Moravian Church摩拉维亚教会

General Information一般资料

The Moravian Church is a Protestant communion closely linked to Lutheranism.摩拉维亚教会是一个新教徒交流密切相关的路德教。It has its roots in the Czech Reformation and is a direct continuation of the Bohemian Brethren.它在捷克宗教改革其根源,是波希米亚弟兄的直接延续。

Influenced by the spiritual heritage of John Huss, Brother Gregory founded the Bohemian Unity of Brethren, which, having functioned within the Utraquist group of Hussites for a decade, separated in 1467 and established an independent ministry.受到作为其约翰胡斯精神遗产,兄弟格雷戈里成立的弟兄们,其中,有运作范围内的胡斯派Utraquist组的十年中,1467年分开,并设立了一个独立的部波希米亚的统一。 The reform movement based itself solely on the Bible, and its leaders were able to procure non Roman ordination from a bishop of the Waldenses.基于本身的改革运动完全圣经和它的领导人能够从采购的非罗马主教瓦勒协调。

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Occasional persecution of the Unity became systematic in the 16th century, a period marked by the theological creativity of Lukas of Prague (c. 1460 - 1528) and Jan Augusta (1500 - 72) and by contact with other Protestant reformers.偶尔迫害的统一成为16世纪系统化,一个时期标志着由布拉格卢卡斯神学创造力(约1460年至1528年)和Jan奥古斯塔(1500 - 72),并通过与其他新教改革者接触。Toleration obtained in 1609 was short lived as the Czech Protestants were expelled by Catholic advances in the Thirty Years' War (1627).在1609年得到宽容是短暂的,因为捷克新教徒被驱逐天主教进步在三十年战争(1627年)。 John Amos Comenius, the Unity's last bishop, led the group into exile.约翰阿摩司夸美纽斯,团结的最后主教率领流亡集团。A century later, representatives of German Pietism encouraged survivors of the Unity to migrate from Moravia to Saxony, where in 1722 the community of Herrnhut was founded.一个世纪以后,德国虔诚主义的代表鼓励幸存者的团结从摩拉维亚迁移到萨克森州,凡在1722年的Herrnhut社区成立。 Graf von Zinzendorf assumed leadership, and a spiritual awakening swept the congregation in 1727, which is often taken as the founding date of the Moravian Church.格拉夫冯辛生铎夫担任领导能力和精神的觉醒在1727年席卷众,这常常是作为摩拉维亚教会成立日期。

The Moravians were pioneers in Protestant home and foreign missions, seeking renewal of European Christianity and the evangelization of the non Christian world.在新教的摩拉维亚家和外国使团的先驱,寻求重建欧洲基督教与非基督教世界的福音。August Gottlieb Spangenberg, sent to America in 1735, founded churches in Georgia, Pennsylvania, and North Carolina.八月戈特利布施潘根贝格,运到美国于1735年,成立于格鲁吉亚,宾夕法尼亚州和北卡罗莱纳州教堂。Zinzendorf stimulated the church by his missionary leadership and religious genius, especially in community formation and cultic celebration.亲岑多夫刺激了他的领导和宗教天才传教的教会,特别是在社会形成和邪教的庆祝活动。 He also troubled the church with financial instability and devotional excesses that nearly wrecked it in the 1740s.他还困扰与金融不稳定和破坏,几乎在1740年代它过分虔诚的教堂。After his death more moderate leadership was introduced by Spangenberg.他去世后更温和的领导介绍了斯潘根伯格。

Moravianism is basically presbyterian in structure, and its bishops are chosen on spiritual merit to serve in pastoral and cultic roles rather than in administrative ones.Moravianism结构基本上是长老会,其主教都是值得选择的服务精神在牧区和邪教的角色,而不是行政措施。Composed of approximately 360,000 members, the Moravian Church has played a major role in the development of Protestant worship, evangelism, missions, and theology in the last three centuries.约360,000名成员组成,摩拉维亚教会在过去发挥了三个世纪,在新教的崇拜,布道,宣教和神学发展的重要作用。

James D Nelson詹姆斯D纳尔逊

Bibliography 参考书目
GL Gollin, Moravians in Two Worlds: A Study of Changing Communities (1967); JT / KG Hamilton, History of the Moravian Church: The Renewed Unitas Fratrum, 1722 - 1957 (1967); E Langton, History of the Moravian Church (1956).吉尔Gollin,摩拉维亚在两个世界:一个改变群落的研究(1967年);特鲁利/公斤汉密尔顿,摩拉维亚教会的历史:Fratrum续订乌尼塔斯,1722年至1957年(1967),电子商务兰顿,在摩拉维亚教会历史(1956年)。


Bohemian Brethren波希米亚弟兄

Catholic Information天主教新闻

(MORAVIAN BRETHREN, or UNITAS FRATRUM).(摩拉维亚弟兄,乌尼塔斯fratrum)。

DEFINITION AND DOCTRINAL POSITION定义和理论立场

"Bohemian Brethren" and "Moravian Brethren" are the current popular designation of the Unitas Fratrum founded in Bohemia in 1457, renewed by Count Zinzendorf in 1722, and still active in our own day. “波希米亚弟兄”和“摩拉维亚弟兄”是目前的流行指定乌尼塔斯fratrum成立于波西米亚在1457年,再次由计数辛生铎夫于1722年,现在仍然活跃在我们自己的一天。 Placing life before creeds, the Moravian Church seeks "to exemplify the living Church of Christ constituted or regenerated men and women, while it affords a common meeting-point for Christians who apprehend dogmas variously".摆放在信仰生活中,摩拉维亚教会求“体现了基督的教会生活构成或再生男人和女人,而它提供的基督徒谁逮捕教条不同程度的共同会议上点”。 Personal faith in the crucified Saviour constitutes the chief foundation for the fellowship thus established.在救主钉在十字架上的个人信仰构成了金首席因此建立的基础。Scripture is the only rule of faith, but "nothing is posited as to the mode of inspiration, for this partakes of the mysteries which it has not pleased God to reveal".圣经是唯一的法治信仰,但是“没有什么是假定至于激励模式为这个高兴,它并没有参与大神揭示的奥秘”。The Trinity, the Fall, Original Sin, and "Total Depravity" are admitted, but "discussion about them is shunned".三位一体,秋季,原罪和“彻底堕落”的承认,但“对他们讨论的是回避”。The Love of God manifested in Christ - without theories about the mode - is the centre of Moravian belief and practice.上帝的爱体现在基督 - 不用担心模式理论 - 是摩拉维亚信仰和实践的中心。Justification by faith alone and the necessity of regeneration "are posited as facts of personal experience".信仰,仅再生的必要性和理由“是假定为个人经验事实”。Sanctifying grace, the need of prayer, and other public means of grace, a complete ritual, a strict discipline, "the orders of the ministry with no conception of the functions of the episcopate", ie bishops ordain, but the episcopal office implies no further ruling or administrative power (see infra in regard to Zinzendorf), Baptism and the Lord's Supper as the only sacraments, and the common Christian eschatology: Resurrection, Judgment, Heaven, Hell; such are the tenets from which Moravians are expected not to depart, whilst they are allowed to speculate about them on Scriptural lines with entire liberty. sanctifying恩典,祷告的需要,以及其他公共交通工具的恩典,一个完整的仪式,严格的纪律,即主教祝圣“的无功能的主教部的订单概念”,而是意味着没有主教办公室进一步裁决或行政权力(见关于基础设施到辛生铎夫),洗礼和主的晚餐作为唯一的圣礼,并共同基督教末世论:复活,审判,天堂,地狱,这样的是从哪个摩拉维亚预计不会离开原则,虽然他们被允许对他们猜测与整个自由圣经线。

