Millennialism千禧年

Millenarianism千福年说

General Information一般资料

In its narrowest sense millenarianism refers to belief in the Second Coming Of Christ and the establishment of his kingdom on earth as predicted in the Book of Revelation. More generally, the term refers to any religious movement that prophesies the imminent destruction of the present order and the establishment of a new order, usually reversing the relative status of the oppressed and the oppressor. 千禧年在其狭窄的意义上指的信念,在基督第二次来,地球上建立他的王国在启示录预言的。更一般地,是指任何宗教的运动,预言即将销毁现存秩序的和一个新秩序的建立,通常是扭转了被压迫者和压迫者的相对地位。

Christian millenarian beliefs were derived from Jewish apocalyptic traditions current in the centuries before and after Jesus Christ.信仰基督教的千禧年,是根据犹太前后耶稣基督世纪当前世界末日传统。Some scholars have, in fact, suggested that in its origins Christianity was related to such millenarian groups as the Essenes.一些学者,事实上,建议在其起源基督教有关,例如千禧年的爱色尼组。As Christianity developed into a stable community in the centuries after Jesus, millenarian activity became primarily a fringe movement, associated with such reform movements as Montanism and, in the 13th and 14th centuries, Joachimism and radical Franciscan movements.作为基督教发展成为一个稳定的社会耶稣世纪后,成为千禧年活动主要是一个边缘运动,与作为这种改革运动和孟他努在13和14世纪,Joachimism济运动和激进。 With the upheavals brought on by the Reformation in the 16th century, millenarianism increased and was found, for example, among the Anabaptists.随着动荡所带来的改革在16世纪上,增加和千禧年被发现,例如,其中的anabaptists。

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In the 18th century, Independents in England (for example, Joseph Mede) and Pietists in Germany advocated millenarian views.在18世纪,无党派人士在英格兰(例如,约瑟夫米德)和德国虔诚主张千禧年的看法。Among contemporary Protestant groups believing in the millennium are the Seventh Day Adventists, the Christadelphians, the Jehovah's Witnesses, and the Plymouth Brethren.在千禧年间相信是当代新教团体安息日,基督弟兄,耶和华的见证人,普利茅斯的弟兄。Most millenarians believe that the millennium will follow the Second Coming; some, however, have defined the millennium as a period of progressive improvement in the world that will culminate in the Second Coming.相信大多数的千禧年,千年开始执行第二来临;一些,然而,定义为一个在世界上逐步改善,这将最终在第二今后一个时期的千年。

Bibliography 参考书目
M Barkum, Disaster and the Millennium (1986); KOL Burridge, New Heaven, New Earth: A Study of Millenarian Activities (1969); N Cohn, The Pursuit of the Millennium (1970); JW Davidson, The Logic of Millennial Thought: Eighteenth Century New England (1977); RA Doan, The Miller Heresy: Millennialism and American Culture (1987); DL Russell, The Method and Message of Jewish Apocalyptic, 200 BC - AD 100 (1964); A Taylor, Visions of Harmony: A Study in 19th Century Millenarianism (1987); TP Weber, Living in the Shadow of the Second Coming: American Premillennialism, 1875 - 1925 (1979).M Barkum,灾害和千年(1986年);科尔伯里奇,新天,新地:一个千禧年的活动研究(1969年); ñ科恩,追求千年(1970年),JW戴维森,千年思想的逻辑:十八世纪的新英格兰(1977年);类风湿性关节炎多安,米勒异端:千禧年与美国文化(1987年); DL的罗素,方法和犹太世界末日,公元前200年消息 - 公元100年(1964年);一个泰勒,和谐视野:一个在19世纪千禧年研究(1987年); TP的韦伯,在第二次来的阴影生活:美国Premillennialism,1875年至1925年(1979年)。


EDITOR'S NOTE: Joseph Mede was actually an early 17th Century writer and not from the 18th Century as this author had stated.编者注:实际上是约瑟夫米德是17世纪初的作家,而不是从18世纪,笔者曾指出。The article below correctly states this fact.下面的文章正确地指出了这一事实。


Millennium千年

General Information一般资料

Introduction简介

A millennium is a period of 1,000 years.一个千禧年是1000年。The word millennium is derived from the Latin words mille, which means "thousand," and annus, "years."千年一词源于拉丁文米勒,意思是“千”和安努斯,“年”。

In various Christian doctrines, millennium refers to a 1,000-year period foretold in the Bible's Book of Revelation, involving the apocalypse (the end of the world) and the reign of Jesus Christ on earth.在各种基督教教义,千年指的是1000年期间,在圣经启示录预言,涉及的启示(世界末尾)和耶稣基督在地上执掌王权。 The concept of the millennium is not only associated with Christian thought, however.千禧年的概念,不仅与基督教思想,但是。Many cultures of the world have similar beliefs about the imminent transformation or end of the world and the creation of an age in which human suffering and violence will be eliminated.世界上许多文化都对即将改造或世界的结束和一个时代的创造​​是人类的苦难和暴力将被淘汰相似的信仰。Thus, Western scholars commonly use the term millennium to refer generally to any new age of holiness, harmony, and earthly perfection. Similarly, the word millennialism is used to describe beliefs about an imminent apocalypse, the salvation of the world, or the creation of an earthly paradise.因此, 西方学者普遍使用的术语千年来泛指任何尘世完美的新时代的圣洁,和谐,和。同样,这个词millennialism是用来形容一个迫在眉睫的启示信念有关,拯救世界的,或创造的是人间天堂。 Such beliefs have existed throughout history and are still held by millions of people today.这种信仰在历史上已经存在,而且还在以百万计的人在今天举行。

The year 2000 had sparked widespread feelings that something monumental was going to occur with the flip of the calendar page.2000年曾引发了不朽的东西将要发生的日历翻页的普遍感受。Although the year 2000 is a subjective marking of the passage of time, in popular culture it has enormous symbolic and conceptual power.虽然2000年是一个主观的标记时间的推移在流行文化,它具有巨大的象征性和概念性的力量。For many people, it represents a pivotal moment in history, a time to reflect on the past thousand years or imagine a thousand years to come.对于很多人来说,它代表了历史一个关键时刻,一时间反省过去一千多年或者想象一个千年的到来。

For the past several hundred years, people in Western cultures have marked time in terms of 10-year periods (decades) and 100-year periods (centuries).在过去的几百年里,西方文化的人有显着的10年期间(十年)和100年周期(世纪)按时间。Westerners tend to associate eras with decades and centuries.西方人往往用几十年,几百年准时代。For example, many Americans think of the 1920s as the Roaring Twenties, and they frequently associate the 1960s with protests and social activism.例如,许多美国人认为,作为20世纪20年代的咆哮的二十年代,他们经常联系在一起的抗议和社会活动上世纪60年代。 Many people attach special significance to years that end in a zero, because these years seem to signal a transition from one era to another.许多人特别重视在零至数年的结束,因为这些年来似乎信号从一个时代过渡到另一个。 A year that ends in triple zeros, then, suggests an even greater change.一年结束,在三零,那么,一个甚至更大的变化。Thus, the year 2000 had evoked hope for transformation and the birth of a new age, as well as fears about potential global catastrophes.因此,2000年曾引起希望改造和新时代的诞生,以及潜在的全球灾难的忧虑。

Dating the Millennium千年约会

Although January 1, 2000, was popularly celebrated as the beginning of the 3rd millennium, there are differing beliefs about when the new millennium actually began.虽然2000年1月1日,被广泛作为第三千年开始庆祝,有不同的关于在新千年真正开始的信念。The Western dating of the millennium is based on the Gregorian calendar, which is the most globally recognized system for marking the passage of years.西部的千年约会是根据公历,这是为纪念年通过全球公认的最系统。

According to the Gregorian calendar, the millennium did not begin until January 1, 2001.根据公历,千禧年才开始,直到2001年1月1日。The Gregorian calendar follows the AD (Latin anno Domini, "in the year of our Lord") system introduced by Christian monk Dionysius Exiguus in the 6th century AD.公历如下公元(拉丁文意思是“在今年,我们的主”)的基督教僧侣狄奥尼修斯exiguus介绍了公元6世纪系统。The AD system counts time from the year Jesus Christ was born.AD系统计数从耶稣基督诞生了一年的时间。Dionysius dated Jesus' birth in the year AD 1 rather than in AD 0, because Roman numerals, which were still in use, had no symbol for zero.狄奥尼月耶稣诞生在公元1年,而不是在公元0,因为罗马数字,而仍在使用,有没有零的符号。 In this dating system, each century begins with a year ending in 01 and ends with a year ending in 00.在此约会系统,每个世纪开始,在01年结束,并与一结束,在00年结束。For example, the 19th century began in 1801 and ended in 1900.例如,19世纪始于1801年并于1900年结束。Therefore, December 31, 2000, ended the old millennium, and January 1, 2001, marked the start of the new millennium in this dating system.因此,00年12月31日,结束了旧千年,2001年1月1日,标志着在这个新千年的约会系统启动。

Some people believe the new millennium, as marked by the birth of Jesus, began several years earlier than 2001.有些人认为,新的千年,如耶稣诞生为标志,开始于2001年几年前。According to many scholars, Dionysius made various errors in calculating Jesus' birth date.根据许多学者,狄奥尼修斯在计算耶稣的出生日期的各种错误。Historical evidence indicates that Jesus was actually born in 4 BC or earlier.历史证据表明,耶稣实际上是在西元前4年或更早出生。As a result, the 2,000-year anniversary of the birth of Jesus may have occurred sometime in the 1990s.因此,在耶稣诞生2000周年的某个时候可能发生在20世纪90年代。

Other people believe that the change to the new millennium lasts a period of 33 years, corresponding to the life span of Jesus.其他人认为,新的千年不变的持续了33年,对应于耶稣的寿命。According to some historians, the year 1033 - regarded by many people as the 1,000-year anniversary of Jesus' death - resulted in widespread millennial fervor in which people made pilgrimages to Jerusalem and anticipated the destruction or renewal of the world.根据一些历史学家,1033年 - 作为耶稣的死亡1000年周年的许多人都认为 - 导致了普遍千年热情,使人们作出朝圣耶路撒冷和预期的破坏或世界的更新。Some people have predicted that the year 2033 [or maybe 2029, due to Dionysius' errors] will have millennial significance as well and will be viewed as the date that marks the beginning of the new millennium.有人预测,2033年[或者2029年,由于狄奥尼修斯'错误]将千年的意义,以及,将作为的日期,标志着新的千年开始观看。

About two-thirds of the people in the world use religious or ceremonial calendars in addition to the Gregorian calendar.约三分之二的世界上三分之二的人使用,除了公历宗教或礼仪的日历。For example, January 1, 2000, on the Gregorian calendar was the year 1420 on the Islamic calendar, 5760 on the Jewish calendar, and 4697 on the Chinese calendar.例如,2000年1月1日,于公历1420年伊斯兰日历上,5760年犹太历,并在农历中4697。However, even people who use these other calendars are aware of the global significance of the Gregorian calendar years 2000 and 2001.但是,即使人谁使用这些其他的日历是公历的2000年和2001年全球重要性的认识。

