Predestination宿命

General Information一般资料

Predestination is a Christian doctrine according to which a person's ultimate destiny, whether it be salvation or damnation, is determined by God alone prior to, and apart from, any worth or merit on the person's part. In some cases, it is claimed that God only determines those to be saved; in others, that he determines those to be saved and those to be condemned. The latter teaching is called double predestination. 宿命,是一个基督教教义根据一个人的最终命运,无论是拯救或诅咒,是由上帝独自前,此外,任何值得或部分优点的人的。在某些情况下,声称上帝只有那些被保存决定,在别人,他 ​​决定要拯救那些和那些应受到谴责的宿命。后者是所谓的双重教学。

Predestination has roots in the Old Testament concept of an elect people.宿命在老人们的选举约圣经的概念根源。Hints of the doctrine appear in the New Testament, especially in Rom.该学说的提示出现在新约圣经,尤其是在ROM。8:28 - 30, 9:6 - 24.8:28 - 30,9:6 - 24。It does not appear in full form, however, until the 5th century in the writings of Saint Augustine.它不完全的形式出现,但是,直到在圣奥古斯丁的著作公元前5世纪。Opposing Pelagianism, which held that humans can merit salvation by good works performed by application of their own will, Augustine insisted that humans require the help of God's Grace to do good and that this grace is a free gift, given by God without regard to human merit.反对佩拉纠学派,其中认为人类可以值得用自己的意志应用程序执行好作品得救,奥古斯丁坚持认为,人类需要上帝的恩宠的帮助做的好,而这恩典是一个免费的礼物,神所赋予不考虑人类可取之处。 Thus God alone determines who will receive the grace that alone assures salvation.因此,只有上帝决定了谁将会得到救赎的恩典,仅此一点保证。In this sense God predestines some to salvation.在这个意义上说一些神predestines得救。Augustine's teaching was generally upheld by the church, but the further idea that some are predestined to condemnation was explicitly rejected at the Council of Orange (529).奥古斯丁的教学普遍坚持由教会,但进一步的想法,有些是注定要明确地谴责了在奥兰治会(529)拒绝。The classical medieval formulation, based on Augustine, was given by Thomas Aquinas in Summa Theologica.中世纪的经典配方,在奥古斯丁的基础上,给出了由托马斯阿奎那的神学大全。

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The doctrine of predestination again became important in the late medieval period and passed into the theology of the Protestant reformers, especially John Calvin.该学说的宿命再度成为重要的时期,到中世纪晚期的新教改革者,特别是约翰加尔文神学通过。Calvin also insisted, against other forms of Christian theology, that grace is a gift and that a person cannot earn salvation.卡尔文还坚持认为,对基督教神学,Grace是一个礼物,一个人不能赚取救恩的其他形式。In the course of subsequent controversies, Calvin's doctrine of double predestination was strongly affirmed by the Synod of Dort (1619) in Holland and in the Westminster Confession (1647) in England.在随后的争论过程中,加尔文的双重宿命主义的强烈肯定了主教的dort(1619)在荷兰和在西敏寺自白(1647)在英格兰。 Until recently, it has remained a characteristic teaching of churches in the Calvinist tradition (Calvinism; Presbyterianism).直到最近,它一直在传统的加尔文主义(加尔文;长老)的教堂特色教学。In other branches of Christianity, however, it has received only limited support.在基督教的其他分支,但它仅收到了有限的支持。

The 20th century theologian Karl Barth radically restated the doctrine of predestination. 20世纪神学家卡尔巴特从根本上重申了宿命的教义。He argued that God's election and condemnation of humankind converge in the divine election and rejection of Jesus Christ.他认为,上帝的选举,在神圣的选举和耶稣基督拒绝谴责人类的衔接。In Jesus' resurrection lies all humankind's salvation.在耶稣的复活就是全人类的拯救。

William S Babcock威廉S巴布科克

Bibliography 参考书目
K Barth, "Election and Command of God" in Church Dogmatics (1957); J Calvin, Concerning the Eternal Predestination of God (1961); MJ Farrely, Predestination, Grace and Free Will (1964); JG Gerstner, Predestination Primer (1981). K表巴特,“选举和上帝的命令”,在教会教义学(1957年); j卡尔文,关于上帝的永恒的宿命(1961年);兆焦耳Farrely,宿命,恩典和自由意志(1964年); JG郭士纳,宿命底漆(1981 )。


Brief Definitions简短的定义

General Information一般资料

determinism 决定
The view that every event has a cause and that everything in the universe is absolutely dependent on and governed by causal laws.据认为,每一个事件的原因,并认为宇宙万物是绝对依赖,并受到因果规律支配。Since determinists believe that all events, including human actions, are predetermined, determinism is typically thought to be incompatible with free will.自determinists相信,所有的活动,包括人的行动,是预定的,决定论,是典型的被认为不符合自由意志。
fatalism 宿命论
The belief that "what will be will be," since all past, present, and future events have already been predetermined by God or another all-powerful force.相信“会是怎样将”,因为所有的过去,现在和未来的事件已经预定了上帝或另一种全能的力量。In religion, this view may be called predestination ; it holds that whether our souls go to Heaven or Hell is determined before we are born and is independent of our good deeds.在宗教,这种看法可能是所谓的宿命 ,它认为,无论我们的灵魂去天堂或下地狱的决心面前,我们都是土生土长的,是独立于我们的好事迹。
free will自由意志
The theory that human beings have freedom of choice or self-determination; that is, that given a situation, a person could have done other than what he did.该理论认为,人类有选择的或自决的自由,那就是,鉴于情况下,一个人可以做得比其他他做了什么。Philosophers have argued that free will is incompatible with determinism.哲学家认为,自由意志是不符合宿命论。See also indeterminism.另见非决定论。
indeterminism 非决定论
The view that there are events that do not have any cause; many proponents of free will believe that acts of choice are capable of not being determined by any physiological or psychological cause.据认为,有事件,没有任何理由;不少倡议者的自由意志,相信行为的选择,不被任何生理或心理的原因决定的能力。


Predestination宿命

Advanced Information先进的信息

The doctrine of predestination as formulated in the history of the Christian church by such theologians as Augustine of Hippo and John Calvin has been a constant cause of discussion and controversy, for many Christians have been unwilling to accept it in any form.该学说的宿命的制定等神学家奥古斯丁的河马和约翰卡尔文一直是讨论和争议不断的原因,许多基督徒已不愿接受任何形式的基督教教会的历史。 Pelagius in the early church and John Wesley in the eighteenth century provide two examples of those who had no use for such teaching.在早期教会在十八世纪和约翰卫斯理贝拉基提供两个人谁没有为此种教学使用的例子。This division concerning the doctrine has continued down to the present.这种学说的分期问题延续到现在。

The doctrine of predestination has both a wider and a narrower aspect.该学说的宿命都更广泛和更窄的方面。In its wider reference it refers to the fact that the Triune God foreordains whatsoever comes to pass (Eph. 1:11, 22; cf. Ps. 2).在更广泛的参考,是指一个事实,即三一神foreordains任何来通过(弗1:11,22;比照诗2。。)。 From all eternity God has sovereignly determined whatsoever shall happen in history.从所有永恒上帝sovereignly任何决定应发生的历史。The narrower aspect or use of the term is that God from all eternity has chosen a body of people for himself, that they should be brought into eternal fellowship with him, while at the same time he has ordained that the rest of humanity should be allowed to go their own way, which is the way of sin, to ultimate eternal punishment.狭义的方面或长期使用的是从所有永恒上帝选择了为自己的人,他们应把他带来了永恒的金体,而在同一时间,他已经注定,人类的其余部分应被允许走自己的路,这是罪恶的道路,最终永恒的惩罚。 These are known as the doctrines of election and reprobation.这些被称为选举和reprobation的学说。While some may accept the idea of God choosing some to eternal life, they reject completely any idea of a decree of reprobation (Rom. 9:16 - 19).虽然有些人可能接受上帝的观念选择一些以永恒的生命,他们全盘否定任何一种非难法令(罗马书9:16 - 19)的想法。

In the Scriptures there is not one term in either the Hebrew or the Greek which encompasses the term "predestination."在圣经中没有一无论是在希伯来文或希腊文,这包含了词语“宿命”。In the OT a number of words indicate the divine plan and purpose: esa (to counsel, Jer. 49:20; 50:45; Mic. 4:12); ya'as (to purpose, Isa. 14:24, 26 - 27; 19:12; 23:9); and bahar (to choose, Num. 16:5, 7; Deut. 4:37; 10:15; Isa. 41:8; Ezek. 20:5).在加时赛中的一些词表明神的计划和目的:欧空局(律师说,耶49:20,50:45;麦克风4时12分。。); ya'as(目的性,赛14:24 26。 - 27; 19:12,23:9)和巴哈尔(选,序号16时05分,7;申命记16:37,10:15;赛41:8,以西结书20:5)。。。。。In the NT there are even more words which have the meaning of predestine (proorizo, Rom. 8:29 - 30; Eph. 1:5, 11), elect (eklektos, Matt. 24:22ff.; Rom. 8:33; Col. 3:12), and to choose (haireomai, 2 Thess. 2:13; eklego, I Cor. 1:27ff.; Eph. 1:4).在新台币甚至还有更多的话具有与注定意义(proorizo​​,罗8:29 - 30;。弗1:5,11。),选举(eklektos,马特24:22法郎;罗8:33。。。 ;上校3:12),并选择(haireomai,帖后2:13。eklego,我肺心病1:27几段。。弗1:4)。。But the doctrine does not depend upon the use of a few words, for as one studies the Bible as a whole this doctrine is seen to be central to much of the teaching of both testaments.但是,该学说并不取决于个别文字的使用,作为一个研究作为这一学说被认为是核心的都证明大部分教学整个圣经。

