Original Sin, Ancestral Sin原罪

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General Information一般资料

In Christian theology, original sin refers both to the sin of Adam and Eve by which humankind fell from divine grace and to the state of sin into which humans since the fall have been born. The scriptural foundation for original sin is found in the epistles of Saint Paul. 在基督教神学,原罪既指亚当和夏娃的罪,其中人类失宠了从神的罪,并在其中属于国家人类以来,已经诞生。原罪圣经基础,是发现,在书信圣保罗。 Christian theologians have argued a wide variety of positions on the nature of original sin and its transmission and on the efficacy of Baptism in restoring grace.基督教神学家认为一个关于原罪和它的传输性质和恢复的洗礼,在各种岗位的恩典疗效。

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Original Sin原罪

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From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray来自:主页圣经M灰色研究评论詹姆斯

Genesis Chapter 3创世记第三章

Introduction of Sin介绍仙

The Temptation诱惑

Gen. 3:vv.创3:维维。1-5 That more than the serpent was present is suggested by the speech and reasoning powers displayed, but is rendered certain by a comparison of Rev. 12:9 and 20:2, where the serpent is identified with Satan. 1-5这比目前更多的是蛇是由讲话和推理显示权力的建议,但呈现由牧师12时09分和20时02分,那里的蛇是撒旦确定比较明确。Some think the serpent originally stood upright and was very beautiful to look upon, which, if true, would contribute to its power over the woman and further explain why Satan employed it as his instrument.一些人认为,蛇原来直立,非常美丽的眼光来看待,而如果属实,将有助于其对妇女权力和进一步解释,为何撒旦受聘为他的工具。 Nevertheless, that Satan was the real tempter is additionally assured by John 8:44; 2 Cor.不过,这是真正的魔鬼撒旦是额外保证,约翰8:44; 2肺心病。11:3; 1 John 3:8 and 1 Tim. 11时03分;约翰一书3:8和1个添。2:14.2:14。Read Satan's inquiry of the woman in the Revised Version, and perceive how it differs from the words of the prohibition (2:16).阅读撒旦的询问中的修订版本的女人,认为它是如何从禁止(2:16)的话不同。How does it prove Satan "a liar from the beginning," and how does it impugn God's wisdom and love?它是如何证明“从一开始说谎,”撒旦和它是如何抨击上帝的智慧和爱吗?Do you think the woman made a mistake in parleying with Satan?你认为该女子在与撒旦parleying错了吗?

And how does her language (v. 3) deflect from the truth?她的语言又如何(3节)偏离事实真相?Does she also make God a harder master than He is, and thus has sin already entered her soul?难道她也使主神,比他更难,因此,他的罪已经进入了她的灵魂吗?Notice that "gods" (v. 5) is translated "God" in the Revised Version.请注意,“神”(5节)是翻译的修订版“上帝”。It was in seeking to be as God that Satan fell (1 Tim. 3:6), and he tries to drag man down by the same means.这是在寻求如神,撒旦下跌(1添。3:6),他试图通过同样的手段拖人了。Compare the history of the Anti-Christ, Thess.比较反基督,帖的历史。2:4.2:4。

The Fall秋季

Gen. 3:vv.创3:维维。6, 7 What three steps led to the open act of sin?6,7三个步骤是什么导致了犯罪行为开放?How does 1 John 2:16 characterize these steps?约翰一书2:16如何描述这些步骤是什么?Compare the temptation of Jesus for the use of the same method (Luke 4:1-13).比较了相同的方法(路加福音4:1-13)使用耶稣的诱惑。 How does the further conduct of the woman illustrate the progress and propagation of sin?如何进一步进行的女子说明罪的进步和传播?Did any part of Satan's promise come true?没有任何撒旦的承诺的一部分成真?What part failed? Our first parents came into the knowledge of good and evil by coming to know evil to which they had been strangers before, the moral effect on them being shame (compare 2:25). To quote another: "What the man and woman immediately acquired was the now predominant trait of self-consciousness. God-consciousness has been lost, and henceforth self-contemplation is to be the characteristic and bane of mankind, laying the foundation for those inner feelings or mental states comprehended under the term 'unhappiness,' and for all the external strivings whereby effort is made to attain a better condition."部分失败? 什么善恶的知识,知道邪恶来参加我们第一次家长走进来,他们已被陌生人面前,对他们的道德耻感(比较2:25):。引用另一个“什么人和女子立即获得是自我意识的现在主要的特点。上帝意识已经丧失,并从此自我沉思是成为特性和人类的祸根,铺设那些内心的情感或心理状态的术语理解的基础'不幸'和所有的情况,就是努力来达到一个更好的外部条件,奋斗。“

What was the first of these efforts they made (v. 7, last clause)?什么是这些努力,他们提出的第一个(五7,最后条款)?And (to quote the same author again) "is not this act the germ of all subsequent human activities? Conscious of self and feeling the pressure of need, and no longer having a God to supply that need, man begins to invent and contrive" (Eccl. 7:29).和(引用同一作者又)“是不是这个行为的人类活动的所有后续胚芽?的自我意识和情感的需求压力,不再拥有神的供应需要,人类开始发明和发明” (传道书7:29)。Nor are these inventions of a material kind merely, but chiefly a spiritual kind, since their effort to cover themselves illustrates the futile attempts of the race to save itself from the eternal effects of sin by works of morality, penance and the like.也不是一个仅仅这些发明一种材料,但主要是一种精神上的一种,因为他们的努力蔽体说明了比赛的企图都是徒劳拯救罪恶的以德治,忏悔之类的作品本身永恒的影响。 What is the only covering that avails for the sinner (Ro. 3:22; 2 Cor. 5:21)?什么是唯一的覆盖,对于罪人援用(Ro. 3:22。2肺心病5:21)?

The Trial审判

Gen. 3:vv.创3:维维。8-13 "Voice" might be rendered by sound, and "cool" by wind.8-13“声音”的声音可能被渲染,而“酷”风。How does verse 8 indicate the character and degree of their shame?第8节如何表明自己的羞辱性质和程度?Do God's words (v. 9) express judgment only, or may they have expressed grace?做神的话(五9)表达判决书只,或者可能他们都表示的恩典?If the latter, in what sense? Does Adam tell the exact truth (v. 10)? Was it merely shame or the sense of sin that drove him away? How does God's question (v. 11) suggest the kind of knowledge that had now come to Adam? Does verse 12 show a spirit of repentance or self-justification on his part?如果是后者,在何种意义? 是否亚当说不清真相(五10)?难道就是羞耻或罪恶感的驱使他走呢? 神怎样的问题(11节)建议的知识种,民政事务总署现在来亚当?12节是否有悔罪表现的一部分或自我辩解,他的精神的?In the last analysis does he cast the blame on the woman or God?在最后的分析他是否对女人或投神的责任?

The Sentence on the Serpent句式上的蛇

Gen. 3:vv.创3:维维。14, 15 On which of the guilty does God first pass sentence? Has the curse of verse 14 been fulfilled? 14,15 在哪上帝有罪第一遍句话?有14个诅咒的诗得到履行?Compare Isaiah 65:25, and notice that even in the millennium when the curse is removed from all other cattle it will still remain on the serpent.比较以赛亚书65:25,并请注意,即使在千年诅咒时,从所有其它牛它仍将继续留在蛇删除。But how does this curse suggest that previously the serpent did not crawl?但这样会诅咒建议以前没有爬的蛇?(Naturalists describe the organism of the serpent as one of extreme degradation, and say that although it belongs to the latest creations of the animal kingdom, yet it represents a decided retrogression in the scale of being, thus corroborating the Biblical explanation of its condition.) Has the curse of verse 15 been fulfilled? (博物学家形容为极度退化之一的蛇有机体,并说,虽然它属于动物王国的最新作品,但它反映的是规模的决定是倒退,从而佐证了它的条件圣经的解释。 )具有15节诅咒得到履行?But we must not suppose the curse of verse 15 to be limited to the serpent, or else Satan were exempt.但我们不能假设的15节诅咒限于毒蛇,否则撒旦被免除。

See by the marginal references that the seed of the serpent is placed by metonomy for that of Satan, and is identified as the wicked and unbelieving people of all the ages (Matt. 3:7; 13:38; 23:33; John 8:44; Acts 13:10; 1 John 3:8).见的,是种子的毒蛇是放在metonomy的撒旦,是促使所有年龄的邪恶和不信的人(太3:7确定边际参考; 13:38,23:33;约翰8 :44,徒13:10;约翰一书3:8)。In the same way the seed of the woman might be supposed to stand for the righteous and believing people in all the ages, and so it does in a certain sense, but very especially it stands for our Lord Jesus Christ, the Head and Representative of that people, the One through whom they believe and by whom they become righteous.在同样的方式可能是种子的女子应该在所有参选的年龄,并相信正义的人,因此它在一定意义上的做法,但它很特别是我们的主耶稣基督,头部和代表站人们,一个通过他们,他们相信,由谁来他们成为义人。 He Himself is the seed of the woman, and they in Him (Is. 7:14; Matt. 1:18-25; Luke 1:31-35; Gal. 4:4, 5).他本人是种子的女子,他们在他(赛7:14;马特1:18-25。路加福音1:31-35;加拉太4时04分,5。)。Observe how much this means to us.观察有多少,这意味着给我们。It is really a promise of a Redeemer and redemption, and being the first promise, it is that out of which all subsequent promises flow.这真是一个救世主和赎回的承诺,并成为第一个承诺,那就是所有这些都流出来以后的承诺。