Religious and Mystical Beliefs宗教和神秘信仰

Millennialist beliefs are not only related to the turn of the millennium.Millennialist信念,不仅关系到千年之交。 Since the beginning of human history, people in nearly every society have told sacred stories about worldly destruction, the regeneration of the earth, and the creation of a terrestrial paradise.自人类历史开始,几乎在每一个社会人告诉过世俗的破坏,地球的再生,并创建一个地面天堂神圣的故事。Scholars have documented these types of stories from Zoroastrian, Babylonian, Hindu, Buddhist, Islamic, Greek, Roman, Norse, African, Maya, and Native American cultures.学者们从拜火教记载,巴比伦,印度教,佛教,伊斯兰教,希腊,罗马,北欧,非洲,玛雅,和印第安文化的故事,这些类型。

Millennialist ideas are concerned with the destiny and destruction of the world, the end of time, the end of evil and suffering, and the creation of a perfect age. Millennialist想法是关注的命运和毁灭的世界,时间的尽头,邪恶和苦难的结束,创造一个完美的年龄。Millennialist belief systems have an enduring appeal because they assert that there is an underlying plan for history, that human existence is meaningful, and that a new world of peace and justice will be created. Millennialist信仰体系有一个持久的吸引力,因为他们声称,对历史有一个基本方案,即人的存在是有意义的,而一种新的和平与正义的世界将被创建。

Book of Revelation书的启示

In the Christian Bible, the concept of the millennium is introduced toward the end of the Book of Revelation (sometimes called the Apocalypse).在基督教的圣经,千禧年的概念引入朝启示录(有时也被称为天启)结束。According to Revelation 19:11-21, 20:1-10, and other passages, Jesus Christ will return to earth and defeat Satan at the battle of Armageddon ( Second Coming ).根据启示录19:11-21,20:1-10,和其他旅费,耶稣基督将返回地球,并击败撒旦在世界末日之战( 第二次来 )。Christ will then throw Satan into a bottomless pit for 1,000 years and will reign during this millennium of peace on earth.基督会再扔撒旦1000年成为一个无底洞,将在这个地​​球上的和平千年的统治。However, at the end of those 1,000 years, Satan and the forces of evil will rise up to do battle with Christ once again.然而,在这些千年结束时,撒旦和邪恶的力量将上升为做基督的战斗一次。In this final battle, Christ will defeat Satan forever and throw Satan into a lake of fire to suffer eternal torment.在这最后的战役中,基督将打败撒旦永远丢进火湖里撒旦遭受永恒的折磨。God will then resurrect all human beings and judge them according to their beliefs and actions.神将复活所有人类和判断他们根据自己的信念和行动。This event is often referred to as the Last Judgment. According to Revelation, God will give the righteous people eternal life in paradise and will send the evil ones to hell.此事件通常被称为最后审判。据启示,上帝会给予正义的人在天堂永生,发送邪恶的地狱。

Types of Christian Millennialism类型基督教millennialism

The concept of the millennium and the apocalypse referred to in Revelation has been an important part of certain Christian sects, but it has held less significance for most Roman Catholic and Protestant groups. Believers in Christian millennialism differ about when Christ will return to earth, how the millennium will start, and the nature of the millennium. 天启概念的千年和启示录中提到的基督教派一直是某些重要组成部分,但它举行了新教团体同样重要的罗马天主教和大多数。千禧年,在基督教信徒不同约当基督将返回地球,如何千禧年将开始,千禧年的性质。 The three major types of Christian millennialism are premillennialism, postmillennialism, and amillennialism.基督教的千禧年的三个主要类型是premillennialism,postmillennialism和amillennialism。

The Year 1000公元1000年

In studying the various forms of millennialism, historians have debated whether people recognized the turn of the millennium around the year 1000.在研究了各种形式的千禧年,历史学家一直在争论人们是否认识到1000年左右,在千年之交。Some scholars believe that an apocalyptic fever had gripped Europe by the year 999.有学者认为,发烧了一个世界末日在公元999笼罩欧洲。According to these scholars, many people converted to Christianity, stopped planting their crops, confessed their sins, and forgave each other their debts.根据这些学者,许多人皈依基督教,停止种植农作物,交代了他们的罪孽,并原谅了对方的债务。Others abandoned their families to make pilgrimages to Jerusalem in hope of witnessing the Second Coming of Christ, or they knelt in church in terror as they anticipated an apocalypse.别人放弃了家庭,使朝圣在耶路撒冷希望目睹二基督的到来,或者他们在教堂里跪在恐怖的,因为他们预期的启示。

However, most historians argue that the accounts of millennial hysteria are the romantic concoctions of overly imaginative writers.然而,大多数历史学家认为,歇斯底里的千年的帐户是作家的想象力过于浪漫的混合物。These historians note that the doctrines of the Catholic Church at the end of the 1st millennium were opposed to any teachings about imminent apocalypse. Furthermore, most people living in the years 999 and 1000 were not even aware that it was the end of the 1st millennium. However, there is considerable historical evidence that after the year 1000, millennialism became more widespread.这些历史学家注意到,千年结束的第一教义在天主教会是反对任何即将发生的启示教义有关。 此外,大多数人生活在1000年的999人甚至不知道,这是千年结束的第一。然而,有相当的历史证据,经过1000年,千禧年变得更加普遍。 It gained followers during the Crusades (wars between Western European Christians and Muslims that began in 1095) and throughout the latter part of the Middle Ages.它获得了在十字军东征的追随者(西欧之间的基督教徒和穆斯林的战争,在1095年开始)和整个中世纪的后半部分。

Contemporary Religious and Mystical Beliefs当代宗教和神秘信仰

Today many mainline religious organizations reject the concept of an apocalypse or a Christian millennium.今天,许多主流宗教组织反对的启示或基督徒千年的概念。However, millennialist beliefs are still integral to the worldviews of some denominations of Protestantism.然而,millennialist信念仍在积分在一些新教教派的世界观。For example, a number of Evangelical denominations hold premillennialist beliefs, including the Southern Baptist Convention, the Assemblies of God, and the Church of the Nazarene (see Evangelicalism).例如,一个数字的福音教派举行包括美南浸信会,神的大会,并在拿撒勒(见福音派)教会premillennialist信念。 Many members of these and other Evangelical denominations claim that recent wars, plagues, famines, and earthquakes are signs that an apocalypse is imminent and that Christ will return.这些和其他福音教派的许多成员称,最近的战争,瘟疫,饥荒,地震迹象表明,一个启示是迫在眉睫和基督会回来。According to these groups, the world will experience a seven-year period of misery and massive destruction, but Christians will be removed from the Earth unharmed.据这些团体,世界将经历一个痛苦和大规模杀伤性七年期间,但基督徒会从地球安然无恙删除。[This involves the concept of "the Rapture".][这涉及到的“着迷”的概念。]

Adventism is another Protestant branch that holds millennialist views (see Adventists).基督教复临是另一个分支,持有millennialist意见(见复临)。Adventist groups grew out of the religious Millerite movement, led by American Baptist preacher William Miller, who predicted that the world would end by 1843 or 1844.台安集团的前身是宗教millerite运动由美国浸信会传教士威廉米勒,谁预言,世界将结束1843年或1844年领导。 After his predictions proved false, some disenchanted Millerites formed into various Adventist groups, such as the Seventh-day Adventists. Adventists maintain that various apocalyptic predictions have been fulfilled and that Christ will return in the near future. The Seventh-day Adventists assert that an invisible, spiritual apocalypse occurred in 1844 with the "cleansing of heaven," and they believe that it will eventually be followed by world destruction in which only the faithful will be saved.之后,他的预测证明是虚假的,基督复临安息日。第七届形成了一些不抱幻想Millerites成各种安集团,如- 复临认为,不同的世界末日的预言已被满足,基督将在不久的将来返回。第七日基督复临断言一个无形的,精神的启示发生在1844年与“天堂清洗”,他们认为,这将最终被世界毁灭,只有忠实地将被保存之后。

Jehovah's Witnesses, another group formed from the Millerite movement, claim the spiritual, invisible Second Coming of Christ occurred in 1874 and that Christ's invisible reign started in 1914.耶和华见证会,从millerite运动形成的另一组,索赔的精神,无形的基督再来第二次发生在1874年和基督的无形统治,在1914年开始。 The group believes an apocalypse will come in the near future.该小组认为,一个启示会在不久的将来。The religious group's founder, Charles Taze Russell, declared that the fulfillment of Christ's millennial kingdom would be completed only after the foreordained destruction of nations, governments, churches, and world leaders, all of which Russell considered representations of Satan's rule.宗教集团的创始人查尔斯Taze罗素,宣布基督的千年王国履行完成后,才将是对国家,政府,教会和世界各国领导人,所有这些罗素认为撒旦的统治交涉注定毁灭。 The Jehovah's Witnesses rejected formal religious and governmental organizations, and they developed the practice of door-to-door evangelism in an attempt to convert nonbelievers.耶和华见证人拒绝正式宗教和政府组织,他们开发的一个尝试转换怀疑论者的门对门传福音的做法。

Millennial beliefs are also an important part of the theology of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, better known as Mormonism.千年信仰也是对耶稣基督后期圣徒教会的神学较好,称为摩门教的重要组成部分。The religion was founded by Joseph Smith in 1830.宗教是由约瑟夫史密斯在1830年。Smith claimed an angel told him that Christ's Second Coming was imminent, and Smith believed he had been chosen to prepare humanity for the millennium.史密斯声称一个天使告诉他,基督的第二次来临是迫在眉睫,史密斯认为他已被选定为筹备千年人类。According to Smith's visions, the millennial kingdom will be established in the United States.根据史密斯的愿景,千年王国将设在美国。Today, Mormonism does not stress millennialism as much as it did in the past.如今,摩门教不强调千禧年一样多,因为它在过去做。However, many Mormons interpret some world events as the fulfillment of prophecies that foretell an apocalyptic period.然而,许多摩门教解释作为一个预言世界末日的预言说,一些世界履行期间的活动。

Many other contemporary religious groups have millennialist views.许多同时代的其他宗教群体millennialist意见。These include the Unification Church, Hare Krishna, Baha'i, Rastafarianism, and other religious movements.这些措施包括统一教会,克利须那,巴哈教,Rastafarianism,和其他的宗教运动。Millennialist prophecy, once central to the early Jewish faith, continues today among members of the Chabad Lubavitch movement, an Orthodox Hasidic sect of Judaism. Millennialist预言,一旦中央到早期犹太信仰,一直持续到今天之间的恰巴德Lubavitch运动的成员,一个犹太教哈西德派正统教派。 In the late 1980s and early 1990s many followers of Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson of Brooklyn, New York, believed that he was the Messiah who would bring about the redemption of the world.在1980年代末和90年代初许多拉比贝京孟德尔Schneerson布鲁克林,纽约,信徒相信他是谁的救世主会带来世界的赎回。 Schneerson never claimed to be the Messiah, but he interpreted current events as apocalyptic signs that foretold the Messiah's appearance in the near future. Schneerson从来没有声称自己是弥赛亚,但他解释为在不久的将来预言弥赛亚的外观世界末日的迹象时事。