The foundation of the doctrine of predestination is the biblical doctrine of God.该学说的宿命的基础是神的圣经教义。He is the Eternal One, above and beyond time and space, for there never was a time when he did not exist, so he is not subject to changes of time and place (Mal. 3:6; Rom. 1:20 - 21; Deut. 33:27; Isa. 57:15).他是一个永恒的,超出的时间和空间,因为在那里从来没有一个时候,他根本不存在,所以他是不受时间和地点(玛拉基书3点06分的变化;罗一时20 - 21。 ;申命记33:27;。赛57:15)。。Furthermore, God is sovereign over all things as the Creator, Sustainer, and Ruler of the universe.此外,上帝是一个主权在作为创造者,维持者,和统治者的宇宙万物。He is Lord over all (Dan. 4:34 - 35; Isa. 45:1ff.; Rom. 9:17ff.; Eph. 1:11).他是对所有主(Dan. 4:34 - 35;赛45:1法郎;罗9:17法郎;弗1:11。。。。。)。God is also sovereignly righteous, so that all that he does is according to the perfection of his nature (Jer. 23:6; 33:16; Rom. 1:17; 10:3; 2 Pet. 1:1).上帝也sovereignly正义,使所有他所做的是根据他的本性完美(耶23时06分,33:16,罗马书17分;。十​​点03分。彼后1:1)。 In eternity he sovereignly established his own plan and purpose, which is far above anything that man can think of, conceive, or understand.在永恒他sovereignly建立了自己的计划和目的,远远高于一切,人能想到,受孕,或理解的。Man, therefore, may know God's plan only as he reveals it (Jer. 23:18; Deut. 29:29; Ps. 33:11; Isa. 46:10; 55:7ff.; Heb. 6:17).人,因此,可能知道上帝的计划不仅因为他揭示了它(耶23点18分;申命记29:29;。诗篇33:11。赛46:10;。55:7法郎;。以弗所书6点17分。)。

God has revealed his counsel to men, insofar as it was necessary for them to know it, through the prophets of the OT, through the apostolic writers of the NT, but preeminently through his Son Jesus Christ, to whom both prophets and apostles have borne witness.上帝透露他的律师对男人,只要有必要让他们知道,通过加时赛先知,通过新台币使徒作家,但坦白,勇敢通过他的儿子耶稣基督,先知和使徒的人都必须承担证人。 It was by divine revelation that the prophets could point forward to the coming of the Redeemer (Gen. 3:15; Deut. 18:15; Isa. 53; Mal. 4:2; Heb. 1:1ff.), and it was the apostles who could bear witness to him who had come and explain the meaning of his life, death, resurrection, and ascension (Acts 2:22ff.; John 20:3off.).它是由神启示的先知可以点着未来的救赎(创3:15;。申命记18点15;赛53。。玛4时02分。以弗所书1时01分几段。),它使徒是谁可以见证他谁曾来解释他的生命,死亡,复活,和升天的意义(使徒2时22分几段。约翰20时03分关闭。)。

Therefore, human beings are limited in their understanding of God's purpose to what he has revealed to them, and the ultimate meanings, purposes, and plans must remain a mystery.因此,人类在其有限的神的目的是什么,他透露给他们的理解,以及最终的意义,目的和计划必须仍然是一个谜。Furthermore, because of God's infinitude, eternality, unchanging being, wisdom, power, justice, righteousness, and truth, man simply could not understand him, even should he reveal himself fully and completely to them.此外,由于上帝的无限,永恒的,不变的是,智慧,力量,正义,正义和真理,人根本无法理解他,甚至要他透露自己充分和完全给他们。 This means that God's relationship to time and space cannot be comprehended by spacial temporal beings, for they do not even know the meaning of eternity (cf. Isa. 26:12ff.; Dan. 4:24ff.; Acts 2:22ff.).这意味着上帝的关系,时间和空间不能被理解的空间时间的人,因为他们甚至不知道永恒的意义(参见伊萨26:12法郎;。。。丹4点24法郎;。行为2点22分几段)。 。This ultimate mystery of the being of God must be kept in mind when studying biblical doctrine.这神的存在的终极奥秘,必须牢记在学习圣经的教义。

At this point the question arises of the possibility of individual freedom and responsibility if God is absolutely sovereign.此时出现的问题如果上帝是绝对主权的个人自由和责任的可能性。How can these things be?怎能有这事呢?Yet the Scriptures repeatedly assert both.然而,圣经都反复断言。Joseph's remarks to his brothers and Peter's statement concerning Christ's crucifixion highlight this fact (Gen. 45:4ff.; Acts 2:23).约瑟夫的言论,他的兄弟和彼得的声明,关于基督的十字架上突出了这一事实(创45:4几段。徒2:23)。Man, in carrying out God's plan, even unintentionally, does so responsibly and freely.男人在执行上帝的计划,甚至无意,这样做是负责任和自由。

Those who refuse to accept the biblical teaching are faced with the necessity of providing some other explanation.这些谁拒绝接受圣经的教学是与一些其他的解释提供必要面对。Some Christians attempt to combine God's sovereignty with human independence, but have the difficulty of explaining both the statements in the Bible and also their belief in God's saving work in Jesus Christ.有些基督徒尝试结合神与人的独立主权,但有两种解释圣经中的困难和他们的发言在上帝的拯救工作,在基督耶稣的信仰。 Non Christians have two choices.非基督徒有两个选择。They can posit an ultimate chance, which destroys any possibility of human responsibility (for there is no one to whom to be responsible), of logical thought, and thus of scientific knowledge.可以断定,他们最终的机会,这会破坏人类的任何责任的可能性(因为没有向谁负责一)逻辑思维,以及科学知识,从而。 The other alternative is that of a complete determinism which results in much the same outcome, for it is but solidified chance.另一种选择是,一个完整的决定的结果大致相同的结果,因为它不过是凝固的机会。Although the biblical point of view cannot be fully rationalized according to our temporal spacial laws, it is the only one which makes any responsibility or freedom possible.虽然从圣经的角度不能完全按照我们的时间合理化空间的法律,它是唯一一个使任何责任或自由可能。

To understand the biblical teaching concerning predestination, we must commence with the account of man's fall, which was part of God's eternal plan.要了解圣经的教学有关的宿命,我们必须开始与人的下降,这是上帝的永恒计划的一部分帐户。At the same time, as Paul points out in Rom.与此同时,正如保罗指出,在光盘。1:18ff., man's refusal to acknowledge God as sovereign and his willful blindness to God's commands brought upon him God's wrath and condemnation. 1:18几段。,人的拒绝承认其作为主权和故意的盲目性,对他带来上帝的愤怒和谴责上帝的命令神。Basically, therefore, all human beings are corrupt because they refuse to acknowledge that God is Lord and that they themselves are only creatures.基本上,因此,所有的人都腐败,因为他们拒绝承认上帝是上帝和自己是唯一的生物。Yet despite human disobedience and rebellion, God has not let his creatures go.然而,尽管人类的不服从和反叛,神并没有让他的动物去。On the one hand he has restrained their sinfulness by his grace, so that even the sinners of this world have accomplished much that is good and true.一方面,他克制自己的罪孽由他的恩典,所以,即使是这个世界的罪人已经完成很多是好的和正确的。On the other hand, as soon as man sinned, God promised a redeemer who would crush the tempter and bring restoration (Gen. 3:15).另一方面,当人犯了罪,神答应了救世主,谁就会粉碎诱惑,把恢复(创3:15)。 Thus the purpose of redemption was woven inextricably into the fabric of human history from the beginning.因此,赎回的目的,是编织紧密到人类的历史,从一开始就布。

Because of the sinfulness of the creature, however, the creature would not freely seek peace or reconciliation with him who is the Creator.由于这种生物的罪孽,但是,这种生物就不会与他自由地谋求和平的创造者是谁或和解。This is shown in the story of Cain, the song of Lamech, and in the sinfulness of antediluvian society (Gen. 2 - 5).这是显示在该隐,拉麦歌曲,故事和在古风社会的罪恶(创2 - 5)。Yet at the same time there was a faithful minority descending from Seth to Noah, who was called to survive the flood and carry on the line of those who were obedient and trusted in God's promise of redemption.然而,在同一时间有一个忠实的小降,从赛斯到诺亚,谁被称为生存的洪水和进行那些听话的,在谁是上帝的承诺,值得信赖的赎回线。 One of this line was Abraham, whom God called out of Ur of the Chaldees, and through the descendants of his grandson Jacob established Israel as his people in the pre Christian world.这条路线之一是亚伯拉罕的主,神叫了迦勒底的吾珥出来,并通过他的孙子雅各布确立为他的人民在基督教世界前以色列的后裔。 All this was the result of divine grace which was summed up in Jehovah's covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (Gen. 12ff.).所有这一切都是神的恩典是总结在耶和华与亚伯拉罕,以撒,雅各的契约注册结果(创12ff。)。Although up to this time little is said in Genesis about God's election and reprobation, when it came to the differentiation between Jacob and Esau it was made quite clear that even before their birth Jacob was chosen and Esau rejected, even though they were twins (Gen. 25:19ff; Mal. 1:3; Rom. 9:10ff.).虽然高达一点是,在成因说,关于神的选举和reprobation,当它来到之间雅各和以扫分化这是一部很清楚,这一次甚至在其出生雅各布选择和以扫拒绝,即使他们是双胞胎(根。25:19法郎;玛1:3;。。罗9:10几段)。。 Here we find the first clear statement of the doctrine of double predestination.在这里,我们找到了宿命主义的双重首次明确声明。

Throughout the OT the doctrine of election is set forth with increasing clarity.整个城市旅游局的选举学说提出了越来越清晰。On the one hand it is stated that Israel was chosen, not because of anything it had to offer, but solely because of the grace of God and by his sovereign choice (Deut. 7:7ff.; Isa. 41:8 - 9; Ezek. 20:5).一方面这是说,以色列选择了,不是因为它所能提供的东西,但仅仅是因为神的恩典和他的主权选择(申命记7时07分几段。。赛41:8 - 9;以西结书。20:5)。Furthermore, from both Israel and other nations God freely chose individuals who would do his will in history for the blessing of Israel (1 Sam. 16:1ff.; Isa. 45:1ff.; 1 Chr. 28:1ff.).此外,由以色列和其他国家的自由选择的神人会做谁在历史上为以色列祝福他的意志(1萨姆16:1法郎;。。。赛45:1法郎;。。。1染色体28:1法郎)。 On the other hand, not all Israel was of the elect, but only a faithful remnant whom God had chosen (Isa. 1:9; 10:21ff.; Jer. 23:3; 31:7).另一方面,并​​非所有以色列的选举,但只有一个人上帝忠实的残余选择(以赛亚书1:9; 10:21法郎;。耶23:3。31:7)。These Paul calls "a remnant according to the election of grace" (Rom. 11:5).这些保罗所说的“残余根据拣选的恩典”(罗马书11:5)。 Those not of the elect remnant were rejected because of their sin to suffer ultimate punishment.不是由选举产生的残余那些被拒绝,因为他们的罪受苦的最终处罚。