The Bible refers to it again and again in one way and another, and we need to become well acquainted with it.圣经是指它一次又一次地以某种方式与他人,以及我们需要成为熟悉它。 Indeed the rest of the Bible is just a history of the fulfilment of this promise. 事实上,圣经其余的就是历史的承诺的履行本。The Bible is not a history of the world or even of man, but a history of the redemption of man from the sin into which he fell in the garden of Eden. This explains why the whole story of creation is summed up in one chapter of the Bible, and why so little is said about the history of the nations of the earth except Israel. 圣经是不是一个世界历史的或人为甚至,而是历史的伊甸园的赎回男子从单到花园,他的塌了。这就解释了为什么整个故事的创作,是在总结的一章圣经,为什么这么少,是表示对以色列的地球上,除了国家的历史。 But in what sense is this a promise of redemption?但在何种意义上这是一个救赎的承诺?On the supposition that Christ is the Seed of the woman, what will He do to Satan (v. 15)?就假设说,基督是种子的女子,他会怎么做撒旦(15节)?When the serpent's head is bruised is not its power destroyed?当蛇的头部受伤的不是它的权力毁灭?(For the parallel see Heb. 2:14, 15; Rev. 20:1-3, 7-10.) But what will Satan do to Christ? (见为平行希伯来2:14,15;。启示录录20:1-3,7-10。)但将撒旦做基督?How may Satan be said to have bruised Christ's heel?撒旦如何可以说已经伤痕累累基督的脚跟?(For answer see Isaiah 50 and 53, Psalms 22 and 69, and the chapters of the Gospels which speak of Christ's sufferings and crucifixion.) (有关回答以赛亚50和53,诗篇22和69,其中的福音,基督的苦难和十字架上发言的章节。)

The Sentence on Adam and Eve亚当和夏娃的句子

Gen. 3:vv.创3:维维。16-21 What is the first feature of the sentence on the woman (v. 16, first clause)?16-21 什么是的条文)第一个功能上的句子该女子(16节,第一?With what chiefly will her sorrow be connected (second clause)?用什么,主要是将她的悲伤连接(第二条)?What second feature of her sentence is contained in the last clause?她的第二个特点是什么句子中包含的是最后一句? For what is the man condemned?对于什么是人的谴责吗?Does this show him less or more guilty than his wife?这是否表明他少犯或他的妻子更比?What curse precedes that on the man himself?什么诅咒之前,关于他本人?And yet how is it shown that this too is a curse on the man? "Sorrow" is rendered toil in the Revised Version, and hence the curse on the ground entails the toil on the man. 然而,它是怎样证明这也是一个人诅咒了?“悲哀”,呈现辛劳的修订版,因此地面上的诅咒的人需要辛苦的。How does this curse on the ground express itself from the ground (v. 18)?如何在地面上的这个诅咒表示从地面(诉18)本身? (The necessaries of life must now be forced out of the earth which before might have spontaneously yielded them.) What will this condition of things force out of man (v. 19)? (生活的必需品,现在必须被迫离开地球,然后他们可能自发地产生了。)如何这种事的人从条件生效(五19)?For how long must this normally continue?对于这通常多久必须继续吗?What part of man returns to the dust (Eccl. 12:7)?什么样的人返回部分灰尘(传道书12:7)?

Naturalists corroborate the Bible testimony to the curse by explaining that thorns and thistles are an abortion in the vegetable world, the result of arrested development and imperfect growth.博物学家佐证解释说,荆棘和蒺藜是在蔬菜的世界堕胎,被拘捕的发展和增长的结果不完善到诅咒圣经的见证。They disappear by cultivation and are transformed into branches, thus showing what their character may have been before the curse, and what it may be when through Christ the curse will have been removed (Rev. 22:1-5). How deeply significant the crown of thorns, the sign of the curse which Jesus bore for us!他们消失培育和转化为分行,从而显示出他们的性格是什么之前,可能已被诅咒,以及它可能是基督的诅咒时,通过将已被删除(启22:1-5)。 如何深远意义的荆棘冠,美签署的诅咒这对于耶稣讨厌!

The Penalty刑罚

Gen. 3:vv.创3:维维。22-24 To whom do you suppose the Lord God said this?22-24你认为谁主神说,这?Who is meant by "us"?谁的意思是“我们”?Did you notice the same plural pronoun in 1:26? The use of this is one of the earliest intimations of the Trinity more fully revealed in the New Testament. Indeed the earliest intimation is in the first verse of Scripture in the name God or (Hebrew) Elohim.你是否注意到在1点26分复数代词相同呢?这种使用的是一个暗示三位一体的更充分的最早发现在新约圣经。实际上暗示最早的名称是上帝在圣经中的第一个诗或(希伯来文)莹。 This is a plural noun but associated with a singular verb, thus suggesting the idea of plurality in unity.这是一个复数名词,但与单数动词,从而表明在统一思想的多元性。What reason is given for thursting Adam and Eve out of Eden (v. 22)? Has it occurred to you that there was mercy in this act?是什么原因)给予了thursting和夏娃亚当伊甸园(五22? 你有没有想过,有怜悯的行为呢?Having obtained the knowledge of evil without the power of resisting it, would it not have added to their calamity if, by eating of the tree of life, they had rendered that condition everlasting? 在获得电能,抵制邪恶的知识没有,是不是已经加入了生命树吃了,如果他们的灾难,他们已使这一条件永恒?

What is the name of the mysterious beings placed on guard at the east of the garden?什么是防范放置在东花园的神秘人叫什么名字?(v. 24) They seem to be the special guardians of God's majesty, the vindicators of God's broken law, a thought emphasized by their symbolical position over the mercy-seat in the tabernacle at a later period. (五24),他们似乎是上帝的威严的特别保护者,上帝的法律的维护者破碎,一个念头在强调他们的怜悯,在帐幕的座位在后一时期的象征性地位。"The flaming sword" has been translated by "shekinah," the name of the visible glory of God which rested on the mercy seat.“燃烧的剑”已被译成了“舍吉拿”的神的荣耀,在可见的施恩座休息的名称。May it be that we have here a representation of the mode of worship now established at Eden to show God's anger at sin, and to teach the mediation of a promised Saviour as the way of access to God?但愿这是因为我们这里有一份,现在是建立在伊甸园显示神的崇拜在SIN anger模式的代表性,并教导作为获得上帝的方式,承诺提供的救世主调解?As later, so now God seems to say: "I will commune with thee from between the cherubim" (Ex. 25:10-22).由于晚,所以现在上帝似乎是说:“我将与你同在公社之间的基路伯”(出埃及记25:10-22)。

Questions 1.问题 1。How would you prove that Satan and not the serpent was the real tempter in Eden?你将如何证明撒旦,而不是蛇,是真正的魔鬼在伊甸园? 2.2。In what way does the temptation of the second Adam (Christ) harmonize with this of the first Adam?在哪些方面的第二个亚当(基督)的诱惑协调与第一亚当呢?3.3。What does the making of the aprons of fig leaves illustrate?什么是无花果叶子的围裙说明决策?4.4。How does natural history throw light on the curse pronounced on the serpent?如何投光自然历史上的蛇明显的诅咒?5.5。Who especially is meant by "the Seed of the woman"?尤其是谁的意思是“该名女子的种子”?6.6。What is the Bible?圣经是什么? 7.7。What do naturalists say as to the nature of thorns and thistles?博物学家说什么,以荆棘和蒺藜的性质?8.8。With what two or three suggestions of the Trinity have we met thus far in our lessons?用什么两三三位一体的建议,我们遇到了迄今为​​止在我们的教训是什么?9.9。Of what do the cherubim seem to be the vindicators, and what suggestions does this fact bring to mind?什么做基路伯似乎是维护者,并没有什么建议,这一事实使人们联想?10.10。How many questions in the text of our lesson have you been able satisfactorily to answer?如何在我们的课文很多问题你能圆满回答?

Genesis Chapter 2创世记第二章

The Garden of Eden在伊甸园

The Garden Located位于花园

vv.维维。8-14.8-14。What name is given to the locality of the garden?什么名字,是考虑到各地的园林?In which section of that locality was it planted?在其中的一段当地是种植?What expression in verse 9 shows God's consideration for beauty as well as utility? ?怎样表达对美的诗句9显示以及公用事业上帝的考虑?What two trees of life planted?什么两生命之树种植?What geographical feature of verse 10 accentuates the historical character of this narrative?什么样的地域特点的10节强调了这种叙事历史人物?Observe how this is further impressed by the facts which follow, viz: the names of the rivers, the countries through which they flow, and even the mineral deposits of the latter. Note: (a) the use of the present tense in this description, showing that the readers of Moses' period knew the location; (b) it must have been an elevated district, as the source of mighty rivers; (c) it could not have been a very luxuriant or fruitful locality, else why the need of planting a garden, and where could there have been any serious hardship in the subsequent expulsion of Adam and Eve?观察一下,这是进一步留下深刻印象的事实跟进,即:姓名,河流,国家通过这些流量,甚至是矿产后者。存款的票据:(一)本使用现在时在描述,显示出'时期读者的摩西知道位置;(二)必须有来源的浩荡江河高架区,如;(三)不能是一个非常繁茂的或富有成果的地方,否则,为何需要种植园,并在可能有任何严重的困难和夏娃亚当在随后的驱逐?

It is used to be thought that "Eden" was a Hebrew word meaning pleasure, but recent explorations in Assyria indicate that it may have been of Accadian origin meaning a plain, not a fertile plain as in a valley, but an elevated and sterile plain as a steppe or mountain desert. Putting these things together, the place that would come before the mind of an Oriental was the region of Armenia where the Euphrates and the Tigris (or Hiddekel) take their rise.它是用来被认为“伊甸园”是一个希伯来字,意思是高兴,但在最近的探索,亚述表明,它可能有一个普通的起源亚加底亚的意义,不是肥沃的平原被作为一个山谷中,但高架及无菌平原作为草原或山地沙漠。 把这些东西在一起,地点,将前东方记一地区是亚美尼亚在幼发拉底河和底格里斯河(或hiddekel)带崛起上升。There are two other rivers taking their rise in that region, the Kur and the Araxes, thence uniting and flowing into the Caspian Sea, but whether these are identical with the Pison and Gihon of the lesson can not yet be determined. Science now corroborates this location of Eden in so far as it teaches (a) that the human race has sprung from a common centre, and (b) that this centre is the table-land of central Asia. 里海有两个其他河流到其在该地区崛起,kur和阿拉克斯,那里的团结和流入,但究竟这些是相同的教训与pison和由基红的还不能确定。科学的,现在证实了这伊甸园中的位置,所以对于它教导(一),人类已经异军突起,从一个共同的中心,和(b)表示,这个中心是表中亚的土地。


