodist heritage.非洲卫理部长詹姆斯锥结合了他的循道卫理遗产黑人神学的见解。John B Cobb, Jr, and Schubert M Ogden explore their Wesleyan theology from the perspective of process modes of thought.约恩B科布,小,和舒伯特M奥格登探索其从思维方式看卫斯理神学的过程。Finally, the Methodist Federation for Social Action urges Methodism to retain its social conscience, and the Good News movement, an evangelically based Methodist renewalist group, seeks to call Methodism to its traditional Wesleyan theological heritage.最后,社会行动循道卫理联合会敦促保留其社会良知,运动的好消息,一个福音书的卫renewalist集团,旨在呼吁循道其传统卫斯理神学遗产。

PA Mickey PA的米奇

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
FA Norwood, ed., Sourcebook of American Methodism; ES Bucke, ed., The History of American Methodism; H Bett, The Spirit of Methodism; H Carter, The Methodist Heritage; WJ Townsend, HB Workman, G Eayrs, eds., A New History of Methodism; CH Crookshank, History of the Methodist Church in Ireland; G Smith, History of Wesleyan Methodism; WF Swift, Methodism in Scotland; WW Sweet, Methodism in American History; M Simpson, ed., Cyclopedia of Methodism; M Edwards, Methodism and England; GG Findlay and W W Holdsworth, The History of the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Church; FF MacLeister, History of the Wesleyan Methodist Church of America; R Chiles, Theological Transition in American Methodism; TA Langford, Practical Divinity.足总杯诺伍德,教育署,美国methodism原始资料。。胚胎干Bucke,海关,美国methodism历史; ħ贝特,在循道精神; ħ卡特,循道卫理遗产;温家宝汤森,乙肝工人地下埃尔斯合编。一个新的历史的methodism;甲烷克鲁克香克,在爱尔兰循道教会历史; Ğ史密斯,卫斯理循道历史; WF的斯威夫特,在苏格兰循道;第一次世界大战甜,在美国历史循道〔M辛普森,教育署,循道cyclopedia的。 M爱德华兹,methodism和英格兰千吨芬德利和WW霍尔兹沃思,该卫斯理循道卫理教会的传教历史;法郎MacLeister,在美国卫斯理循道卫理教会的历史与r智利,在美国methodism神学转型;助教兰福德,实用神。


Methodism循道

Catholic Information天主教新闻

A religious movement which was originated in 1739 by John Wesley in the Anglican Church, and subsequently gave rise to numerous separate denominations.这是一个宗教运动起源于1739年由约翰卫斯理在英国圣公会教堂,随后引起了许多独立的教派。

I. DOCTRINAL POSITION AND PECULIARITIES一,理论立场与个性

The fact that John Wesley and Methodism considered religion primarily as practical, not dogmatic, probably accounts for the absence of any formal Methodist creed.事实上,约翰卫斯理和methodism考虑任何正式的循道宗教信条主要是由于缺乏实践,而不是教条式的,大概占。The "General Rules", issued by John and Charles Wesley on 1 May, 1743, stated the conditions of admission into the societies organized by them and known as the "United Societies". “一般规则”,由约翰和查尔斯1743年5月1日发出的韦斯利表示:他们将组织并作为“联合国社团”之称的社会入学的条件。They bear an almost exclusively practical character, and require no doctrinal test of the candidates.他们承担了几乎全部实践品格,而且无需对候选人的理论测试。Methodism, however, developed its own theological system as expressed in two principal standards of orthodoxy.循道,然而,形成了自己的神学体系中两个主要标准的正统表达。

The first is the "Twenty-five Articles" of religion.首先是“25条”的宗教。They are an abridgment and adaptation of the Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England, and form the only doctrinal standard strictly binding on American Methodists.它们是删节及英国教会三十九条改编,形成唯一的标准严格教义对美国卫约束力。Twenty-four of these articles were prepared by John Wesley for the Church in America and adopted at the Conference of Baltimore in 1784.其中二十四宗编写文章约翰韦斯利的教会在美国的巴尔的摩,并在1784年会议通过。The article which recognizes the political independence of the United States (Article XXIII) was added in 1804.文章其中承认美国(第二十三条)的政治独立是在1804年加入。The second standard is the first fifty-three of Wesley's published sermons and his "Notes on the New Testament".第二个标准是第五十韦斯利公布的说教和他的“新约圣经注释”三。These writings were imposed by him on the British Methodists in his "Deed of Declaration" and accepted by the "Legal Hundred".这些著作被强加给他在英国卫在他的“契约宣言”和“法律百”接受。The American Church, while not strictly bound to them, highly esteemed and extensively uses them.美国的教堂,而没有严格的约束他们,高度评价和广泛用途。

More fundamental for all Methodists than these standards are the inspired Scriptures, which are declared by them to be the sole and sufficient rule of belief and practice.所有卫更比这些基本标准是灵感的经文,这是他们被宣布为唯一的信仰和实践的充分的规则。The dogmas of the Trinity and the Divinity of Jesus Christ are upheld.三位一体和基督神性的教条,是坚持。The universality of original sin and the consequent partial deterioration of human nature find their efficacious remedy in the universal distribution of grace.作者:原罪和由此产生的对人性的局部恶化的普遍性中找到自己的宽限期,通用通讯有效的补救办法。Man's free co-operation with this Divine gift is necessary for eternal salvation, which is offered to all, but may be freely rejected.人的自由联合这一神圣的礼物操作是永恒的救恩,这是提供给所有必要的,但可以自由地拒绝。 There is no room in Methodism for the rigorous doctrine of predestination as understood by Calvinism.有没有在methodism对于所理解的宿命严格的加尔文主义的余地。While the doctrine of justification by faith alone is taught, the performance of good works enjoined by God is commended, but the doctrine of works of supererogation is condemned.虽然因信称义教义仅是教,神所受命好作品的表演是赞扬,但作品的额外的努力学说是谴责。Only two sacraments are admitted: Baptism and the Lord's Supper.只有两个圣礼都承认:洗礼和主的晚餐。Baptism does not produce sanctifying grace in the soul, but strengthens its faith, and is the sign of a regeneration which has already taken place in the recipient.洗礼不会产生在灵魂圣洁的宽限期,但加强其信心,这是一个已经在收件人处采取再生的迹象。Its administration to infants is commanded because they are already members of the Kingdom of God.其管理的婴儿是指挥,因为他们已经是神的国度的成员。The Eucharist is a memorial of the Passion and Death of Jesus Christ, who is not really present under the species of bread and wine, but is received in a spiritual manner by believers.圣体是一种激情和死亡的耶稣基督,谁是不是真的下的面包和酒的种类目前的纪念馆,但在一个信徒精神的方式获得。 The sacrament is administered under both kinds to the laity.圣餐是管理下的两种俗人。The "witness of the Spirit" to the soul of the individual believer and the consequent assurance of salvation are distinctive doctrines of Methodism.在“证人的精神”,以个人的信徒的灵魂,是随之而来的保证是得救循道独特的教义。This assurance is a certainty of present pardon, not of final perseverance.这是目前保证赦免不是最后的毅力,确定性。 It is experienced independently of the sacraments through the immediate testimony of the Holy Spirit, and does not preclude the possibility of future transgressions.这是经验丰富的独立通过直接见证圣灵的圣礼,不排除将来犯的可能性。Transgressions of an involuntary character are also compatible with another characteristic doctrine of Methodism, that of perfection or complete sanctification.非自愿性质犯罪的事实也与另一特点的methodism学说兼容,完美的或完全成圣。The Christian, it is maintained, may in this life reach a state of holiness which excludes all voluntary offence against God, but still admits of growth in grace.基督教,它是维持,可能这辈子达到圣洁的状态,排除一切对神的自愿行为,但仍然在恩典中成长承认。It is therefore a state of perfectibility rather than of stationary perfection.因此,它是国家的完善性,而不是静止的完善。The invocation of saints and the veneration of relics and images are rejected.作者援引圣人和敬仰的遗物和图片将被拒绝。 While the existence of purgatory is denied in the Twenty-five Articles (Article XIV), an intermediate state of purification, for persons who never heard of Christ, is admitted today by some Methodists.虽然炼狱的存在是在二十五篇文章(第十四条),一个中间状态的净化谁的人士从未听说过基督,拒绝承认今天是一些卫。 In its work of conversion Methodism is aggressive and largely appeals to religious sentiment; camp-meetings and revivals are important forms of evangelization, at least in America.卫理公会在其转换工作是积极的,基本上呼吁宗教情操;营地会议和复兴的重要形式,是福传事业,至少在美国。Among the practices which Wesley imposed upon his followers were the strict observance of the Lord's Day, the use of few words in buying and selling, and abstinence from all intoxicating drinks, from all purely worldly amusements and from costly apparel.在韦斯利的做法强加给他的追随者被从所有纯粹世俗的娱乐,从昂贵的服装主日​​,在购买和销售使用的几句话,以及从所有醉人的饮料禁欲,严格遵守。 The church service which he prepared for them was an abridgment and modification of the Book of Common Prayer, but it never came into universal use, sentiment among Methodists being rather unfavourable to any set form of liturgy.他的教会服务,为他们准备了一删节和修改书的共同祈祷,但它从来没有成为普遍使用,情绪来了,被相当不利的任何形式的礼仪集卫。 In America the ministry is divided into two orders; the deacons and the elders or presbyters; in Great Britain and her colonies only one order exists, the elders.在美国,该部又分为两个命令;执事和长老或长老,在英国和殖民地只存在一个订单,长老。The name of bishop used in the episcopal bodies is a title of office, not of order; it expresses superiority to elders not in ordination, but in the exercise of administrative functions.在主教的主教机构所使用的名称是办名称,而不是为了它的优越性就体现不配合的长者,但在行使行政职能。No Methodist denomination recognizes a difference of degree between episcopal and presbyterial ordination.不承认一个卫理公会教派的主教和长老度之间协调的差异。A characteristic institution of Methodism are the love-feasts which recall the agape of Christian antiquity.循道机构的特征是爱情宴记得爱德基督教古物。In these gatherings of believers bread and water are handed round in token of brotherly union, and the time is devoted to singing and the relating of religious experiences.在信徒聚会面包和水这些都交给工会的兄弟令牌轮,时间是专门唱歌和宗教有关的经验。