HISTORY OF THE ANCIENT UNITAS FRATRUM (1457-1722)历史的古老乌尼塔斯fratrum(1457年至1722年)

The Bohemian Brethren are a link in a chain of sects beginning with Wyclif (1324-84) and coming down to the present day.波希米亚弟兄教派中的一个环节开始的威克里夫(1324年至1384年)和未来下降到目前的一天。The ideas of the Englishman found favour with Hus, and Bohemia proved a better soil for their growth than England.在英国人的想法发现胡斯的青睐,并为他们的波希米亚证明比英格兰增长更好的土壤。Both Wyclif and Hus were moved by a sincere desire to reform the Church of their times; both failed and, without intending it, became the fathers of new heretical bodies - the Lollards and the Hussites.威克里夫和胡斯都被感动的真诚愿望,改革的时代教会,都失败了,而在不打算吧,成为新的邪教组织的父亲 - 本罗拉德派和胡斯派。The former were persecuted out of existence in England by Catholic rulers; the latter prospered in Bohemia, thanks to royal and national support.前者遭到迫害,在英国存在由天主教的统治者,在波希米亚繁荣后者,王室和国家的支持表示感谢。The burning of John Hus at the stake for his stubborn adherence to the condemed doctrines of Wyclif (at Constance, 6 July, 1415) was considered an insult to the faith of the Bohemian nation, which, since its first conversion to Christianity, had never swerved from the truth.约翰的胡斯在他顽固坚持的威克里夫the condemed理论(在康斯坦茨,1415年7月6日)的股份被认为是一种侮辱燃烧到波希米亚民族,信仰,因为它的第一个皈依基督教,从来没有急转事实。 The University of Prague came boldly forward to vindicate the man and his doctrines; the party which hitherto had worked at reforming the Church from within now rejected the Church's authority and became the Hussite sect.布拉格的大学大胆地提出来,以维护该名男子和他的学说,哪些改革迄今已在从现在拒绝了教会的权威,并成为胡斯教派的教会工作的党。 Divisions at once arose amongst its members.司在其成员之间出现一次。Some completely set aside the authority of the Church and admitted no other rule than the Bible; others only demanded Communion under both kinds for the laity and free preaching of the Gospel, with some minor reforms.有些完全抛开了教会的权威,并承认没有比圣经其他规则,有的只要求下为俗人和自由的福音传道两种共融与一些小的改革。 The former, who met for worship at "Mount Tabor", were called Taborites; the latter received the name of Calixtines, ie, the party of the Chalice.前者,谁崇拜会见了“泊山”,被称为Taborites,后者获得了Calixtines,即党的名称的圣杯。As long as they had a common enemy to fight they fought together under the leadership of that extraordinary man, John Trocznowski, known as Zizka (the one-eyed), and for fully fifteen years proved more than a match for the imperial armies and papal crusaders sent to crush them.只要他们有一个共同的敌人作斗争,他们打着那非凡的人,约翰Trocznowski作为Zizka(一个眼睛)已知,领导一起,为全面十五年证明了帝国军队和罗马教皇比匹配更多十字军送到粉碎他们。 Peace was at length obtained, not by force of arms, but by skilful negotiations which resulted in the "Compactata of Basle" (30 November, 1433).和平是获得长度,而不是通过武力,而是通过这导致了“巴塞尔Compactata”(1433年11月30日)娴熟的谈判。 The compact was chiefly due to the concessions made by the Calixtine party; it found little or no favour with the Taborites.紧凑型的主要是因为受Calixtine党作出的让步,它很少或根本没有发现与Taborites青睐。The discontent led to a feud which terminated at the Battle of Lippau (30 May, 1434) with the death of Procopius, the Taborite leader, and the almost total extinction of this party.不满导致了争执是结合Lippau战役(1434年5月30日)终止与普罗科匹厄斯的Taborite领袖,这个政党的几乎完全灭绝死亡。 The small remnant, too insignificant to play a role in politics, withdrew into private life, devoting all their energies to religion.小残,太微不足道发挥政治作用,撤回到私人生活,他们的精力都投入到宗教。In 1457 one section formed itself into a separate body under the name of the "Brethren's Union" (Unitas Fratrum), which is now generally spoken of as the Bohemian Brethren.在1457一节形成了一个单独的机构的名义下,本身的“兄弟联盟”(乌尼塔斯fratrum),这是现在人们普遍谈到的波希米亚弟兄。 Their contemporaries coined for them several opprobrious designations, such as Jamnici (cave-dwellers) and Pivnicnici (beerhouse men), Bunzlau Brethren, Picards (corrupted to Pickarts), etc.他们的同时代人,他们创造了几个可耻如Jamnici(洞穴居住者)和Pivnicnici(beerhouse男),Bunzlau弟兄们,Picards(损坏到Pickarts)等名称,

The originator of the new sect was a certain Gregory, a nephew of the leading Calixtine preacher, Rokyzana, whose mind was imbued with the conviction that the Roman Church was helplessly and hopelessly corrupt.新教派创始人是一定Gregory是领导Calixtine布道者,Rokyzana,他的心是与信念,即罗马教会是充满无奈和绝望的腐败侄子。 Gregory therefore decided to found a new Church in accordance with his uncle's and his own ideas of what a perfect Church should be.格雷戈里因此决定按照找到了他叔叔的和什么是完美的教会应该是他自己的想法新的教会。Through Rokyzana's influence he obtained leave from the governor George von Podiebrad to organize a community in the village of Kunwald near Senftenberg.通过Rokyzana的影响,他得到休假,由总督乔治冯podiebrad组织中的Kunwald Senftenberg村附近一个社区。Michel, the parish priest of Senftenberg, and Matthias, a farmer of Kunwald, joined Gregory, and soon the community counted several thousand members.米歇尔的Senftenberg教区牧师,和马提亚,农民的Kunwald,加入格雷戈里,很快数千计的社会成员。 Their distinguishing tenets at this early period were rather vague: abolition of all distinctions of rank and fortune, the name of Christian being the one all-sufficient dignity; abolition of oaths, of military service, etc. Governor von Podiebrad kept a vigilant eye on the growing community.他们的区别在这个早期阶段是比较模糊的原则:对所有的区别等级和财富取消,基督教的名字被一个全足够的尊严;宣誓废除,兵役等总督冯podiebrad上保持着警惕的眼睛日益增长的社会。 In 1461 he had Gregory and several other persons arrested on suspicion of reviving the heresies of the Taborites.他曾在1461格雷戈里和振兴的Taborites异端邪说而被捕的其他几个人。The accused admitted that they did not believe in the real presence of Christ in the Holy Eucharist, but had partaken of the bread and wine at their nocturnal meetings as common food.被告承认,他们不相信基督的圣体圣事中真实存在的,但面包和作为普通食品在他们的夜间会议酒一卷。They were set free, but, to avoid further interference, Gregory and his companions fled into the Lordship of Reichenau, where they lived hidden in the mountains.他们被释放,但是,为了避免进一步的干扰,Gregory和他的同伴逃进的reichenau,在那里他们住在山上隐藏洛德希普。 There, in 1464, was held a secret assembly consisting of Brethren from Bohemia and Moravia, who accepted as basis of their creed the doctrine that justification is obtained through faith and charity and confers the hope of eternal salvation.在那里,在1464年,大会举行了一个秘密的兄弟从波希米亚和摩拉维亚,谁作为自己的信条,理由是获得通过信仰和慈善事业,赋予了永恒的拯救希望学说的基础接纳组成。 The rich were requested to abandon their wealth and worldly pomp and to live in voluntary poverty.富人被要求放弃他们的财富和世俗的盛况和生活在自愿贫困。The Brethren were to give up private property for the benefit of the Brotherhood.在兄弟分别给予注册的兄弟利益的私有财产。 Anyone not observing the brotherhood of faith and practice was to be separated from the community.任何不遵守的信仰与实践兄弟是从社区分离。