Throughout the OT there is also a constant reference to One who would come to redeem God's people, not only Israel but his elect from every race and tribe.整个城市旅游局也有一个不断提到一个谁才来换取神的人,不仅是以色列,但他从每一个种族和部落的选举。While there are foreshadowings of this universal election and redemption in the histories of such individuals as Ruth and Naaman, the prophets set forth the universality of God's electing grace very clearly (Isa. 11:10; 56; Mic. 5:8; Rom. 9:24, 30; 11:12 - 13; Acts 15).虽然有这一普遍选举和露丝和纳曼作为这些人的历史赎回预兆,先知提出了上帝的恩典选举的普遍性非常清楚(以赛亚书十一时10,56,麦克风5:8;。光盘。 9:24,30; 11:12 - 13,徒15)。All those elected and predestined to become God's people, both Jew and Gentile, would indeed enter the covenant relationship.所有这些当选注定要成为神的人,包括犹太人和外邦人,确实会进入盟约关系。But they would do so only through the One who would be the elect Mediator (Isa. 42:1ff.; 53:1ff.; cf. Matt. 12:18).但是他们将只能通过一个会是谁在选举调解人(以赛亚书42:1法郎;。53:1法郎;。。。比照马特12:18)。

In the NT the OT doctrines of election and predestination are expanded and clarified.在新台币的选举和宿命的催产素学说扩大和澄清。There was no attempt to reject or alter them, but they are given a more clearly universal scope.有没有试图拒绝或改变他们,但他们更清楚地给出一个普遍的范围。Christ claimed that he was the mediator spoken of in the OT, and that to him the Father had given his elect people (Mark 1:15; Luke 4:21; John 5:39; 10:14ff.).基督声称他讲出OT的调解员,并以他的父亲给了他的选民的人(马克1:15;路加福音4时21分,约5:39; 10时14分几段)。。Furthermore, he stated very clearly that he had come to lay down his life as redeemer for his people.此外,他说得很清楚,他已经到了放下他作为救世主为他的人民的生活。This is the theme of both his sermon in John 10 and his prayer for his own in John 17.这是他的布道都在约翰10和他对自己在约翰福音17章祈祷的主题。He promised that his people would all come to him and would persevere in their faith unto eternal life (John 6:39, 65; 10:28ff.).他承诺,他的人都会来找他,并会在他们坚持信仰祂永恒的生命(约翰6时39分,65;。10时28分几段)。 True, as the incarnate Son of God his righteousness was such that his life, death, and resurrection were sufficient in their merits for all men, but as he himself pointed out, his mediatorial work was directed to the salvation of his people only (John 17).诚然,作为神的化身他的义子是这样,他的生命,死亡和复活为所有男人的优点足够了,但正如他自己所说,他的中保工作是针对他的人的唯一救星(约翰17)。 In this he was fulfilling the teaching of the OT.在此,他正在履行的催产素教学。

Such was also the position of the apostles.也就是这样的使徒的地位。The book of Acts gives a number of examples of apostolic teaching on this matter.使徒行传的使徒给出了一个例子,在这个问题上的教学号码。In his sermon at Pentecost, Peter gives a clear indication of the sovereignty of God and the responsibility of man (Acts 2:14ff.).他在五旬节讲道,彼得给出了上帝的主权清楚地表明与人的责任(使徒2时14分几段)。。The speech of Stephen in chapter 7, Peter's call to witness to Cornelius (10:24ff.), and various other passages present the same doctrines.在第7章,彼得的号召,见证讲话斯蒂芬科尼利厄斯(10:24几段。),以及其他各种通道呈现相同的教义。In Peter's and John's letters and in the Apocalypse these themes of God's sovereignty, man's responsibility, and God's election and predestination of people reappear constantly.在彼得和约翰的书信和启示录这些神的主权的主题,人的责任,和上帝的选举和宿命的人不断地重现。

The apostolic writer who gives the clearest exposition of the doctrine, however, is Paul.使徒的作家谁给出了最明确的阐述的学说,然而,保罗。While he refers to the doctrine of predestination in passing in a number of places, he expounds the doctrine in detail in Rom.虽然他指的是宿命,在一些地方通过学说,他详细阐述了罗学说。8:29 - 11:36 and throws further light on it in Eph.8:29 - 11:36,并进一步引发对轻弗。1.1。In these passages he stresses the hopeless condition of man in his sinfulness and the fact that because of man's disobedience and rebellion God not only turns from him but hardens him in his sinfulness (Rom. 9:14ff.).在这些通道,他强调,在他的罪孽人无望的情况和事实,因为人的不服从和反抗上帝不仅从他,但他变成了他的变硬罪孽(罗马书9:14几段)。。 At the same time, however, he reaches out and draws to himself those whom he has chosen from all eternity, redeeming and justifying them in Jesus Christ (Rom. 10:11ff.; Eph. 1:4ff.).在同一时间,但是,他伸出手,并提请对自己的人,他选择从所有永恒,赎回和证明他们在耶稣基督(罗马书10点11法郎;。。弗1时04分几段)。。 Yet in all of this is the mystery of God's sovereign action and man's responsibility (Rom. 9:19; 11:33).不过是上帝的主权行动,男人的责任之谜(罗马书9时19; 11:33)在所有这一切。And in all things the glory of God's righteousness is made manifest (Rom. 9:16ff.).在所有事,神的公义显明了荣耀(罗马书9:16几段)。。

These doctrines have continued to raise questions ever since the days of the apostles, but especially since the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century, when they were formulated most precisely.这些学说不断提高,因为在使徒的日子过的问题,特别是自十六世纪宗教改革时,他们制定了最精确的。Despite their biblical basis both Christians and non Christians have rejected them on various grounds.尽管他们的圣经基础基督徒和非基督徒有各种理由拒绝他们。If all human beings are sinners and God is sovereign, then he must be the author of sin and is unjust in punishing anyone.如果所有的人都是罪人,上帝是至高无上的,那么他必须是作者的罪过,并在任何不公正的惩罚。Furthermore, what is the basis upon which God makes his choice?此外,什么是上帝的依据,使他的选择吗?Is he not arbitrary; and if not, is he not then a respecter of persons?难道他不是任意的,如果不是,他不是那么人人平等?If these doctrines are true, do they not destroy any desire, even any necessity, for a human being to seek to live a moral life, to do justly, to love mercy, and to walk humbly with God?如果这些理论是真实的,他们不破坏任何愿望,甚至任何一个人的必要性,寻求过一种道德生活,要做到公正,爱怜悯,谦卑与​​神同行,? All these questions are put forward, and many of those who do so feel that they have now answered and condemned the doctrines effectively.所有这些问题都提出了,而那些谁这样做很多人觉得,他们现在的理论回答和有效的谴责。 They forget, however, that these questions were all raised in the time of Christ and the apostles (John 10:19ff.; Rom. 9:19ff.).他们忘记了,但是,这些问题都在的时候,基督和使徒提高(约翰10:19法郎;。。。罗9:19几段)。

That these doctrines are set forth in both testaments would seem to be clear, along with great stress upon God's sovereign righteousness and holiness.这些学说,载于都证明出来,似乎是明确的,在神的主权的仁义和圣洁伟大的应力沿。But no further explanation is offered, and beyond what the Scriptures have to say finite man cannot go and, if he accepts the authority of the Bible as God's Word, will not wish to go.但没有提供进一步的解释,并超出了圣经不得不说有限的人不能去,如果他接受了上帝的话语圣经的权威,也不会希望去。All one can say is what Job said when rebuked by God (Job. 42:1 - 6) or what Paul said when closing his exposition of these doctrines (Rom. 11:33 - 36).所有的人能说的是什么工作时说,责骂神(Job. 42:1 - 6)或关闭什么是保罗说,当他的这些理论阐述(罗马书11时33分 - 36)。God's wisdom and grace are beyond every creature's comprehension or understanding.神的智慧和恩典超出每一个生物的理解或谅解。 One can but bow in worship and praise.一个可以,但弓在崇拜和赞美。Those who do so have within them a sense of comfort and strength which is not their own, but which is a gift of God to enable them to face the world with confidence and enable them to mind.谁这样做有那些在他们的安慰和力量感,这是不是自己的,但它是上帝的恩赐,使他们能够充满信心地面对世界,让他们在脑海中。

WS Reid里德是

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
L Boettner, The Reformed Doctrine of Predestination; J Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion 3:21 - 24 and The Eternal Predestination of God; C Hodge, Systematic Theology; J Murray, Calvin on Scripture and Divine Sovereignty; BB Warfield, Biblical Doctrines.L Boettner,改革的宿命主义; j卡尔文学院的基督教3点21 - 24,并在上帝永恒的宿命,ç Hodge的,系统的神学; Ĵ默里,对圣经和神的主权卡尔文;沃菲尔德,圣经教义。


Predestination宿命

Advanced Information先进的信息

This word is properly used only with reference to God's plan or purpose of salvation.正确地使用这个词是只提及上帝的救赎计划或目的。The Greek word rendered "predestinate" is found only in these six passages, Acts 4:28; Rom.希腊字呈现“注定”是发现,只有在这六个段落,徒4:28;光盘。8:29, 30; 1 Cor. 8时29分,30,1肺心病。2:7; Eph. 2:7;弗。1:5, 11; and in all of them it has the same meaning.1:5,11;并在他们所有具有相同含义。They teach that the eternal, sovereign, immutable, and unconditional decree or "determinate purpose" of God governs all events.他们教导说,永恒的,主权的,一成不变的,无条件的法令或“确定的宗旨,以”上帝的管辖的所有事件。This doctrine of predestination or election is beset with many difficulties.这种学说的宿命或选举是困扰着许多困难。It belongs to the "secret things" of God.它属于“秘密事情”的上帝。