II.二。ORGANIZATION组织

Admission to full membership in the Methodist bodies was until recently usually granted only after the successful termination of a six months' probationary period.接纳为正式成员的循道卫理机构,通常是直到最近才中在6个月的试用期圆满结束理所当然的。The Methodist Episcopal Church, South, has completely done away with this system.卫理公会,南,已经完全摆脱了这个制度。 Both probationers and full members are divided into small bands known as "classes".感化和正式成员都被划分为“阶级”之称的小乐队。These hold weekly meetings under the direction of the "class-leader".这下举行了“阶级领袖”的方向每周例会。They secure for each member individual spiritual care and facilitate the collection of church funds.他们争取各成员的精神关怀和促进教会筹集资金。The financial contributions taken up by the class-leader are remitted to the "stewards" of the society, which is the next administrative unit.由甲级领导人注册的财政捐助是汇给“管家”的社会,这是下一个行政单位。The "society" corresponds to the parish or local church in other denominations.“社会”对应于其他教派教区或当地的教堂。The appropriateness of the term will readily appear, if it be remembered that Methodism was originally a revival movement, and not a distinct denomination.该术语是否恰当将随时出现,如果它被记住,循道本来是一个复兴运动,而不是一个独特的面额。Several societies (or at times only one) form a "circuit".(或有时只有一个),形成“电路”几个社团。Among the officially recognized officers of this twofold division are: (1) the "exhorters", who are commissioned to hold meetings for exhortation and prayer; (2) the "local preachers", laymen who, without renouncing their secular avocation, are licensed to preach; (3) the "itinerant preachers", who devote themselves exclusively to the ministry.在这种双重分工正式承认的人员是:(1)“exhorters”,谁是委托持有规劝和祈祷会(2)“地方布道者”,谁,没有放弃他们的世俗业余爱好,被授权外行宣讲;(3)“巡回宣讲”,谁专门致力​​于部。 At the head of the circuit is the superintendent.在电路的头部是监督。In some American Methodist branches the "circuit", in the sense described, does not exist.在美国的一些循道卫理枝“电路”,在某种意义上说明,不存在。But they maintain the division into "districts", and the authority over each of these is vested in a "presiding elder", or "district superintendent".但他们保持到“区”的划分,以及超过上述各权威,是在一个“老主持”或“区长”既得利益。In the Methodist Episcopal Church his appointment is limited to a period not exceeding six years, and is in the hands of the bishop.在卫理公会对他的任命是有限的期限不得超过六年,并在主教的手中。The latter is the only church official who is named for life.后者是唯一的官方教会谁是生命的名字命名。The permanent character of his position is the more remarkable from the fact that "itinerancy" has from the very beginning been a distinctive feature of Methodism.他的职位是从长期性的事实,即“巡回”已经从一开始就更为显着的卫理公会是一个显着特点。This peculiarity denotes the missionary character of the Wesleyan movement, and calls for the frequent transfer of the ministers from one charge to another by the bishop or the stationing committee.这种特殊性是指的卫斯理运动传教士性格,并为转移的部长们经常从一个收费由主教或派驻委员会,另一个电话。In the English Wesleyan Church ministers cannot be continued for more than three years in the same charge.在英语卫斯理教会牧师不能继续超过三十年,在相同的电荷。In the Methodist Episcopal Church the pastoral term, originally for one year in the same place, was successively extended to two years (1804), three years (1864), and five years (1888).在卫理公会牧区来说,最初是为一个在同一个地方一年,先后被延长至两年(1804年),三年(1864年),和五年(1888)。 In 1900 all limit was removed.在1900年,所有这些都限制被取消。