Original Sin原罪

Catholic Information天主教新闻

I. Meaning一,意义

II.二。Principal Adversaries主要对手

III.三。Original Sin in Scripture原罪在经文

IV.四。Original Sin in Tradition在传统的原罪

V. Original Sin in face of the Objections of Human Reason五,原罪在人类理性的反对的

VI.六。Nature of Original Sin大自然的原罪

VII.七。How Voluntary如何自愿

I. MEANING一,意义

Original sin may be taken to mean: (1) the sin that Adam committed; (2) a consequence of this first sin, the hereditary stain with which we are born on account of our origin or descent from Adam.原罪可以采取指:(1)亚当所犯的罪,(2)一本第一单,结果,遗传性染色与我们是对我们的原产地或从亚当后裔帐户诞生。 From the earliest times the latter sense of the word was more common, as may be seen by St. Augustine's statement: "the deliberate sin of the first man is the cause of original sin" (De nupt. et concup., II, xxvi, 43).从最早的时候,后一种意义上的字是较常见的,可能是由圣奥古斯丁的发言时间:“第一是人故意犯罪导致的原罪”(德南京邮电大学等concup,二,26。。 ,43)。It is the hereditary stain that is dealt with here.这是遗传性染色是与在这里处理。As to the sin of Adam we have not to examine the circumstances in which it was committed nor make the exegesis of the third chapter of Genesis.至于亚当的罪,我们还没有研究在其所实施的情况下,也不让的创世记第三章的注释。

II.二。PRINCIPAL ADVERSARIES主要对手

Theodorus of Mopsuestia opened this controversy by denying that the sin of Adam was the origin of death.的Mopsuestia Theodorus开幕否认罪恶的亚当是死亡的血统争议。(See the "Excerpta Theodori", by Marius Mercator; cf. Smith, "A Dictionary of Christian Biography", IV, 942.) Celestius, a friend of Pelagius, was the first in the West to hold these propositions, borrowed from Theodorus: "Adam was to die in every hypothesis, whether he sinned or did not sin. His sin injured himself only and not the human race" (Mercator, "Liber Subnotationem", preface). (见“文摘Theodori”,由马吕斯墨卡托。。比照史密斯“的基督教传记辞典”,四,942)Celestius,伯拉纠一个朋友,是在西方第一个持有这些命题,从Theodorus借来:“亚当是死在每一个假说,他是否有罪或没罪,他的罪过只是自己受伤,而不是人类。”(墨卡托,“书Subnotationem”,序言)。 This, the first position held by the Pelagians, was also the first point condemned at Carthage (Denzinger, "Enchiridion", no 101-old no. 65).对此,首先立场的pelagians举行,也是第一个点在迦太基(登青格,“便览”,没有101岁的65号。)谴责。Against this fundamental error Catholics cited especially Romans 5:12, where Adam is shown as transmitting death with sin.在这一根本性的错误,特别是罗马天主教徒引5:12,亚当作为传输与罪恶死亡证明。

After some time the Pelagians admitted the transmission of death -- this being more easily understood as we see that parents transmit to their children hereditary diseases -- but they still violently attacked the transmission of sin (St. Augustine, "Contra duas epist. Pelag.", IV, iv, 6).经过一段时间的pelagians承认死亡的传输 - 这更容易理解,因为我们看到,父母传递给子女的遗传疾病 - 。但他们仍然猛烈抨击传递单(圣奥古斯丁,“魂斗罗杜阿斯epist Pelag 。“,四,四,六)。And when St. Paul speaks of the transmission of sin they understood by this the transmission of death.当圣保罗的传递单,他们本该死亡传输理解说话。This was their second position, condemned by the Council of Orange [Denz., n.这是他们第二的位置,由橙[Denz安理会的谴责。,注175 (145)], and again later on with the first by the Council of Trent [Sess.175(145)],再后来用的遄达[理事会第一阶段作业。 V, can.五,可。ii; Denz., n.二; Denz,注。 789 (671)].789(671)]。 To take the word sin to mean death was an evident falsification of the text, so the Pelagians soon abandoned the interpretation and admitted that Adam caused sin in us.要利用这个词意味着死亡罪是伪造的文本明显,所以很快的pelagians放弃了解释,并承认亚当引起我们的罪。They did not, however, understand by sin the hereditary stain contracted at our birth, but the sin that adults commit in imitation of Adam.他们没有,但是,由单了解遗传性色斑合同在我们的诞生,但单仲偕认为,亚当模仿成年人犯。 This was their third position, to which is opposed the definition of Trent that sin is transmitted to all by generation (propagatione), not by imitation [Denz., n.这是他们第三的位置,对此是反对的遄达罪的定义传输到所有的代(propagatione)并非由仿制[Denz。,注790 (672)].790(672)]。 Moreover, in the following canon are cited the words of the Council of Carthage, in which there is question of a sin contracted by generation and effaced by generation [Denz., n.此外,在下列佳能列举了安理会的迦太基的话说,其中有问题的一种罪恶和收缩一代一代[Denz抹去。,注102 (66)].102(66)]。

The leaders of the Reformation admitted the dogma of original sin, but at present there are many Protestants imbued with Socinian doctrines whose theory is a revival of Pelagianism.在宗教改革的领导人承认原罪教条,但目前有许多新教徒与他的理论是一个充满佩拉复兴Socinian学说。

III.三。ORIGINAL SIN IN SCRIPTURE原罪在圣经

The classical text is Romans 5:12 sqq.经典的文字是罗马人5:12 sqq。In the preceding part the apostle treats of justification by Jesus Christ, and to put in evidence the fact of His being the one Saviour, he contrasts with this Divine Head of mankind the human head who caused its ruin.在前面的部分使徒对待由耶稣基督的理由,并提出作为证据,他的事实是一个救世主,他对比与人类的这一神圣团长的人头谁造成的破坏。 The question of original sin, therefore, comes in only incidentally.原罪的问题,因此,只顺带进来。St. Paul supposes the idea that the faithful have of it from his oral instructions, and he speaks of it to make them understand the work of Redemption.圣保罗设想法,即它的忠实从他的口头指示,他是这么讲,使他们了解赎回工作。This explains the brevity of the development and the obscurity of some verses.这说明了简洁的发展和一些诗句默默无闻。

We shall now show what, in the text, is opposed to the three Pelagian positions:我们现在证明什么,在文中,反对伯拉纠的三个位置:

(1) The sin of Adam has injured the human race at least in the sense that it has introduced death -- "Wherefore as by one man sin entered into this world and by sin death; and so death passed upon all men".(1)亚当的罪孽感中受伤,至少人类,它已推出死亡 - “人哪,因一人进入到这个世界的罪恶罪恶和死亡的,于是死就临到众人。”Here there is question of physical death.这里有身体死亡的问题。First, the literal meaning of the word ought to be presumed unless there be some reason to the contrary.首先,这个词的字面意思应该被推定,除非有一些相反的原因。Second, there is an allusion in this verse to a passage in the Book of Wisdom in which, as may be seen from the context, there is question of physical death.第二,有一个典故,在这首诗在本书的智慧在其中一个通道,可能从上下文看出,是身体的死亡问题。Wisdom 2:24: "But by the envy of the devil death came into the world".2:24智慧:“但经过这个死亡的魔鬼羡慕走向世界”。Cf.比照。Genesis 2:17; 3:3, 19; and another parallel passage in St. Paul himself, 1 Corinthians 15:21: "For by a man came death and by a man the resurrection of the dead".创世记2:17; 3:3,19;和另一个在圣保罗自己,哥林多前书15:21并行一段话:“对于由一个人来到死亡和一个男人的,死人复活”。Here there can be question only of physical death, since it is opposed to corporal resurrection, which is the subject of the whole chapter.这里只能有肉体死亡的问题,因为它是反对体罚的复活,这是​​全篇的主题。

(2) Adam by his fault transmitted to us not only death but also sin, "for as by the disobedience of one man many [ie, all men] were made sinners" (Romans 5:19). (2)亚当转交他的错,我们不仅死亡,而且还罪“,由一个人的许多抗命[即,所有的人]是作为罪人”(罗马书5:19)。How then could the Pelagians, and at a later period Zwingli, say that St. Paul speaks only of the transmission of physical death?又如何能的pelagians,并在稍后时间茨温利,只说圣保罗的肉体死亡传输说话?If according to them we must read death where the Apostle wrote sin, we should also read that the disobedience of Adam has made us mortal where the Apostle writes that it has made us sinners.如果按照他们的死亡,而我们一定要读使徒说罪,我们还应该阅读的,亚当不服从,使我们凡人那里使徒写道,它使我们罪人。 But the word sinner has never meant mortal, nor has sin ever meant death.但这个词意味着凡人罪人从来没有,也没有永远意味着死亡罪。 Also in verse 12, which corresponds to verse 19, we see that by one man two things have been brought on all men, sin and death, the one being the consequence of the other and therefore not identical with it.此外,在12节,相当于19节,我们看到两件事情由一个人已经在所有的人,罪恶和死亡,其中之一是从其他后果,因此不与它相同带来的。

(3) Since Adam transmits death to his children by way of generation when he begets them mortal, it is by generation also that he transmits to them sin, for the Apostle presents these two effects as produced at the same time and by the same causality. (3)由于亚当死亡传输方式由他的子女代他招致他们致命的,那就是他转达他们的罪,对于使徒介绍这两种效应的同时,由同样的因果关系产生的一代人也。 The explanation of the Pelagians differs from that of St. Paul.该解释的pelagians有别于圣保罗的。According to them the child who receives mortality at his birth receives sin from Adam only at a later period when he knows the sin of the first man and is inclined to imitate it.据他们的孩子谁接收在他出生死亡率只接收在后期,当他知道罪的第一人,并倾向于模仿它从亚当的罪。The causality of Adam as regards mortality would, therefore, be completely different from his causality as regards sin.亚当的因果关系方面的死亡率会,因此,从他的因果关系是完全不同至于罪。Moreover, this supposed influence of the bad example of Adam is almost chimerical; even the faithful when they sin do not sin on account of Adam's bad example, a fortiori infidels who are completely ignorant of the history of the first man.此外,这种对亚当的坏榜样假定的影响几乎是虚幻的,甚至当他们罪恶的忠实不要在亚当的坏榜样帐户罪,更何况infidels谁是完全的第一个人类历史一无所知。 And yet all men are, by the influence of Adam, sinners and condemned (Romans 5:18, 19).然而,所有的人都是由亚当罪人,影响力和谴责(罗马书5:18,19)。The influence of Adam cannot, therefore, be the influence of his bad example which we imitate (Augustine, "Contra julian.", VI, xxiv, 75).亚当的影响,因此不能,是他的坏榜样的影响力,我们模仿(奥古斯丁,“魂斗罗朱利安。”,六,二十四,75)。