Meanwhile the persecution continued.与此同时,迫害仍在继续。The Utraquist (Calixtine) priests refused the Sacrament to the Brethren.The Utraquist(Calixtine)神父拒绝了圣餐的弟兄。These, therefore, were forced to constitute a priesthood of their own belief.这些,因此,他们被迫构成了他们自己的信仰神职人员。A bishop and a number of priests were chosen by lot, and the separation from the Utraquists became an accomplished fact.一位主教和一些神职人员被选为了很多,从Utraquists分离成为既成事实。The head of the Austrian Waldenses, who was believed to have received consecration from a real bishop, gave episcopal orders to the ex-parish priest, Michael, and Michael consecrated his friend, Matthias, bishop and ordained several priests.在奥地利瓦勒,谁被认为已收到从一个真正的主教祝圣,头给主教订单前教区牧师,迈克尔,迈克尔奉献他的朋友,马蒂亚斯,一些主教和祝圣司铎。 The new Bishop Matthias of Kunwald then reordained his consecrator, to make him a true priest of the Brotherhood.马蒂亚斯新主教的Kunwald然后reordained他consecrator,使他成为真正的兄弟会的牧师。 This happened in 1467 at the synod of Lhotka, near Reichenau, where also all those present were rebaptized.这发生在1467年于Lhotka主教近赖歇瑙,那里也是所有在场的人rebaptized。The breach with both Catholics and Utraquists was now completed, and the Brethren began to order their community on the model of "the primitive Church".与天主教徒和Utraquists违反了现已完成,并开始以兄弟对“原始的教会”示范社区。The governing power centred in a council presided over by a judge.执政能力的集中在一个议会由法官主持。Four seniors, or elders, held the episcopal power.四季皆宜,或长老,举行了主教的权力。The priests had no property and were encouraged to celibacy.祭司有没有财产,并鼓励独身。The strictest morality and modesty were exacted from the faithful.最严格的道德和谦虚的人付出的忠诚。All acts subservient to luxury were forbidden; oaths and military service were only permitted in very exceptional cases.一切行为服从于奢侈品被禁止;宣誓和兵役,只有在非常特殊的情况下允许。Public sins had to be publicly confessed, and were punished with ecclesiastical penalties or expulsion.公众罪,必须公开承认,并与教会处罚或开除处分。A committee of women watched with relentless severity over the behaviour of their sisters.一个妇女委员会在注视着他们的姐妹的行为无情的严重性。A new persecution quickly followed on the synod of Lhotka.一个新的迫害紧接着对Lhotka主教。The Brethren defended their cause in copious writings, but in 1468 many of them were imprisoned and tortured, one was burnt at the stake.弟兄捍卫自己的事业著作丰富,但在1468年,其中许多人被监禁和折磨,一个是被绑在火刑烧毁。 The death of the governor George von Podiebrad in 1471 brought some relief.总督的乔治冯podiebrad 1471年去世带来了一些缓解。Brother Gregory died in 1473.哥哥格雷戈里在1473年去世。From 1480 Lucas of Prague was the leading man.从1480年布拉格卢卡斯是男主角。Thanks to him, and to toleration granted the Brethren by King Ladislaus II, the Brotherhood rapidly increased in numbers.他,并感谢给予宽容拉迪斯劳斯二世国王的兄弟,兄弟会在数量迅速增加。By the end of the fifteenth century there were 400 communities.到了15世纪末有400个社区。Pope Alexander VI's endeavour to reconvert the Brethren (in 1499) proved futile.教皇亚历山大六世的努力再改的兄弟(1499年)被证明是徒劳的。About this time an internal feud in the "Unity of Brethren" led to a renewal of persecution.关于这一次在“团结的兄弟”内部争斗导致了迫害的更新。The Amosites, so called from their leader, Brother Amos, accused their more moderate Brethren of fomenting violent opposition to the Government in imitation of their spiritual ancestors, the Taborites.The Amosites,所以从他们的领导人,兄弟阿莫斯,煽动所谓的指责在他们的精神祖先,Taborites模仿暴力反对政府的较为温和的弟兄。King Ladislaus II thereupon issued a decree prohibiting the meetings of the Brethren under heavy penalties.二世国王拉迪斯劳斯于是颁布了一项法令,禁止在重罚的弟兄的会议。In many places, however, the decree was left unheeded, and powerful landowners continued to protect the Brotherhood.在许多地方,然而,这条法令左置若罔闻,强大的地主继续保护兄弟。Once more the king resorted to milder measures.一旦更多的措施,采取较温和的国王。In 1507 he invited the chiefs of the Brethren to meet the Utraquists in conference at Prague.在1507年他邀请弟兄的首领,以应付在布拉格会议的Utraquists。The Brethren sent a few rude, unlettered fellows unable to give answer to the questions of the professors.兄弟们发出了一些粗鲁,胸无点墨研究员无法作出回答,教授的问题。The king regarded this as an insult and ordered all the meetings of the "Pickarts" to be suppressed, all their books to be burnt, and the recalcitrants to be imprisoned (1508).国王认为这是一种侮辱,并下令所有的“Pickarts”会议被压制,他们所有的图书被烧毁,并recalcitrants被囚禁(1508)。