The administrative authority is mainly exercised by a system of assemblies, called meetings or conferences.行政机关行使,主要是由一个集会,召开会议或会议系统。Among English Methodists they are: (1) "the quarterly meeting of the circuit", composed of all the ministers, local preachers, class-leaders, steward, Sunday-school superintendents of the circuit; (2) "the district meeting", consisting of all the ministers of the subordinate circuits, some lay delegates, and, for financial matters, the stewards and such officials; (3) the "Annual Conference", which in 1874 legally succeeded John Wesley in the direction of the Methodist movement and was originally composed of one hundred itinerant preachers (the Legal Hundred") At present it includes lay delegates and meets in two sections: (a) the "pastoral session", which settles pastoral and disciplinary questions, and from which laymen are excluded; (b) the "representative session" in which clergy and laity discuss financial affairs and external administrative questions. In the American Methodist Episcopal bodies the administrative system is organized as follows: (1) the "Quarterly Conference" similar in composition to the circuit-meeting. It controls the affairs of every individual church, and holds its deliberations under the direction of the "district superintendent" or his representative; (2) the "Annual Conference", at which several "districts" are represented by their itinerant preachers under the presidency of the bishop. It elects preachers, pronounces upon candidates for ordination, and enjoys disciplinary power; (3) the "Quadrennial General Conference", endowed with the highest legislative and judicial authority and the right of episcopal elections. In recent years the holding of Ecumenical Methodist conferences has been inaugurated. They are representative assemblies of the various Methodist denominations, but have no legislative authority. The first conference of this type convened in London in 1881, the second met in Washington in 1891, and the third again in London in 1901. Toronto, Canada, was to be the meeting place of the fourth conference in 1911.在英国卫理公会,他们是:(1)“电路的季度会议”,在所有的部长,当地传教士,类领导人,管家,主日学校管理者的电路组成;(2)“的区会议”,所有的下属电路部长组成,有的人干脆代表和财务事项,董事局等官员;(3)“年会”,这在法律上成功地在1874年的约翰卫斯理循道卫理运动的方向和最初由百巡回宣讲员(法律百“)目前它包括铺设两部分代表和满足:(一)”田园会议“,这定居牧民和纪律问题,并从其中外行都排除在外;( 。二)“会议代表”,即神职人员和信徒讨论金融事务及对外行政问题在美国监理机构的行政系统的组织结构如下:(1)“季度大会”的组成类似电路会议。它控制每一个人的教会的事务,并持有下的“区长”或他的代表方向的审议;(2)“年会”,在这几个“区”是由他们的代表在巡回宣讲。总统的主教传道它选举产生,候选人应为协调发音,并享有纪律处分的权力;(3)“四年大会”,赋予近年来,随着最高立法和司法的权威和主教选举的权利持有。基督教卫理公会的会议已经开幕。它们是不同的循道卫理教派代表大会,但没有法律依据。在伦敦召开的1881年的第一次此类会议,第二次在华盛顿会晤于1891年,再次在伦敦第三在1901年。多伦多,加拿大,是为了是在1911年第四次会议会场。

III.三。HISTORY历史

(1) In the British Isles(1)在英伦三岛

The names of three ordained clergymen of the Anglican Church stand out prominently in the early history of the Methodist movement: John Wesley, its author and organizer, Charles Wesley, his brother, the hymn-writer, and George Whitefield, the eloquent preacher and revivalist.三受戒的圣公会牧师的名字中脱颖而出的循道卫理运动的早期历史,突出地表现在:约翰卫斯理,其作者和组织者,查尔斯韦斯利,他的弟弟,圣歌,作家,和乔治Whitefield的,雄辩的布道者和复兴。 John and Charles Wesley were born at Epworth, Lincolnshire, the former on 17 June, 1703, and the latter on 18 December, 1707 (OS).约翰和查尔斯韦斯利分别出生于爱华,林肯郡,对1703年6月17日前,并在1707年12月18日(OS)的后者。In 1714 John entered the Charterhouse School in London, and in 1720 went to Oxford to continue his studies. 1714年约翰进入伦敦查特豪斯学院,在1720年赴牛津大学继续深造。He was ordained to the diaconate in 1725, and chosen fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford, in the following year.他被祝圣为diaconate在1725年,并选择在次年的林肯学院,牛津大学,研究员。His ordination on 22 September, 1728, was both preceded and followed by a period of ministerial activity in his father's parish at Epworth.他在1728年9月22日的协调,既之前和之后的部长级活动在他父亲的时期,然后在爱华教区。On his return to Oxford (22 November 1729) he joined the little band of students organized by his brother Charles for the purpose of studying the Scriptures, and practising their religious duties with greater fidelity.在他返回牛津大学(1729年11月22日),他加入了由他的弟弟查尔斯举办的学习经文,以更大的保真度和实践他们的宗教职责而学生小乐队。 John became the leader of this group called in derision by fellow-students "the holy club", "the Methodists".约翰成为了由同胞学生“圣地俱乐部”,“在卫”嘲笑所谓的领导这个小组。It is to this that Methodism owes its name, but not its existence.它是这样,循道欠它的名字,但不是它的存在。When in 1735 the association disbanded, John and Charles Wesley proceeded to London where they received a call to repair as missionaries to the Colony of Georgia.当该协会在1735年解散,约翰和查尔斯韦斯利接着前往伦敦,他们接到电话维修作为对格鲁吉亚殖民地传教士。They sailed from Gravesend on 21 October, 1735, and on 5 February, 1736, landed at Savannah.他们乘船由Gravesend于1735年10月21日,并于1736年2月5日,在萨凡纳降落。The deep religious impression made upon John by some Moravian fellow-voyagers and a meeting with their bishop (Spangenberg) in Georgia were not without influence on Methodism.印象深的宗教在约翰做了一些摩拉维亚老乡旅行者和他们的主教会议(斯潘根伯格)在格鲁吉亚对循道不无影响。Returning to England in 1738, whither his brother had preceded him, he openly declared that he who had tried to covert others was himself not yet converted.在1738年回到英国,他的哥哥曾向何处去他之前,他公开宣称,他曾试图秘密谁别人是自己尚未转换。In London he met another Moravian, Peter Boehler, attended the meetings of the Moravian Fetter Lance Society, and was converted (ie, obtained and experienced saving faith) on 24 May, 1738.在伦敦,他遇到了另一位摩拉维亚,彼得伯勒尔,出席摩拉维亚桎梏兰斯会的会议,并转换(即获得和经验丰富的储蓄信仰)5月24日1738。 He then proceeded to Herrnhut in Saxony to make a study of the chief settlement of the Moravians.接着,他在萨克森州Herrnhut作出的行政和解的摩拉维亚研究。

In 1739 Wesley organized the first Methodist Society, laid the foundation of the first separate place of worship at Bristol, and also opened a chapel (The Foundry) in London.于1739年举办第一届卫韦斯利社会,奠定了在布里斯托尔的第一个礼拜单独的地方基础,也是在伦敦开了一个小礼拜堂(Foundry公司)。 As the pulpits of the Established Church were closed against the Wesleys and Whitefield, the latter took the decisive step of preaching in the open air in the colliery district of Kingswood near Bristol.作为成立教会的讲坛人反对韦斯利斯和Whitefield封闭,后者采取了在中的煤矿区嘉湖布里斯托尔附近的露天说教决定性的一步。 His success was enormous, and the Wesleys almost immediately followed his example.他的成功是巨大的,韦斯利斯几乎紧接着他的榜样。At the very inception of the Methodist movement an important doctrinal difference arose between Whitefield and John Wesley regarding predestination.在循道卫理运动一开始的一个重要理论之间出现差异怀特菲尔德和约翰卫斯理关于宿命。The former held Calvinistic views, believing in limited election and salvation, while the latter emphasized the doctrine of universal redemption.前举行加尔文的意见,认为在有限的选举和救赎,而后者则强调了普遍救赎的教义。The difference in opinion placed a permanent characteristic doctrinal difference between Arminian Methodism and the Calvinistic Lady Huntingdon Connection.在阿民念主义之间的分歧放在methodism和加尔文夫人亨廷顿连接一个永久的特征理论的差异。Whitefield gave his support to the latter movement which owed it name to the protection and liberal financial assistance of the Countess of Huntingdon (1707-91).怀特菲尔德给了他支持,后者的运动,其中欠它的名字,对于保护和自由的亨廷顿伯爵夫人(1707至1791年)的财政援助。 Although Wesley always intended to remain within the Church of England, circumstances gradually led him to give his evangelistic movement a separate organization.虽然韦斯利总是打算留在英国教会,逐渐使他的情况下给他的布道运动的一个独立的组织。The exclusion of his followers from the sacraments by the Anglican clergy in 1740 overcame his hesitation to administer them in his own meeting-rooms.他的追随者在1740年由英国圣公会神职人员圣礼克服排斥他毫不犹豫地管理自己的会议上,他们的房间。 The increase in the number of Societies led the following year to the institution of the lay preachers, who became an important factor in the success of the Methodist propaganda.在社团数量的增加导致次年的奠定传教士,谁成为一个在循道卫理机构,宣传成功的重要因素。The year 1742 saw the creation of the "class" system, and two years later the first annual conference was held.这一年1742年看到了“阶级”制度的建立,并在两年后第一次年度会议召开。Desirous of ensuring the perpetuation of his work, he legally constituted it his successor in 1784.确保他的工作长期存在渴望,他在法律上构成它在1784年他的继任者。By a deed of declaration filed in the High Court of Chancery, he vested the right of appointing ministers and preachers in the conference composed of one hundred itinerant preachers.通过一份声明,在高等法院大法官提出事实上,他所赋予的任命在百巡回宣讲员组成的会议的部长和传教士的权利。 This "Legal Hundred" enjoyed, in respect to the conference, the power of filling vacancies and of expelling unworthy members.这种“法律百”喜欢,在尊重大会,填补空缺和驱逐不配成员的权力。On the refusal of the Bishop of London to ordain two ministers and a superintendent for America, Wesley, convinced that bishop and presbyter enjoyed equal rights in the matter, performed the ordination himself (1784).论伦敦主教拒绝向阿拉维两名部长和一对美国,韦斯利,警司认为主教和牧师在这一问题上享有平等的权利,执行的协调自己(1784年)。