On this account, several recent Protestants have thus modified the Pelagian explanation: "Even without being aware of it all men imitate Adam inasmuch as they merit death as the punishment of their own sins just as Adam merited it as the punishment for his sin."这个缘故,最近的一些新教徒因此,修改的伯拉纠的解释:“即使没有意识到它所有的人模仿亚当,因为它们的优点,这是他们就像亚当值得作为他罪的惩罚它自己的罪处罚的死亡。” This is going farther and farther from the text of St. Paul.这是越走越远从圣保罗案文。Adam would be no more than the term of a comparison, he would no longer have any influence or causality as regards original sin or death.亚当将不会超过一个比较任期,他将不再有任何影响或因果关系至于原罪或死亡。Moreover, the Apostle did not affirm that all men, in imitation of Adam, are mortal on account of their actual sins; since children who die before coming to the use of reason have never committed such sins; but he expressly affirms the contrary in the fourteenth verse: "But death reigned", not only over those who imitated Adam, but "even over them also who have not sinned after the similitude of the transgression of Adam."此外,使徒并没有确认,在所有男人亚当模仿,是对他们的实际罪孽帐户凡人;谁在死之前,因为儿童来使用的原因,从来没有犯这样的罪,但他明确肯定了相反第十四诗句:“。甚至超过他们也没有谁后,亚当的海侵相似罪”“但死亡统治”,而不是只对那些谁模仿亚当,但 Adam's sin, therefore, is the sole cause of death for the entire human race.亚当的罪,因此,这是对整个人类死亡的唯一原因。 Moreover, we can discern no natural connexion between any sin and death.此外,我们可以看出之间没有任何罪恶和死亡的自然联接。 In order that a determined sin entail death there is need of a positive law, but before the Law of Moses there was no positive law of God appointing death as a punishment except the law given to Adam (Genesis 2:17).为了使一个坚定的罪带来的死亡有一种积极的法律的必要性,但在摩西的法律有没有上帝的积极作为,除了委任法律给予亚当(创2:17)法律的制裁死亡。 It is, therefore, his disobedience only that could have merited and brought it into the world (Romans 5:13, 14).这是,因此,他的抗命只是可能值得,并将其带入这个世界的(罗马书5:13,14)。

These Protestant writers lay much stress on the last words of the twelfth verse.这些新教作家躺在第十二届诗的最后几句话太多的压力。We know that several of the Latin Fathers understood the words "in whom all have sinned", to mean, all have sinned in Adam.我们知道,拉丁美洲一些理解父亲的话“中的人都有罪”,意思是,都在亚当犯了罪。This interpretation would be an extra proof of the thesis of original sin, but it is not necessary.这个解释将是原罪的论文额外的证明,但它是没有必要的。Modern exegesis, as well as the Greek Fathers, prefer to translate "and so death passed upon all men because all have sinned".现代注释,以及希腊的父亲,喜欢翻译“的,于是死就临到众人,因为都有罪”。We accept this second translation which shows us death as an effect of sin.我们接受这第二个翻译,显示效果为我们的罪死。But of what sin?但是,什么是罪? "The personal sins of each one", answer our adversaries, "this is the natural sense of the words 'all have sinned.'" It would be the natural sense if the context was not absolutely opposed to it.,“每一个人的罪孽之一的”回答我们的对手,“这是自然意义上的词语都有罪。”这将是自然常识,如果上下文不是绝对反对。 The words "all have sinned" of the twelfth verse, which are obscure on account of their brevity, are thus developed in the nineteenth verse: "for as by the disobedience of one man many were made sinners."改为“都有罪”的第十二节,这是在掩盖其简洁的帐户,因此发达国家在十九诗句:。“作为一个人的许多人成为罪人抗命” There is no question here of personal sins, differing in species and number, committed by each one during his life, but of one first sin which was enough to transmit equally to all men a state of sin and the title of sinners.这是毫无疑问在这里个人的罪孽,在种类和数量每一个致力于在他的生命,不同的,但第一单,这是一个足以传送给所有的人同样一个国家的罪过和罪人的称号。 Similarly in the twelfth verse the words "all have sinned" must mean, "all have participated in the sin of Adam", "all have contracted its stain".同样,在第十二届诗句改为“都有罪”必须的意思,“都参与了罪恶的亚当”,“所有已签约的污点”。This interpretation too removes the seeming contradiction between the twelfth verse, "all have sinned", and the fourteenth, "who have not sinned", for in the former there is question of original sin, in the latter of personal sin.这种解释也消除了第十二届之间的诗句看似矛盾,“都有罪”,并在第十四,“谁没有犯过罪”,对前有原罪的问题,在对个人的罪后者。 Those who say that in both cases there is question of personal sin are unable to reconcile these two verses.那些谁说,在这两种情况下有问题的个人单是无法调和这两个诗句。

IV.四。ORIGINAL SIN IN TRADITION原罪在传统中

On account of a superficial resemblance between the doctrine of original sin and the Manichaean theory of our nature being evil, the Pelagians accused the Catholics and St. Augustine of Manichaeism.论之间的原罪学说和我们的本性是邪恶的摩尼教的理论表面相似的帐户,被告的pelagians摩尼教天主教徒和圣奥古斯丁。 For the accusation and its answer see "Contra duas epist. Pelag.", I, II, 4; V, 10; III, IX, 25; IV, III.对于指控,其答案见“魂斗罗杜阿斯epist Pelag。。”,一,二,四,五,十,三,九,25;四,三。In our own times this charge has been reiterated by several critics and historians of dogma who have been influenced by the fact that before his conversion St. Augustine was a Manichaean.在我们自己的时代这项收费已被多家评论家和历史学家的教条谁已被事实的影响之前,他的转换重申,圣奥古斯丁是摩尼教。 They do not identify Manichaeism with the doctrine of original sin, but they say that St. Augustine, with the remains of his former Manichaean prejudices, created the doctrine of original sin unknown before his time.他们不认同摩尼教教义的原罪,但他们说,圣奥古斯丁,在他的前摩尼教偏见依然存在,他的时间之前创建的原罪教义不明。

It is not true that the doctrine of original sin does not appear in the works of the pre-Augustinian Fathers.这是不正确的原罪的教义没有出现在预奥古斯丁和父亲的作品。On the contrary, their testimony is found in special works on the subject.相反,他们的证词中找到关于这个问题的专着。Nor can it be said, as Harnack maintains, that St. Augustine himself acknowledges the absence of this doctrine in the writings of the Fathers.也可以说,作为哈纳克坚持认为,,圣奥古斯丁本人也承认了这一著作的父亲学说缺席。St. Augustine invokes the testimony of eleven Fathers, Greek as well as Latin (Contra Jul., II, x, 33).圣奥古斯丁援引一一父亲的证词,希腊语以及拉丁语(魂斗罗七月,第二,第十,33)。Baseless also is the assertion that before St. Augustine this doctrine was unknown to the Jews and to the Christians; as we have already shown, it was taught by St. Paul.毫无根据的说法也是前圣奥古斯丁这一学说是未知向犹太人和基督徒,正如我们已经表明,它是由圣保罗授课。It is found in the fourth Book of Esdras, a work written by a Jew in the first century after Christ and widely read by the Christians.它被发现在该埃斯德拉斯,写的一个犹太人在一世纪后,基督教和基督徒的广泛阅读工作的第四本书。This book represents Adam as the author of the fall of the human race (vii, 48), as having transmitted to all his posterity the permanent infirmity, the malignity, the bad seed of sin (iii, 21, 22; iv, 30).这本书代表作为人类(七,48)属于作者Adam,为有传染给他的所有后人永久体弱的恶毒,罪恶的坏种子(三,21,22;四,30) 。Protestants themselves admit the doctrine of original sin in this book and others of the same period (see Sanday, "The International Critical Commentary: Romans", 134, 137; Hastings, "A Dictionary of the Bible", I, 841).新教徒也承认在这本书原罪教义和同一时期其他(见桑迪,“国际评论:入乡随俗”,134,137,黑斯廷斯,“的圣经辞典”,我,841)。

It is therefore impossible to make St. Augustine, who is of a much later date, the inventor of original sin.因此,不可能让圣奥古斯丁,谁更晚的日期是原罪的发明者。

That this doctrine existed in Christian tradition before St. Augustine's time is shown by the practice of the Church in the baptism of children.这一学说在基督教传统中存在的圣奥古斯丁的时间是由教会在实践中对儿童的洗礼所示。The Pelagians held that baptism was given to children, not to remit their sin, but to make them better, to give them supernatural life, to make them adoptive sons of God, and heirs to the Kingdom of Heaven (see St. Augustine, "De peccat. meritis", I, xviii).的pelagians认为洗礼是给孩子,而不是免去他们的罪,而是使他们更好,让他们超自然的生活,使他们收养的儿子,神,天上的王国继承人(见圣奥古斯丁,“德peccat。meritis“,我和十八)。 The Catholics answered by citing the Nicene Creed, "Confiteor unum baptisma in remissiomen peccatorum".天主教徒回答援引尼西亚信条“Confiteor在remissiomen peccatorum unum baptisma”。They reproached the Pelagians with introducing two baptisms, one for adults to remit sins, the other for children with no such purpose.他们责备引入两个洗礼,成人一免去罪孽的pelagians,在与其他儿童没有这样的目的。Catholics argued, too, from the ceremonies of baptism, which suppose the child to be under the power of evil, ie, exorcisms, abjuration of Satan made by the sponsor in the name of the child [Augustine, loc.天主教徒认为,也从仪式的洗礼,它假设孩子受到了邪恶,即驱魔仪式,由撒旦abjuration在孩子[奥古斯丁​​,组委会赞助商的名字发力。 cit., xxxiv, 63; Denz., n.同上,三十四,63;。。Denz,注140 (96)].140(96)]。