Millennialist beliefs also exist at a grassroots level as a form of popular or folk belief, apart from the sanction of formal religious institutions. Millennialist观念也存在于作为民间信仰的流行或形成基层,除了正式的宗教机构的制裁。For instance, there is popular interest in the apocalyptic predictions of Nostradamus, a 16th-century French physician and astrologer, and Edgar Cayce, an American who lived in the early 20th century and claimed to have psychic and healing abilities.比如,在诺查丹玛斯,是16世纪的法国医生和占星家,埃德加凯西,美国谁住在20世纪初,并声称拥有灵和愈合能力的世界末日预言流行的兴趣。 Some people also believe that alleged apparitions of the Virgin Mary warn of imminent worldly destruction.有些人还认为,被指控的圣母玛利亚显灵迫在眉睫的世俗破坏发出警告。

Recent Millennialist Movements最近Millennialist变动

Apocalyptic and millennialist movements not affiliated with established religious institutions are often depicted in stereotypical ways as doomsday cults, involving violent activities, mass suicides, and "brainwashed fanatics" with bizarre beliefs.大难临头,而不是既定的宗教机构下属millennialist动作则常描绘的定型方式作为世界末日的邪教,涉及暴力活动,集体自杀,而“洗脑的狂热分子”的怪诞信仰。 Of the hundreds of contemporary millennialist groups that exist, relatively few movements have been motivated to acts of violence or suicide.当代millennialist群体存在,数以百计的相对较少运动一直动机的暴力或自杀行为。But there have been some exceptions in recent years, including apocalyptic groups such as the Branch Davidians, Aum Shinrikyo, and Heaven's Gate.但是也有一些例外,近年来,包括如大卫教,奥姆真理教,天堂之门世界末日的群体。

Although these groups differ in their doctrines, aspects of their belief systems share certain common ideas.虽然这些团体在他们的学说,他们的信仰体系方面的不同,都有一些共同的想法。These ideas include a sense of fatalism for a world regarded as completely evil and doomed, and a desire for planetary escape and salvation.这些设想包括,作为一种完全邪恶的,注定把宿命论的世界意识,并为行星逃生和救赎的愿望。 Some people predict that the dawning of the 3rd millennium may motivate other apocalyptic groups with similar beliefs to embrace and enact violent scenarios as well.有人预测,千年曙光第三世界末日可能推动其他有类似的信仰团体拥护和暴力场景,以及制定。

Secular Attitudes世俗的态度

Until recently, most people believed that an apocalypse would involve deities or divine forces.直到最近,大多数人认为,一个末日将涉及神或神的力量。However, during the 20th century, more people developed secular theories about an apocalypse.然而,在20世纪,更多的人一个启示,约世俗的理论。Some believe the world will end due to nuclear warfare, new technologies, environmental destruction, epidemic diseases, global famine and overpopulation, or an Earth collision with a large asteroid or comet.有些人认为,世界将结束因核战争,新技术,环境破坏,传染病,全球饥荒和人口过多,或具有大型小行星或彗星碰撞地球。 Secular beliefs about inevitable societal destruction reflect a sense of helplessness, despair, or fatalistic resignation.关于破坏社会世俗观念的必然反映了无奈,绝望,或宿命论的无奈。

The creation of nuclear weapons in particular has fundamentally altered contemporary apocalyptic thought, evoking widespread fatalism about the future of humanity.核武器的创作,特别是从根本上改变当代世界末日的思想,唤起对人类未来的广泛的宿命论。When the United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in August 1945, the event initiated an era of fear about global destruction.当美国在1945年8月下降了广岛和长崎,日本,原子弹,事件引发了关于全球毁灭的恐惧的时代。Despite the end of the Cold War, concerns about the possibility of nuclear annihilation persist today, stemming from fear that nuclear weapons will be developed and used by hostile nations or extremist organizations.尽管冷战结束后,对核毁灭的可能性仍然存在问题的今天,免于恐惧的产生,核武器将制订和敌对国家或极端组织使用。

Specific secular beliefs about catastrophe occurring at the beginning of 2000 were associated with what was known as the year 2000 computer problem, the Y2K problem, or the millennium bug.关于具体的世俗灾难的信念在2000年初发生都与这场被称作是计算机2000年问题,千年虫问题或千年虫而闻名。Many [older] computers were programmed to recognize the year by the last two numbers of the year instead of by all four digits.许多[旧]计算机编程的人认识到了最后两个年度,而不是由所有四个数字号码的一年。On January 1, 2000, these computers registered the year as the digits 00.在2000年1月1日,这些电脑注册了一年的数字00。 Computers that had not been fixed, understood these digits as representing the year 1900 and generated some error messages or shut down.尚未得到修复电脑,理解为代表的这些数字和1900年产生的一些错误信息或关闭。Some people believed that many computer systems worldwide would crash when the date changed from 1999 to 2000.有些人认为,许多计算机系统崩溃时,全世界将日期改为从1999年至2000年。They feared these computer crashes would spark economic, political, and social catastrophes that would involve the malfunction of missile systems, hospital equipment, satellites, air transportation, and other major technologies.他们担心这些电脑可能引发崩溃的经济,政治和社会灾难,将涉及导弹系统,医院设备,卫星,航空运输等重大技术故障。

Daniel N Wojcik丹尼尔ñ Wojcik


Views ofthe Millennium千年的意见

Advanced Information先进的信息

The word "millennium" is derived from the Latin for a thousand (at times the word "chiliasm" taken from the Greek and meaning the same thing is used).这个“千年”是根据千(有时单词“千禧年说:”从希腊,意采取同样的事情时)来自拉丁语。It denotes a doctrine taken from a passage in Revelation (20:1 - 10) in which the writer describes the devil as being bound and thrown into a bottomless pit for a thousand years.它是指从启示录通过采取一系列学说(20:1 - 10),其中作家描述为被五花大绑并扔进一个无底洞抛出了千年的恶魔。 The removal of Satanic influence is accompanied by the resurrection of the Christian martyrs, who reign with Christ during the millennium.恶魔的影响除去是伴随着烈士谁的基督教与基督千年统治期间,复活。This period is a time when all of humankind's yearning for an ideal society characterized by peace, freedom, material prosperity, and the rule of righteousness will be realized.这一时期是当人类对和平,自由,物质富裕为特点的理想社会的向往一切,使公义的规则将实现时间。The vision of the OT prophets who foretold a period of earthly prosperity for the people of God will find fulfillment during this era.谁该为上帝的预言人的世俗眼光繁荣时期加时赛先知会发现在这个时期完成。

Millennialism addresses problems that are often overlooked in other eschatological views.千禧年的地址是在其他eschatological意见往往忽视的问题。Although most Christian theologians discuss death, immortality, the end of the world, the last judgment, the rewards of the just, and the punishment of the damned, they often limit themselves to the prospects for the individual in this world and the next.虽然大多数的基督教神学家讨论死亡,永生,世界的尽头,最后判断,正义的回报,以及该死的惩罚,他们往往限制了自己在这个世界和未来个人的发展前景。 In contrast, millennialism is concerned with the future of the human community on earth. It is concerned with the chronology of coming events just as history is involved with the study of the record of the past.相比之下,millennialism是关心地球的未来人类社会的研究。这是过去与未来的时间顺序有关的事件就像是涉及历史的记录与研究的。

Millennialism has appeared within both Christian and non Christian traditions.千禧年出现在基督教和非基督教传统。Anthropologists and sociologists have found millennialist belief among non Western people, but they have debated as to whether or not these appearances of the teaching are based upon borrowing from the teaching are based upon borrowing from Christian preaching.人类学家和社会学家发现在非西方人millennialist信仰,但他们一直在争论是否或不是这些外表的教学后,从教学的基础上,根据借款,从基督教的说教借贷为基础。 Most Christian theologians believe that millennialism is based on material written by Judeo Christian authors, especially the books of Daniel and Revelation.大多数的基督教神学家认为millennialism是由犹太教基督教作家,尤其是丹尼尔和启示录书的书面材料为基础。 The ideas, events, symbols, and personalities introduced in these writings have reappeared countless times in the teachings of prophets of the end of the world.的思想,活动,符号,并在这些著作中介绍人物又出现在了世界的末日先知的教诲无数次了。Each new appearance finds these motifs given fresh significance from association with contemporary events.给每一个新发现,从外观与当代事件的关联新鲜这些图案的意义。

Major Varieties of Millennialism主要品种的千禧年

For purposes of analysis and explanation Christian attitudes toward the millennium can be classified as premillennial, postmillennial, and amillennial. These categories involve much more than the arrangement of events surrounding the return of Christ.千禧目的分析和解释的态度对基督教可分为premillennial,postmillennial和amillennial。这些类别涉及许多基督以上的收益的安排周围的事件。 The thousand years expected by the premillennialist is quite different from that anticipated by the postmillennialist.千由premillennialist预计年有很大的postmillennialist预期的不同。 The premillennialist believes that the kingdom of Christ will be inaugurated in a cataclysmic way and that divine control will be exercised in a more supernatural manner than does the postmillennialist.The premillennialist认为,基督的王国将举行落成典礼在一个灾难性的方式,而神圣的控制将在一个更超自然方式比是否postmillennialist行使。

Premillennialism Premillennialism

The premillennialist believes that the return of Christ will be preceded by signs including wars, famines, earthquakes, the preaching of the gospel to all nations, a great apostasy, the appearance of Antichrist, and the great tribulation.The premillennialist认为,基督将返回的迹象之前,包括战争,饥荒,地震,宣扬福音,对所有国家,一个伟大的变节,敌基督外观,伟大的磨难。 These events culminate in the second coming, which will result in a period of peace and righteousness when Christ and his saints control the world.这些事件在第二个高潮的到来,这将导致一个和平与正义当基督和他的圣徒控制世界的时期。This rule is established suddenly through supernatural methods rather than gradually over a long period of time by means of the conversion of individuals.这条规则,建立,突然透过超自然的方法,而不是在一段时间逐渐由个人转化是指长的时间。The Jews will figure prominently in the future age because the premillennialist believes that they will be converted in large numbers and will again have a prominent place in God's work.犹太人将在未来数字时代的premillennialist突出,因为他们认为,将被转换成大量将再次有一个神的工作的突出位置。 Nature will have the curse removed from it, and even the desert will produce abundant crops, Christ will restrain evil during the age by the use of authoritarian power.大自然将有来自它消除了诅咒,甚至会产生丰富的沙漠作物,在基督会抑制由专制权力的时代邪恶。Despite the idyllic conditions of this golden age there is a final rebellion of wicked people against Christ and his saints.尽管这个黄金时代的田园诗般的条件有一个对基督和他的圣徒恶人人民最后的反抗。

This exposure of evil is crushed by God, the non Christian dead are resurrected, the last judgment conducted, and the eternal states of heaven and hell established.这种邪恶暴露被击碎的上帝,在非基督教死者复活,最后的审判进行的,天堂与地狱的建立永恒的状态。Many premillennialists have taught that during the thousand years dead or martyred believers will be resurrected with glorified bodies to intermingle with the other inhabitants of the earth.许多premillennialists有教导说在1000年死亡或者杀害信徒将与荣耀机构交融与地球的其他居民复活。