Important problems calling for solution arose immediately after Wesley's death.需要解决的重要问题出现后,立即打电话韦斯利的死亡。In the first place the want of his personal direction had to be supplied.首先他个人的方向,必须要提供的。This was effected in 1791 by the division of the country into districts and the institution of the district committees with full disciplinary and administrative power under the jurisdiction of the conference.在1791年生效,这是由设区的划分国家和地区委员会的充分纪律和行政权力机构根据会议的管辖权。As the administration of the sacraments by Methodist clergymen had not yet become the universal rule, the churches that did not enjoy this privilege insisted upon its concession.作为由政府当局的圣礼牧师卫尚未成为普遍规则,教会是没有享受这种特权坚持其让步。The question was permanently settled by the "Plan of Pacification" in 1795.问题是永久定居的“和平计划”于1795年。It granted the right of administering the sacraments to all churches in which the majority of the trustees, stewards, and leaders pronounced in favour of such practice.它授予管理所有的圣礼,其中的受托人,托管人的大多数,和领导人的这种做法有利于显着教会的权利。The insistent demand of Alexander Kilham (1762-98) and his followers for more extensive rights for the laity received a temporary and partly favourable answer at the important conference of Leeds in 1797.作者:亚历山大基勒姆(1762至1798年)和他的追随者为俗人坚持要求更广泛的权利获得英国利兹在1797年的重要会议和部分临时满意的回答。 Lay representation in the conference was, however, emphatically refused and Kilham seceded.卧在会上表示了,但是,强调拒绝,并基勒姆脱离联邦。Since 1878 they have been admitted as delegates.1878年以来,他们已被接纳为代表。

The spread of liberal opinions was also at the bottom of several controversies, which were intensified by the dissatisfaction of some members with the preponderating influence of Dr. Jabez Bunting (1779-1858) in the denomination.意见的自由​​传播也参加了几个争议,这是由一些成员与雅比斯鹀博士(1779年至1858年)在面额的影响占优势的不满加剧的底部。 The introduction of an organ in Brunswick Chapel at Leeds (1828) and the foundation of a theological school for the formation of young preachers (1834) were merely occasions which brought to a head the growing discontent with Bunting and the central authority.在不伦瑞克礼拜堂介绍一种器官在利兹(1828)和一对年轻传教士的形成(1834)神学院的基础仅仅是其中的场合带来了头部与鹀日益不满和中央的权威。 The controversies which resulted in these two cases were of but minor importance, when compared with the agitation of the years 1849-56.其中的争论,导致在这两个案件都是未成年人的重要性,但是,相对于1849年至1856年的年激动。This period of strife witnessed the circulation of the so-called "Fly-Sheets", directed against Bunting's personal rule, the expulsion of the persons responsible for their publication, and the loss of at least 100,000 members to the Wesleyan Methodist Connection.这个充满争斗期间亲眼目睹了所谓的“飞单”反对鹀的个人统治,他们的出版物的人士,负责驱逐,以及至少10万成员的卫斯理循道连接丢失指示,流通。 Some of these affiliated with minor branches, but the majority was lost to Methodism.与其中的一些轻微的下属分支机构,但多数是输给循道。These controversies were followed by a period of more peaceful evolution extending to our own day.这些争议,随后进行了一个更加和平演变延伸到我们自己的一天时间。The increase in the number of theological seminaries among British Methodists has emphasized the distinction between clergy and laity and points to more complete internal organization.中英之间卫神学院数量的增加,强调了神职人员及平信徒和更完整的内部组织点的差异。A fact which reveals a similar tendency is the institution of deaconesses.这一事实揭示了类似的趋势是执事机构。They were introduced in the Wesleyan Methodist Church in 1890.他们介绍了卫斯理卫理公会于1890年。

(2) Methodism in the United States(2)methodism在美国

The history of Methodism in the United States does not date back to the visit of John and Charles Wesley to Georgia, but begins only in 1766.在美国卫理公会历史上并没有追溯到约翰和查尔斯韦斯利访问格鲁吉亚,但在1766年开始只。In that year Philip Embury, a local preacher, at the request of Mrs. Barbara Heck, delivered his first sermon in his own house at New York.在这一年弘恩伯里,在当地牧师夫人芭芭拉heck的请求,发表在他自己的房子在纽约他的第一次讲道。They had both come to America in 1760 from Ireland, whither their Palatine ancestors had fled from the devastating wars of Louis XIV.他们俩都来到了美国在1760年从爱尔兰,着他们的祖先是从巴拉丁路易十四的毁灭性战争逃走。 Only four persons were present at the first sermon, but the number soon increased, especially after the arrival of Captain Thomas Webb, another local preacher.只有四人出席了第一次讲道,但数量增加很快,特别是在上尉的托马斯韦伯,当地的其他传教士的到来。The latter displayed a stirring zeal, and in 1768 the first Methodist chapel in America was dedicated.后者表现出的热情搅拌,并在1768年首次在美国卫理教堂是献给。Almost simultaneous with this introduction of Methodism into New York was its planting in Maryland.循道几乎与此同步进入纽约引进种植是其在马里兰州。Webb introduced it in Philadelphia, and it spread to New Jersey and Virginia.韦伯在费城介绍,现在,它蔓延到新泽西州和弗吉尼亚州。 In 1769 Wesley, in response to repeated appeals for helpers, sent over two preachers, Joseph Pilmoor and Richard Boardman; others followed, among them Francis Asbury (1771) and Thomas Rankin (1772).韦斯利在1769年,因反复呼吁佣工,在两个传教士,约瑟夫Pilmoor和理查德博德曼发送;别人跟着,其中弗朗西斯阿斯伯里(1771年)和托马斯兰金(1772)。 The first conference convened at Philadelphia in 1773, recognized the authority of John Wesley, and prohibited the administration of the sacraments by Methodist preachers.第一次会议在费城召开的1773年,约翰卫斯理公认的权威,并禁止由循道卫理牧师圣礼管理。The total membership reported was 1160.报告成员总数为1160。An increase was recorded in the two succeeding conferences, also held at Philadelphia, in 1774 and 1775 respectively.录得升幅的两个成功的费城也举行了分别在1774年和1775年,会议。But the Revolution impeded the progress of Methodism.但革命阻碍了循道进展。Owing to the nationality of most of its preachers and to the publication of Wesley's pamphlet against the independence of the colonies, it was looked upon as an English product and treated accordingly.由于大多数传教士的国籍和其对韦斯利的反对殖民地的独立小册子出版,这是看作为一个英语产品和相应处理。 When peace was restored, the need of a separate church organization made itself felt.恢复和平后,一个独立的教会组织需要使自己的感觉。Wesley now heeded Asbury's appeal for an independent ecclesiastical government and the administration of the sacraments by Methodist ministers.韦斯利现在听从一个独立的教会,政府和由循道卫理部长圣礼阿斯伯里的上诉。In 1784 he ordained the preachers Whatcoat and Vasey as elders, and Dr. Thomas Coke as superintendent for America.1784年,他任命为院长为美国的传教士Whatcoat为长者和瓦西博士和托马斯焦炭。