V. ORIGINAL SIN IN FACE OF THE OBJECTIONS FROM REASON五,原罪中面临的反对理由

We do not pretend to prove the existence of original sin by arguments from reason only.我们没有假装的理由来证明只有从参数的原罪的存在。St. Thomas makes use of a philosophical proof which proves the existence rather of some kind of decadence than of sin, and he considers his proof as probable only, satis probabiliter probari potest (Contra Gent., IV, lii).圣托马斯使一个哲学的证明证明了,而不是颓废的一些罪恶的存在性的使用,他认为他的证明作为唯一可能的,令人满意probabiliter probari potest(魂斗罗绅士。,四,崇礼)。Many Protestants and Jansenists and some Catholics hold the doctrine of original sin to be necessary in philosophy, and the only means of solving the problem of the existence of evil.许多新教徒和天主教徒举行詹森和一些原罪学说的哲学是必要的,而只有解决了邪恶的存在问题的方法。This is exaggerated and impossible to prove.这是夸张的,也不可能证明。It suffices to show that human reason has no serious objection against this doctrine which is founded on Revelation.这足以说明,人类理性有没有针对这是启示录创立的学说严重异议。The objections of Rationalists usually spring from a false concept of our dogma.从我们的错误的教条的理性概念的反对通常的春天。 They attack either the transmission of a sin or the idea of an injury inflicted on his race by the first man, of a decadence of the human race.他们攻击任何一个罪恶传输或对他的比赛造成了第一个男人的堕落的人类,一个受伤的想法。Here we shall answer only the second category of objections, the others will be considered under a later head (VII).这里我们将只回答第二类的反对,其他将被视为下一个更高头(七)。

(1) The law of progress is opposed to the hypothesis of a decadence. (1)法律的进步是反对一个颓废的假设。Yes, if the progress was necessarily continuous, but history proves the contrary.是的,如果不断进步是必然的,但历史证明恰恰相反。The line representing progress has its ups and downs, there are periods of decadence and of retrogression, and such was the period, Revelation tells us, that followed the first sin.该生产线代表的进展有起有落,有颓废和倒退的时期,而这些是期间,启示录告诉我们,那之后的第一单。The human race, however, began to rise again little by little, for neither intelligence nor free will had been destroyed by original sin and, consequently, there still remained the possibility of material progress, whilst in the spiritual order God did not abandon man, to whom He had promised redemption.人类,然而,开始再次上升一点有点不智,也不是由自由意志和原罪,销毁因此,仍然存在着的物质进步,在精神秩序的神人,而没有放弃的可能性,人,他曾答应赎回。 This theory of decadence has no connexion with our Revelation.这种理论并没有颓废与我们的启示联接。The Bible, on the contrary, shows us even spiritual progress in the people it treats of: the vocation of Abraham, the law of Moses, the mission of the Prophets, the coming of the Messias, a revelation which becomes clearer and clearer, ending in the Gospel, its diffusion amongst all nations, its fruits of holiness, and the progress of the Church.圣经,与此相反,显示我们甚至在人们的精神对待进展:亚伯拉罕,摩西的律法,先知的使命,天职未来的messias,一个启示,这已经成为越来越清晰,结束在福音,它的所有国家之间的扩散,圣洁的水果和教会的进展。

(2) It is unjust, says another objection, that from the sin of one man should result the decadence of the whole human race.(2)这是不公正的,说另一种反对意见,即从一个人的罪应导致整个人类堕落。 This would have weight if we took this decadence in the same sense that Luther took it, ie human reason incapable of understanding even moral truths, free will destroyed, the very substance of man changed into evil.这将有重量,如果我们采取了在同样的意义这个颓废,路德接过来,即人类理性的理解能力,甚至道德真理,自由意志遭到破坏,很物质的人变成了邪恶。

But according to Catholic theology man has not lost his natural faculties: by the sin of Adam he has been deprived only of the Divine gifts to which his nature had no strict right, the complete mastery of his passions, exemption from death, sanctifying grace, the vision of God in the next life.但是,根据天主教神学的人并没有失去其天赋:由罪恶的亚当,他一直只的神圣礼物,而他的本性没有严格的权利,他的激情,免征死亡完全掌握,sanctifying恩典被剥夺,在未来生活的憧憬神。 The Creator, whose gifts were not due to the human race, had the right to bestow them on such conditions as He wished and to make their conservation depend on the fidelity of the head of the family.造物主,他的礼物不是因为人类,有权利赐给他们,因为他的条件,使他们的希望和保护取决于家庭的头保真度。A prince can confer a hereditary dignity on condition that the recipient remains loyal, and that, in case of his rebelling, this dignity shall be taken from him and, in consequence, from his descendants.一个君主可以赋予一个世袭的尊严的条件下,收件人仍然忠于,并表示,在他的反叛的情况下,这种尊严,必须从他和后果,从他的子孙。 It is not, however, intelligible that the prince, on account of a fault committed by a father, should order the hands and feet of all the descendants of the guilty man to be cut off immediately after their birth.这不是,但是,理解是,对一个父亲犯了错帐王子,应当责令其手和所有的有罪的人的后代脚被削减其出生后立即关闭。This comparison represents the doctrine of Luther which we in no way defend.这个比较代表了路德学说,我们没有办法防守。The doctrine of the Church supposes no sensible or afflictive punishment in the next world for children who die with nothing but original sin on their souls, but only the privation of the sight of God [Denz., n.教会的学说假设没有孩子,但什么也没有谁对自己的灵魂原罪死在未来世界理智或难受的惩罚,但只有神[Denz穷困景象。,注1526 (1389)]. 1526(1389)]。

VI.六。NATURE OF ORIGINAL SIN自然的原罪

This is a difficult point and many systems have been invented to explain it: it will suffice to give the theological explanation now commonly received.这是一个困难点,很多系统已经发明了解释:它足以给现在普遍接受的神学解释。Original sin is the privation of sanctifying grace in consequence of the sin of Adam.原罪是成圣在亚当的罪的后果穷困的恩典。This solution, which is that of St. Thomas, goes back to St. Anselm and even to the traditions of the early Church, as we see by the declaration of the Second Council of Orange (AD 529): one man has transmitted to the whole human race not only the death of the body, which is the punishment of sin, but even sin itself, which is the death of the soul [Denz., n.这个解决办法,那就是圣托马斯,可以追溯到圣anselm和甚至早期教会的传统,如我们的奥兰治(公元529)第二届理事会的声明见:有一个人转交给整个人类,不仅是身体,这就是罪的处罚死亡,但即使是罪恶本身,这是灵魂的[Denz死亡。,注 175 (145)].175(145)]。 As death is the privation of the principle of life, the death of the soul is the privation of sanctifying grace which according to all theologians is the principle of supernatural life.由于死亡是穷困的生活原则,对死亡的灵魂是圣洁的恩典,这是根据所有的神学家穷困是超自然的生活原则。Therefore, if original sin is "the death of the soul", it is the privation of sanctifying grace.因此,如果原罪是“死亡的灵魂”,它是穷困的sanctifying宽限期。

The Council of Trent, although it did not make this solution obligatory by a definition, regarded it with favour and authorized its use (cf. Pallavicini, "Istoria del Concilio di Trento", vii-ix).安理会的遄达,虽然它没有使这个解决方案由一个强制性的定义,把它与青睐,并授权其使用(参见帕拉维奇尼,“Istoria德尔Concilio迪特伦托”,第七至第九)。 Original sin is described not only as the death of the soul (Sess. V, can. ii), but as a "privation of justice that each child contracts at its conception" (Sess. VI, cap. iii).原罪是描述它不仅是死亡的灵魂(sess.五,可以的。二),但作为一个“正义的概念,在穷困每个孩子合同”(sess.六,帽。三)。 But the Council calls "justice" what we call sanctifying grace (Sess. VI), and as each child should have had personally his own justice so now after the fall he suffers his own privation of justice.但是,安理会呼吁“正义”就是我们所说的圣洁恩典(sess.六),并作为每个孩子都应该有他自己的正义亲自所以现在患有后的秋天,他自己穷困他的正义感。

We may add an argument based on the principle of St. Augustine already cited, "the deliberate sin of the first man is the cause of original sin".我们可以补充的原则为基础的圣奥古斯丁已经引“的第一人,是故意犯罪导致原罪”的说法。This principle is developed by St. Anselm: "the sin of Adam was one thing but the sin of children at their birth is quite another, the former was the cause, the latter is the effect" (De conceptu virginali, xxvi).这个原则是由圣安瑟伦发展:“亚当的罪是一回事,但在其出生的儿童罪是另一回事,前者是原因,后者是效应”(德conceptu virginali,26)。In a child original sin is distinct from the fault of Adam, it is one of its effects.在一个孩子的原罪,是从亚当过错明显,这是它的后果之一。But which of these effects is it?但是,这是这些影响呢?We shall examine the several effects of Adam's fault and reject those which cannot be original sin:我们将考察亚当的故障有很多影响和拒绝那些不能原罪:

(1) Death and Suffering.- These are purely physical evils and cannot be called sin. (1)死亡和苦难.-这是纯物理的罪恶和不能称为罪。Moreover St. Paul, and after him the councils, regarded death and original sin as two distinct things transmitted by Adam.此外圣保罗,并在他的议会,把死亡和亚当转交了两个截然不同的东西原罪。

(2) Concupiscence.- This rebellion of the lower appetite transmitted to us by Adam is an occasion of sin and in that sense comes nearer to moral evil. (2)Concupiscence .-这反叛的低下食欲转发亚当我们来说是一个罪恶的场合,在这个意义上说来更接近道德上的邪恶。However, the occasion of a fault is not necessarily a fault, and whilst original sin is effaced by baptism concupiscence still remains in the person baptized; therefore original sin and concupiscence cannot be one and the same thing, as was held by the early Protestants (see Council of Trent, Sess. V, can. v).然而,出现故障的场合,并不一定是错,而原罪是抹去的洗礼concupiscence仍然在受洗的人,所以原罪和concupiscence不能是同一个东西,因为是由早期的新教徒举行(看到安理会的遄达,阶段作业。V,可以。五)。