Postmillennialism Postmillennialism

In contrast to premillennialism, the postmillennialists emphasize the present aspects of God's kingdom which will reach fruition in the future.与此相反的premillennialism的postmillennialists强调神的王国本方面的成果,将实现未来在。 They believe that the millennium will come through Christian preaching and teaching.他们认为,千禧年将通过基督教传教和教学。 Such activity will result in a more godly, peaceful, and prosperous world.这些活动将产生一个更神圣,和平,繁荣的世界。The new age will not be essentially different from the present, and it will come about as more people are converted to Christ.新的年龄将不会从目前的本质不同,它会来得越来越多的人将转换为基督。Evil will not be totally eliminated during the millennium, but it will be reduced to a minimum as the moral and spiritual influence of Christians is increased.邪恶不会完全消除了在千年,但它会降低到最低限度作为基督徒的道德和精神的影响是增加了。During the new age the church will assume greater importance, and many economic, social, and educational problems can be solved.在新的时代的教会将承担更大的重要性,许多经济,社会,教育等问题都可以解决。This period is not necessarily limited to a thousand years because the number can be used symbolically.该期限不局限于一千年,因为这个数字可以用来象征。The millennium closes with the second coming of Christ, the resurrection of the dead, and the last judgment.千禧年结束与第二个基督,死者复活,最后审判的到来。

Amillennialism Amillennialism

The third position, amillennialism, states that the Bible does not predict a period of the rule of Christ on earth before the last judgment.第三的位置,amillennialism中指出圣经没有预言基督统治的判决,在地球上最后一个句点之前的。 According to this outlook there will be a continuous development of good and evil in the world until the second coming of Christ, when the dead shall be raised and the judgment conducted.根据这一面貌将有一个良好的,直到基督的,未来世界第二邪恶死人要复活和判断进行持续发展。Amillennialists believe that the kingdom of God is now present in the world as the victorious Christ rules his church through the Word and the Spirit. Amillennialists相信神的国是当今世界表现为他的胜利的基督规则通过Word和圣灵教堂。They feel that the future, glorious, and perfect kingdom refers to the new earth and life in heaven.他们认为,未来的,光荣的,完美的王国是指新的地球和生活在天堂。Thus Rev. 20 is a description of the souls of dead believers reigning with Christ in heaven.因此,修订版20是一种与基督信徒死在天上执政的灵魂描述。

The Rise of Millennialism崛起的千禧年

Early millennial teaching was characterized by an apocalyptic emphasis.早期千年教学的特点是世界末日的重点。In this view the future kingdom of God would be established through a series of dramatic, unusual events.在此神的国度将设立未来通过一系列戏剧性的,不寻常的一系列事件。Such teaching has been kept alive throughout the Christian era by certain types of premillennialism.这种教学是整个维持生命的某些类型的premillennialism基督教时代。Apocalyptic interpretation is based upon the prophecies of Daniel and the amplification of some of the same themes in the book of Revelation.世界末日的解释是根据丹尼尔的预言和启示录中的一些主题相同的放大。These works point to the imminent and supernatural intervention of God in human affairs and the defeat of the seemingly irresistible progress of evil.这些作品指向即将与超自然干预上帝在人类事务和邪恶的失败似乎不可阻挡的进步。Numerology, theme figures, and angelology play a major role in these presentations.命理,主题人物,天使在这些艺术发挥重要作用。The apocalyptic world view was very influential among the Jews in the period that elapsed between the OT and the NT.世界末日的世界观是非常有影响力的犹太人在加时赛之间的期限和NT过去了。Consequently the audiences to which Jesus preached were influenced by it.因此,耶稣的观众宣扬它的影响。The early Christians also embraced this outlook.早期的基督徒也接受了这一点。

The book of Revelation, composed during a period of persecution in the first century, used the Jewish apocalyptic interpretation to explain the Christian era.这本书的启示,在一个世纪的迫害在第一时间组成,所使用的犹太世界末日的解释,解释基督教时代。Daniel's Son of man was presented as Christ, numerological formulas were restated, and the dualistic world of good and evil was provided with a new set of characters.丹尼尔的人子基督为主办,命理公式重申,以及善良与邪恶是一个新的字符集提供的二元世界。Despite these changes the essential apocalyptic message remained as the book taught the living hope of the immediate direct intervention of God to reverse history and to overcome evil with good.尽管这些变化的本质世界末日的消息仍然是这本书教的神立即进行直接干预,以扭转历史,以善胜恶的生活的希望。Such an outlook brought great comfort to believers who suffered from persecution by the forces of Imperial Rome.这样的前景带来了极大的安慰信徒遭受迫害谁从罗马帝国的力量。Expressed in a form that has been called historic premillennialism, this hope seems to have been the prevailing eschatology during the first three centuries of the Christian era, and is found in the works of Papias, Irenaeus, Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Hippolytus, Methodius, Commodianus, and Lactantius.在一个被称为历史性的premillennialism的形式表达,这个希望似乎已在首三个世纪的基督教时代当时的末世论,并在帕皮亚,爱任纽,贾斯汀烈士,良,西波吕,Methodius的著作中找到, Commodianus,与潭修斯。

Several forces worked to undermine the millennialism of the early church.有几股力量的工作,破坏了早期教会的千禧年。One of these was the association of the teaching with a radical group, the Montanists, who placed a great stress on a new third age of the Spirit which they believed was coming among their number in Asia Minor.其中之一是同一个激进组织的montanists,谁把一个新时代的精神,他们认为,第三是他们在小亚细亚之间号码的一个巨大的压力教学协会。 Another influence which encouraged a change of eschatological views was the emphasis of Origen upon the manifestation of the kingdom within the soul of the believer rather than in the world.另一种影响力,鼓励了末世论的观点变化是奥利而在该范围内的信徒灵魂王国的表现,而不是强调在世人面前。This resulted in a shift of attention away from the historical toward the spiritual or metaphysical.这导致了注意力转移的走向精神或形而上学的历史了。A final factor that led to a new millennial interpretation was the conversion of the Emperor Constantine the Great and the adoption of Christianity as the favored Imperial religion.最后一个因素,导致了新千年的解释是皇帝君士坦丁大帝转化率和基督教宗教帝国的青睐采用。

Medieval and Reformation Millennialism中世纪与宗教改革千禧年

In the new age brought in by the acceptance of Christianity as the main religion of the Roman Empire it was Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, who articulated the amillennial view which dominated Western Christian thought during the Middle Ages.在新的时代所带来的基督教为罗马帝国的主要宗教是奥古斯丁,河马的主教,谁阐明了amillennial查看其中占主导地位的西方基督教思想在中世纪的接受研究。 The millennium, according to his interpretation, referred to the church in which Christ reigned with his saints.千禧年,根据他的解释,提到教会在基督与他的圣徒王。The statements in the book of Revelation were interpreted allegorically by Augustine.在启示录的声明是由奥古斯丁解释allegorically。No victory was imminent in the struggle with evil in the world.没有胜利,是在与邪恶的斗争在世界迫在眉睫。On the really important level, the spiritual, the battle had already been won and God had triumphed through the cross.在真正重要的层面,精神,战斗已经赢了,神已通过交叉胜利。Satan was reduced to lordship over the City of the World, which coexisted with the City of God.撒旦减少到贵族身份对世界,这与神的城市共存。Eventually even the small domain left to the devil would be taken from him by a triumphant God.最后连小域留给他会从一个胜利的神采取了魔鬼。

Augustine's allegorical interpretation became the official doctrine of the church during the medieval period.奥古斯丁的寓言解释成为官方学说的教会在中世纪时期。However, in defiance of the main teaching of the church the earlier apocalyptic premillennialism continued to be held by certain counterculture groups.然而,在教会的主要教学无视早前世界末日premillennialism继续受到一定的反文化团体举行。These millenarians under charismatic leaders were often associated with radicalism and revolts.根据这些千禧年魅力的领袖,往往与激进主义和反抗。For example, during the eleventh century in regions most affected by urbanization and social change thousands followed individuals such as Tanchelm of the Netherlands, causing great concern to those in positions of power.例如,随后在在受城市化和社会变革的数千名受影响的区域,如十一世纪荷兰Tanchelm个人,导致权力的立场十分关注的人。 In the twelfth century Joachim of Fiore gave fresh expression to the millennial vision with his teaching about the coming third age of the Holy Spirit.在12世纪菲奥雷约阿希姆提供了新的表达了他对即将到来的第三年龄教育圣灵千年目标。During the Hussite Wars in fifteenth century Bohemia the Taborites encouraged the resistance to the Catholic Imperial forces by proclaiming the imminent return of Christ to establish his kingdom.十五世纪期间胡斯战争波希米亚Taborites鼓舞宣告基督即将返回他的王国建立的天主教帝国军抵抗。These outbreaks of premillennialism continued during the Reformation era and were expressed most notably in the rebellion of the city of Munster in 1534.这些疫情的premillennialism继续在改革时代,并表示对德国明斯特市在1534年叛乱最显着的。

Jan Matthys gained control of the community, proclaiming that he was Enoch preparing the way for the second coming of Christ by establishing a new code of laws which featured a community of property and other radical reforms.扬Matthys取得了对社会的控制,宣称他是伊诺克准备通过建立一系列法律就是一个激进的改革,财产和其他社区的新代码为基督第二次来的方式。 He declared that Munster was the New Jerusalem and called all faithful Christians to gather in the city.他宣称,明斯特是新耶路撒冷,并呼吁所有忠实的基督徒聚集在城市。Many Anabaptists answered his summons, and most of the original inhabitants of the town were forced to flee or to live in a veritable reign of terror.许多再洗礼派回答了他的传票,而这个镇的最原始居民被迫逃离或生活在一个名副其实的恐怖统治。The situation was so threatening to other areas of Europe that a combined Protestant and Catholic force laid siege to the place and after a difficult struggle captured the town, suppressing the wave of millennial enthusiasm.这种情况是如此威胁到欧洲的其他新教和天主教联合部队包围了的地方,经过艰难的斗争夺取了镇,抑制了千年的热情波地区。

Perhaps the Munster episode led the Protestant Reformers to reaffirm Augustinian amillennialism.也许明斯特插曲为首的新教改革者重申奥古斯丁amillennialism。Each of the three main Protestant traditions of the sixteenth century, Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican, had the support of the state and so continued the same Constantinian approach to theology.三个主要的十六世纪,路德会,加尔文,圣公会,新教传统各有人在国家的支持,因此继续着同样的Constantinian办法神学。 Both Luther and Calvin were very suspicious of millennial speculation.路德和卡尔文都非常可疑的千年投机。Calvin declared that those who engaged in calculations based on the apocalyptic portions of Scripture were "ignorant" and "malicious."卡尔文宣称,那些谁在圣经中的世界末日的部分从事基础计算是“无知”和“恶意的。”The major statements of the various Protestant bodies such as the Augsburg Confession (1, xvii), the Thirty nine Articles (IV), and the Westminister Confession (chs. 32, 33), although professing faith in the return of Christ, do not support apocalyptic millenarian speculation.各新教团体的主要语句,如奥格斯堡自白(1,十七),在39条(四)和威斯敏斯特自白(chs. 32,33),虽然信奉基督的回报,在信仰,不支持世界末日千禧年的投机活动。In certain respects, however, the Reformers inaugurated changes which would lead to a revival of interest in premillennialism.在某些方面,但是,改革者上台改变,将导致在premillennialism兴趣复苏。These include a more literal approach to the interpretation of Scripture, the identification of the papacy with Antichrist, and an emphasis on Bible prophecy.这些包括对圣经,对与反基督教皇识别,解释和对圣经的预言更强调文字的方法。