Coke arrived in New York on 3 November, 1784, and that same year what has become known as the Christmas conference was convened at Baltimore.可口可乐抵达新11月3日,1784,纽约和同年这已成为被称为圣诞节会议在巴尔的摩召开。From it dates the organization of the Methodist Episcopal Church.从它的日期是卫理公会的组织。Wesley's plans and instructions were laid before this assembly, and his articles of faith and his liturgy adopted.韦斯利的计划和指示,在大会规定,他的文章和他的信仰和礼仪采用。As Asbury refused to be ordained without previous election he was unanimously chosen superintendent, a title for which, against Wesley's will, that of bishop was substituted in 1788.至于阿斯伯里拒绝没有以前的选举中,他被一致选择了警,其中一个标题为受戒,对韦斯利的意志,主教是在1788年取代。 The rapid increase of the denomination about this time is indicated by the membership of 66,000 reported to the conference of 1792.该面额大约在这个时候迅速增加,由6.6万成员表示,上报1792年会议。The growth of the Church continued with the increase in population; but questions of expediency, race, and government caused secessions.教会的增长继续与人口的增加,但权宜之计,种族,和政府的问题引起secessions。The slavery agitation especially resulted in momentous consequences for the denomination.奴隶制激动,尤其是造成重大后果的面额。It began at a very early date, but reached a crisis only towards the middle of the nineteenth century.它开始在非常早的日期,但只达到对十九世纪中叶的危机。At the general conference held in New York in 1844, Bishop JO Andrew was suspended from the exercise of his office owing to his ownership of slaves.在纽约举行的1844年大会,主教联办安德鲁悬挂在他的办公室,由于他的奴隶的所有权行使。This decision met with the uncompromising opposition of the Southern delegates, but was just as staunchly upheld by its supporters.这一决定遭到了不妥协的南方代表反对,但只是作为坚守其支持者坚持。The withdrawal of the slave-holding states from the general body now appeared unavoidable, and a "Plan of Separation" was elaborated and accepted.该蓄奴州从一般的身体,现在看来不可避免撤出,以及“分离计划”进行了阐述和接受。The Southern delegates held a convention at Louisville, Kentucky, in 1845, at which the "Methodist Episcopal Church, South" was formed.南方代表举行了1845年在美国肯塔基州路易斯维尔,会展,在其中“卫理公会,南”的形成。The new organization, after a period of progress, suffered heavily during the Civil War.这个新组织,经过时间的进展,在遭受严重的内战。Since then the relations between the Northern and Southern branches of Episcopal Methodism have assumed a very friendly character.自那时以来,卫理公会主教之间的北部和南部分支机构关系都充当了非常友好的性格。There is a large measure of co-operation particularly in the foreign mission field.有一个合作的措施,特别是在大型外国使团场。A joint commission on federation is in existence and in May, 1910, it recommended the creation of a federal council (ie, a joint court of last resort) to the general conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.关于联邦共同委员会的存在和五月,1910年,它建议设立一个联邦委员会(即最后一个联合法庭)的卫理公会,南大会创作。

(3) Methodism in Other Countries(3)methodism在其他国家

(a) American(一)美国

The first apostle of Methodism in Newfoundland was Lawrence Coughlan, who began his work there in 1765.在纽芬兰循道第一使徒劳伦斯考夫兰,谁开始于1765年他在那里工作。It was only in 1785, however, that the country received a regular preacher.它只是在1785年,但是,该国得到定期的布道者。The evangelization of Nova Scotia, where the first Methodists settled in 1771, was begun later (1781), but was carried on more systematically.新斯科舍,其中第一卫理公会在1771年落户,福传是开始后(1781年),但更系统地进行。In the year 1786 a provincial conference was held in Halifax.在新的一年1786年,全省在哈利法克斯举行会议。In spite of their early relations with American Methodism, Newfoundland and the eastern provinces of Canada were after 1799 supplied with preachers from England, and came under English jurisdiction.在与美国methodism,纽芬兰和加拿大东部各省的早期关系后,尽管是从英国传教士提供的1799年,并在英国管辖。 In 1855 they were constituted a separate conference, the Wesleyan Methodist Conference of Eastern British America.1855年,他们构成了一个单独的会议,会议的卫斯理循道东英美国。The Provinces of Ontario and Quebec received Methodism at an early date from the United States.安大略省和魁北克省的省收到来自美国早日循道。Philip Embury and Barbara Heck moved to Montreal in 1774, and William Losee was in 1790 appointed preacher to these provinces by the New York Conference.菲利普恩伯里和芭芭拉的Heck搬到蒙特利尔,在1774年,并于1790年任命威廉洛西牧师由纽约的会议是这些省份。 The War of 1812-14 interrupted the work undertaken by the Methodist Episcopal Church in this section.对1812年至1814年战争打断了卫理公会在本节进行的工作。The settlement of numerous English Methodists in these provinces after the restoration of peace brought about difficulties respecting allegiance and jurisdiction between the English and American branches.众多英语循道在恢复和平后,这些省份的解决带来了尊重和效忠英国和美国之间的分行管辖的困难。 The result was that the Methodists Episcopal Church organized its congregations into a separate conference in 1824, and two years later granted them complete independence.其结果是,卫理公会组织成一个单独的会议于1824年的毕业典礼,两年后给予他们完全的独立性。Immigration also brought members of the minor Methodist bodies to Canada: The Wesleyan New Connection, the Bible Christians, and the Primitive Methodists.入境事务处也带来了未成年循道卫理机构成员,加拿大:卫斯理新的连接,圣经的基督徒,与原始卫。But in 1874 the Wesleyan Methodist Church and the Wesleyan New Connection combined.但在1874年卫斯理循道卫理教会和卫斯理新建连接相结合。The other separate bodies joined the union a little later (1883-4), thus forming the "Methodist Church of Canada", which includes all the white congregations of the Dominion.其他独立机构加入联盟有点迟(1883-4),从而形成了“循道卫理教会的加拿大”,其中包括所有的自治领白色的毕业典礼。 The "British Methodist Episcopal Church", which still maintains a separate existence, has only coloured membership.“英国卫理公会”,它仍保持独立的存在,只是颜色会籍。It was formerly a part of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, and gained complete independence in 1864.它的前身是非洲卫理公会的一部分,于1864年获得完全独立。Bermuda, where George Whitefield preached in 1748 and J. Stephenson appeared as first regular preacher in 1799, forms at present a district of the Methodist Church of Canada.百慕大,乔治Whitefield的鼓吹在1748年和J.斯蒂芬森作为第一次定期的布道者出现在1799年,目前是加拿大卫理堂区的形式。 South American was entered in 1835, when the Rev. FE Pitts visited Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Ayres, and other places, and organized several societies.南美是进入1835年,当牧师有限皮茨访问了里约热内卢,布宜诺斯艾利斯等地,并组织了几次社会。The special South American Conference was established in 1893, and supplemented in 1897 by the Western South American Mission Conference.南美特别会议成立于1893年,并于1897年由西方补充南美宣教大会。Missionary work was inaugurated in Mexico in 1873 by William Butler.传教工作成立于1873年由威廉巴特勒在墨西哥。