But if we take the revealed word of God as our guide, we must accept this doctrine with all its mysteriousness, and settle all our questionings in the humble, devout acknowledgment, "Even so, Father: for so it seemed good in thy sight."但是,如果我们以上帝的发现为指导的话,我们必须接受这个与所有的神秘主义和定居的谦卑,虔诚的感谢我们所有的questionings,“即便如此,父亲:这么看来你的美意。 “For the teaching of Scripture on this subject let the following passages be examined in addition to those referred to above; Gen. 21:12; Ex.对于这个问题上的经文教学让下面的段落是除上文提到的审查;创21:12;前。9:16; 33:19; Deut. 9:1​​6,33:19;申命记。10:15; 32:8; Josh. 10:15,32:8;乔什。11:20; 1 Sam.11时20; 1萨姆。12:22; 2 Chr.12时22分; 2染色体。6:6; Ps. 6:6;诗。33:12; 65:4; 78: 68; 135:4; Isa.33:12,65:4,78:68; 135:4;伊萨。41:1-10; Jer.41:1-10;哲。 1:5; Mark 13:20; Luke 22:22; John 6:37; 15:16; 17:2, 6, 9; Acts 2:28; 3:18; 4:28; 13: 48; 17:26; Rom. 1:5,马可福音13:20,路加福音22:22,约翰福音6:37,15:16,17:2,6,9,徒2:28,3:18,4:28,13:48; 17: 26;光盘。9:11, 18, 21; 11:5; Eph.9:1​​1,18,21; 11:5;弗。3:11; 1 Thess.3:11;一帖。 1:4; 2 Thess.1:4; 2帖。 2:13; 2 Tim.2时13分,2添。 1:9; Titus 1:2; 1 Pet. 1:9;提多书1:2; 1宠物。1:2.1:2。(See Election.) Hodge has well remarked that, "rightly understood, this doctrine (1) exalts the majesty and absolute sovereignty of God, while it illustrates the riches of his free grace and his just displeasure with sin. (2.) It enforces upon us the essential truth that salvation is entirely of grace. That no one can either complain if passed over, or boast himself if saved. (3.) It brings the inquirer to absolute self-despair and the cordial embrace of the free offer of Christ. (4.) In the case of the believer who has the witness in himself, this doctrine at once deepens his humility and elevates his confidence to the full assurance of hope" (Outlines). (见选举。)具有良好的霍奇表示,“正确地理解,这种学说(一)高举神的威严和绝对的主权,而这说明了他的自由和他的恩典与罪只是不满的财富。(2。)它强制执行后,我们的基本真理,救恩是完全的恩典。这样就没有人可以抱怨,如果过去了,或吹嘘自己,如果保存。。(3)它使询问者绝对自我绝望和亲切拥抱的免费优惠基督。(4。)在信徒谁在自己的见证,这种学说在一次加深了他的谦逊和提升他的信心,使希望“(纲要)充分保证的情况。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Predestination宿命

Catholic Information天主教新闻

Predestination (Latin prœ, destinare), taken in its widest meaning, is every Divine decree by which God, owing to His infallible prescience of the future, has appointed and ordained from eternity all events occurring in time, especially those which directly proceed from, or at least are influenced by, man's free will.宿命(拉丁语的ProE,destinare),在其最广泛的含义在内,是每一个神圣的法令,其中神,由于他犯错预见的未来,具有永恒的任命和祝圣的所有事件发生的时间,特别是那些直接出发,或者至少是影响,人的自由意志。 It includes all historical facts, as for instance the appearance of Napoleon or the foundation of the United States, and particularly the turning-points in the history of supernatural salvation, as the mission of Moses and the Prophets, or the election of Mary to the Divine Motherhood.它包括所有的历史事实,例如,拿破仑外观或美国的基础,特别是转折点,在历史点超自然的救恩,因为摩西和先知,使命或当选为玛丽神圣的母亲。 Taken in this general sense, predestination clearly coincides with Divine Providence and with the government of the world, which do not fall within the scope of this article (see DIVINE PROVIDENCE).这两者在一般意义上,明确恰逢宿命天意和世界,不属于本条(见以勒)范围内的政府。

I. NOTION OF PREDESTINATION一,概念的宿命

Theology restricts the term to those Divine decrees which have reference to the supernatural end of rational beings, especially of man.神学一词来限制那些神圣的法令有参考理性的人超自然的目的,尤其是男子。Considering that not all men reach their supernatural end in heaven, but that many are eternally lost through their own fault, there must exist a twofold predestination: (a) one to heaven for all those who die in the state of grace; (b) one to the pains of hell for all those who depart in sin or under God's displeasure.考虑到并非所有的人达到在天堂超自然的目的,但许多是永远失去了通过自己的过错,必须存在一个双重的宿命:(一)一,所有这些谁在国家的宽限期死天堂;(二)一到所有这些谁离开或上帝在罪恶的不满地狱的痛苦。 However, according to present usages to which we shall adhere in the course of the article, it is better to call the latter decree the Divine "reprobation", so that the term predestination is reserved for the Divine decree of the happiness of the elect.然而,根据目前的惯例是我们应当坚持在文章的过程中,最好是打电话给后者法令神圣的“非难”,所以这个词的宿命是为幸福的神圣的选举法令​​保留。

A

The notion of predestination comprises two essential elements: God's infallible foreknowledge (prœscientia), and His immutable decree (decretum) of eternal happiness.概念的宿命包括两个基本要素:上帝的万无一失预知(prœscientia),和他永恒不变的法令幸福(教令)。 The theologian who, following in the footsteps of the Pelagians, would limit the Divine activity to the eternal foreknowledge and exclude the Divine will, would at once fall into Deism, which asserts that God, having created all things, leaves man and the universe to their fate and refrains from all active interference.神学家谁,下面的pelagians中的脚步,将限制活动永恒的神圣预知和排除神的意志,就会立刻成为自然神论,它声称,上帝在创造万物,秋天树叶人与宇宙他们的命运和refrains从所有活动的干扰。 Though the purely natural gifts of God, as descent from pious parents, good education, and the providential guidance of man's external career, may also be called effects of predestination, still, strictly speaking, the term implies only those blessings which lie in the supernatural sphere, as sanctifying grace, all actual graces, and among them in particular those which carry with them final perseverance and a happy death.虽然纯天然礼品上帝的虔诚的父母,良好的教育,对人的外部职业天赐指导后裔,也可能是宿命所谓的影响,不过,严格来说,这个词意味着只有那些祝福它在超自然lie球,为圣洁的宽限期,所有实际青睐,其中特别是那些与他们最后的毅力和幸福死搬。 Since in reality only those reach heaven who die in the state of justification or sanctifying grace, all these and only these are numbered among the predestined, strictly so called.由于在现实中只有那些达到天堂谁在圣洁优雅的理由或死亡状态,所有这些,只有这些被编号之间的命中注定的,所谓的严格。 From this it follows that we must reckon among them also all children who die in baptismal grace, as well as those adults who, after a life stained with sin, are converted on their death-beds.从这一点,我们必须遵循其中估计谁也都在洗礼的恩典儿童死亡,以及那些谁后的生活与原罪所玷污,是对他们的死床转换成人。 The same is true of the numerous predestined who, though outside the pale of the true Church of Christ, yet depart from this life in the state of grace as catechumens, Protestants in good faith, schismatics, Jews, Mahommedans, and pagans.同样是真正的命中注定众多谁,但超出了真正的基督教会脸色苍白,但这种偏离的宽限期为慕道者,以诚信,schismatics,犹太人,Mahommedans,基督教徒和异教徒国家生活。 Those fortunate Catholics who at the close of a long life are still clothed in their baptismal innocence, or who after many relapses into mortal sin persevere till the end, are not indeed predestined more firmly, but are more signally favoured than the last-named categories of persons.这些幸运的天主教徒谁在一个长寿命接近他们仍然穿着洗礼无罪,或谁后进入到最后弥天大罪坚持不懈许多复发,是不是真的命中注定更加坚定,但更signally比去年命名的类别青睐的人。

But even when man's supernatural end alone is taken into consideration, the term predestination is not always used by theologians in an unequivocal sense.但是,即使当人的超自然的目的仅仅是考虑到,宿命一词并不总是使用由神学家,在一个明确的意识。This need not astonish us, seeing that predestination may comprise wholly diverse things.这需要我们并不惊奇,看到完全不同的宿命,可能包括的东西。If taken in its adequate meaning (prœdestinatio adœquata or completa), then predestination refers to both grace and glory as a whole, including not only the election to glory as the end, but also the election to grace as the means, the vocation to the faith, justification, and final perseverance, with which a happy death is inseparably connected.如果在采取适当的含义(prœdestinatio adœquata或completa),然后宿命指的是恩典和荣耀作为一个整体,不仅包括作为最终的选举走向辉煌,但也当选为宽限期为手段,对职业信仰,理由,以及最后的毅力,与其中一个快乐的死亡是密不可分。 This is the meaning of St. Augustine's words (De dono persever., xxxv): "Prædestinatio nihil est aliud quam præscientia et præparatio beneficiorum, quibus certissime liberantur [ie salvantur], quicunque liberantur" (Predestination is nothing else than the foreknowledge and foreordaining of those gracious gifts which make certain the salvation of all who are saved).这是圣奥古斯丁的话的意思(德多诺persever,三十五。):“Prædestinatio nihil美国东部时间aliud华富præscientia等præparatio beneficiorum,quibus certissime liberantur [即salvantur],quicunque liberantur”(宿命,是比什么都没有先见之明和foreordaining对那些做出一定的所有谁保存救恩)亲切的礼物。But the two concepts of grace and glory may be separated and each of them be made the object of a special predestination.但恩典和荣耀,可这两个概念分开,他们每个人作出的一个特殊缘分的对象。The result is the so-called inadequate predestination (prœdestinatio inadœquata or incompleta), either to grace alone or to glory alone.其结果是所谓的不足宿命(prœdestinatio inadœquata或incompleta),无论是单独或宽限期独自走向辉煌。Like St. Paul, Augustine, too, speaks of an election to grace apart from the celestial glory (loc. cit., xix): "Prædestinatio est gratiæ præparatio, gratia vero jam ipsa donatio."像圣保罗,奥古斯丁,也谈到了选举,以恩典,从天体的荣耀,除了(如上,19。):“Prædestinatio美国东部时间gratiæ præparatio,特惠维罗国际专业保安协会donatio果酱。”It is evident, however, that this (inadequate) predestination does not exclude the possibility that one chosen to grace, faith, and justification goes nevertheless to hell.这是显而易见的,然而,这(不足)宿命并不排除可能有选择的恩典,信仰和理由一但到地狱去。Hence we may disregard it, since it is at bottom simply another term for the universality of God's salvific will and of the distribution of grace among all men (see GRACE).因此,我们可以忽略它,因为它是在底部为神的救赎将普遍性和所有的人之间的宽限期(见宽限期)分布简单连任。Similarly eternal election to glory alone, that is, without regard to the preceding merits through grace, must be designated as (inadequate) predestination.同样永恒的荣耀单独选举,即不考虑通过宽限期到前面的优点,必须指定为(不足)宿命。Though the possibility of the latter is at once clear to the reflecting mind, yet its actuality is strongly contested by the majority of theologians, as we shall see further on (under sect. III).虽然后者可能是在一次头脑清楚的反映,但其现状的强烈驳斥了大部分的神学家,如我们将看到进一步(下节。三)。From these explanations it is plain that the real dogma of eternal election is exclusively concerned with adequate predestination, which embraces both grace and glory and the essence of which St. Thomas (I, Q. xxiii, a. 2) defines as: "Præparatio gratiæ in præsenti et gloriæ in futuro" (the foreordination of grace in the present and of glory in the future).从这些解释清楚,这是永恒的选举完全是真正的教条足够宿命,其中包含了双方的恩典和荣耀,其实质圣托马斯(一,问:二十三,甲2)定义为关注:“Præparatio在præsenti等gloriæ在清新汽油gratiæ“(即在目前的恩典和荣耀的宿命,在未来)。