Modern Millennialism现代千禧年

It was during the seventeenth century that premillennialism of a more scholarly nature was presented.这是在十​​七世纪,一个更加学术性质premillennialism提出。Two Reformed theologians, Johann Heinrich Alsted and Joseph Mede, were responsible for the renewal of this outlook.两个归正神学家,约翰海因里希Alsted和约瑟夫米德,是推动这个观念更新负责。They did not interpret the book of Revelation in an allegorical manner but rather understood it to contain the promise of a literal kingdom of God to be established on earth before the last judgment.他们没有解释在一个寓言启示录书的方式,而是理解它包含着对神的文字王国承诺要在地球上建立前的最后判决。During the Puritan Revolution the writings of these men encouraged others to look for the establishment of the millennial kingdom in England.在清教徒革命这些人的作品鼓舞人去寻找在英格兰千年王国的建立。One of the more radical of these groups, the Fifth Monarchy Men, became infamous for their insistence on the reestablishment of OT law and a reformed government for England.较为激进的这些群体,第五君主立宪制的男子,成为他们在OT的法律重建和一个英国政府坚持改革臭名昭著。The collapse of the Cromwellian regime and the restoration of the Stuart monarchy discredited premillennialism.该克伦威尔政权崩溃和斯图亚特王室抹黑premillennialism恢复。Yet the teaching continued into the eighteenth century through the work of Isaac Newton, Johann Albrecht Bengel, and Joseph Priestley.然而,教学一直持续到十八世纪通过牛顿,约翰阿尔布雷希特本格尔,约瑟夫普利斯特里工作。

As the popularity of premillennialism wanted, postmillennialism rose to prominence.作为premillennialism普及通缉,​​postmillennialism上升到突出。First expressed in the works of certain Puritan scholars, it received its most influential formulation in the writings of the Anglican commentator Daniel Whitby.首先在某些学者的著作清教徒表示,它收到了英国圣公会评论员丹尼尔惠特比其最有影响力的著作制定。It seemed to him that the kingdom of God was coming ever closer and that it would arrive through the same kind of effort that had always triumphed in the past.在他看来,上帝的王国来日益密切,它会到达相同的努力,通过那种一直在过去取得了胜利。Among the many theologians and preachers who were convinced by the arguments of Whitby was Jonathan Edwards.在众多的神学家,谁被说服的论据惠特比传教士是乔纳森爱德华兹。Edwardsean postmillennialism also emphasized the place of America in the establishment of millennial conditions upon the earth.Edwardsean postmillennialism还强调了美国在千年后,地球的条件成立的地点。

During the nineteenth century premillennialism became popular once again.在十九世纪premillennialism再次流行起来。The violent uprooting of European social and political institutions during the era of the French Revolution encouraged a more apocalyptic climate of opinion.欧洲社会和政治机构,在法国大革命时期的暴力铲倒鼓励更多的民意世界末日的气氛。There was also a revival of interest in the fortunes of the Jews.还有一个在犹太人的命运再度复苏。A new element was added to premillennialism during this period with the rise of dispensationalism.一个新的元素加入premillennialism在此同dispensationalism上升期。 Edward Irving, a Church of Scotland minister who pastored a congregation in London, was one of the outstanding leaders in the development of the new interpretation.爱德华欧文,苏格兰的教会牧养谁部长在伦敦聚会,是在新的解释发展的杰出领导人之一。He published numerous works on prophecy and organized the Albury Park prophecy conferences, thus setting the pattern for other gatherings of premillenarians during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.他发表了许多作品的预言,并组织阿尔伯里公园预言会议,因此设置在十九世纪和二十世纪的premillenarians其他聚会模式。 Irving's apocalyptic exposition found support among the Plymouth Brethren and led many in the group to become enthusiastic teachers of dispensational premillennialism.欧文的世界末日的论述,发现其中的普利茅斯兄弟的支持和领导了集团成为时代论premillennialism热心的教师很多。

Perhaps the leading early dispensational expositor among the Brethren was John Nelson Darby.也许早领先时代论解释者之间的兄弟约翰尼尔森达比。He believed that the second coming of Christ consisted of two stages, the first a secret rapture or "catching away" of the saints which would remove the church before a seven year period of tribulation devastates the earth, and the second when Christ appears visibly with his saints after the tribulation to rule on earth for a thousand years.他认为,基督再来第二次由两个阶段,第一个秘密的狂喜或“捉离”的圣人将删除前的磨难七年期间,教堂毁坏的地球,第二次当基督出现明显的磨难之后,他的圣人来统治地球上一千年。 Darby also taught that the church was a mystery of which only Paul wrote and that the purposes of God can be understood as working through a series of periods, or dispensations, in each of which God dealt with people in unique ways.达比也教导说,教会是一个谜,其中只有保罗写道,而神的目的,可以通过一系列的工作期间,或特许系列在每一个神与以独特的方式对待别人,了解。

Most premillennialists during the early nineteenth century were not dispensationalists, however.在早期的19世纪最premillennialists没有,时代,但是。 More typical of their number was David Nevins Lord, who edited a quarterly journal, The Theological and Literary Review, which appeared from 1848 to 1861.他们的人数更典型的是大卫内文斯的主,谁编辑的季刊,神学和文学评论,从1848年至1861年出现。This periodical contained articles of interest to premillennialists and helped to elaborate a nondispensational system of prophetic interpretation.这本期刊所载文章感兴趣的premillennialists并帮助制订一项预言解释nondispensational系统。 Lord believed that a historical explanation of the book of Revelation was preferable to the futurist outlook which characterized the dispensational view.信了主,一个历史的启示录的解释是可取的未来主义世界观为特征的时代论的看法。This approach was followed by most premillennialists in the United States until after the Civil War, when dispensationalism spread among their number.其次这种方法最premillennialists在美国南北战争后,才时,他们当中dispensationalism蔓延。 Darby's interpretation was accepted because of the work of individuals such as Henry Moorhouse, a Brethren evangelist, who convinced many interdenominational speakers to accept many interdenominational speakers to accept dispensationalism.达比的解释是接受的,因为在诸如亨利穆尔豪斯,一个弟兄,传道,谁相信许多教派接受许多发言者发言者接受dispensationalism教派人士的工作。

Typical of those who came to believe in Darby's eschatology were William E Blackstone, "Harry" A Ironside, Arno C Gaebelein, Lewis Sperry Chafer, and CI Scofield.来到这些谁相信Darby的末世典型的威廉E黑石,“哈利”一艾恩赛德,阿诺ç Gaebelein,刘易斯斯佩里金龟子,和CI Scofield的。It is through Scofield and his works that dispensationalism became the norm for much of American evangelicalism.正是dispensationalism成为了美国福音派多模通过Scofield和他的作品。His Scofield Reference Bible, which made the new eschatological interpretation an integral part of an elaborate system of notes printed on the same pages as the text, proved so popular that it sold over three million copies in fifty years.他的史高菲参考圣经,这使得新eschatological解释了一对相同的文字作为页面上打印票据阐述系统的组成部分,证明是如此受欢迎,超过三百万张的销量在五十多年。 Bible schools and seminaries such as Biola, Moody Bible Institute, Dallas Theological Seminary, and Grace Theological Seminary, along with the popular preachers and teachers who have utilized the electronic media, have made this interpretation popular among millions of conservative Protestants.圣经学校和神学院等拜欧拉,穆迪圣经学院,达拉斯神学院,神学院和格雷斯一起受欢迎的传教士,谁已利用电子媒体老师,有这样的解释深受千百万保守的新教徒。 The new view replaced the older premillennial outlook to such an extent that when George Ladd restated the historic interpretation in the midtwentieth century it seemed like a novelty to many evangelicals.新的观点取代了旧premillennial展望到这样的程度,当乔治拉德重申在midtwentieth世纪的历史解释它像一个新奇似乎很多福音派。

While the various forms of premillennialism competed for adherents in nineteenth century America, a form of postmillennialism that equated the United States with the kingdom of God became very popular.虽然各种形式的premillennialism在十九世纪的美国,一个postmillennialism形式等同于神的国度美国信徒竞争变得非常受欢迎。 Many Protestant ministers fed the fires of nationalism and Manifest Destiny by presenting the coming of the golden age as dependent upon the spread of democracy, technology, and the other "benefits" of Western civilization.许多新教凭部长美联储即将到来的黄金年龄取决于民主,技术的传播,和其他一些“好处”西方文明的民族主义和天命之火。 Perhaps the most complete statement of this civil millennialism was presented by Hollis Read.也许这一民间千禧年最完整的陈述,提出了霍利斯阅读。Ordained to the Congregational ministry in Park Street Church, Boston, he served as a missionary to India but was forced to return to the United States because of his wife's poor health.祝圣为在公园街教堂,波士顿堂部,他曾担任印度传教,但被迫返回,因为他妻子的健康状况不佳的美国。In a two volume work, The Hand of God in History, he attempted to prove that God's millennial purposes were finding fulfillment in America.在两卷工作,上帝在历史的手,他试图证明上帝的千年目的是在美国寻找实现。He believed that geography, politics, learning, the arts, and morality all pointed to the coming of the millennium to America in the nineteenth century.他认为,地理,政治,学习,艺术,道德都指出在十九世纪的美国千禧年的到来。From this base the new age could spread to the entire earth.从这个基地的新时代可能蔓延到整个地球。

As Ps.作为PS。22:27 stated, "All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn to the Lord; and all the families of the nations shall worship before him." 22点27分指出,“所有的天涯海角应当记得,转而为主,并且所有的国家的家庭,都要在他的崇拜。”In order to accomplish the purpose of global evangelism Read favored imperialism because the extension of Anglo Saxon control over other nations ensured the spread of the gospel.为了实现全球布道阅读的目的,帝国主义的青睐,因为盎格鲁撒克逊人对其他国家的控制权扩展保证了福音的传播。He cited the prevalence of the English language, which made it easier to preach the Word and to teach the native people the more civilized Western culture, as one example of the benefits of Western control.他列举了英文流行,这使得它更容易传道和教导当地人更文明的西方文化为一体的西方控制的优点,例如。Technological improvements such as the steam press, the locomotive, and the steamship were also given by God to spread enlightenment and the Christian message to all peoples.如蒸汽新闻界,机车,轮船和技术改进,也提供了上帝的启示和基督教传播消息给所有人民。