The Brethren now began to look for foreign sympathy.兄弟们现在开始寻找外国的同情。Erasmus complimented them on their knowledge of truth, but refused to commit himself further.伊拉斯谟赞扬他们对真理的认识他们,但他拒绝进一步承诺。Luther objected to their doctrine on the Eucharist, to the celibacy of their clergy, to the practice of rebaptizing, and to the belief in seven sacraments.路德反对他们在圣体学说,到他们的神职人员独身,到rebaptizing做法,并相信在七个圣礼。Brother Lucas answered in a sharp pamphlet and, having ascertained the low standard of church discipline among the Lutherans of Wittenberg, ceased all attempts at union.兄弟卢卡斯回答了尖锐的小册子,并有确定的教会之间的维滕贝格路德会纪律标准低,不再在联盟的所有企图。At the same time (1525) Lucas rejected the Zwinglian doctrines which some Brethren were trying to introduce.在同一时间(1525年)卢卡斯拒绝了一些兄弟分别试图引进Zwinglian学说。After the death of Lucas (1528) the government of the Brotherhood passed into the hands of men fond of innovations, among whom John Augusta is the most remarkable.死亡后,卢卡斯(1528)的兄弟政府对男性喜欢创新,通过了其中的手约翰奥古斯塔是最为显着。Augusta reopened negotiations with Luther and so modified his creed that it gained the Reformer's approbation, but the union of the two sects was again prevented by the less rigid morals of the Lutherans in Bohemia and Moravia.奥古斯塔重开谈判,以便修改路德他的信条,它获得了改革者的赞许,但对两个教派联盟再次少的lutherans在波希米亚和摩拉维亚刚性道德预防。 Augusta pleaded for stricter church discipline, but Luther dismissed him, saying: "Be you the apostle of the Bohemians, I will be the apostle of the Germans. Do as circumstances direct, we will do the same here" (1542).奥古斯塔恳求教会纪律严格,但路德将他解雇,他说:“无论你的波希米亚人使徒,我将成为使徒的德国人视情况直接做的,我们也将这样做了。”(1542年)。 Soon afterwards the Bohemian Estates were requested to join Charles V in his war against the Smalkaldic league.不久,波西米亚遗产被要求加入他对Smalkaldic联盟战争查理五世。Catholics and old Utraquists obeyed, but the Bohemian Protestants, having met in the house of Brother Kostka, established a kind of provisional government composed of eight members, four of whom belonged to the Brotherhood, and appointed a general to lead the armed rebels into Saxony against the emperor.天主教徒和老Utraquists服从了,但​​波希米亚新教徒,有兄弟科斯特卡在屋子里,建立了八个成员,其中四名属于那种兄弟组成的临时政府,并任命一位将军带领萨克森州的武装叛乱分子反对皇帝。 Charles's victory over the Smalkaldians at Muhlberg (1547) left the rebels no choice but to submit to their king, Ferdinand I. The Brethren, who had been the chief instigators of the rebellion, were now doomed to extinction.查尔斯的比在米尔贝格Smalkaldians胜利(1547)离开叛军别无选择,只能服从他们的国王,费迪南德一,弟兄们,谁曾是叛乱的主要策划者,现在已经注定要灭绝。 John Augusta and his associate, Jacob Bilek, were cast into prison; the Brethren's meetings were interdicted throughout the whole kingdom; those who refused to submit were exiled.约翰奥古斯塔和他的合伙,雅各比莱克,共投入监狱,弟兄们的会议是在整个王国停职;那些谁拒​​绝向被流放。Many took refuge in Poland and Prussia (1578); those who remained in the country joined, at least pro forma, the Utraquist party.许多参加了在波兰和普鲁士(1578)避难;那些谁留在该国加入,至少备考的Utraquist党。 Owing to Maximilian II's leniency and Protestant propensities, the Bohemian diet of 1575 could draw up the "Bohemian Confession of Faith" in which the principles of the Brethren find expression along with those of the Lutherans.由于马克西米利安二世的宽容和基督教的倾向,在1575年波希米亚饮食可以借鉴了“波希米亚的信仰告白”,其中的弟兄的原则,发现一起与路德的基因。 Under Rudolph II (1584) persecution was again resorted to, and lasted with more or less intensity down to 1609, when Rudolph's Charter granted the free exercise of their religion to all Protestants.根据鲁道夫二世(1584)迫害再次使出,并持续了或多或少的强度下降到1609年,当鲁道夫宪章赋予的宗教信仰自由地行使其所有新教徒。 No sooner, however, did external oppression relent than internal dissension broke out in the Protestant ranks.不久,但是,没有外部的压迫比内部纠纷爆发扑倒在新教行列。The Consistory, composed of Lutherans and Brethren, was unable to maintain peace and union between the two parties.The Consistory,lutherans和兄弟组成的,是无法维持的和平与双方之间的联合。Ferdinand II, after his victory over the rebellious Bohemians at the white Mountain near Prague (1620), offered them the choice between Catholicism and exile.斐迪南二世后,他对在布拉格附近的白山(1620)反叛的波希米亚人的胜利,给他们之间的天主教和流放的选择。Many Brethren emigrated to Hungary, but a greater number to northern Poland, where they settled in Lissa (now in Prussian Posen).许多弟兄移民到匈牙利,但更大的数量波兰北部,在那里他们定居在利萨(在普鲁士波森现在)。Even to this day there are in that district seven communities calling themselves Brethren, although their confession of faith is the Helvetic.即使到这一天,在该区7个社区,他们自称为弟兄们,虽然他们的信仰供认是海尔维。In Prussian Silesia there are also three communities of Brethren claiming descent from the Bohemian Brotherhood.在普鲁士的西里西亚也有三个兄弟声称后裔社区从波希米亚兄弟。

THE BOHEMIAN BRETHREN AND ENGLAND波西米亚弟兄和英格兰

During the reign of Maximillian II and Rudolph II the Bohemian Brethren enjoyed a period of prosperity which allowed them to establish relations with younger Protestant churches.期间马克西姆利II和鲁道夫二世统治时期的波希米亚弟兄们享有一个繁荣的时期,这让他们与年轻的新教教会建立关系。 They sent students to Heidelberg and one at least to Oxford.他们派学生到海德堡,至少有一到牛津。In 1583 "Bernardus, John, a Moravian", was allowed to supply BD He had studied theology for ten years in German universities and was now going to the universities of Scotland. 1583年“Bernardus,约翰,一摩拉维亚”,被允许提供屋宇署他曾在德国大学学习了十年的神学和现在去苏格兰的大学。This Bernardus, however, has left no trace but the entry in the Register of Oxford just quoted.这Bernardus,然而,没有留下任何痕迹,但在牛津刚才记项。The man who brought the Brotherhood prominently before the Anglican Church was Johann Amos, of Comna, generally known as Comenius.该名男子是谁把英国圣公会教堂前的约翰阿莫斯兄弟突出,对Comna,一般被称为夸美纽斯。 As a scholar and educationist he was invited by his English friends to assist in improving the state and administration of the universities, then under consideration in Parliament.作为一个学者和教育家,他的邀请,他的英国朋友,以协助改善国家和大学的管理,然后在议会审议。The outbreak of the Civil War brought all these plans to naught, and Comenius returned to Germany in 1642.在南北战争爆发,把所有这些计划化为泡影,并夸美纽斯在1642年回到德国。His influence in England allowed him to set on foot several collections for his severely persecuted church in Poland: the first three were failures, but the fourth, authorized by Cromwell, produced £5,900, of which sum Cambridge University contributed £56.他在英国的影响力让他为他的严重迫害在波兰教堂步行几个收藏:前三个是失败的,但第四,由克伦威尔授权,制作五千九百英镑,其中总结剑桥大学贡献五六英镑。 This was in 1658-59.这是在1658年至1659年。Intercourse with the Anglican Church was kept up uninterruptedly until the remnants of the ancient Brotherhood had dwindled away and been swallowed up by other Evangelical confessions.与圣公会性交保持,直到古兄弟会的残余不间断已逐渐减少了与其他福音被吞噬招供了。When the renewed Brotherhood was established in England it benefited by the memory of former friendly relations.当新的兄弟在英国成立了它受惠于前友好关系的记忆。