(b) European(b)欧洲

Methodism was introduced into France in 1790, but it has never succeeded in getting a strong foothold there.methodism是引进法国于1790年,但从未得到一个强有力的立足点在那里取得了成功。In 1852 France was constituted a separate conference affiliated to British Methodism. 1852年法国是构成一个单独的会议隶属于英国循道。In 1907 the American Church organized a mission there.1907年美国教会组织了一个代表团那里。From France Methodism spread to Italy in 1852.从1852年法国methodism蔓延到意大利。Some years later (1861) two missionaries, Green and Piggot, were sent from England to Florence and founded several stations in Northern Italy.几年后(1861年)两个传教士,绿,皮戈特,被送往从英国到佛罗伦萨创立于意大利北部几个站。The Methodist Episcopal Church started a missionary enterprise in Italy in 1871, but has never attained great success.卫理公会传教士开始在意大利的企业在1871年,但从来没有取得巨大的成功。The first Methodist missionary to Germany was G. Mueller.第一个德国传教士卫克米勒。He started his preaching in 1830 and gained some adherents mainly in Wurttemberg. 1830年他开始在他的说教,取得了一些信徒,主要在符腾堡州。Methodist missions are maintained also in Switzerland, Scandinavia, Russia, Bulgaria, Spain, and Portugal.循道卫理任务是维持并在瑞士,斯堪的纳维亚半岛,俄罗斯,保加利亚,西班牙和葡萄牙。

(c) Australasian, Asiatic and African(三)澳大利亚,亚洲和非洲

Methodism has had considerable success in Australasia.卫理公会已在澳大利亚相当的成功。It appeared at an early date, not only on the Australian continent but also in some of the South Sea Islands.它出现在早期的日期,不仅在澳洲大陆,而且在南海一些岛屿。The first class was formed in Sydney in 1812, and the first missionary in the country was S. Leigh.第一类是成立于1812年在悉尼,并在全国第一位传教士学利。Methodism spread to Tasmania in 1820, to Tonga in 1822, to New Zealand in 1823, and in 1835 Cargill and Cross began their evangelistic work in the Fiji Islands. methodism蔓延到塔斯马尼亚岛在1820年,汤加在1822年,新西兰在1823年,并于1835年开始嘉吉和跨他们在斐济群岛的布道工作。 In 1854 Australian Methodism was formed into an affiliated conference of England, and in 1876 became independent.在1854年澳大利亚methodism是形成了一个英国附属会议,并在1876年成为独立。The foundation of the first Methodist missions in Asia (1814) was due to the initiative of Thomas Coke.第一次在亚洲卫特派团(1814年)的基础,是由于托马斯焦炭的倡议。Embarking on 30 December, 1813, at the head of a band of six missionaries, he died on the voyage, but the undertaking succeeded.着手进行1813年12月30日在一个传教士带六头,他死在航行,但事业成功。The representatives of English Methodism were joined in 1856 by William Butler of the Methodist Episcopal Church.英语methodism的代表参加了于1856年由威廉巴特勒的卫理公会。In 1847 this same Church sent JD Collins, MC White, and RS Maclay to China.在1847年同样会发出联合声明柯林斯,管委会白色,和RS马克利到中国。Stations have also been founded in the Philippine Islands and in Japan, where the Methodist Church of Japan was organized in 1907.监测站也已成立于菲律宾群岛和日本,日本卫理公会于1907年举办。

George Warren left England for Sierra Leone in 1811.乔治华伦离开塞拉利昂1811年英格兰。The American Church entered the field in 1833.美国教会于1833年进入这一领域。South Africa, where Methodism is particularly well represented, was erected in 1882 into an affiliated conference of the English Wesleyan Church.南非,循道特别是很好的代表,于1882年被竖立成为一个英语卫斯理教会附属会议。

IV.四。OTHER METHODIST BODIES其他循道卫理机构

Secessions from the main bodies of Methodism followed almost immediately upon Wesley's death.从主体Secessions循道紧接着在韦斯利的死亡。The following originated in England:起源于英国如下:

The Methodist New Connection was founded at Leeds in 1797 by Alexander Kilham (1762-98); hence its members are also known as "Kilhamites".循道卫新建连接创建于利兹在1797年,亚历山大基勒姆(1762至1798年),因此其成员也被认为是“Kilhamites”之称。 It was the first organized secession from the main body of English Methodism, and started its separate existence with 5000 members.这是第一次从英国循道主体组织分裂国家,并且开始与5000成员的独立存在。Its foundation was occasioned by the conference's refusal to grant laymen the extensive rights in church government claimed for them by Kilham.其基础是因该会议的拒绝给予普通人在教会广泛的权利,政府为他们声称基勒姆。 The sect never acquired any considerable importance.该教派从来没有获得任何有相当的重要性。

The Primitive Methodists, who met with greater success than the New Connextion, were organized in 1810.原始卫理,谁更比新Connextion取得了成功,在1810年举办了。Camp-meetings had been introduced into England from America, but in 1807 the conference pronounced against them.行军会议是从美国引进到英国,但在1807年的会议对他们的发音。Two local preachers, Hugh Bourne and William Clowes, disregarding this decision, publicly advocated the holding of such meetings and were expelled.两名当地传教士,休伯恩和威廉克劳夫斯,无视这一决定,公开主张举行这样的会议,并驱逐出境。They then established this new body, characterized by the preponderating influence it grants laymen in church government, the admission of women to the pulpit, and great simplicity in ecclesiastical and private life.然后,他们建立了这一新的机构,它由占优势的影响力在教会,政府补助外行的特点,妇女进入讲坛,并在教会和私人生活十分简单。 According to the "Methodist Year-book" (1910) it has 219,343 members.据“卫年鉴”(1910年)有219343成员。The Irish Primitive Wesleyan Methodists must not be confounded with the "Primitive Methodists" just spoken of.爱尔兰原始卫斯理卫不能混淆与“原始卫”只是谈及。The former were founded in 1816 by Adam Averell, and in 1878 again united with the Wesleyan Methodists.前者是成立于1816年由亚当埃弗雷尔,并在1878年再次与卫斯理卫团结。

The Bible Christians, also called Bryanites from the name of their founder William O'Bryan, were organized as a separate sect in Cornwall in 1816.圣经的基督徒,也被称为从他们的创始人威廉奥布赖恩名Bryanites,被组织成一个单独的康沃尔的教派在1816年。 Like the Primitive Methodists, they grant extensive influence in church affairs to laymen and liberty of preaching to women.像原始卫理,给予他们在教会事务的广泛影响力的外行和对女性自由的说教。Although they spread from England to the colonies, their aggregate membership was never very large.虽然他们从英国蔓延到殖民地,其合计成员从来没有非常大的。The Wesleyan Reform Union grew out of the great Methodist disruption of 1850-2, and numbers but 8489 members.卫斯理改革联盟的前身是伟大的卫受阻1850-2,和电话号码,但8489的成员。