Whenever the United States has faced a time of crisis, there have been those who have revived civil postmillennialism as a means to encourage and comfort their fellow citizens.每当美国面临的危机时,有那些谁已经恢复民事postmillennialism为手段,以鼓励和安慰他们的同胞。 The biblical content of this belief has become increasingly vague as the society has become more pluralistic.这种信仰圣经内容也越来越模糊,随着社会变得更加多元化。For example, during the period of the Civil War many agreed with Julia Ward Howe's "Battle Hymn of the Republic," which described God as working through the Northern forces to accomplish his ultimate purpose.例如,同意在南北战争期间许多与朱丽娅伍德霍夫的“共和国战歌”,它描述为通过北方军的工作来实现他的最终目的神。 President Wilson's crusade to "make the world safe for democracy," which led his country into World War I, was based upon a postmillennial vision that gave American ideals the major role in establishing peace and justice on earth.威尔逊总统的十字军东征“使世界对民主,安全”而导致他对第一次世界大战的国家,是在一个postmillennial远见,给了美国的理想在地球上建立和平与正义的重要作用。 Since World War II several groups have revived civil millennialism to counter communism and to resist domestic changes such as those brought about by the moves for equal rights for women.自第二次世界大战以来几组已经恢复民间千禧年来对付共产主义,并抵制,例如关于通过争取妇女平等权利的运动带来的国内的变化。

In addition to the premillennial, amillennial, and postmillennial interpretations there have been groups such as the Shakers, the Seventh Day Adventists, the Jehovah's Witnesses, and the Latter day Saints (Mormons) who tend to equate the activities of their own sect with the coming of the millennium.除了premillennial,amillennial和postmillennial的解释也有,如热点,在安息日,耶和华的见证人,而后者圣徒教会(摩门教)被群体谁往往等同于未来自己的教派活动千禧年。 There are also movements including the Nazis and the Marxists who teach a kind of secular millennialism when they speak of the Third Reich or the classless society.此外,还有包括纳粹和马克思主义者谁教的世俗千禧年时,他们的第三帝国或无阶级社会那种说话的动作。

RG Clouse的RG克劳斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
RG Clouse, ed., The Meaning of the Millennium: Four Views; ER Sandeen, The Roots of Fundamentalism; GE Ladd, The Blessed Hope; A Reese, The Approaching Advent of Christ; N West, Studies in Eschatology; R Anderson, The Coming Prince; WE Blackstone, Jesus Is Coming; R Pache, The Return of Jesus Christ; CC Ryrie, Dispensationalism Today; JF Walvoord, The Millennial Kingdom; L Boettner, The Millennium; D Brown, Christ's Second Coming; JM Kik, An Eschatology of Victory; OT Allis, Prophecy and the Church; AA Hoekema, The Bible and the Future; P Mauro, The Seventy Weeks and the Great Tribulation; G Vos, The Pauline Eschatology.的RG克劳斯,教育署,千年的意思:。四意见;雌桑德恩,对原教旨主义的根源;葛雷德,盼望的福,一个里斯,基督逼近的到来; ñ西方,在末世的研究与r安德森未来的王子,我们黑石,耶稣快到ř帕什,耶稣基督的报酬;消委会ryrie,Dispensationalism今天;怡富Walvoord,千年国度的L Boettner,千年; ð布朗,基督的再临,JM极乐洞,安末世胜利;催产素亚力,预言和教会;机管局赫克玛,圣经和未来; P毛罗,第七周,大患难Ğ沃斯,该宝莲末世。


Millennium and Millenarianism千禧千禧年

Catholic Information天主教新闻

The fundamental idea of millenarianism, as understood by Christian writers, may be set forth as follows: At the end of time Christ will return in all His splendour to gather together the just, to annihilate hostile powers, and to found a glorious kingdom on earth for the enjoyment of the highest spiritual and material blessings; He Himself will reign as its king, and all the just, including the saints recalled to life, will participate in it.在千禧年的基本想法,因为理解的基督教作家,可规定如下:在年底的时候基督将在他的所有辉煌回到刚刚凝聚起来,消灭敌对势力,并在地球上发现一个荣耀之国为最高的精神和物质生活带来的享受;他本人也将作为国王的统治,所有的公正,包括圣人召回的生命,将参与其中。 At the close of this kingdom the saints will enter heaven with Christ, while the wicked, who have also been resuscitated, will be condemned to eternal damnation.在这个王国关闭与基督圣徒将进入天堂,而邪恶的,谁也已复苏,将注定永恒的诅咒。The duration of this glorious reign of Christ and His saints on earth, is frequently given as one thousand years.这个地球上的基督和他的圣人光荣统治期间,经常给出千年。Hence it is commonly known as the "millennium", while the belief in the future realization of the kingdom is called "millenarianism" (or "chiliasm", from the Greek chilia, scil. ete).因此,它是俗称的“千禧年”,而在未来的王国实现的信念是所谓的“千禧年”(或“千年至福说”,从希腊chilia,scil。埃泰)。 This term of one thousand years, however, is by no means an essential element of the millennium as conceived by its adherents.这千年任期,但绝不是一所设想的作为其信徒千年的基本要素。The extent, details of the realization, conditions, the place, of the millennium were variously described.的范围内,实现,条件,地点的千年,不同程度的细节描述。

Essential are the following points:基本有以下几点:

the early return of Christ in all His power and glory,基督的早日恢复在他的所有权力和荣耀,

the establishment of an earthly kingdom with the just,一个与刚刚地上王国的建立,

the resuscitation of the deceased saints and their participation in the glorious reign,死者圣人复苏和他们在辉煌时期的参与,

the destruction of the powers hostile to God, and,敌对的神的权力,和破坏,

at the end of the kingdom, the universal resurrection with the final judgment,在英国,与普遍的复活结束终审判决,

after which the just will enter heaven, while the wicked will be consigned to the eternal fire of hell.之后,只是将进入天堂,而恶人将委托给日本的永火的地狱。

The roots of the belief in a glorious kingdom, partly natural, partly supernatural, are found in the hopes of the Jews for a temporal Messiah and in the Jewish apocalyptic.在光荣的部分自然王国的信念,部分超自然的,都在为一个时间的弥赛亚犹太人的希望和犹太世界末日发现的根源。 Under the galling pressure of their political circumstances the expectation of a Messiah who would free the people of God had in the Jewish mind, assumed a character that was to a great extent earthly; the Jews longed above all for a saviour who would free them from their oppressors and restore the former splendour of Israel.根据他们的政治情况下,期望一个救世主将释放谁上帝的子民在犹太人心目中,拉毛压假设一个字符,在很大程度上是俗世;以上的犹太人谁的救世主将释放他们的一切渴望他们的压迫者和以色列恢复前的辉煌。 These expectations generally included the belief that Jehovah would conquer all powers hostile to Himself and to His chosen people, and that He would set up a final, glorious kingdom of Israel.这些期望一般包括相信耶和华会战胜一切权力敌视和他自己选择的人,他将成立一个最终的,光荣的以色列王国。The apocalyptic books, principally the book of Henoch and the fourth book of Esdras, indicate various details of the arrival of the Messiah, the defeat of the nations hostile to Israel, and the union of all the Israelites in the Messianic kingdom followed by the renovation of the world and the universal resurrection.世界末日的书籍,主要是书的过敏性第四本书的埃斯德拉斯,表明各个细节的弥赛亚,对国家的敌视以色列的失败的到来,以及所有以色列人在弥赛亚王国工会其次是翻新世界和普遍的复活。

The natural and the supernatural are mingled in this conception of a Messianic kingdom as the closing act of the world's history.自然和超自然的交织在这一个作为世界历史收盘行为弥赛亚王国的构想。The Jewish hopes of a Messiah, and the descriptions of apocalyptic writers were blended; it was between the close of the present world-order and the commencement of the new that this sublime kingdom of the chosen people was to find its place.犹太人的弥赛亚的希望,并为混合世界末日作家的描述,它是与目前的世界秩序的结束和新的,这种崇高的王国所选择的人是找到它的位置开始。 That many details of these conceptions should remain indistinct and confused was but natural, but the Messianic kingdom is always pictured as something miraculous, though the colours are at times earthly and sensuous.这些观念很多细节应该保持这种模糊和混乱的,但自然的,但始终是救世主的国度描绘成神奇的东西,虽然有时是色彩俗世和感性。 The evangelical accounts clearly prove how fervently the Jews at the time of Christ expected an earthly Messianic kingdom, but the Saviour came to proclaim the spiritual kingdom of God for the deliverance of man from his sins and for his sanctification, a kingdom which actually began with His birth.福音派帐目清楚地证明如何热切犹太人的时候,基督在地上的弥赛亚王国预期,但救主来到宣布对从解脱他的罪孽男子和他的圣洁,一个王国,实际上开始与上帝的精神王国他的出生。 There is no trace of chiliasm to be found in the Gospels or in the Epistles of St. Paul; everything moves in the spiritual and religious sphere; even the descriptions of the end of the world and of the last judgment bear this stamp.没有一丝的千年至福说被发现在福音或书信的圣保罗,在宗教领域的精神和一切行动,甚至对世界的结束和最后的审判描述承担这枚邮票。 The victory over the symbolical beast (the enemy of God and of the saints) and over Antichrist, as well as the triumph of Christ and His saints, are described in the Apocalypse of St. John (Revelation 20-21), in pictures that resemble those of the Jewish apocalyptic writers, especially of Daniel and Henoch.而从象征性的野兽(上帝和圣人的敌人)及以上的反基督的胜利,以及基督和他的圣人的胜利,说明在圣约翰(启示录20-21)启示录中的照片,那像那些犹太世界末日的作家,尤其是丹尼尔和过敏。 Satan is chained in the abyss for a thousand years, the martyrs and the just rise from the dead and share in the priesthood and kingship of Christ.撒旦是在深渊链接了一千多年,烈士和从死亡和神职人员和基督的王权份额仅为上升。Though it is difficult to focus sharply the pictures used in the Apocalypse and the things expressed by them, yet there can be no doubt that the whole description refers to the spiritual combat between Christ and the Church on the one hand and the malignant powers of hell and the world on the other.虽然这是难以集中的启示和急剧的东西所使用的图片所表达的,但不可能有任何疑问,完整的说明指的是基督和教会的精神打击,一方面,阴间的恶性权力和世界上其他。 Nevertheless, a large number of Christians of the post-Apostolic era, particularly in Asia Minor, yielded so far to Jewish apocalyptic as to put a literal meaning into these descriptions of St. John's Apocalypse; the result was that millenarianism spread and gained staunch advocates not only among the heretics but among the Catholic Christians as well.不过,也有在后使徒时代的基督徒,特别是在小亚细亚,人数众多,取得了迄今为犹太人世界末日的投入圣约翰启示录这些描述一种字面上的意义,其结果是,千禧年的传播,取得了坚定的倡导者不仅在异端但其中也天主教教徒。