In order to emphasize how mysterious and unapproachable is Divine election, the Council of Trent calls predestination "hidden mystery".为了强调如何神秘,不可接近的,是神圣的选举中,安理会呼吁宿命的遄达“隐藏的奥秘”。That predestination is indeed a sublime mystery appears not only from the fact that the depths of the eternal counsel cannot be fathomed, it is even externally visible in the inequality of the Divine choice.这确实是一个崇高的宿命之谜,似乎不仅从该律师的永恒深处不能终于搞清楚事实,甚至是在外部的神圣选择不平等可见。 The unequal standard by which baptismal grace is distributed among infants and efficacious graces among adults is hidden from our view by an impenetrable veil.不平等的标准,其中洗礼的恩典是婴儿和成人中有效的青睐分布是隐藏的,我们由一个坚不可摧的面纱的看法。Could we gain a glimpse at the reasons of this inequality, we should at once hold the key to the solution of the mystery itself.我们能得到在这种不平等的原因一瞥,我们应立即举行的关键,解决自身的奥秘。Why is it that this child is baptized, but not the child of the neighbour?为什么说这孩子受洗的,但不是邻居的孩子?Why is it that Peter the Apostle rose again after his fall and persevered till his death, while Judas Iscariot, his fellow-Apostle, hanged himself and thus frustrated his salvation?为什么说彼得使徒跌倒后,他再次上升,直到他去世坚持下来了,而犹大,他的同胞使徒,上吊自杀,从而挫败他的拯救? Though correct, the answer that Judas went to perdition of his own free will, while Peter faithfully co-operated with the grace of conversion offered him, does not clear up the enigma.虽然正确,答案到灭亡,犹大自己的自由意志,而彼得忠实的合作与转换经营给他的恩典,不搞清楚这个谜。For the question recurs: Why did not God give to Judas the same efficacious, infallibly successful grace of conversion as to St. Peter, whose blasphemous denial of the Lord was a sin no less grievous than that of the traitor Judas?对于这个问题再次出现:为什么不是上帝给犹大,以圣彼得大教堂,其主拒绝亵渎是一种罪恶不低于叛徒犹大的严重同样有效,无误的成功转换的恩典? To all these and similar questions the only reasonable reply is the word of St. Augustine (loc. cit., 21): "Inscrutabilia sunt judicia Dei" (the judgments of God are inscrutable).所有这些和类似问题的唯一合理的答复是,圣奥古斯丁的话(如上,21。):“Inscrutabilia必须遵守judicia业会”(神的判断是不可思议的)。

B

The counterpart of the predestination of the good is the reprobation of the wicked, or the eternal decree of God to cast all men into hell of whom He foresaw that they would die in the state of sin as his enemies.作者:宿命的好对口是恶人的非难,或神的永恒的法令,丢的人,他预见到他们会死在他的敌人罪作为国家地狱所有的人。 This plan of Divine reprobation may be conceived either as absolute and unconditional or as hypothetical and conditional, according as we consider it as dependent on, or independent of, the infallible foreknowledge of sin, the real reason of reprobation.这种神圣的非难计划可能被设想无论是作为绝对和无条件的或假设的和有条件的,根据,因为我们认为它依赖或独立的,不会犯错误的预知单仲偕,非难的真正原因。 If we understand eternal condemnation to be an absolute unconditional decree of God, its theological possibility is affirmed or denied according as the question whether it involves a positive, or only a negative, reprobation is answered in the affirmative or in the negative.如果我们明白永恒的谴责,是一个绝对的神无条件的法令,其神学的可能性是肯定或否认的问题是否涉及一个积极的,或仅是负面的,非难是肯定或否定的回答根据。 The conceptual difference between the two kinds of reprobation lies in this, that negative reprobation merely implies the absolute will not to grant the bliss of heaven while positive reprobation means the absolute will to condemn to hell.之间的非难两种概念上的差异就在于此,即负reprobation仅仅意味着绝对不会给予天堂的幸福而积极的非难意味着绝对会谴责地狱。 In other words, those who are reprobated merely negatively are numbered among the non-predestined from all eternity; those who are reprobated positively are directly predestined to hell from all eternity and have been created for this very purpose.换句话说,那些谁是reprobated只是消极的编号之间不从所有永恒注定;那些谁是reprobated积极注定要被直接从所有永恒地狱,已经这个目的而设立。 It was Calvin who elaborated the repulsive doctrine that an absolute Divine decree from all eternity positively predestined part of mankind to hell and, in order to obtain this end effectually, also to sin.这是卡尔文谁阐述了令人厌恶的学说认为,一个绝对神圣的法令,从所有永恒的积极命中注定地狱和人类的一部分,为了有效地获取为此,还向罪。 The Catholic advocates of an unconditional reprobation evade the charge of heresy only by imposing a twofold restriction on their hypothesis: (a) that the punishment of hell can, in time, be inflicted only on account of sin, and from all eternity can be decreed only on account of foreseen malice, while sin itself is not to be regarded as the sheer effect of the absolute Divine will, but only as the result of God's permission; (b) that the eternal plan of God can never intend a positive reprobation to hell, but only a negative reprobation, that is to say, an exclusion from heaven.一个天主教主张无条件非难逃避只有一个强加给他们的假设限制的双重收费的异端:(一)表示,地狱的惩罚可以在时间,仅是造成罪恶的帐户,可以从所有永恒颁布只就预见恶意帐户,而罪本身是不被视为绝对神圣的纯粹的效果,但只作为神的许可的结果;(二),神永远的计划可以从未打算积极非难到地狱,但只有一负reprobation,也就是说,从天上排斥。 These restrictions are evidently demanded by the formulation of the concept itself, since the attributes of Divine sanctity and justice must be kept inviolate (see GOD).显然,这些限制是所要求制定这一概念本身,因为神圣的尊严和正义的属性必须保持不可侵犯(见上帝)。Consequently, if we consider that God's sanctity will never allow Him to will sin positively even though He foresees it in His permissive decree with infallible certainty, and that His justice can foreordain, and in time actually inflict, hell as a punishment only by reason of the sin foreseen, we understand the definition of eternal reprobation given by Peter Lombard (I. Sent., dist. 40): "Est præscientia iniquitatis quorundam et præparatio damnationis eorundem" (it is the foreknowledge of the wickedness of some men and the foreordaining of their damnation).因此,如果我们认为上帝的神圣性,决不允许他以将罪恶积极尽管他预计在他与犯错的肯定宽容法令,并且知道他的正义可以预先注定,在时间实际上造成,只有理由作为一种惩罚地狱预见的罪,我们了解了彼得隆巴德(一发送,区40。。)鉴于永恒的非难的定义:“村præscientia iniquitatis quorundam等præparatio damnationis eorundem”(这是有些人的邪恶先见之明和foreordaining他们的诅咒)。Cf.比照。Scheeben, "Mysterien des Christentums" (2nd ed., Freiburg, 1898), 98-103. Scheeben,“Mysterien万christentums”(第二版。,弗赖堡,1898年),98-103。

II.二。THE CATHOLIC DOGMA天主教教条

Reserving the theological controversies for the next section, we deal here only with those articles of faith relating to predestination and reprobation, the denial of which would involve heresy.预留下一节中的神学争论,我们只处理有关宿命和reprobation信仰这些条款在这里​​,拒绝将涉及异端。

A. The Predestination of the Elect答:宿命的选举

He who would place the reason of predestination either in man alone or in God alone would inevitably be led into heretical conclusions about eternal election.他谁就会发生原因的宿命无论是在人单独或只有上帝将不可避免地被选举为约永恒邪教结论领导。In the one case the error concerns the last end, in the other the means to that end.在一个案件中,错误涉及去年年底,在其他的手段实现这一目标。Let it be noted that we do not speak of the "cause" of predestination, which would be either the efficient cause (God), or the instrumental cause (grace), or the final cause (God's honour), or the primary meritorious cause, but of the reason or motive which induced God from all eternity to elect certain definite individuals to grace and glory.让它值得注意的是,我们不说的“事业”的宿命,这将是无论是高效率的原因(上帝),或器乐事业(恩典),或最终原因(上帝的荣誉),或主有功事业,但其中的原因或动机引起的,从所有永恒上帝选出某些明确个人的恩典和荣耀。 The principal question then is: Does the natural merit of man exert perhaps some influence on the Divine election to grace and glory?主要问题是:是否对人类可能产生的一些优点自然神的恩典和荣耀当选影响?If we recall the dogma of the absolute gratuity of Christian grace, our answer must be outright negative (see GRACE).如果我们回顾一下基督教恩典绝对酬金教条,我们的回答必须是彻底否定(见宽限期)。To the further question whether Divine predestination does not at least take into account the supernatural good works, the Church answers with the doctrine that heaven is not given to the elect by a purely arbitrary act of God's will, but that it is also the reward of the personal merits of the justified (see MERIT).为了进一步的问题是否神的宿命并不能至少考虑到超自然的优秀作品,与学说的教会,天堂是没有考虑到的选举由天意纯属武断行为,但它也是奖励的答案的理由(见优异奖)的个人优点。 Those who, like the Pelagians, seek the reason for predestination only in man's naturally good works, evidently misjudge the nature of the Christian heaven which is an absolutely supernatural destiny.这些谁,喜欢的pelagians,寻求唯一的宿命在人的自然好作品的原因,显然误判的基督教天堂这是一个绝对超自然命运的本质。 As Pelagianism puts the whole economy of salvation on a purely natural basis, so it regards predestination in particular not as a special grace, much less as the supreme grace, but only as a reward for natural merit.由于佩拉把得救的纯粹自然的基础上对整个经济,因此它认为尤其不能作为一个特殊的恩典,更不用说作为最高的恩典,只是作为自然论功行赏,但宿命。