(3) The absence of sanctifying grace in the new-born child is also an effect of the first sin, for Adam, having received holiness and justice from God, lost it not only for himself but also for us (loc. cit., can. ii). (3)圣洁的新出生的孩子缺乏也是一个优雅的第一单,为亚当,效果,已收到来自神的圣洁和公义,失去了它不仅为自己也为我们(如上。,可以。二)。 If he has lost it for us we were to have received it from him at our birth with the other prerogatives of our race.如果他已经失去了对我们来说,我们已收到我们的出生是从他与我们民族的其他特权。Therefore the absence of sanctifying grace in a child is a real privation, it is the want of something that should have been in him according to the Divine plan.因此,在孩子的sanctifying宽限期,是一个真正的困苦的情况下,它是东西应该对他一直按照神的计划想要的。If this favour is not merely something physical but is something in the moral order, if it is holiness, its privation may be called a sin.如果这个主张并非只是某种物质,但在道德秩序的东西,如果它是圣洁的,其穷困可称为一种罪过。 But sanctifying grace is holiness and is so called by the Council of Trent, because holiness consists in union with God, and grace unites us intimately with God.但是,圣洁,圣洁的恩典是如此的遄达安理会呼吁,因为圣洁与神联合组成,并与上帝的恩典我们紧密团结。Moral goodness consists in this, that our action is according to the moral law, but grace is a deification, as the Fathers say, a perfect conformity with God who is the first rule of all morality.道德上的善包括在这方面,我们的行动是根据道德法,但Grace是神化,作为父亲说,与神完全符合谁是一切道德的首要原则。 (See GRACE.) Sanctifying grace therefore enters into the moral order, not as an act that passes but as a permanent tendency which exists even when the subject who possesses it does not act; it is a turning towards God, conversio ad Deum. (见宽限期)。sanctifying的宽限期,因此,进入到道德秩序,而不是作为一种行为的推移而作为永久的倾向,甚至存在这个问题时,谁拥有它不采取行动,它是一种对上帝,赞美颂conversio广告转向。 Consequently the privation of this grace, even without any other act, would be a stain, a moral deformity, a turning away from God, aversio a Deo, and this character is not found in any other effect of the fault of Adam.因此在这个穷困的宽限期,即使没有任何其他行为,将是一个污点,一个道德畸形,一个转折远离上帝,aversio一迪奥,并且不在任何其他影响的亚当故障发现这个角色。 This privation, therefore, is the hereditary stain.这穷困,因此,这是遗传性色斑。

VII.七。HOW VOLUNTARY如何自愿

"There can be no sin that is not voluntary, the learned and the ignorant admit this evident truth", writes St. Augustine (De vera relig., xiv, 27). “不能没有罪,不是自愿的,教训和无知承认这种显而易见的真理”,写道:圣奥古斯丁(德维拉relig。,十四,27)。The Church has condemned the opposite solution given by Baius [prop.教会谴责相反溶液Baius [版权给出。xlvi, xlvii, in Denz., n.四十六,四十七,在Denz。,注1046 (926)].1046(926)]。 Original sin is not an act but, as already explained, a state, a permanent privation, and this can be voluntary indirectly -- just as a drunken man is deprived of his reason and incapable of using his liberty, yet it is by his free fault that he is in this state and hence his drunkenness, his privation of reason is voluntary and can be imputed to him.原罪不是一种行为,但作为已解释过,一个国家,一个永久的穷困,这可以是自愿的间接 - 就像一个喝醉酒的人被剥夺了他的理由和不能使用他的自由,但它是由他的自由错,他是在这个国家,因此他醉酒,他穷困的原因是自愿的,可以归咎于他。

But how can original sin be even indirectly voluntary for a child that has never used its personal free will?但如何才能原罪是对于一个从来没有使用儿童甚至间接自愿其个人的自由意志?Certain Protestants hold that a child on coming to the use of reason will consent to its original sin; but in reality no one ever thought of giving this consent.某些新教徒认为,一个对未来的孩子会使用的原因同意其原罪,但在现实中从来没有人给予这种同意的想法。Besides, even before the use of reason, sin is already in the soul, according to the data of Tradition regarding the baptism of children and the sin contracted by generation.此外,即使在使用的原因,罪已经在灵魂里,按照传统的数据有关儿童的洗礼和罪恶的世代承包。Some theosophists and spiritists admit the pre-existence of souls that have sinned in a former life which they now forget; but apart from the absurdity of this metempsychosis, it contradicts the doctrine of original sin, it substitutes a number of particular sins for the one sin of a common father transmitting sin and death to all (cf. Romans 5:12 sqq.).有些theosophists和鬼承认预先已经在以前的生活,他们现在忘犯罪灵魂的存在,但是从这个轮回的荒谬之外,它违背教义的原罪,它可以代替一个特别罪的一个数字罪恶的共同传输罪恶和死亡的父亲所有(参见罗马书5:12 sqq。)。The whole Christian religion, says St. Augustine, may be summed up in the intervention of two men, the one to ruin us, the other to save us (De pecc. orig., xxiv).整个基督教说,圣奥古斯丁,可归纳起来,两个人,一个干预毁灭我们,对方也救我们(德议会。原始。,二十四)。The right solution is to be sought in the free will of Adam in his sin, and this free will was ours: "we were all in Adam", says St. Ambrose, cited by St. Augustine (Opus imperf., IV, civ).正确的解决办法是在亚当的罪自由意志所追求的,这是我们的自由意志:“我们都在亚当里众人都”说,圣刘汉铨,由圣奥古斯丁(天主imperf引,四,持续输注。 )。St. Basil attributes to us the act of the first man: "Because we did not fast (when Adam ate the forbidden fruit) we have been turned out of the garden of Paradise" (Hom. i de jejun., iv).圣罗勒属性给我们的第一个男人的行为:“因为我们没有快速(当亚当吃了禁果),我们已经转化的花园里的天堂”(Hom.我去jejun,四。)。 Earlier still is the testimony of St. Irenæus; "In the person of the first Adam we offend God, disobeying His precept" (Haeres., V, xvi, 3).此前仍是圣爱任纽的证词,“在亚当的第一人,我们得罪上帝,不服从他的经商之道”(Haeres.,五,十六,3)。

St. Thomas thus explains this moral unity of our will with the will of Adam.圣托马斯从而解释这与亚当将我们的意志道德的统一。

"An individual can be considered either as an individual or as part of a whole, a member of a society . . . . Considered in the second way an act can be his although he has not done it himself, nor has it been done by his free will but by the rest of the society or by its head, the nation being considered as doing what the prince does. For a society is considered as a single man of whom the individuals are the different members (St. Paul, 1 Corinthians 12). Thus the multitude of men who receive their human nature from Adam is to be considered as a single community or rather as a single body . . . . If the man, whose privation of original justice is due to Adam, is considered as a private person, this privation is not his 'fault', for a fault is essentially voluntary. If, however, we consider him as a member of the family of Adam, as if all men were only one man, then his privation partakes of the nature of sin on account of its voluntary origin, which is the actual sin of Adam" (De Malo, iv, 1). “一个人可以被认为无论是作为个人或作为一个整体,一个社会成员的一部分。。。。在第二种方法的行为,可以认为他虽然他没做了自己,也没有被通过他的自由意志,而是由社会休息或通过其头部,被视为国家做什么王子一样。对于一个社会是作为人的个体是不同成员(圣保罗,1个单人认为科林蒂安12)。因此,谁获得男子从亚当人性的许多将被视为一个单一的社区或相当视为一个单一的机构。。。。如果这个人,谁的原始正义穷困是由于亚当,被认为是私人问题,这不是他的穷困是'错'的错误,基本上是自愿的。然而,如果我们认为作为他的亚当家族成员,好像所有的人都只有一个人,那么他的穷困参与大的在其自愿的起源,这是亚当实际罪孽“(德圣马洛,四,1)账户的性质罪。

It is this law of solidarity, admitted by common sentiment, which attributes to children a part of the shame resulting from the father's crime.正是这种团结的法律,由共同的情感,这对孩子的属性,从父亲的一部分,承认犯罪造成的耻辱。It is not a personal crime, objected the Pelagians.这不是个人犯罪,反对的pelagians。"No", answered St. Augustine, " but it is paternal crime" (Op. imperf., I, cxlviii). “没有”,回答圣奥古斯丁,“但它是父亲的犯罪”(作品imperf。,我cxlviii)。Being a distinct person I am not strictly responsible for the crime of another; the act is not mine.作为一个独特的人,我不是严格的另一罪行负责的行为是不是我的。Yet, as a member of the human family, I am supposed to have acted with its head who represented it with regard to the conservation or the loss of grace.然而,作为一个人类大家庭的一员,我应该有它的头谁代表就保护或损失的宽限期,它采取了行动。I am, therefore, responsible for my privation of grace, taking responsibility in the largest sense of the word.我是,因此,对我优雅的穷困负责,参加了这个词的最大意义上的责任。This, however, is enough to make the state of privation of grace in a certain degree voluntary, and, therefore, "without absurdity it may be said to be voluntary" (St. Augustine, "Retract.", I, xiii).然而,这足以让在一定程度上自愿的穷困国家的宽限期,并因此,“如果没有荒谬可以说是自愿的”(圣奥古斯丁,“收回。”,我,十三)。 Thus the principal difficulties of non-believers against the transmission of sin are answered.因此,不反对传递单信徒主要困难作了解答。

"Free will is essentially incommunicable."“自由意志本质上是静默。”Physically, yes; morally, no; the will of the father being considered as that of his children.身体,是的,在道义上,没有;父亲的将被视为他的孩子。"It is unjust to make us responsible for an act committed before our birth." “这是不公正的,让我们为我们出生之前实施的行为负责。”Strictly responsible, yes; responsible in a wide sense of the word, no; the crime of a father brands his yet unborn children with shame, and entails upon them a share of his own responsibility.严格责任,是的,在一个广泛意义上的字负责,不,一个父亲犯罪的品牌,他尚未出生的孩子耻辱,并呼吁他们需要一个属于自己的那份责任。