HISTORY OF THE RENEWED BROTHERHOOD史兄弟的再次

Persecution from without and dissension within wellnigh brought about the total extinction of the Bohemian Brethren.迫害带来了从没有和纠纷在wellnigh有关的波希米亚弟兄彻底灭绝。The small but faithful remnant was, however, destined to blossom into a new and vigorous religious body under the name of Moravian Brethren.小而忠实的残余是,然而,注定要进入一个新的和积极的宗教机构开花下摩拉维亚弟兄会的名称。The founder and moulder of this second Unitas Fratrum was the pious and practical Count Zinzendorf (b. 1700, d. 1760).的创始人和第二次乌尼塔斯fratrum莫尔德是虔诚和实际计数亲岑多夫(生于1700年,四1760)。In 1722 the Lutheran Pastor Rothe, of Berthelsdorf in Upper Lusatia, introduced to the Count, from whom he held his living, a Moravian carpenter named Christian David. 1722年路德牧师罗斯,在上卢萨蒂亚,贝特尔斯多夫引进的伯爵,从他举行了他的生活,一个名为基督教摩拉维亚木匠大卫。This man had been deputed by his co-religionists to look out for a concession of land where they could freely practise their religion.这名男子已deputed他合作教友寻找优惠的土地,他们可以自由地从事宗教活动了。 Zinzendorf was so far unacquainted with the history and the tenets of the Bohemian Brethren, but in his charity, he granted them the desired land, on the slopes of the Hutberg in the parish of Bertlesdorf.亲岑多夫是迄今为止不熟悉的历史和波希米亚弟兄们的信条,但在他的慈善活动,他给予他们关于在Bertlesdorf教区的Hutberg斜坡所需的土地。 In a short time emigrants from Moravia founded there a colony, call Herrnhut.在从摩拉维亚短的时间内有一个殖民地的移民创办,呼叫Herrnhut。The colonists worshipped at the Lutheran parish church.殖民者在路德崇拜教区教堂。Two years later, there arrived from Zauchenthal in Moravia five young men fully conscious of being true members of the old "Bohemian Brotherhood".两年后,有刚从Zauchenthal五个年轻男子在摩拉维亚完全被旧的“波希米亚兄弟”真正成员的自觉。 At once religious quarrels arose, to the annoyance of Count Zinzendorf and his friends.在一次宗教争吵起来,向伯爵辛生铎夫和他的朋友的烦恼。The count was not slow in perceiving that the colonists, all simple labourers and craftsmen, were more concerned with church discipline and Christian rules of life than with dogma.伯爵没有看出来这个慢殖民者,一切简单劳动者和手工业者,更与教会的纪律和规则的生活比基督教教条关注。Accordingly he set about elaborating a constitution for a community of which religion should be the chief concern and bond of union.因此,他着手制定了一个社区,其中宗教应是主要的关注和债券的联盟宪法。He left Dresden and, with the pastor's leave, began to work as a lay catechist among the Brethren at Herrnhut.他离开了德累斯顿,并可以在牧师的离开,开始工作,作为奠定在herrnhut之间的兄弟传教员。The community met for their religious services in their own hall where one of the Brethren, either chosen by lot or elected by the assembly, acted as minister.社区服务,满足他们的宗教在自己的大厅,在那里的一个弟兄,无论是通过抽签或由大会选出的部长担任。In 1731 they seceded from the parish church and added to their usual services the celebration of the Lord's Supper.1731年,他们分离出去的教区教堂,并添加到其正常服务的主的晚餐庆祝活动。They were divided in "choirs" according to age, sex, and calling; each choir was ruled by elders (male and female), pastors, and administrators chosen among its members.他们被分为“合唱团”,根据年龄,性别,并呼吁,每个合唱团是由长老统治(男,女),牧师和管理人员在其成员中选取。 The female choirs were distinguished by their dresses.合唱团的女性也很出色,他们的衣服。Widows, unmarried young men, and young women formed separate choirs under the supervision of elders.寡妇,未婚男青年,和青年妇女组成的监督下独立的长者合唱团。Everything at Herrnhut was controlled by the College of Elders, even matrimony, subject to the sanction of the lot.在herrnhut一切都掌握在长老学院,甚至婚姻,受该地段的制裁。Provision was made for the poor and the sick, for prayer meetings and so forth.经费是为穷人和病人,为祈祷会等。Deacons, acting for the Elders, administered the property accruing to the community from donations.执事,为管理的财产累积到社区的老年人的捐赠,采取行动。Great care was given to the education of the young, Zinzendorf being anxious to raise a generation that would perpetuate his work.伟大的护理是考虑到青年,辛生铎夫焦虑,提高教育了一代人,将延续他的工作。The organization of the renewed Brotherhood was complete in 1731.该组织被重新兄弟于1731年完成。It bore the stamp of the personality of its founder, a man deeply religious, nurtured in Spencer's Pietism by the two noble ladies who brought him up, and well acquainted with Catholic life from his sojourn in Paris.它承担了其创始人的个性邮票,一个人深刻的宗教,孕育于斯宾塞的虔诚主义的两个谁把他起来,并与他在巴黎逗留的天主教生活熟悉高贵淑女。 As soon as the foundations were solidly laid at Herrnhut, Zinzendorf began to think of missionary work.只要有扎实的基础奠定在herrnhut,辛生铎夫开始考虑传教的工作。His personal connection with the Danish Court led him to choose the Danish possessions in the West Indies and in Greenland for the field of his labours.他与丹麦法院个人联系,使他选择了他的劳动领域西印度群岛和格陵兰的丹麦属地。His first missionaries were sent out in 1732 and 1733.他的第一个传教士在1732年发出了1733年。Feeling, however that as a simple layman he could not well confer missionary powers, he took orders at Tübingen in 1734 and, moreover, received episcopal consecration from the Reformed court-preacher Jablonsky of Berlin, in whose family the Moravian episcopacy, originated in 1467 by a validly ordained Waldensian bishop, had been - or was said to have been - preserved.感觉,然而,作为一个简单的门外汉,他不能很好的权力赋予传教,他参加了1734年在蒂宾根大学的订单,此外,收到了改革法院牧师Jablonsky柏林,在其家族起源于1467年摩拉维亚主教,主教祝圣通过有效主教祝圣Waldensian,已经 - 或者是说已经 - 保存。Persecution was not long in coming.迫害不太久了。The orthodox Lutherans became the Brethren's bitterest enemies.正统路德会成为兄弟的痛苦敌人。The Imperial Government in Vienna strongly objected to their propaganda in Bohemia, which caused Austrian subjects to emigrate and sowed discontent in the country.在维也纳的帝国政府强烈反对他们的宣传,在波西米亚,造成奥地利科目,移民,播种在该国的不满。Under imperial pressure the King of Saxony banished Zinzendorf "for ever".帝国压力下萨克森国王放逐的“永远”亲岑多夫。The zealous count put his exile to good use.热心的伯爵把他流放很好的利用。During the ten years (1737-47) of his absence from Saxony he founded congregations in Holland, England, Ireland, America; new ones also arose in Germany at Herrenhag, Neuwied, Gnadenfrei, Gnadenberg, and Neusatz.在十多年的他从萨克森州的情况​​下(1737年至1747年),他成立于荷兰,英国,爱尔兰,美国会众,新的德国也出现在Herrenhag,Neuwied,Gnadenfrei,Gnadenberg和Neusatz。 Zinzendorf showed a special predilection for the London establishment.辛生铎夫表现出特殊的偏爱伦敦成立。In 1750 he fixed his residence in the English capital and from there ruled the whole "Unity of Brethren".他在1750年他在英国的固定资本和居住权统治了整个“团结的兄弟。”But in 1755 he returned to Herrnhut, which now became and remained the centre of the whole administration.但在1755年他回到Herrnhut,现在成为并保持整个行政中心。To the present day the "Provincial Board of Elders for Germany" occupies Zinzendorf's own house at Berthelsdorf.到今天的“省长老理事会德国”占地亲岑多夫的AT贝特尔斯多夫自己的房子。The finishing touch of the new church system is the liberty enjoyed by those who join it to retain the Lutheran, the Reformed, or the Moravian Confession to which they belonged, and to be placed under the rule of Elders of the same belief.新的教会制度的点睛之笔是由那些谁加入,以保留信义,改革后,或摩拉维亚供认他们所属的,并可以根据长老的规则放置相同的信念所享有的自由。 This peculiar feature shows the founder's disregard for dogma and the great value he attached to Christian practice and ecclesiastical discipline.这种奇特的功能显示了创始人的教条和无视的巨大价值,他重视实践和基督教教会的纪律。He held that faith and justification could only be found by individuals who were, or became, members of a religious community.他认为,信心和理由只能由个人谁是或成为,一个宗教社区成员的发现。However much, in this and in other points, he copied the Catholic Church, yet he was to the end a faithful adherent of the Augsburg Confession and obtained from the Consistory in Dresden an official acknowledgment that the Moravian Brethren were followers of the same faith.但是不多,在这方面及其他各点,他复制了天主教教会,但他是最后一个忠实信徒的奥格斯堡供认,从德累斯顿的正式承认,摩拉维亚弟兄都是同样的信念的追随者Consistory获得。 He also succeeded after a long struggle in securing for the Brotherhood recognition by the Saxon government.他还成功地在后,由兄弟撒克逊政府承认确保长期的斗争。When, regretted by all, he died in 1760, his work and his spirit lived on in the strongly organized body of the "Unity of Brethren".当通过一切感到遗憾,他在1760年去世,他的工作和生活在他的精神的“团结的兄弟”大力组织机构。No material changes have taken place since.没有发生重大变化以来。In 1775 the Brethren, assembled in a synod at Barby, adopted the following statement of principles: 1775年弟兄们,在主教聚集在巴比,原则通过了以下声明:

"The chief doctrine to which the Church of the Brethren adheres, and which we must preserve as an invaluable treasure committed unto us, is this: That by the sacrifice for sin made by Jesus Christ, and by that alone, grace and deliverance from sin are to be obtained for all mankind. We will, therefore, without lessening the importance of any other article of the Christian faith, steadfastly maintain the following five points: (1) The doctrine of the universal depravity of man: that there is no health in man, and that, since the Fall he has no power whatever left to help himself. (2) The doctrine of the Divinity of Christ: that God, the Creator of all things, was manifest in the flesh, and reconciled us to Himself; that He is before all things and that in Him all things exist. (3) The doctrine of the atonement and satisfaction made for us by Jesus Christ: that He was delivered for our offences and raised again for our justification and that by His merits alone we receive freely the forgiveness of sin, faith in Jesus and sanctification in soul and body. (4) The doctrine of the Holy Spirit and the operation of His grace: that it is He who worketh in us conviction of sin, faith in Jesus, and pureness in heart. (5) The doctrine of the fruits of faith: that faith must evidence itself by willing obedience to the commandment of God, from love and gratitude." “行政学说所坚持的弟兄教会,我们必须保持作为致力于向我们的宝贵财富,是这一点:由耶稣基督罪作出牺牲,由一个人独享,优雅和从罪中解脱要得到我们会为全人类,因此,没有减少的任何其他物品的基督教信仰的重要性,坚定不移地维护以下五点:。(1)对人类普遍堕落的教义:没有健康。在人,而且,由于秋天,他没有权力来帮自己留下什么(2)基督的神的教义:上帝,万物的创造者,是在肉身显现,并调和我们自己,那他现在和以前所有的东西,在他所有的东西存在(3)为我们赎罪,和耶稣基督的满意度由学说:他是我们的过犯交付,并提升我们的理由,而再由他的优点。仅我们接受自由的灵魂和身体的在耶稣的罪,信仰宽恕与成圣(4)圣灵学说和他的恩典操作:。它是谁,他在我们的罪定罪,相信耶稣作事,纯洁和心(5)学说的信仰的成果:。证据,信念,必须愿意服从神,从爱和感激的命令本身。“

Faith in the Redemption and entire surrender of self to Christ (with Whom in 1741 a spiritual covenant was made) are held to be the very essence of religion.信仰的自我救赎与整个投降(与谁在1741年公约的精神是制造),以基督的举行是对宗教的本质。The will of Christ was ascertained by casting of lots as the final sanction in case of marriage (until 1820), in the election of superiors (until 1889), etc. Zinzendorf ruled as bishop over all the communities, both in Europe and America, but since his death the episcopal office has remained a mere title.基督的意志所确定的在婚姻案件的最后处分拈阄(至1820年)在上级选举(至1889年),辛生铎夫等裁定为对所有的社区,在欧洲和美国都主教,但是,由于他死的时候,主教办公室仍然是一个单纯的称号。 In 1857 the British and American Unity became independent; the only bond of union being now the General Synod held once every ten years.1857年,英国和美国联合成为独立;工会的,因为现在只债券的总主教每十年举行一次。

THE MORAVIANS IN ENGLAND在英国,摩拉维亚

The beginnings of the Brethren's Church in England are an interesting chapter in the commerce of thought between Germany and that country.的弟兄在英国教会的起源是在德国与该国认为商业有趣的一页。The German dynasty on the English throne had attracted a strong colony of their countrymen; towards the middle of the eighteenth century London alone numbered from 4000 to 5000 Germans among its inhabitants.英国王位上的德国王朝已经吸引了他们的同胞强烈的殖民地;对十八世纪的伦敦独自从4000至5000德国在其居民数的中间。 These would naturally be in sympathy with the Brethren.这自然会与兄弟的同情。But the "Religious Societies" founded by Doctor Smithies, curate of St. Giles, and Dr. Horneck, of the Lower Palatinate, together with the writings of William Law-the father of the religious revival of the eighteenth century-had prepared the minds of many Englishmen for stronger spiritual food than that offered by the established religion.但是,“宗教社团”成立由医生史密奇斯,圣贾尔斯牧师,博士和Horneck,低下皇帝行宫遗址,连同威廉法律的宗教复兴父亲的著作,十八世纪的思想准备了许多比这更强有力的精神食粮提供英国人所建立的宗教。 Horneck was a German Pietist, and William Law, in his "Serious Call", sets up a standard of perfection little short of Catholic monasticism. Horneck是德国虔信,和威廉法,在他的“严重呼叫”,设置了一个完美的小短的天主教修道院标准。John Wesley, who confesses that he was stimulated into activity by William Law, at first sought satisfaction of his spiritual cravings in the Moravian Brotherhod.约翰卫斯理,谁承认,他是刺激威廉法,将活动起初试图在摩拉维亚Brotherhod他的精神渴望满意。He, with three other Oxford Methodists, met the Moravian Bishop Nitschmann and twenty Brethren at Gravesend, where they were waiting for the vessel that was to carry them all to Georgia (1736).他与其他三位牛津卫,会见了格雷夫森德,在那里他们的船只是进行他们都格鲁吉亚(1736)等待主教Nitschmann摩拉维亚和第二十弟兄。 The Englishmen were favourably impressed with the religious fervour of the Germans, and a fruitful friendship sprang up between them.有正面的英国人留下深刻印象的德国人的宗教热情,友好和富有成果的兴起他们之间。 As early as 1728 Zinzendorf had sent to England a deputation headed by the Moravian Johann Toltschig "to tell such as were not blinded by their lusts, but whose eyes God had opened, what God had wrought".早在1728年辛生铎夫早已经送往英国为首的摩拉维亚约翰Toltschig意见书“告诉如不因私欲蒙蔽,但她的眼睛开了神,神紧张得要命。” Countess Sophia von Schaumburg-Lippe, Lady-in-Waiting at the English Court, used her influence in their behalf, but was unable to counteract the opposition of the Lutheran court-chaplain Ziegenhagen.冯Schaumburg的伯爵夫人索菲亚-利珀夫人在,在英国法院等待,用她的影响在他们的代表,但未能抵消路德法院牧师Ziegenhagen反对。 The embassy had little or no result.使馆几乎没有或根本没有结果。Other visits followed at intervals, most of them by missionaries and emigrants on their way to America.其他访问的时间间隔之后,大部分由传教士和移民,他们到美国的途中。On the occasion of such a visit Zinzendorf himself induced some young people to form a society for the reading of the Bible, mutual edification, abstention from theological controversy, brotherly love, etc. It was the first step towards realizing his ideals in England.作者:辛生铎夫这样的访问之际引起一些年轻人自己,形成了圣经,相互启迪,从神学的争议票弃权,兄弟之爱,等阅读它是在实现自己的理想在英国社会的第一步。 The next step was Peter Boehler's zealous preaching to the "religious societies" and the working classes.接下来的步骤是彼得伯勒尔的热心鼓吹的“宗教社团”和工人阶级。