The United Methodist Free Churches represent the combination of the Wesleyan Association, the Protestant Methodists, and large quota of the secession from the main Methodist body caused by the unpopularity of Dr. Bunting's rule.联合卫理教会代表自由的卫斯理公会,基督教卫理公会,以及从主卫的博士鹀的统治所造成的身体分裂不得人心大配额的组合。 The Wesleyan Methodist Association was organized in 1836 by Dr. Samuel Warren, whose opposition to the foundation of a theological seminary resulted in his secession from the parent body.卫斯理循道卫理公会于1836年举办了塞缪尔沃伦博士,他反对以一神学院的基础,他从母体分离的结果。At an earlier date opposition to the installation of an organ in a church at Leeds ended in the formation of the "Protestant Methodists" (1828).早日在反对派中的“基督教卫理公会”的形成结束利兹到一个安装在一个教堂的器官(1828年)。These were the first to join the Wesleyan Methodist Association, the opponents of Bunting following in 1857.这是第一个加入该​​卫斯理循道卫理公会,班廷在1857年后的对手。The Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church is Methodist almost solely in name.威尔士加尔文循道卫理教会是几乎完全的名称。As an evangelistic movement it chronologically preceded Methodism dating back to the preaching of Howell Harris and Daniel Rowlands in 1735-6; as an organization it was partly established in 1811 by Thomas Charles, and completed in 1864 by the union of the Churches of North and South Wales and the holding of the first General Assembly.作为一个福音运动,它按时间顺序先循道追溯到霍维尔哈里斯和丹尼尔的罗兰兹在1735-6说教,它作为成立于1811年,部分原因是由托马斯查尔斯,并经北教会联盟在1864年完成,并组织南威尔士和第一届大会的举行。 Whitefield's influence on Welsh Methodism was not of primary importance.怀特菲尔德对威尔士循道影响并不是最重要的。 In doctrine the church is Calvinistic and in constitution largely Presbyterian.在加尔文教义教会是长老会在很大程度上宪法。 It is today frequently called the "Presbyterian Church of Wales".这是今天经常被称为“长老教会威尔士”。

In the United States, besides the Methodist Episcopal Church, the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and the Primitive Methodists, which have been spoken of above, the following denominations exist:在美国,除了卫理教会,卫理公会,南,与原始卫,已对上述发言后,以下面额的存在:

The Methodist Protestant Church was founded on 2 November, 1830, at Baltimore by members of the Methodist Episcopal Church who had been expelled or had freely withdrawn from that body.循道新教教会成立于巴尔的摩由卫理公会谁被驱逐或已自由地从该机构的成员退出11月2日1830年。 The separation was due to the refusal to extend the governmental rights of laymen.这种分离是由于拒绝延长普通人的政府的权利。 The Methodist Protestant Church has no bishops.循道新教教会没有主教。It divided in 1858 on the slavery question, but the two branches reunited in 1877 (number of communicants, 188,122).它分为1858年的奴隶制问题,但在1877年的两个分支团聚(数圣餐,188122)。This figure is given by Dr. Carroll (Christian Advocate, 27 January, New York, 1910), whose statistics we shall quote for all the Methodist bodies of the United States.这个数字是由博士卡罗尔(基督教主张,1月27日,纽约,1910年),其统计数据,我们应引为所有美国循道卫理机构。

The Wesleyan Methodist Connection of America was organized in 1843 at Utica, New York, by advocates of a more radical attitude against slavery in the Methodist Episcopal Church.美国卫斯理循道连接是有组织在尤蒂卡,纽约,由一对在卫理公会奴隶制更激进的态度,主张在1843年。It has neither episcopate nor itinerancy, and debars members of secret societies (communicants, 19,485).它没有主教,也没有巡回,与秘密会社debars成员(圣餐,19485)。

The Congregational Methodist Church dates back to 1852; it sprang from the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and is Methodist in doctrine and congregational in polity (membership, 15,529).卫公理教会的历史可以追溯到1852年,它来自卫理公会,南窜出,并在理论和政体卫公理(会员,15529)。

The Free Methodist Church was organized in 1860 at Pekin, New York, as a protest against the alleged abandonment of the ideals of ancient Methodism by the Methodist Episcopal Church.循理会的举办了1860年在佩金,纽约,作为对由卫理公会卫理公会的古代所称的理想放弃抗议。 There are no bishops; members of secret societies are excluded; the use of tobacco and the wearing of rich apparel are prohibited (membership 32,166).有没有主教,秘密社团的成员都排除在外;烟草的使用和丰富的服装穿着被禁止(会员32166)。

The New Congregational Methodists originated in Georgia in 1881 and in doctrine and organization closely resemble the Congregational Methodist Church (membership, 1782).新堂卫格鲁吉亚起源于1881年,在教义和组织酷似堂卫理公会(会员,1782)。

The Independent Methodists maintain no central government.独立卫保持没有中央政府。Each congregation among them enjoys supreme control over its affairs (communicants, 1161).其中每个众对其事务享有最高控制(圣餐,1161)。

The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, with which we begin the treatment of the following exclusively coloured denominations, may be traced back to the year 1796.非洲卫理主教锡安教会,与我们开始下面的专门彩色面额治疗,可追溯到1796年。Some coloured Methodists in New York organized themselves at that date into a separate congregation and build a church which they called "Zion".一些有色卫在纽约举办当日自己变成一个单独的聚集,并建立一个教会,他们所谓的“锡安”。They remained for a time under the pastoral supervision of the Methodist Episcopal Church, but in 1820 formed an independent Church differing but little from the parent body (communicants, 545,681).他们仍然是下的卫理公会牧区监督时间,但在1820年成立了一个独立的教会,而是来自不同的母体(圣餐,545681)少。 The Union American Methodist Episcopal Church, organized in 1813 at Wilmington, Delaware, had for its founder the coloured preacher, Peter Spencer (membership, 18,500).欧盟美国卫理公会,于1813年举办了特拉华州威尔明顿,已为它的创始人有色布道者,彼得斯宾塞(会员,18500)。

The African Methodist Episcopal Church has existed as an independent organization since 1816.非洲卫理公会作为一个已经存在自1816年独立的组织。Its foundation was due to a desire for more extensive privileges and greater freedom of action among a number of coloured Methodists of Philadelphia.其基础是由于一个更广泛的特权和更大的行动自由之间的彩色费城卫数量的愿望。It does not differ in important points from the Methodist Episcopal Church (membership, 452,126).它并没有显着差异的卫理公会(会员,452126)要点。

The African Union Methodist Protestant Church also dates back to 1816; it rejects the episcopacy, itinerancy, and a paid ministry (membership, 4000).非洲联盟循道新教教会也可以追溯到1816年,它拒绝之故,巡回和付费部(会员,4000)。

The Zion Union Apostolic Church was founded in Virginia in 1869.锡安联盟使徒教会成立于1869年在弗吉尼亚州。In its organization it closely resembles the Methodist Episcopal Church (communicants, 3059).它在组织密切类似于卫理公会(圣餐,3059)。

The Coloured Methodist Episcopal Church is merely a branch of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, organized independently in 1870 for negroes (membership, 233,911). The有色卫理公会仅仅是一个卫理公会,南支,有组织的独立的黑人在1870年(会员,233911)。