The Semipelagians, too, depreciated the gratuity and the strictly supernatural character of eternal happiness by ascribing at least the beginning of faith (initium fidei) and final perseverance (donum perseverantiœ) to the exertion of man's natural powers, and not to the initiative of preventing grace.The Semipelagians也贬值约满酬金和对人的自然权力发挥的永恒的幸福严格超自然所指称至少在开始的信仰(initium信)和最终毅力(donum perseverantiœ)字符,而不是防止倡议宽限期。This is one class of heresies which, slighting God and His grace, makes all salvation depend on man alone.这是一类的歪理邪说,轻视上帝和他的恩典,使所有依赖于人的拯救孤独。But no less grave are the errors into which a second group falls by making God alone responsible for everything, and abolishing the free co-operation of the will in obtaining eternal happiness.但更严重的错误是第二组到其中一个只有上帝通过使一切责任,并取消获得永恒的幸福,自由的共同意志行动的范围。 This is done by the advocates of heretical Predestinarianism, embodied in its purest form in Calvinism and Jansenism.这是由邪教Predestinarianism在其纯粹的形式体现加尔文和詹森主义主张。Those who seek the reason of predestination solely in the absolute Will of God are logically forced to admit an irresistibly efficacious grace (gratia irresistibilis), to deny the freedom of the will when influenced by grace and wholly to reject supernatural merits (as a secondary reason for eternal happiness).这些谁寻求只在上帝的绝对意志的宿命是逻辑上的原因不得不承认一个势不可挡有效的恩典(特惠irresistibilis),否定的意志的自由,当受到恩典和完全拒绝超自然的优点(作为一个次要原因永恒的幸福)。 And since in this system eternal damnation, too, finds its only explanation in the Divine will, it further follows that concupiscence acts on the sinful will with an irresistible force, that there the will is not really free to sin, and that demerits cannot be the cause of eternal damnation.而且,由于在这个系统中永恒的诅咒,也认定其在神圣的唯一解释会,进一步遵循的罪恶将随着一种不可抗拒的力量,有意志是不是真的自由罪,而缺点不能concupiscence行为永恒的诅咒的原因。

Between these two extremes the Catholic dogma of predestination keeps the golden mean, because it regards eternal happiness primarily as the work of God and His grace, but secondarily as the fruit and reward of the meritorious actions of the predestined.这两个极端之间天主教教条的宿命保持中庸,因为它认为主要是由于神的工作和他的恩典永恒的幸福,但其次为水果和的命中注定的有功行为奖励。 The process of predestination consists of the following five steps: (a) the first grace of vocation, especially faith as the beginning, foundation, and root of justification; (b) a number of additional, actual graces for the successful accomplishment of justification; (c) justification itself as the beginning of the state of grace and love; (d) final perseverance or at least the grace of a happy death; (e) lastly, the admission to eternal bliss.作者:宿命的过程包括以下五个步骤:(一)第一职业风度,尤其是在开始时,基础信念,根本的理由;(二)增加,为圆满完成的理由多少实际的青睐; (三)理由本身作为恩典和爱的状态开始;(四)最终毅力,或至少是一个快乐的死亡恩;(五)最后,以永恒的幸福入场。If it is a truth of Revelation that there are many who, following this path, seek and find their eternal salvation with infallible certainty, then the existence of Divine predestination is proved (cf. Matthew 25:34; Revelation 20:15).如果它是一个启示的真理,有很多谁,走这条道路,寻找和发现他们永恒的救赎与犯错的肯定,那么神的宿命的存在证明了(参见马修25:34,启示录20:15)。 St. Paul says quite explicitly (Romans 8:28 sq.): "we know that to them that love God, all things work together unto good, to such as, according to his purpose, are called to be saints. For whom he foreknew, he also predestinated to be made conformable to the image of his Son; that he might be the first born amongst many brethren. And whom he predestinated, them he also called. And whom he called, them he also justified. And whom he justified, them he also glorified."圣保罗说,很明确地(罗马书8:28平方米):。“我们知道,为了那些爱上帝,一切事情共同努力原是好的,比如,根据他的目的,被称为是圣人,他为了谁预知,他也豫定要效法他儿子的形象。他可能是许多弟兄之间出生的第一个和他所豫定,他们还打来电话,他被他叫做,他自己也有道理,他和谁。。有道理的,他们得荣耀。“ (Cf. Ephesians 1:4-11) Besides the eternal "foreknowledge" and foreordaining, the Apostle here mentions the various steps of predestination: "vocation", "justification", and "glorification". (参以弗所书1:4-11)除了永恒的“预知”和foreordaining,使徒保罗在这里提到的各个步骤的宿命:“天职”,“正当理由”和“美化”。 This belief has been faithfully preserved by Tradition through all the centuries, especially since the time of Augustine.这个信念一直忠实地保存了传统的通过所有的世纪,特别是自奥古斯丁时间。

There are three other qualities of predestination which must be noticed, because they are important and interesting from the theological standpoint: its immutability, the definiteness of the number of the predestined, and its subjective uncertainty.其他有三种宿命必须注意品质,因为它们是重要的和有趣的神学立场:它的不变性,对的命中注定的,其主观不确定性数定性。

(1) The first quality, the immutability of the Divine decree, is based both on the infallible foreknowledge of God that certain, quite determined individuals will leave this life in the state of grace, and on the immutable will of God to give precisely to these men and to no others eternal happiness as a reward for their supernatural merits. (1)质量第一,不可改变的神圣法令,是基于两个预知犯错的上帝,一定有不少人决定将留在这个国家生活的宽限期,并在上帝的永恒不变的意志,正是为了给这些人并没有其他人作为其超自然的优点奖励永恒的幸福。 Consequently, the whole future membership of heaven, down to its minutest details, with all the different measures of grace and the various degrees of happiness, has been irrevocably fixed from all eternity.因此,整个未来成员的天堂,下到其微小的细节与所有的宽限期不同的措施和幸福的不同程度,已经不可逆转地固定从所有永恒。 Nor could it be otherwise.也不能有别的。For if it were possible that a predestined individual should after all be cast into hell or that one not predestined should in the end reach heaven, then God would have been mistaken in his foreknowledge of future events; He would no longer be omniscient.因为如果这是可能的,一个注定个人应当毕竟被丢在地狱或一成不变一应在最终达成了天堂,上帝已经在他的预知未来事件的错误,他会不再是无所不知的。 Hence the Good Shepherd says of his sheep (John 10:28): "And I give them life everlasting; and they shalt not perish forever, and no man shall pluck them out of my hand."因此,好牧人说,他的羊(约翰福音10:28):“我给他们永生,他们必永远不至灭亡,并无人能从我手里把他们夺去。” But we must beware of conceiving the immutability of predestination either as fatalistic in the sense of the Mahommedan kismet or as a convenient pretext for idle resignation to inexorable fate.但我们必须提防不可改变的宿命的构想无论在Mahommedan Kismet的意义,或作为闲置辞职的必然命运的宿命论的方便借口。God's infallible foreknowledge cannot force upon man unavoidable coercion, for the simple reason that it is at bottom nothing else than the eternal vision of the future historical actuality.神的万无一失的先见之明不能强迫男子胁迫不可避免的,原因很简单,它可以在底部没有别的比未来的理想是永恒的历史现状。 God foresees the free activity of a man precisely as that individual is willing to shape it.上帝预见到一个人的自由活动正是由于这个人就是愿意形状。Whatever may promote the work of our salvation, whether our own prayers and good works, or the prayers of others in our behalf, is eo ipso included in the infallible foreknowledge of God and consequently in the scope of predestination (cf. St. Thomas, I, Q. xxiii, a. 8).无论可能促进我们的拯救工作,无论是我们自己的祈祷和好的作品,或在其他代表我们的祷告,是埃奥IPSO的犯错包括在神的预知,因此在范围的宿命(参见圣托马斯,一,问:二十三,答:8)。 It is in such practical considerations that the ascetical maxim (falsely ascribed to St. Augustine) originated: "Si non es prædestinatus, fac ut prædestineris" (if you are not predestined, so act that you may be predestined).正是在这样的实际考虑的苦修格言(误归因于圣奥古斯丁)起源:“四无胚胎干prædestinatus,UT斯达康prædestineris外交事务委员会”(如果你不是命中注定的,所以你的行为可能命中注定)。 Strict theology, it is true, cannot approve this bold saying, except in so far as the original decree of predestination is conceived as at first a hypothetical decree, which is afterwards changed to an absolute and irrevocable decree by the prayers, good works, and perseverance of him who is predestined, according to the words of the Apostle (2 Peter 1:10): "Wherefore, brethren, labour the more, that by good works you may make sure your calling and election."严格的神学,这是事实,不能批准这一大胆的说,除非至于所谓的宿命的原旨被看作是最初,一个假设性的法令,这是继改变了祈祷,好的作品到一个绝对的和不可撤销的法令,并他的毅力谁是注定的,根据使徒(2彼得1:10)的话:“所以弟兄们,劳动力越多,您认为好的作品可以确保您的电话和选举。”