One of the heretics, the Gnostic Cerinthus, who flourished towards the end of the first century, proclaimed a splendid kingdom of Christ on earth which He would establish with the risen saints upon His second advent, and pictured the pleasures of this one thousand years in gross, sensual colours (Caius in Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", III, 28; Dionysius Alex. in Eusebius, ibid., VII, 25).的异端,诺斯替克林妥,谁对第一世纪末兴起之一,它在地球上宣布,他将与他的第二次来临后,复活的基督圣徒灿烂的国度,并描绘这千年中的乐趣严重的,感性的颜色(凯斯在尤西比乌斯,“历史传道书。。”,三,28;。狄奥尼Alex在尤西比乌斯,同上,第七章,25。)。 Later among Catholics, Bishop Papias of Hierapolis, a disciple of St. John, appeared as an advocate of millenarianism.后来天主教徒,主教帕皮亚的希拉波利斯,是圣约翰弟子,表现为一个千禧年的倡导者。He claimed to have received his doctrine from contemporaries of the Apostles, and Irenaeus narrates that other "Presbyteri", who had seen and heard the disciple John, learned from him the belief in millenarianism as part of the Lord's doctrine.他声称自己已收到他从同时代的使徒教义,和爱任纽叙述,其他“Presbyteri”,谁曾看到和听到的门徒约翰,从他身上学到作为主的学说的一部分,在千禧年的信念。 According to Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., 111, 39) Papias in his book asserted that the resurrection of the dead would be followed by one thousand years of a visible glorious earthly kingdom of Christ, and according to Irenaeus (Adv. Haereses, V, 33), he taught that the saints too would enjoy a superabundance of earthly pleasures.据尤西比乌斯(hist.传道书。,111,39)在他的书中断言,帕皮亚死人复活将由一千有形光荣的基督的世俗王国年的随访,并根据爱任纽(2002上海高考Haereses,五,33岁),他告诉我们,圣徒也将享受人间的快乐太多了。 There will be days in which vines will grow, each with 10,000 branches, and on each branch 10,000 twigs, and on each twig 10,000 shoots, and in each shoot 10,000 clusters, and on each cluster 10,000 grapes, and each grape will produce 216 gallons of wine etc.会有那么一天,其中葡萄树会成长,每1万支,并在各分行10,000树枝和每枝万枝,并在每个拍摄10,000集群,每个集群万葡萄,每一颗葡萄将产生二百一十六加仑葡萄酒等

Millenarian ideas are found by most commentators in the Epistle of St. Barnabas, in the passage treating of the Jewish sabbath; for the resting of God on the seventh day after the creation is explained in the following manner.千禧年的想法是发现大多数评论家在圣使徒巴拿巴在犹太安息日治疗通道;为上帝在第七天休息后,在下面的创作方式解释。 After the Son of God has come and put an end to the era of the wicked and judged them, and after the sun, the moon, and the stars have been changed, then He will rest in glory on the seventh day.追赶神的儿子已经来到,并制止恶人的时代和判断他们,经过太阳,月亮,星星已被更改,那么他将安息在荣耀的第七天。The author had premised, if it is said that God created all things in six days, this means that God will complete all things in six millenniums, for one day represents one thousand years.笔者曾前提,如果说,上帝在六日内创造的一切事物,这意味着上帝将完成所有的事情在6个千年一天,代表千年。It is certain that the writer advocates the tenet of a re-formation of the world through the second advent of Christ, but it is not clear from the indications whether the author of the letter was a millenarian in the strict sense of the word.可以肯定的是,作者主张重新在世界的形成,通过基督的第二次到来的宗旨,但它不是从适应症是否该信的作者是在严格意义上的千禧清楚。 St. Irenæus of Lyons, a native of Asia Minor, influenced by the companions of St. Polycarp, adopted millenarian ideas, discussing and defending them in his works against the Gnostics (Adv. Haereses, V, 32).圣irenæus的里昂,一小亚细亚的圣波利卡普同伴的影响,本地的,通过千禧年的想法,讨论和捍卫反对的Gnostics(2002上海高考Haereses,五,32)他的作品他们。 He developed this doctrine mainly in opposition to the Gnostics, who rejected all hopes of the Christians in a happy future life, and discerned in the glorious kingdom of Christ on earth principally the prelude to the final, spiritual kingdom of God, the realm of eternal bliss.他主要是在反对发达国家的Gnostics,谁拒绝在一个幸福的未来生活的基督徒都希望这种学说,看出在基督荣耀之国的主要是地球上最后的序幕,上帝,永恒的精神境界的国度幸福。 St. Justin of Rome, the martyr, opposes to the Jews in his Dialogue with Tryphon (ch. 80-1) the tenet of a millennium and asserts that he and the Christians whose belief is correct in every point know that there will be a resurrection of the body and that the newly built and enlarged Jerusalem will last for the space of a thousand years, but he adds that there are many who, though adhering to the pure and pious teachings of Christ, do not believe in it.圣贾斯汀的罗马,烈士,反对犹太人在他与Tryphon(章80-1)在一个千年的宗旨对话,并声称,他和基督徒的信仰是在每一点上,正确的认识将有一复活的身体,而新建和扩建耶路撒冷将持续了一千多年的空间,但他补充说,有很多谁,但坚持基督的纯洁和虔诚的教诲,不相信它。 A witness for the continued belief in millenarianism in the province of Asia is St. Melito, Bishop of Sardes in the second century.在千禧年为在亚洲地区继续相信证人是在公元二世纪的圣美利托Sardes,主教。He develops the same train of thought as did St. Irenæus.他发展的思想一样圣irenæus同一列火车。

The Montanistic movement had its origin in Asia Minor.该Montanistic运动有其原产地在小亚细亚。 The expectation of an early advent of the celestial Jerusalem upon earth, which, it was thought, would appear in Phrygia, was intimately joined in the minds of the Montanists with the idea of the millennium.在把耶路撒冷后,地球的天体,其中,人们认为,早期出现预期将出现在弗里吉亚,是密切在心中的montanists加入了千禧年的想法。 Tertullian, the protagonist of Montanism, expounds the doctrine (in his work now lost, "De Spe Fidelium" and in "Adv. Marcionem", IV) that at the end of time the great Kingdom of promise, the new Jerusalem, would be established and last for the space of one thousand years.良,是主角的montanism,阐述了原则(在他的作品现在失去了,“德固相萃取Fidelium”和“地。Marcionem”,四),在时间的尽头的大国的承诺,新的耶路撒冷,将制定并执行的千年空间的最后。 All these millenarian authors appeal to various passages in the prophetic books of the Old Testament, to a few passages in the Letters of St. Paul and to the Apocalypse of St. John.所有这些千禧年的作家呼吁在旧约的先知书不同的段落在圣保罗和圣约翰的启示英皇少数几个通道。Though millenarianism had found numerous adherents among the Christians and had been upheld by several ecclesiastical theologians, neither in the post-Apostolic period nor in the course of the second century, does it appear as a universal doctrine of the Church or as a part of the Apostolic tradition.虽然千禧年的基督徒中发现了众多的追随者,并一直坚持的几个教会神学家,无论是在后使徒时期,也没有在第二个世纪的过程中,它作为一种普遍主义的教会或作为显示的一部分使徒的传统。 The primitive Apostolic symbol mentions indeed the resurrection of the body and the return of Christ to judge the living and the dead, but it says not a word of the millennium.原始确实提到使徒象征复活的身体和基督的回报,审判活人与死人,但它说不是一个千年的话。It was the second century that produced not only defenders of the millennium but pronounced adversaries of the chiliastic ideas.这是第二个世纪,产生不千年,但明显的对手只有思想的chiliastic维护者。Gnosticism rejected millenarianism.诺斯替主义拒绝千禧年。In Asia Minor, the principal seat of millenarian teachings, the so-called Alogi rose up against millenarianism as well as against Montanism, but they went too far in their opposition, rejecting not only the Apocalypse of St. John, alleging Cerinthus as its author, but his Gospel also.在小亚细亚,在千禧年的教义主要席位,即所谓的Alogi起来攻击千禧以及对montanism,他们却在反对太远,不仅拒绝了圣约翰的启示,作为其作者声称克林妥,但他的福音也。 The opposition to millenarianism became more general towards the end of the second century, going hand in hand with the struggle against Montanism.到千禧年反对派变得更加普遍实现了第二个世纪结束时,将手与手的对montanism斗争。The Roman presbyter Caius (end of the second and beginning of the third century) attacked the millenarians.罗马长老凯厄斯(结束的第二和第三世纪初)袭击了千禧年。On the other hand, Hippolytus of Rome defended them and attempted a proof, basing his arguments on the allegorical explanation of the six days of creation as six thousand years, as he had been taught by tradition.另一方面,罗马西波吕替他们辩护,并试图证明,立足于对作为六千年寓言创作的六天解释他的论点,因为他已经由传统授课。

The most powerful adversary of millenarianism was Origen of Alexandria.在千禧年最强大的对手是亚历山大奥利。In view of the Neo-Platonism on which his doctrines were founded and of his spiritual-allegorical method of explaining the Holy Scripture, he could not side with the millenarians.在新柏拉图主义的观点对他的教义和他的精神,寓意解释圣经的方法创立,他不能一边与千禧年。He combatted them expressly, and, owing to the great influence which his writings exerted on ecclesiastical theology especially in Oriental countries, millenarianism gradually disappeared from the idea of Oriental Christians.他combatted他们明确,而且,由于巨大的影响力,他的著作,特别是对教会的神学施加在东方国家,千禧逐渐消失,从东方基督徒的想法。 Only a few later advocates are known to us, principally theological adversaries of Origen.只有少数后来我们主张是众所周知的,神学的渊源主要对手。About the middle of the third century, Nepos, bishop in Egypt, who entered the lists against the allegorism of Origen, also propounded millenarian ideas and gained some adherents in the vicinity of Arsino .关于第三个世纪,Nepos,在埃及,谁进入反对奥利allegorism,也propounded千禧年观念的名单和所取得的Arsino附近一些信徒主教中间。 A schism threatened; but the prudent and moderate policy of Dionysius, Bishop of Alexandria, preserved unity; the chiliasts abandoned their views (Eusebius "Hist. Eccl.", VII, 14).一个分裂的威胁;但修斯,主教亚历山德里亚,谨慎,温和的政策保持一致;的chiliasts放弃他们的意见(尤西比乌斯,七,14“历史传道书。。”)。 Egypt seems to have harboured adherents of millenarianism in still later times Methodius, Bishop of Olympus, one of the principal opponents of Origen at the beginning of the fourth century, upheld chiliasm in his Symposion (IX, 1, 5).埃及似乎有包庇信徒仍千禧年以后的时间Methodius,奥林巴斯,对奥利在四世纪初的主要对手之一的主教,在他的坚持Symposion(九,1,5)千年至福说。 In the second half of the fourth century, these doctrines found their last defender in Apollinaris, Bishop of Laodicea and founder of Apollinarism (qv).在四世纪下半叶,这些理论发现他们在亚坡理纳主教劳迪西亚最后的卫道士和Apollinarism(qv)的创始人。His writings on this subject, have been lost; but St. Basil of Caesarea (Epist. CCLXIII, 4), Epiphanius (Haeres. LXX, 36) and Jerome (In Isai. XVIII) testify to his having been a chiliast.他对这个问题的著作,已经失去了,但圣罗勒的恺撒(Epist. CCLXIII,4),埃皮法尼乌斯(Haeres. LXX的,36岁)和杰罗姆(。在小井十八)作证,他已被一信徒。Jerome also adds that many Christians of that time shared the same beliefs; but after that millenarianism found no outspoken champion among the theologians of the Greek Church.杰罗姆还补充说,当时很多基督徒有着相同的信念;但在那之后千禧年中发现的希腊教会的神学家没有敢言冠军。