"Your dogma makes us strictly responsible for the fault of Adam." “你的教条,使我们的亚当严格过错责任。”That is a misconception of our doctrine.这是对我们的教义的误解。Our dogma does not attribute to the children of Adam any properly so-called responsibility for the act of their father, nor do we say that original sin is voluntary in the strict sense of the word.我们的教条并不属性亚当任何有关其父亲的行为适当,所谓责任的孩子,我们也不说,原罪,是在严格意义上的自愿。It is true that, considered as "a moral deformity", "a separation from God", as "the death of the soul", original sin is a real sin which deprives the soul of sanctifying grace.这是事实,因为“一个道德畸形”认为,“从神分离”,为“死亡的灵魂”,原罪是一个真正的罪恶剥夺灵魂的sanctifying宽限期。 It has the same claim to be a sin as has habitual sin, which is the state in which an adult is placed by a grave and personal fault, the "stain" which St. Thomas defines as "the privation of grace" (I-II:109:7; III:87:2, ad 3), and it is from this point of view that baptism, putting an end to the privation of grace, "takes away all that is really and properly sin", for concupiscence which remains "is not really and properly sin", although its transmission was equally voluntary (Council of Trent, Sess. V, can. v.).它具有相同的算得上是罪过,因为有惯常罪,这是在其中一个成年人是一个严重和个人过失放置状态,​​“污点”的圣托马斯定义为“穷困的恩典”(一二:109:7;三:87:2,广告3),它是从这个角度来看的洗礼,结束了穷困的宽限期,“带走一切是真的,并妥善罪”,为concupiscence这仍然是“是不是真的,并妥善罪”,虽然它的传输也同样志愿(理事会的遄达,sess。V,可以。诉)。 Considered precisely as voluntary, original sin is only the shadow of sin properly so-called.认为是自愿的,恰恰是原罪只是罪恶的阴影妥善所谓。According to St. Thomas (In II Sent., dist. xxv, Q. i, a. 2, ad 2um), it is not called sin in the same sense, but only in an analogous sense.据圣托马斯(在二发送。,区。二十五,问我,甲2,广告2um),它是不是所谓罪在同样的意义,但只能在一个类似的感觉。

Several theologians of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, neglecting the importance of the privation of grace in the explanation of original sin, and explaining it only by the participation we are supposed to have in the act of Adam, exaggerate this participation.几位神学家的十七和十八世纪,而忽略了的宽限期,在解释原罪穷困的重要性,并解释只能由我们应该有在亚当的行为,它夸大这种参与的参与。 They exaggerate the idea of voluntary in original sin, thinking that it is the only way to explain how it is a sin properly so-called.他们夸大了在自愿的原罪观念,认为它是唯一的方法来解释它是如何一种罪过妥善所谓。Their opinion, differing from that of St. Thomas, gave rise to uncalled-for and insoluble difficulties.他们认为,从圣汤马士不同,给人们带来不必要的和不溶性的困难。At present it is altogether abandoned.目前它是完全放弃。

Publication information Written by S. Harent.出版信息写的S. Harent。Transcribed by Sean Hyland.转录由Sean海仑。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.天主教百科全书,第十一。Published 1911.1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


Original Sin, Ancestral Sin原罪,黄大仙祠

Orthodox Church Information东正教信息

The term Original Sin (or first sin ) is used among all Christian churches to define the doctrine surrounding Romans 5:12-21 and 1 Corinthians 15:22, in which Adam is identified as the man whom through death came into the world.原罪一词(或第一单 )是用来在所有的基督教教堂周围的界定原则和哥林多前书5:12-21罗马书15:22,其中亚当是通过死亡鉴定人作为人的世界走进。How this is interpreted is believed by many Orthodox to be a fundamental difference between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Western Churches.这是怎么解释是很多东正教相信是与东正教和西方教会的根本区别。In contrast, modern Roman Catholic theologians would claim that the basic anthropology is actually almost identical, and that the difference is only in the explanation of what happened in the Fall.与此相反,现代的罗马天主教神学家会说基本的人类学其实是几乎相同,而不同的只是,在哪一个发生在秋季解释。 In the Orthodox Church the term ancestral sin (Gr. προπατορικό αμάρτημα) is preferred and is used to define the doctrine of man's "inclination towards sin, a heritage from the sin of our progenitors" and that this is removed through baptism.在东正教教会的长期祖罪 (Gr.προπατορικόαμάρτημα)是首选,是用来定义说“的哥”的倾向对罪,我们的文物罪从祖细胞和洗礼,这是通过消除。St. Gregory Palamas taught that man's image was tarnished, disfigured, as a consequence of Adam's disobedience.圣格雷戈里利帕拉玛斯告诉我们,人的形象受损,毁容作为亚当不服从命令的后果。

Discussion讨论

In the Book of Genesis, Chapter 3, Adam and Eve committed a sin, the original sin .在3本书的成因,章,亚当和夏娃犯了罪, 原罪The Eastern Orthodox Church teaches that no one is guilty for the actual sin they committed but rather everyone inherits the consequences of this act; the foremost of this is physical death in this world.东正教会教导我们,没有人是有罪的实际犯的罪,而是每个人都继承了这种行为的后果;这种情况的最主要的是在这个世界上身体的死亡。 This is the reason why the original fathers of the Church over the centuries have preferred the term ancestral sin .这是因为父亲的比原来为什么几个世纪以来,教会倾向于长期祖先The consequences and penalties of this ancestral act are transferred by means of natural heredity to the entire human race.其后果和本祖传的行为处罚转让予自然遗传方式为整个人类。Since every human is a descendant of Adam then 'no one is free from the implications of this sin' (which is human death) and that the only way to be freed from this is through baptism.由于每个人的是亚当的后裔然后'没有人摆脱这种罪恶的影响'(这是人类死亡),而只有这样才能摆脱这种通过洗礼。 While mortality is certainly a result of the Fall, along with this also what is termed "concupiscence" in the writings of St Augustine of Hippo -- this is the "evil impulse" of Judaism, and in Orthodoxy, we might say this is our "disordered passion."虽然死亡率肯定是在下降而随着这亦是被称为“concupiscence”在圣奥古斯丁的河马的著作 - 这是“邪恶的冲动”的犹太教,在正统,我们可能会说这是我们的“无序的激情。”It isn't only that we are born in death, or in a state of distance from God, but also that we are born with disordered passion within us.它不仅是我们出生死亡,或在远离神的状态,但我们还与无序的激情在我们出生的。 Orthodoxy would not describe the human state as one of "total depravity" (see Cyril Lucaris however).正统不会形容为“完全堕落”(见西里尔卢卡里斯不过)一人的状态。

Orthodox Christians have usually understood Roman Catholicism as professing St. Augustine's teaching that everyone bears not only the consequence, but also the guilt, of Adam's sin.东正教基督徒通常理解为信奉圣奥古斯丁的教学,每个人都负有不只是结果,也是有罪的亚当的罪,罗马天主教。This teaching appears to have been confirmed by multiple councils, the first of them being the Council of Orange in 529.这样的教学似乎已被多家议会确认,其中第一个是在529理事会橙。This difference between the two Churches in their understanding of the original sin was one of the doctrinal reasons underlying the Catholic Church's declaration of its dogma of the Immaculate Conception in the 19th century, a dogma that is rejected by the Orthodox Church.这两个教会之间在他们的原罪理解上的差异是潜在的天主教教会的教条的圣母无原罪在19世纪,是由东正教教会拒绝教条宣言的理论的原因之一。 However, contemporary Roman Catholic teaching is best explicated in the Catechism of the Catholic Church , which includes this sentence: ""original sin does not have the character of a personal fault in any of Adam's descendants.然而,当代罗马天主教教学是最好的句子中写明问答,天主教会 ,其中包括这样的:“”原罪没有亚当的后裔人物的个人在任何故障。It is a deprivation of original holiness and justice, but human nature has not been totally corrupted" (§405).这是一个原始的神圣和正义的剥夺,但人性并没有被完全损坏“(§ 405)。

In 2007, the Vatican approved a document called, The Hope of Salvation for Infants Who Die Without Being Baptized .2007年,梵蒂冈批准的文件名 ​​为,婴儿救助无望谁死无受洗This document is actually very helpful both in tracing the history of the doctrine of Original Sin within the Roman Catholic Church and in reading a reasonable summary of the teaching of the Greek Fathers.这份文件其实是非常有帮助的都在追踪的原罪在罗马天主教的教义历史,在阅读一本的希腊教父教学的理性总结。While the document deals with infants, nevertheless it must incorporate a doctrine and definition of Ancestral or Original Sin in order to talk about the salvation of infants.虽然与婴儿的文件涉及,但它必须纳入祖或原罪教义和定义,以便谈论的婴儿得救。Among the helpful comments in the document are:在文档中的有益的意见是:

"Very few Greek Fathers dealt with the destiny of infants who die without Baptism because there was no controversy about this issue in the East. Furthermore, they had a different view of the present condition of humanity. For the Greek Fathers, as the consequence of Adam's sin, human beings inherited corruption, possibility, and mortality, from which they could be restored by a process of deification made possible through the redemptive work of Christ. The idea of an inheritance of sin or guilt - common in Western tradition - was foreign to this perspective, since in their view sin could only be a free, personal act. . ." “很少有与希腊父亲的婴儿洗礼谁无死,因为没有任何有关此争议的命运处理中东问题。此外,他们有一种对人类目前的情况不同的看法。对于希腊的父亲,因为后果亚当的罪,人类遗传性腐败,可能性和死亡率,从它们可以恢复由神化过程通过基督的救赎工作的可能的一个罪或有罪继承的想法 - 。在西方传统中常见的 - 是外国这一观点,因为他们认为罪过只能是一个自由,个人的行为。。。“