The Congregational Methodists, Coloured, differ only in race from the Congregational Methodists (communicants, 319).公理卫,有色,差别只在从公理卫(圣餐,319)的比赛。

The Evangelist Missionary Church was organized in 1886 in Ohio by members of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church.教会的福音传教士在俄亥俄州举办了由非洲卫理主教锡安教会的成员于1886年。It has no creed but the Bible, and inclines to the admission of only one person in God, that of Jesus Christ.它没有信条,但圣经,以及对上帝只有一个人在入院倾向,即耶稣基督。

V. EDUCATIONAL AND SOCIAL ACTIVITIES五,教育和社会活动

The founders of Methodism had enjoyed the advantages of a university training, and must have realized the priceless value of education.作者:卫理公会的创始人一直享有一所大学培训的优势,并且必须实现教育的无价之宝。The fact, however, that John Wesley laid almost exclusive stress on the practical element in religion tended to make a deep and extensive knowledge of doctrinal principles seem superfluous.事实上,然而,摆在约翰卫斯理宗教实用元素几乎完全应力,往往会作出深刻的理论原则和广博的知识,似乎是多余的。 The extraordinary success of his preaching which urgently demanded ministers for the ever-increasing number of his followers, led to the appointment, in the early history of Methodism, of preachers more commendable for their religious zeal than remarkable for their theological learning.他的说教,迫切要求为他的追随者越来越多的部长,非凡的成功导致了任命,在循道早期历史,许多牧师为他们的宗教热情比他们出色的神学学习称道。 Indeed, for a comparatively long period, the opposition of Methodists to schools of theology was pronounced.的确,对于一个比较长的时期,卫反对的神学学校是明显。The establishment of the first institution of the kind in 1834 at Haxton, England, caused a split in the denomination.作者在1834年时的哈克斯顿,英国,首次设立的机构中引起了教派分裂。At the present day, however, the need of theological training is universally recognized and supplied by numerous schools.目前,天,然而,神学培训的必要性普遍认可和许多学校提供。In England the chief institutions are located at Richmond, Didsbury, Hedingley, and Handsworth.在英国的主要机构分别位于里士满,迪兹伯里,Hedingley和汉兹沃思。American Methodists founded their first theological school in 1841 at Newbury, Vermont.美国卫理公会成立于1841年在纽伯里,佛蒙特州他们的第一个神学院。It was removed to Concord, New Hampshire, in 1847, and has formed since 1867 part of Boston University.它被拆除,以康科德,新罕布什尔州,在1847年,并自1867年美国波士顿大学的一部分组成。Numerous other foundations were subsequently added, among them Garrett Biblical Institute (1854) at Evanston, Illinois, and Drew Theological Seminary (1867) at Madison, New Jersey.许多其他的基础是后来加入,其中加勒特圣经学院(1854年)在伊利诺州,和德鲁神学院(1867年)在麦迪逊,新泽西州。 While Methodism has no parochial school system, its first denominational institution of learning dates back to 1740, when John Wesley took over a school at Kingswood.虽然没有狭隘的循道学校制度,其第一次学习的历史可以追溯到1740年,当约翰卫斯理教会机构接管了在嘉湖学校。 It was not until the beginning of the nineteenth century, however, that a vigorous educational movement set in to continue up to the present day.直到十九世纪初,但是,一个有力的教育运动,将持续到现今集。An idea of the efforts made in this direction by Methodists may be gained by a reference to the statistics published in the "Methodist Year-Book" (1910), pp. 108-13.在这一个卫方向所作的努力取得的想法可能是对在“卫年鉴”公布的统计参考(1910),页108-13。According to the reports there given, the Methodist Episcopal Church alone (the other branches also support their schools) maintains 197 educational institutions, including 50 colleges and universities, 47 classical seminaries, 8 institutions exclusively for women, 23 theological institutions (some of them forming part of the universities already mentioned), 63 foreign mission schools, and 4 missionary institutes and Bible training schools.据报道有鉴于,卫理公会独自(其他分行也支持他们的学校)保持197教育机构,包括50所院校,47个经典的神学院,八机构专为女性,23神学院校(其中一些形成大学的部分已经提到),63个外国教会学校,研究机构和4个传教士和圣经培训学校。 An educational project which appeals for support and sympathy to all branches of American Methodism, is the exclusively post-graduate "American University".一个教育项目的支持和同情,呼吁美国卫理公会的所有分支,是专门研究生“美国大学”。A site of ninety-two acres was purchased in 1890 in the suburbs of Washington, DC, and the university was organized the following year.一九十二英亩网站购买了1890年在华盛顿特区的郊区,大学举办了下一年。 It was not to be opened in any of its departments until its endowment "be not less than $5,000,000 over and above its present real estate" (which happened in 1893, World Almanac, 1997).它并没有被打开的任何政府部门,直至其养老“在超出其目前的房地产不得少于五百万美元”(即在1893年发生的事情,世界年鉴,1997)。 The dissemination of religious literature is obtained by the foundation of "Book Concerns" (located at New York and Cincinnati for the Methodist Episcopal Church; at Nashville, Tennessee, for the Methodist Episcopal Church South) and a periodical press, for the publications of which the titles of "Advocates" is particularly popular.文学传播的宗教是得到了“书中关注”的基础(在纽约和辛辛那提为卫理教会的位置;在纳什维尔,田纳西州卫理公会南)及期刊出版社,为出版物,其中的“倡导者”的标题是特别受欢迎。 The young people are banded together for the promotion of personal piety and charitable work in the prosperous Epworth League founded in 1889 at Cleveland, Ohio, for the Methodist Episcopal Church, and organized in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in 1891.这些年轻人是带状为个人的虔诚和慈善工作,在促进共同繁荣爱华联盟成立于1889年在美国俄亥俄州克里夫兰市,为卫理教会,并在卫理公会,南,举办于1891年。 In the second half of the nineteenth century, the denomination extended its social work considerably by the foundation of orphanages and homes for the aged.在十九世纪下半叶,延长其面额由孤儿院和老人院基础的社会工作很多。Hospitals were introduced in 1881 with the incorporation of the Methodist Episcopal Hospital at Brooklyn.医院介绍了1881年与卫理医院在布鲁克林结合。

VI.六。GENERAL STATISTICS综合统计

According to the "Methodist Year-book" (New York, 1910) the Wesleyan Methodists have 520,868 church members (including probationers) in Great Britain, 29,531 in Ireland, 143,467 in their foreign missions, and 117,146 in South Africa.据“卫年鉴”(纽约,1910年)的有520868卫斯理卫理教会成员(包括试用)在英国,爱尔兰29531,在他们的外国使团143467,并在南非117146。 The Australasian Methodist Church ha a membership of 150,751, and the Church of Canada one of 333,692.澳大拉西亚卫理公会的150751公顷成员,以及加拿大一堂333692。In the United States Methodism (all branches numbers, according to Dr. Carroll 6,477,224 communicants. Of these 3,159,913 belong to the Methodist Episcopal Church and 1,780,778 to the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.在美国卫理公会(所有分公司家数,根据博士卡罗尔6477224圣餐。在这些3159913属于卫理公会和1780778向卫理公会,南。

Publication information Written by NA Weber.出版信息写不适用韦伯。Transcribed by Donald J. Boon.转录的唐纳德J福音。Dedicated to the Rev. Julius Byrd Payton (1875-1960) The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.竭诚为牧师朱利伯德佩顿(1875年至1960年)天主教百科全书,体积十,1911年出版。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


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