In the West, the millenarian expectations of a glorious kingdom of Christ and His just, found adherents for a long time.在西方,一个光荣的基督和他的王国的千禧年的期望公正,发现很长一段时间的信徒。 The poet Commodian (Instructiones, 41, 42, 44) as well as Lactantius (Institutiones, VII) proclaim the millennial realm and describe its splendour, partly drawing on the earlier chiliasts and the Sybilline prophecies, partly borrowing their colours from the "golden age" of the pagan poets; but the idea of the six thousand years for the duration of the world is ever conspicuous.诗人Commodian(Instructiones,41,42,44)以及潭修斯(Institutiones,七)宣扬千年的境界,并描述它的辉煌,部分借鉴了先前chiliasts和Sybilline预言,部分借用了“黄金年龄的颜色“异教徒的诗人,但对世界的持续时间六千年的想法是不断突出。 Victorinus of Pettau also was a millenarian though in the extant copy of his commentary on the Apocalypse no allusions to it can be detected.对Pettau Victorinus也是一个在他没有给它的典故,可以发现本千禧年的启示,但现存的评论。St. Jerome, himself a decided opponent of the millenial ideas, brands Sulpicius Severus as adhering to them, but in the writings of this author in their present form nothing can be found to support this charge.圣杰罗姆,对于自己的想法决定的millenial对手,品牌Sulpicius西弗勒斯以及遵守他们,但在这方面他们目前的形式没有作者的著作中可以找到支持这项指控。 St. Ambrose indeed teaches a twofold resurrection, but millenarian doctrines do not stand out clearly.圣刘汉铨教授的确是双重的复活,但千禧年的教义不醒目。On the other hand; St. Augustine was for a time, as he himself testifies (De Civitate Dei, XX, 7), a pronounced champion of millenarianism; but he places the millennium after the universal resurrection and regards it in a more spiritual light (Sermo, CCLIX).另一方面,圣奥古斯丁,一时间,正如他自己证明(德Civitate棣,第二十条,7),一个明显的千禧年冠军,但他的地方后,普遍复活的千年和精神方面更光明, (Sermo,CCLIX)。When, however, he accepted the doctrine of only one universal resurrection and a final judgment immediately following, he could no longer cling to the principal tenet of early chiliasm.但是,当他接受了,只有一个普遍主义的复活和最后判决后立即,他再也坚持早期千禧年说的主要宗旨。St. Augustine finally held to the conviction that there will be no millennium.圣奥古斯丁终于举行的信念是不会有千年。 The struggle between Christ and His saints on the one hand and the wicked world and Satan on the other, is waged in the Church on earth; so the great Doctor describes it in his work De Civitate Dei.一方面对之间的斗争基督和他的圣徒和邪恶的世界,另一方面撒旦,是在地球上发动教会,所以这项伟大的医生介绍了他的工作,德Civitate棣它。 In the same book he gives us an allegorical explanation of Chapter 20 of the Apocalypse.在同一本书,他给了我们一个启示录20章寓言的解释。The first resurrection, of which this chapter treats, he tells us, refers to the spiritual rebirth in baptism; the sabbath of one thousand years after the six thousand years of history is the whole of eternal life -- or in other words, the number one thousand is intended to express perfection, and the last space of one thousand years must be understood as referring to the end of the world; at all events, the kingdom of Christ, of which the Apocalypse speaks, can only be applied to the Church (De Civitate Dei, XX 5-7).第一次复活,而本章节的赏赐,他告诉我们,是指在洗礼重生,对1000年后,历史的六千年安息日是整个生命的永恒 - 或者换句话说,这个数字千是为了表达完美,以及千年的最后空间必须为指的是世界的末日理解;在所有比赛中,基督的王国,其中的启示说,只能被应用到教会(德Civitate棣,二十5-7)。 This explanation of the illustrious Doctor was adopted by succeeding Western theologians, and millenarianism in its earlier shape no longer received support.这解释了杰出的医生成功通过了在其早先的形状西方神学家,和千禧年不再得到支持。Cerinthus and the Ebionites are mentioned in later writings against the heretics as defenders of the millennium, it is true, but as cut-off from the Church.克林妥以便尼派和后来的著作中提到的对作为千年维护者的异端,这是事实,但作为切断,从教堂。Moreover, the attitude of the Church towards the secular power had undergone a change with closer connection between her and the Roman empire.此外,教会对世俗政权的态度经历了一个与她之间更密切的联系与罗马帝国的变化。 There is no doubt that this turn of events did much towards weaning the Christians from the old millenarianism, which during the time of persecution had been the expression of their hopes that Christ would soon reappear and overthrow the foes of His elect.毫无疑问,这样的变故确实对断奶从旧的千禧年,这在当时的迫害一直是他们的希望,基督将很快重现,推翻他的当选表达基督徒的敌人了。 Chiliastic views disappeared all the more rapidly, because, as was remarked above, in spite of their wide diffusion even among sincere Christians, and in spite of their defence by prominent Fathers of the early Church, millenarianism was never held in the universal Church as an article of faith based on Apostolic traditions.的chiliastic意见,更迅速地消失,因为,正如他们所说的,尽管上面的广泛传播,即使是虔诚的基督徒,并在其辩护尽管由早期教会教父突出,千禧年是从来没有在普世教会举行一文章的信仰基础上使徒传统。 The Middle Ages were never tainted with millenarianism; it was foreign both to the theology of that period and to the religious ideas of the people.中世纪从未沾染上千禧年,它是外来同时向这一时期神学和人民的宗教思想。 The fantastic views of the apocalyptic writers (Joachim of Floris, the Franciscan-Spirituals, the Apostolici), referred only to a particular form of spiritual renovation of the Church, but did not include a second advent of Christ.在世界末日作家的美景(约阿希姆的佛洛里斯,济,灵歌,在Apostolici),只提到一个更新的教会精神的特定形式,但不包括基督第二次来临。 The "emperor myths," which prophesied the establishment of a happy, universal kingdom by the great emperor of the future, contain indeed descriptions that remind one of the ancient Sybilline and millenarian writings, but an essential trait is again missing, the return of Christ and the connection of the blissful reign with the resurrection of the just. “皇帝的神话”,它预言了未来的伟大皇帝的幸福,普遍王国的建立,包含确实说明,提醒古Sybilline和千禧年的著作之一,但一个重要特点是再次失踪,基督的再来和幸福的统治的正义与复活的连接。 Hence the millennium proper is unknown to them.因此,正确的是千年他们并不知晓。The Protestantism of the sixteenth century ushered in a new epoch of millenarian doctrines.十六世纪的新教迎来了一个新的千禧年主义时代。Protestant fanatics of the earlier years, particularly the Anabaptists, believed in a new, golden age under the sceptre of Christ, after the overthrow of the papacy and secular empires.基督教狂热分子的前几年,尤其是anabaptists,在一个新的,在基督的权杖黄金时代认为,被推翻后,教宗和世俗帝国。 In 1534 the Anabaptists set up in Münster (Westphalia) the new Kingdom of Zion, which advocated sharing property and women in common, as a prelude to the new kingdom of Christ.在1534年设置在明斯特(威斯特伐利亚)锡安的新王国,主张在共同分享财产和妇女作为一个基督的新王国的序幕,最多的anabaptists。 Their excesses were opposed and their millenarianism disowned by both the Augsberg (art. 17) and the Helvetian Confession (ch. 11), so that it found no admission into the Lutheran and Reformed theologies.他们的过激行为是反对和否定双方的千禧年的Augsberg(第17)和Helvetian自白(章11),因此它没有发现到路德和改革神学入场。 Nevertheless, the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries produced new apocalyptic fanatics and mystics who expected the millennium in one form or another: in Germany, the Bohemian and Moravian Brethren (Comenius); in France, Pierre Jurien (L'Accomplissement des Propheties, 1686); in England at the time of Cromwell, the Independents and Jane Leade.然而,十七和十八世纪产生新的世界末日的狂热分子和神秘主义者谁在预期或另一种形式的千年:在德国,波希米亚和摩拉维亚弟兄(夸美纽斯),在法国,皮埃尔Jurien(欧莱雅Accomplissement德Propheties,1686年);在英格兰的克伦威尔,独立人士和简Leade时间。 A new phase in the development of millenarian views among the Protestants commenced with Pietism.在一个虔诚主义之间展开的新教徒与千禧年发展的意见的新阶段。One of the chief champions of the millennium in Germany was IA Bengel and his disciple Crusius, who were afterwards joined by Rothe, Volch, Thiersch, Lange and others.在德国的千年的冠军之一,是保险业监督行政本格尔和他的弟子克鲁修斯,谁是事后由罗斯,Volch,Thiersch氏,兰格等人会合。 Protestants from Wurtemberg emigrated to Palestine (Temple Communities) in order to be closer to Christ at His second advent.从Wurtemberg新教徒移居巴勒斯坦(庙社区),以便更好地贴近他在第二次来临基督。Certain fantastical sects of England and North America, such as the Irvingites, Mormons, Adventists, adopted both apocalyptic and millenarian views, expecting the return of Christ and the establishment of His kingdom at an early date.某些幻想的教派英国和北美,如Irvingites,摩门教,复临,通过了这两项世界末日和千禧年的看法,期待回归基督和他的国早日建立。 Some Catholic theologians of the nineteenth century championed a moderate, modified millenarianism, especially in connection with their explanations of the Apocalypse; as Pagani (The End of the World, 1856), Schneider (Die chiliastische Doktrin, 1859), Rohling (Erklärung der Apokalypse des hl. lohannes, 1895; Auf nach Sion, 1901), Rougeyron Chabauty (Avenir de l'Eglise catholique selon le Plan Divin, 1890).十九世纪的一些天主教神学家倡导,尤其是在与他们的解释方面的启示温和,修改千禧年;作为帕加尼(世界的结束,1856年),施耐德(模具chiliastische Doktrin,1859年),罗林(Erklärung明镜Apokalypse 。万的HL lohannes,1895年;奥夫胆碱锡永,1901年),Rougeyron Chabauty(艾文莉欧莱雅埃格斯天主教聚赛龙德乐计划Divin,1890年)。

Publication information Written by JP Kirsch.出版信息的书面由JP基尔希。Transcribed by Donald J. Boon.转录的唐纳德J福音。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.天主教百科全书,卷十,1911年出版。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


Also, see:此外,见:
Imminence 急迫性
Adventism adventism

London (Westminster) Confession伦敦(西敏寺)不打自招
Augsburg Confession奥格斯堡自白
Thirty-Nine Articles39条

Second Coming of Christ耶稣第二次来
Eschatology 末世
Dispensation, Dispensationalism配药, dispensationalism
Last Judgement最后审判
Rapture, Tribulation破裂,磨难
Tribulation, Great Tribulation磨难,伟大的磨难


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