God's unerring foreknowledge and foreordaining is designated in the Bible by the beautiful figure of the "Book of Life" (liber vitœ, to biblion tes zoes).神的无误的预知和foreordaining被指定在圣经的“生命之书”美丽的身影(或函vitœ,以biblion工商业污水附加费zoes)。 This book of life is a list which contains the names of all the elect and admits neither additions nor erasures.这生命之书,是一名单,包含所有的名字,并承认选举既不增加也不涂改。From the Old Testament (cf. Exodus 32:32; Psalm 68:29) this symbol was taken over into the New by Christ and His Apostle Paul (cf. Luke 10:20; Hebrews 12:23), and enlarged upon by the Evangelist John in his Apocalypse [cf.从旧约(见出埃及记32:32;诗篇68:29),这个符号被接管进入新的基督和他的使徒保罗(参见路加福音10点20分;希伯来书12:23),并经扩大传道者约翰在他的启示[比照。 Apoc., xxi, 27: "There shall not enter into it anything defiled but they that are written in the book of life of the Lamb" (cf. Revelation 13:8; 20:15)]. 。载脂蛋白C,21,27:“不得有任何进入它玷污 但他们是在对羔羊生命册上的”(参见启示13点08分; 20:15)]。The correct explanation of this symbolic book is given by St. Augustine (De civ. Dei, XX, xiii): "Præscientia Dei quæ non potest falli, liber vitæ est" (the foreknowledge of God, which cannot err, is the book of life).这个象征性的书正确的解释是,由于由圣奥古斯丁(德持续输注棣,XX条,第十三。):“Præscientia棣quæ非potest falli,或函简历美国东部时间”(上帝,这是不能犯错误,先见之明是书生活)。However, as intimated by the Bible, there exists a second, more voluminous book, in which are entered not only the names of the elect, but also the names of all the faithful on earth.不过,正如圣经暗示,存在一个第二,更大量的书,不仅是名列名称的选举,而且是地球上所有忠实的名字。Such a metaphorical book is supposed wherever the possibility is hinted at that a name, though entered, might again be stricken out [cf.这种隐喻的书应该是地方的可能性是在暗示,一个名字,虽然进入了,可能再次出[比照灾区。 Apoc., iii, 5: "and I will not blot out his name out of the book of life" (cf. Exodus 32:33)].载脂蛋白C,三,五:。“我不会抹杀他的名字出来的生命之书”(见出埃及记32:33)]。The name will be mercilessly cancelled when a Christian sinks into infidelity or godlessness and dies in his sin.该名称将被取消时,无情地把不忠或godlessness一汇和基督教的罪死。Finally there is a third class of books, wherein the wicked deeds and the crimes of individual sinners are written, and by which the reprobate will be judged on the last day to be cast into hell (cf. Revelation 20:12): "and the books were opened; and the dead were judged by those things which were written in the books according to their works".最后还有一书,其中个人事迹和邪恶的罪人的罪行第三类是编写的,其中堕落的判断将在最后一天被丢在地狱里(参见启示录20:12):“和书也开了 ,死是由那些被书上的根据自己的作品“的东西来判断。 It was this grand symbolism of Divine omniscience and justice that inspired the soul-stirring verse of the Dies irœ according to which we shall all be judged out of a book: "Liber scriptus proferetur: in quo totum continetur".正是这种神圣的无所不知和正义的宏伟象征意义,激发了对模具irœ荡气回肠的诗句根据这一判断,我们将所有的书出来:“书scriptus proferetur:在现状totum continetur”。Regarding the book of life, cf.关于生活,比照书。St. Thomas, I, Q. xxiv, a.圣托马斯,一,问:二十四,答1-3, and Heinrich-Gutberlet, "Dogmat. Theologie", VIII (Mainz, 1897), section 453.1-3,和Heinrich - Gutberlet,“Dogmat。神学”,第八章(美因茨,1897年),第453。

(2) The second quality of predestination, the definiteness of the number of the elect, follows naturally from the first.(2)第二届优质的宿命,对定性的选举人数,遵循自然而来。For if the eternal counsel of God regarding the predestined is unchangeable, then the number of the predestined must likewise be unchangeable and definite, subject neither to additions nor to cancellations.因为如果上帝的永恒律师就注定了是不可改变的,那么同样的命中注定必须是不可改变的,明确的,但既不增加也不是取消数量。 Anything indefinite in the number would eo ipso imply a lack of certitude in God's knowledge and would destroy His omniscience.任何在数量不定会行政主任IPSO的暗示了确信在神的知识的缺乏,并会破坏他的无所不知。Furthermore, the very nature of omniscience demands that not only the abstract number of the elect, but also the individuals with their names and their entire career on earth, should be present before the Divine mind from all eternity.此外,无所不知的要求,不仅抽象的选举人数,而且还与他们的名字及其对地球的整个职业生涯的个人,应当从所有永恒前神圣心灵目前的本质。 Naturally, human curiosity is eager for definite information about the absolute as well as the relative number of the elect.当然,人类的好奇心是绝对明确的信息,以及相对数的选举渴望。How high should the absolute number be estimated?应该有多高的绝对人数估计?But it would be idle and useless to undertake calculations and to guess at so and so many millions or billions of predestined.但是,这将是闲置无用进行计算,并猜测某某数百万或数十亿命中注定。St. Thomas (I, Q. xxiii, a. 7) mentions the opinion of some theologians that as many men will be saved as there are fallen angels, while others held that the number of predestined will equal the number of the faithful angels.圣托马斯(一,问:二十三,答:7)提到了一些,由于许多人会被保存为有堕落天使神学家认为,在别人认为,命中注定数将等于忠实的天使的数目。

Lastly, there were optimists who, combining these two opinions into a third, made the total of men saved equal to the unnumbered myriads of berated spirits.最后,有乐观谁,组合成第三个这两项意见,取得了节省相当于总的无数无数的人斥责精神。But even granted that the principle of our calculation is correct, no mathematician would be able to figure out the absolute number on a basis so vague, since the number of angels and demons is an unknown quantity to us.但是,即使平时对我们的计算原则是正确的,没有一位数学家将能够计算出一个基础,使模糊的绝对数量,因为天使和恶魔的数目给我们一个未知数。 Hence, "the best answer", rightly remarks St. Thomas, "is to say: God alone knows the number of his elect".因此,“最好的答案”,正确的话圣托马斯“,是说:只有上帝知道了他的选民数”。By relative number is meant the numerical relation between the predestined and the reprobate.由相对数,是指之间的命中注定与坏人的数值关系。Will the majority of the human race be saved or will they be damned?请问人类的大部分被保存或将他们被定罪?Will one-half be damned the other half saved?将一半,另一半是该死的保存?In this question the opinion of the rigorists is opposed to the milder view of the optimists.在这个问题上的rigorists意见是反对温和的乐观看法。Pointing to several texts of the Bible (Matthew 7:14; 22:14) and to sayings of great spiritual doctors, the rigorists defend as probable the thesis that not only most Christians but also most Catholics are doomed to eternal damnation.他指着几个文本的圣经(马太福音7:14,22:14)和巨大的精神医生的说法,可能是rigorists捍卫作为论文,不仅大多数的基督徒,但也最天主教徒,是注定要永远的诅咒。 Almost repulsive in its tone is Massillon's sermon on the small number of the elect.几乎排斥在其基调是马西隆关于少数的选举讲道。Yet even St. Thomas (loc. cit., a. 7) asserted: "Pauciores sunt qui salvantur" (only the smaller number of men are saved).然而,即使圣托马斯(。如上,甲7)宣称:“Pauciores必须遵守魁salvantur”(仅男性小一些保存)。 And a few years ago, when the Jesuit P. Castelein ("Le rigorisme, le nombre des élus et la doctrine du salut", 2nd ed., Brussels, 1899) impugned this theory with weighty arguments, he was sharply opposed by the Redemptorist P. Godts ("De paucitate salvandorum quid docuerunt sancti", 3rd ed., Brussels, 1899).而在几年前,当耶稣会体育Castelein(“乐rigorisme,乐农布雷德élus杜萨吕等香格里拉学说”,第二版。,布鲁塞尔,1899年)非难这种理论与份量的论点,他尖锐对立的赎体育Godts(“德paucitate salvandorum嚼食docuerunt sancti”,第3版。,布鲁塞尔,1899年)。That the number of the elect cannot be so very small is evident from the Apocalypse (vii, 9).这数目的选举不能这么少,是从启示录(七,九)明显。When one hears the rigorists, one is tempted to repeat Dieringer's bitter remark: "Can it be that the Church actually exists in order to people hell?"当一个人听到rigorists,一个是诱惑重复Dieringer的痛苦的话:“可不可以这样说,教会实际存在是为了人民群众地狱?” The truth is that neither the one nor the other can be proved from Scripture or Tradition (cf. Heinrich-Gutberlet, "Dogmat. Theologie", Mainz, 1897, VIII, 363 sq.).事实是,无论是一个还是其他可从经文或传统(参见海因里希- Gutberlet,“Dogmat。神学”,美因茨,1897年,八,363平方米)证明。But supplementing these two sources by arguments drawn from reason we may safely defend as probable the opinion that the majority of Christians, especially of Catholics, will be saved.但补充由这两个原因引起争论的来源,我们可以有把握地捍卫可能认为大多数的基督徒,特别是天主教徒,都将保存的意见。 If we add to this relative number the overwhelming majority of non-Christians (Jews, Mahommedans, heathens), then Gener ("Theol. dogmat. scholast.", Rome, 1767, II, 242 sq.) is probably right when he assumes the salvation of half of the human race, lest "it should be said to the shame and offence of the Divine majesty and clemency that the [future] Kingdom of Satan is larger than the Kingdom of Christ" (cf. W. Schneider, "Das andere Leben", 9th ed., Paderborn, 1908, 476 sq.).如果我们把这个相对数的非基督徒(犹太人,Mahommedans,异教徒),那么绝大多数根儿(“Theol。dogmat。scholast。”,罗马,1767,二,242平方米)可能是正确的,当他承担在人类一半的救恩,以免“应该说,以耻辱和罪行的神圣威严和宽大的[未来]王国撒旦是比基督王国大”(见瓦特施耐德“达斯企业的其它酸奶“,第九版。,帕德博恩,1908,476平方米)。