"Alone among the Greek Fathers, Gregory of Nyssa wrote a work specifically on the destiny of infants who die, De infantibus praemature abreptis libellum. The anguish of the Church appears in the questions he puts to himself: the destiny of these infants is a mystery, 'something much greater than the human mind can grasp'. He expresses his opinion in relation to virtue and its reward; in his view, there is no reason for God to grant what is hoped for as a reward. Virtue is not worth anything if those who depart this life prematurely without having practiced virtue are immediately welcomed into blessedness. Continuing along this line, Gregory asks: 'What will happen to the one who finishes his life at a tender age, who has done nothing, bad or good? Is he worthy of a reward?' “独立在希腊教父,格雷戈里的果树上写了谁的婴儿死亡的命运的工作,专门,德infantibus libellum praemature abreptis教会的痛苦中,他把自己的问题出现:。这些婴儿的命运是一个谜'东西比人的心灵能掌握更大的'他表示有关其奖励美德和他的意见。在他看来,上帝是没有理由给予什么是作为奖励,希望美德是不值得任何东西。 。如果这些谁离开,而不必过早地实行凭借这辈子立即迎进了幸福继续沿着这条路线,格雷戈里问:'怎么会发生在一个谁完成从小他的生命,谁做了什么,或好不好?他是值得的报酬?' He answers: 'The hoped-for blessedness belongs to human beings by nature, and it is called a reward only in a certain sense'. Enjoyment of true life (zoe and not bios) corresponds to human nature, and is possessed in the degree that virtue is practiced. Since the innocent infant does not need purification from personal sins, he shares in this life corresponding to his nature in a sort of regular progress, according to his capacity. Gregory of Nyssa distinguishes between the destiny of infants and that of adults who lived a virtuous life. 'The premature death of newborn infants does not provide a basis for the presupposition that they will suffer torments or that they will be in the same state as those who have been purified in this life by all the virtues'. Finally, he offers this perspective for the reflection of the Church: 'Apostolic contemplation fortifies our inquiry, for the One who has done everything well, with wisdom (Psalm 104: 24), is able to bring good out of evil'. . . . The profound teaching of the Greek Fathers can be summarized in the opinion of Anastasius of Sinai: 'It would not be fitting to probe God's judgments with one's hands'. . . ."他回答:'所希望的幸福属于人类的本性,它被称为只有在一定意义上的奖励'的真实生活(佐伊而不是BIOS)中享受相当于人的本性,并在一定程度占有。美德是实行。由于无辜的婴儿不需要从个人的罪孽净化,这辈子他在相应的定期进度排序的性质,他的股票根据他的能力。格雷戈里的果树区分婴儿的命运,而成年人谁住了一个良性的生活。'的早产新生儿死亡并不提供一个前提,他们将遭受折磨,或他们将在同一国家被视为那些谁一直在此生活纯化所有的美德基础上, 。最后,他提供了教会的反映这个角度看:'使徒沉思fortifies我们的查询,为一个谁也所做的一切以及与智慧,(诗篇104:24),是能够带来良好的邪恶了'。。 。。在希腊的父亲深刻的教学可以归纳为对西奈斯达西认为:'这不会是件探测与一个人的手上帝的判决'“。。。。

"The fate of unbaptized infants first became the subject of sustained theological reflection in the West during the anti-Pelagian controversies of the early 5th century. St. Augustine addressed the question because Pelagius was teaching that infants could be saved without Baptism. . . . In countering Pelagius, Augustine was led to state that infants who die without Baptism are consigned to hell. . . . Gregory the Great asserts that God condemns even those with only original sin on their souls; even infants who have never sinned by their own will must go to “everlasting torments”. . . ." “命运的未受洗礼的婴儿期间首次成为5世纪初的反伯拉纠争议的持续西方神学反省的问题。圣奥古斯丁处理的问题,因为伯拉纠是婴幼儿的教学,可以不经洗礼得救。。。。在打击伯拉纠,奥古斯丁是导致国家,婴儿死亡的洗礼谁是没有委托地狱高利大声称,上帝谴责甚至只有对自己的灵魂的原罪。。。。,甚至从来没有谁犯了罪被自己的婴儿会必须到“永恒的折磨”。。。。“

"But most of the later medieval authors, from Peter Abelard on, underline the goodness of God and interpret Augustine's - mildest punishment - as the privation of the beatific vision (carentia visionis Dei), without hope of obtaining it, but with no additional penalties. This teaching, which modified the strict opinion of St. Augustine, was disseminated by Peter Lombard: little children suffer no penalty except the privation of the vision of God. . . ." “但是大多数的后来中世纪的作家,从彼得阿贝拉尔上,强调神的善良和理解奥古斯丁 - 最温和的惩罚 - 作为幸福的远景穷困(carentia visionis棣)没有获得它的希望,但没有额外的处罚。这种教学,改变了严格的圣奥古斯丁认为,分发了由彼得隆巴德:孩子遭受的痛苦并不除了神的眼光穷困刑罚“。。。。

"Because children below the age of reason did not commit actual sin, theologians came to the common view that these unbaptized children feel no pain at all, or even that they enjoy a full natural happiness through their union with God in all natural goods (Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus). The contribution of this last theological thesis consists especially in its recognition of an authentic joy among children who die without sacramental Baptism: they possess a true form of union with God proportionate to their condition. . . . Even when they adopted such a view, theologians considered the privation of the beatific vision as an affliction (“punishment”) within the divine economy. . . ." “由于年龄的原因以下的儿童没有犯罪的实际,神学家来到了共同的看法,这些未受洗礼的孩子们感到疼的,甚至认为他们享有一个完整的全天然产品,通过他们与上帝结合自然之乐(托马斯。阿奎那,邓司各脱)本论文的贡献由去年的神学,尤其是在儿童中的一个谁无死圣洗礼,真正的欢乐之处:。。。。他们拥有与神相称,其健康情况的真正形式的联盟,他们即使通过这样的看法,神学家认为在神圣的经济作为一个痛苦幸福的愿景(“惩罚”)穷困。。。。“

As one continues to read the document, one realizes that there was a swing back towards Saint Augustine's opinion on the 16th century such that it again began to be stated that unbaptized babies go to hell, though only with the mildest of punishments.作为一个继续阅读文档,就会发现,有一对圣奥古斯丁的观点在16世纪,这样它再次开始这样说,未受洗礼的婴儿去地狱,虽然只有最轻微的惩罚,摆动回来。 By Vatican Council I, opinion has begun to switch away from this hardened a view towards "natural happiness."梵蒂冈理事会第一,舆论已开始从这个硬切换走向查看了“自然之乐。”By the 20th century, it begins to be argued more strongly that unbaptized infants may indeed receive "Christ's full salvation."到了20世纪,它开始被认为更强烈地未受洗礼的婴儿可能确实收到“基督的全拯救。”This actually appears to be a partial return towards the Pelagian doctrine that Saint Augustine so hated.这实际上似乎是一对伯拉纠主义的圣奥古斯丁这么恨部分的回报。

As one reads the document, one can see that the Eastern and Western Fathers shared the idea that baptism was a necessity for salvation.正如一位读取文档,人们可以看到,东部和西部的父亲共同的想法,洗礼是得救的必要性。However, all the Church Fathers had to deal with the problem of the unbaptized infant, whether of Christian or non-Christian parents, and in dealing with that they let us see their understanding of Ancestral or Original Sin.但是,所有的教会的父亲不得不处理的问题未受洗礼的婴儿,无论是基督徒还是非基督徒父母,并在处理他们让我们看到他们的祖先或原罪的理解。

In Saint Gregory of Nyssa, one can see what becomes the Eastern thought on Ancestral or Original Sin.在格雷戈里圣果树,人们可以看到祖先成为东部时间或原罪思想。On the one hand, the infant needs no cleansing for personal sins and is thus not to be thought of as one who will be sent to punishment.一方面,婴儿需要的不是个人的罪过清洁,因而不能被看作是一个谁将会被发送到惩罚思想。On the other hand, neither has the infant either received baptism or tried to live a virtuous life, so the infant does not merit heaven.另一方面,也没有收到任何对婴儿的洗礼,或试图过一种道德的生活,所以婴儿是不值得的天堂。 Yet God is able to bring good out of evil.然而,上帝是能够带来良好的邪恶了。Thus, it is clear in Saint Gregory of Nyssa that Ancestral or Original Sin contains no imputation of personal guilt, but rather a certain damage to the likeness of God, a damage so widespread and deep-seated that one must labor and rely on the overflowing grace of God and the Mysteries in order to begin to conquer the damage inherited from Adam and Eve.因此,它是在圣格雷戈里的果树或明确祖先的原罪不包含个人有罪归集,而是有一定破坏了上帝,破坏力如此广泛和深层次的,人们必须劳动和依靠相似的外溢神的恩典和奥秘,以便开始征服继承了亚当和夏娃的损害。

The Roman Catholic doctrine of Ancestral or Original Sin is harder to pin down because of the development and pendulum swings of its development.罗马天主教的祖先或原罪的教义是更难脚,因为​​其发展的发展和钟摆荡下来。It is clear from the Vatican's own documents that Ancestral or Original Sin did include both the imputation of the guilt of Adam and Eve's sin and a widespread and deep-seated damage to the imagio dei, at least during a good part of its history.它是由梵蒂冈自己的文件明确表示祠堂或原罪也包括了亚当和夏娃的罪定罪和广泛和深层次的损害归责于imagio棣,至少在其历史的很大一部分。 Thus the infant is worthy of punishment in hell according to both Saint Augustine and St. Gregory the Dialoguist.因此,婴儿是在地狱的惩罚都值得根据圣奥古斯丁和圣高利Dialoguist。In the medievalists, this is ameliorated to a deprivation of the beatific vision, which is still considered a punishment, though the infant will only experience happiness.在medievalists,这是改善了对幸福的远景,它仍然被认为是一种惩罚,剥夺,虽然婴儿只会体验快乐。 At the time of the Enlightenment, there is a return to a more Augustinian and Gregorian definition of Ancestral or Original Sin.在启蒙时代,有一个祖或更多的奥古斯丁原罪的定义和阳历的回报。But, by the time of Vatican Council I, the change is in full swing, and Ancestral or Original Sin begins to be seen as the deprivation of original holiness.但是,由梵蒂冈理事会第一时间,变化已全面展开,与祖先或原罪开始被看作是原始的圣洁剥夺看到。This change in the definition of Ancestral or Original Sin is found in documents such as the aforecited Catechism of the Catholic Church and in the Hope of Salvation document.这在祖或原罪定义的改变存在于文件,如天主教教会前列的讲授和文件中拯救的希望。


Also, see:此外,见:
Adam 亚当
Eden, Eve伊甸,夏娃

This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



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