It was Boehler who founded the religious society in Fetter Lane of which John Wesley became a member, and for which he framed most of the rules; it seems also due to the influence of Boehler that John and Charles Wesley "found conversion" (June, 1738), yet not a conversion exactly of the Moravian type.这是伯勒尔在费特巷谁创立了宗教的社会,其中约翰韦斯利成为会员,并为他大部分的规则框架,它似乎也由于伯勒尔影响,约翰和查尔斯韦斯利“找到转换”(6月, 1738年),但不是一个准确的摩拉维亚类型转换。A visit of John Wesley to the German centres made it clear that the Brotherhood had no room for two men like Zinzendorf and Wesley, both being born leaders of men, but having little else in common.约翰卫斯理的访问德国中心明确表示,有两个兄弟一样亲岑多夫和韦斯利男人没房,同为男人天生的领袖,而且有几乎没有其他共同点。 Little by little Wesley became estranged from the Brethren, and his former friendship turned to open hostility (12 November, 1741), according to Wesley's journal).渐渐变得疏远韦斯利小弟兄,和他以前的友谊变成了公开的敌意(1741年11月12日),按照韦斯利的日记)。 At a meeting in Fetter Lane Wesley accused the Brethren of holding false doctrines and left the hall exclaiming: "Let those who agree with me follow me."在费特​​在一次会议上指责韦斯利巷举行虚假学说的弟兄们,离开了大厅大叫:“。让那些谁同意我的看法跟我学”Some eighteen or nineteen of the members went out after him, the rest called upon the Brethren to be their leaders.约有18个成员或出去后,他十九,经弟兄们称为是他们的领导人休息。Thus a religious society of the Church of England became a society of the Brethren.因此,一个英国教会的宗教社会成为社会的弟兄。 After their rupture with Wesley the Brethren began to work on their own account in England.韦斯利破裂后,他们与兄弟们开始工作,他们在英国自己的帐户。Professor Spangenberg organized the young church with rare talent, and its activity spread far and wide in the provinces, even to Scotland and Ireland, but their success was greatest in Yorkshire.斯潘根伯格教授举办了罕见的天才年轻的教会,其活性在各省蔓延和加深,甚至到苏格兰和爱尔兰,但他们的成功是在约克郡最大。 They also came in for some persecution from people who still confused them with the Methodists.他们还遭到了一些人谁仍然困惑与卫迫害他们。The legal status of the Brotherhood was now to be determined.对兄弟的法律地位,现在确定。They did not wish to be classed as Dissenters, which would at once have severed them from the Anglican Church, and, on the other hand, the Anglican Church, disowned them because they neither had Anglican orders nor did they use the Boo of Common Prayer.他们不希望被归类为持不同政见者,这在过去曾经从圣公会断绝了他们,另一方面,圣公会,六亲不认,因为他们既没有英国圣公会的订单也没有使用共同祈祷的嘘声。 Archbishop Potter would grant them no more than the toleration accorded to foreign Protestants.大主教波特将给予他们不低于给予外国新教徒更加宽容。To obtain a license from a Justice of the Peace they had to adopt a name, and Spangenberg decided on "Moravian Brethren, formerly of the Anglican Communion".要获得一个由一位和平,他们不得不采取一个名字司法执照,斯潘根伯格决定“摩拉维亚弟兄们,前身为英国圣公会”。 This name implied a new denomination and led to the immediate formation of the first congregation of Brethren of English nationality (1742).这个名字意味着一个新的教派,并导致对弟兄英国国籍(1742)第一众立即形成。 Zinzendorf greatly objected to the name of Moravians being given to his Brethren whom he considered as an ecclesiola in ecclesiâ, a select small church within a greater one, which might exist in almost any denomination.辛生铎夫大大反对将摩拉维亚名字被人给他的弟兄,他作为一个教会,一个选择在一个更大的一个小教堂ecclesiola,这可能存在于几乎任何教派考虑。 The proposed designation, "Old Lutheran Protestants", was distasteful to English members.建议的称号,“旧路德新教”,是讨厌英语的成员。They resolutely clung to the names "United Brethren" and "Moravians" as their official and popular designations, and the "Bill for encouraging the people known by the name of Unitas Fratrum or United Brethren to settle in His Majesty's colonies", passed in 1749, gives official sanction to the old name, recognizes that the Brethren belonged to an "ancient protestant and episcopal Church", and maintains their connection with Germany.他们坚决抱定名称“美国兄弟”和“摩拉维亚”为官方和民间名称以及“关于鼓励由乌尼塔斯fratrum或美国同胞们的名字众所周知,在国王陛下的殖民地定居的人士的条例草案”,于1749年通过了,给予官方认可的老字号,承认弟兄属于一个“古老的新教和主教的教会”,并保持其与德国连接。

BEGINNINGS OF THE MORAVIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA开始在美国的摩拉维亚教会

In 1734 Zinzendorf obtained for thirty families of banished Schwenkfelders (adherents of Kaspar von Schwenkfeld) a home in Georgia which had just been carved out of the Carolina grant "to serve as an asylum for insolvent debtors and for persons fleeing from religious persecution".辛生铎夫在1734年获得了三十的家庭放逐Schwenkfelders(冯加斯帕尔schwenkfeld卡斯帕信徒)在格鲁吉亚家刚刚被瓜分的卡罗来纳金“,作为一个破产的债务人庇护和宗教迫害的人士从逃离”了出来。 These exiles, however, found it preferable to join an older colony in Pennsylvania.这些流亡者,但是,发现它最好是在宾夕法尼亚州参加一个老的殖民地。The Brethren now conceived the plan of securing for themselves in Georgia a home of refuge in time of persecution.现在设想的弟兄为自己的安全在格鲁吉亚当时的迫害的避难回家的计划。The governor general, Oglethorpe, granted them 500 acres, and Spangenberg, the negotiator, received a present of 50 acres for himself, a part of the site on which the city of Savannah now stands.的总督,奥格尔索普,授予其中有500亩,施潘根贝格,谈判者,收到了50亩为自己的网站上现在的萨凡纳市的部分代表出席。 The first eleven immigrants reached Savannah 17 April, 1734, led by Spangenberg.首十移民达成萨凡纳1734年4月17日,由斯潘根伯格领导。Bishop Nitschmann brought over another twenty, 7 February, 1736.主教Nitschmann带来了另一个二十,1736年2月7日。The work of evangelizing and colonizing was at once vigorously taken in hand and carried on with more courage than success.福传和殖民的工作是一次有力的手,采取了比成功进行更多勇气。The climate, wars, enmities from within and without, checked the growth and cramped the organization of the Brotherhood.气候,战争,仇恨从内部和外部,检查了经济增长和拥挤的兄弟会组织。

PRESENT CONDITION OF THE MORAVIAN BODY摩拉维亚的现状,对体

The outcome of their faithful struggles during 175 years is shown in the subjoined statistics, and may be read in detail in the "Transactions of the Moravian Historical Society," Vol.他们忠实于一七五年斗争的结果是在subjoined统计显示,并可在卷详细阅读了“摩拉维亚历史学会,交易”。VI:六:

Statistics for America (from "The Moravian," 13 March, 1907).- On the 1st of January, 1907, there were in the five northern districts of America 96 congregations with 13,859 communicants, 1,194 noncommunicants, and 5,316 children; a total membership of 20,369; an increase of 228 over the previous year.统计美国(从“摩拉维亚,”1907年3月13日).- 2007年1月,1907年第一,有五个在美国96 13,859圣餐,1194 noncommunicants和5,316北部地区儿童的毕业典礼,一个会员总数对20369;一个228,比上年增加。In Sunday schools there were 9,666 pupils under 1,156 officers and teachers, a total membership of 10,822, against 11,012 in the preceding year, implying a loss of 187.在周日学校有9666下1156人员和教师,成员总数的10822,对11012名学生在上一年,这意味着损失187。Receipts from all sources: 31 December, 1906, $145,517.67; a decrease of $8,006.19 on 1905.来自所有来源的收入:1906年12月31号,$ 145,517.67,一个在1​​905元8,006.19下降。 Expenses exactly balance receipts.正是平衡开支收据。In the Southern Province of America there were on the 1st of January, 1907, 3,703 communicants, 320 non-communicants, 1,819 children; total, 5,842.在美国南部省份分别有一月,1907年,第一届3703圣餐,320个非圣餐,1,819儿童;共5,842。Sunday schools contained 3,883 pupils, 323 officers and teachers; total, 4,206.- Total membership in both provinces: 26,211 against 25,877 in 1906- an increase of 334.周日学校载3,883名学生,323人员和教师,共4,206 .-总在这两个省的成员资格:在1906年对25877 26211 - 增加了334。

In Great Britain and Ireland, the Moravian Church numbered on the 31st of December, 1906, 41 congregations, with a total membership of 6,343; an increase of 211 on 1905; 5,072 pupils attended Sunday schools, with 568 teachers; there were also 213 pupils, with 5 teachers, in 5 day schools, and 305 scholars, with 38 teachers, in 5 boarding schools.在英国和爱尔兰,摩拉维亚教会编号的12月,1906年,41毕业​​典礼31日,拥有6343会员总数;一对05年增加211个; 5,072名学生参加了主日学校的568名教师,其中有213名学生也,与5位老师,在五天的学校,和305学者,与38位教师在5个寄宿学校。

The German Province, 31 December, 1905, had 25 congregations, with a total membership of 7,958, of whom 5,795 were communicants; 50 missionary centres ministered to about 70,000 (the "Diaspora").德国省12月31日,1905年,有25个教区,拥有会员总数7958人,其中5795人圣餐;伺候约70,000(以下简称“离散”)50传教中心。

The Mission Fields of the Moravians: In North America, Labrador, begun 1771; Alaska, 1885; California, 1890.-In Central America, Mosquito Coast, 1849.-In South America, Surinam, 1735, Demerara, 1878.-In the West Indies, Jamaica, 1754; St. Thomas, 1732, St. Jan, 1754; St. Croix, 1740; Antigua, 1756; St. Kitts, 1777; Barbadoes, 1765; Tobago, 1790; Trinidad, 1890.-In Africa, Cape Colony, East and West, 1736; German East Africa, 1891.-In Asia, West Himalaya, 1853; Jerusalem, Leper House, 1867.-In Australia, Victoria, 1849; North Queensland, 1891.特派团领域的摩拉维亚:在北美,拉布拉多,1771年开始,阿拉斯加,1885年;加州,1890. -在中美洲,蚊子海岸,1849. -在南美洲,苏里南,1735年,德梅拉拉,1878. -在西印度群岛,牙买加,1754年,圣托马斯,1732年,圣月,1754;圣克罗伊,1740年,安提瓜,1756圣基茨,1777年,巴巴多斯,1765;特立尼达和多巴哥,1790特立尼达,1890.在非洲,开普殖民地,东,西,1736年,德国在东非,1891.在亚洲,西喜马拉雅,1853年,耶路撒冷,悦府,1867.在澳大利亚,维多利亚,1849年,北昆士兰,1891年。 The work is carried on by 470 missionaries of whom 76 are natives.这项工作进行了由470名传教士,其中76本地人。Bohemia and Moravia are also counted among the mission fields.波希米亚和摩拉维亚也算作特派团的领域。The mission work there, like that of the foreign missions, is a joint undertaking of all the Provinces of the Church.观察团的工作有像外国使团的,是所有的教会省共同事业。In December, 1905, the total membership was 984; income (of which £111 was from the British Province), £1761, 16/4; outlay, £1,991, 10/9.去年十二月,1905年,会员总数为984,收入英镑,1761年,16 / 4(其中一百一十一英镑省是由英国),支出,1991英镑,10 / 9。

Publication information Written by J. Wilhelm.出版信息写了J.威廉。Transcribed by Thomas M. Barrett.转录由托马斯M巴雷特。Dedicated to Christian unity in Jesus' name The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.献给在耶稣的名字的天主教百科全书,第二卷基督教团结。Published 1907.1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, 1907.Nihil Obstat,1907年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

CAMERARIUS, Historica narratio de Fratrum orthodoxorum ecclesiis in Bohemia, Moravia, et Polonia (Frankfurt, 1625); BOROWY, sv Bruder, Bohmische in Kirchenlex., II; HAMILTON, A History of the Moravian Church, or the Unitas Fratrum (Bethlehem, Pa., 1900); WAUER, The Beginnings of the Brethren's Church in England (Baildon, near Shipley, Yorks, 1901); The Moravian (official organ of the N. Prov. Of the Unitas Fratrum in America); The Moravian Messenger.- See also Bibliography prefixed to SCHWEINITZ, History of the Unitas Fratrum. CAMERARIUS,史馆narratio德在波希米亚,摩拉维亚,等波尼亚(法兰克福,1625年)Fratrum orthodoxorum ecclesiis。BOROWY,希沃特布鲁德,Bohmische在Kirchenlex,二;汉密尔顿,一个摩拉维亚教会历史,或乌尼塔斯fratrum(伯利恒,巴。,1900年); WAUER,对弟兄的教会在英格兰(贝尔当近希普利,约克斯,1901年)的开始;摩拉维亚(北省的官方机构在美国的)乌尼塔斯fratrum。摩拉维亚信使.-另见书目前缀SCHWEINITZ,乌尼塔斯fratrum的历史。


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