(3) The third quality of predestination, its subjective uncertainty, is intimately connected with its objective immutability. (3)第三质量的宿命,其主观不确定性,是密切联系在一起的目标不可改变。We know not whether we are reckoned among the predestined or not.我们不知道我们是否命中注定,还是属于不计算。All we can say is: God alone knows it.我们所能说的是:只有上帝知道。When the Reformers, confounding predestination with the absolute certainty of salvation, demanded of the Christian an unshaken faith in his own predestination if be wished to be saved, the Council of Trent opposed to this presumptuous belief the canon (Sess. VI, can. xv): "S. qd, hominem renatum et justificatum teneri ex fide ad credendum, se certo esse in numero prædestinatorum, anathema sit" (if any one shall say that the regenerated and justified man is bound as a matter of faith to believe that he is surely of the number of the predestined, let him be anathema).当改革者,混淆与救赎的宿命绝对的确定性,基督教在他自己的宿命,如果是不可动摇的信念要求希望得救,安理会的遄达反对这种自以为是的信念佳能(sess.六,可以的。十五):“学东,人身攻击等justificatum teneri renatum当然真正的广告信条,本身certo Esse品牌在numero prædestinatorum,诅咒坐”(如果任何人不得说,再生和合理的人是一个信仰问题,他一定会相信肯定是的命中注定的数目,让他被诅咒)。 In truth, such a presumption is not only irrational, but also unscriptural (cf. 1 Corinthians 4:4; 9:27; 10:12; Philippians 2:12).事实上,这样的推定,不仅不合理,而且还unscriptural(见哥林多前书4:4; 9:27; 10:12;腓2:12)。Only a private revelation, such as was vouchsafed to the penitent thief on the cross, could give us the certainty of faith: hence the Tridentine Council insists (loc. cit., cap. xii): "Nam nisi ex speciali revelatione sciri non potest, quos Deus sibi elegerit" (for apart from a special revelation, it cannot be known whom God has chosen).只有一个私人的启示,如被赐予的忏悔小偷在十字架上,可以给我们的信心肯定的:因此律但丁安理会坚持(如上章十二。。):“暂准南前伊斯兰革命最高委员会非potest speciali revelatione ,quos杀出sibi elegerit“(为除有特殊的启示,它不能被称为人,上帝选择了)。However, the Church condemns only that blasphemous presumption which boasts of a faithlike certainty in matters of predestination.不过,教会谴责亵渎推​​定只是其中的一个肯定的宿命事项faithlike拥有。To say that there exist probable signs of predestination which exclude all excessive anxiety is not against her teaching.如果说存在的宿命可能体征,排除一切过度焦虑不反对她的教学。The following are some of the criteria set down by the theologians: purity of heart, pleasure in prayer, patience in suffering, frequent reception of the sacraments, love of Christ and His Church, devotion to the Mother of God, etc.下面是一组由神学家们的一些标准:纯洁的心,高兴地祈祷,耐心的痛苦,经常接待的圣礼,基督和他的教会,奉献给上帝,等母亲的爱

B. The Reprobation of the DamnedB的非难的诅咒

An unconditional and positive predestination of the reprobate not only to hell, but also to sin, was taught especially by Calvin (Instit., III, c. xxi, xxiii, xxiv).作者:堕落的无条件和积极的宿命,不仅地狱,而且犯罪,尤其是教导卡尔文(Instit.,三,长二十一,二十三,二十四)。 His followers in Holland split into two sects, the Supralapsarians and the Infralapsarians, the latter of whom regarded original sin as the motive of positive condemnation, while the former (with Calvin) disregarded this factor and derived the Divine decree of reprobation from God's inscrutable will alone.在荷兰,他的追随者分裂成两个教派,Supralapsarians和Infralapsarians,后者人看作是积极的谴责动机原罪,而前者(与Calvin)无视这个因素和来自上帝的高深莫测的非难神圣的法令将孤单。 Infralapsarianism was also held by Jansenius (De gratia Christi, l. X, c. ii, xi sq.), who taught that God had preordained from the massa damnata of mankind one part to eternal bliss, the other to eternal pain, decreeing at the same time to deny to those positively damned the necessary graces by which they might be converted and keep the commandments; for this reason, he said, Christ died only for the predestined (cf. Denzinger, "Enchiridion", n. 1092-6). Infralapsarianism也被Jansenius(德特惠基督教,湖十,长二,十一平方米),谁告诉我们,上帝已经从人类的一部分马萨damnata注定永恒的极乐举行,对方永远的痛,下令在同时否定了这些积极该死的,由他们可能会被转换,并保持必要的青睐诫命因为这个原因,他说,基督死只为命中注定(参见登青格,“便览”,注1092-6 )。Against such blasphemous teachings the Second Synod of Orange in 529 and again the Council of Trent had pronounced the ecclesiastical anathema (cf. Denzinger, nn. 200, 827).在这样第二次主教会议的橙在529,并再次亵渎教义理事会的遄达宣判的教会诅咒(参见登青格,神经网络。200,827)。

This condemnation was perfectly justified, because the heresy of Predestinarianism, in direct opposition to the clearest texts of Scripture, denied the universality of God's salvific will as well as of redemption through Christ (cf. Wisdom 11:24 sq.; 1 Timothy 2:1 sq.), nullified God's mercy towards the hardened sinner (Ezekiel 33:11; Romans 2:4; 2 Peter 3:9), did away with the freedom of the will to do good or evil, and hence with the merit of good actions and the guilt of the bad, and finally destroyed the Divine attributes of wisdom, justice, veracity, goodness, and sanctity.这种谴责是完全有道理的,因为Predestinarianism异端直接反对圣经的最清晰的文本,通过否认基督的神的救赎的普遍性,以及将赎回(参见智慧11:24平方米;提摩太前书2: 1平方米),废止对硬化罪人(结33:11上帝的怜悯,罗马书2:4;彼后3:9),那样做是会做的优点与善或恶,因此自由离开良好的行动和坏的内疚,并最终摧毁了神圣的智慧,正义,诚实,善良,圣洁的属性。 The very spirit of the Bible should have sufficed to deter Calvin from a false explanation of Rom., ix, and his successor Beza from the exegetical maltreatment of I Pet., ii, 7-8.圣经的精神应该足以阻止一种ROM虚假解释卡尔文。,第九,和他的继任者从我训诂虐待宠物Beza。第一,二,7-8。After weighing all the Biblical texts bearing on eternal reprobation, a modern Protestant exegete arrives at the conclusion: "There is no election to hell parallel to the election to grace: on the contrary, the judgment pronounced on the impenitent supposes human guilt . It is only after Christ's salvation has been rejected that reprobation follows" ("Realencyk. für prot. Theol.", XV, 586, Leipzig, 1904).在权衡对所有轴承永恒的非难圣经文本,一个现代化的新教释经得出结论:“有没有地狱平行的选举,以恩典选举:相反,对不知悔改的人宣判有罪判决设 。这是只有在基督的救赎已经拒绝了这一如下非难“(”Realencyk。献给普罗特。Theol。“十五,586,莱比锡,1904年)。As regards the Fathers of the Church, there is only St. Augustine who might seem to cause difficulties in the proof from Tradition.至于教会的神父,只有圣奥古斯丁似乎谁可能导致在从传统的证明困难。As a matter of fact he has been claimed by both Calvin and Jansenius as favouring their view of the question.由于事实上他一直声称双方卡尔文和Jansenius为有利于他们对问题的看法。This is not the place to enter into an examination of his doctrine on reprobation; but that his works contain expressions which, to say the least, might be interpreted in the sense of a negative reprobation, cannot be doubted.这是不适合进入了他的非难理论的审查,但他的作品包含表达式其中,至少可以这样说,可能是在一个负reprobation意义的诠释,可以是毋庸置疑的。

Probably toning down the sharper words of the master, his "best pupil", St. Prosper, in his apology against Vincent of Lerin (Resp. ad 12 obj. Vincent.), thus explained the spirit of Augustine: "Voluntate exierunt, voluntate ceciderunt, et quia præsciti sunt casuri, non sunt prædestinati; essent autem prædestinati, si essent reversuri et in sanctitate remansuri, ac per hoc prædestinatio Dei multis est causa standi, nemini est causa labendi" (of their own will they went out; of their own will they fell, and because their fall was foreknown, they were not predestined; they would however be predestined if they were going to return and persevere in holiness; hence, God's predestination is for many the cause of perseverance, for none the cause of falling away).也许淡化掌握更清晰的话,他的“最好的学生”,圣昌,在他针对Lerin文森特(。。Resp.广告12 obj的文森特)道歉,从而解释了奥古斯丁精神:“Voluntate exierunt,voluntate ceciderunt,等quia præsciti必须遵守casuri,非必须遵守prædestinati;埃森特autem prædestinati,硅等Essent能源reversuri在sanctitate remansuri,交流每责prædestinatio棣multis东部病因standi,nemini美国东部时间病因labendi“(自己的意愿,他们走了出去;其自己的意志,他们倒下,因为他们的下跌,foreknown,他们不是注定;他们不过是命中注定的,如果他们要回来,在圣洁的坚持,因此,神的宿命是很多人的毅力令人无,原因下降了)。 Regarding Tradition cf.关于传统比照。Petavius, "De Deo", X, 7 sq.; Jacquin in "Revue de l'histoire ecclésiastique", 1904, 266 sq.; 1906, 269 sq.; 725 sq. We may now briefly summarize the whole Catholic doctrine, which is in harmony with our reason as well as our moral sentiments. Petavius​​,“德迪奥”,第十,第7平方米; Jacquin的在“杂志欧莱雅历史学ecclésiastique德”,1904年,266平方米; 1906年,269平方米; 725平方米,我们现在可以简单地概括整个天主教教义,这原因是与我们以及我们的道德情感的和谐。According to the doctrinal decisions of general and particular synods, God infallibly foresees and immutably preordains from eternity all future events (cf. Denzinger, n. 1784), all fatalistic necessity, however, being barred and human liberty remaining intact (Denz., n. 607).根据一般和特殊的教义主教会议决定,神绝对无误预见和一成不变的永恒preordains所有未来的事件(参见登青格,北1784),所有宿命的必要性,但是,被禁止的自由和人权保持不变(Denz.,氮。607)。 Consequently man is free whether he accepts grace and does good or whether he rejects it and does evil (Denz., n. 797).因此人是自由的,他是否接受恩典,他并不好,还是拒绝它并没有邪恶(Denz.,注797)。Just as it is God's true and sincere will that all men, no one excepted, shall obtain eternal happiness, so, too, Christ has died for all (Denz., n. 794), not only for the predestined (Denz., n. 1096), or for the faithful (Denz., n. 1294), though it is true that in reality not all avail themselves of the benefits of redemption (Denz., n. 795).只是因为它是上帝的真实和真诚的意愿,所有的人,没有一个例外,应当取得永恒的幸福,又何尝不是如此,基督为所有(Denz.,注794)去世,不仅是命中注定(Denz.,氮。1096),或为忠实(Denz.,北1294),虽然这是事实,在现实中并非所有利用这些赎回的好处(Denz.,注795)。

Though God preordained both eternal happiness and the good works of the elect (Denz., n. 322), yet, on the other hand, He predestined no one positively to hell, much less to sin (Denz., nn. 200, 816).虽然上帝都注定永恒的幸福和选举(Denz.,注322)的好作品,但另一方面,他注定没有一个积极的地狱,更谈不上罪(Denz.,神经网络。200,816 )。Consequently, just as no one is saved against his will (Denz., n. 1363), so the reprobate perish solely on account of their wickedness (Denz., nn. 318, 321).因此,正如没有人反对他将保存(Denz.,北1363),因此单靠他们的邪恶帐户堕落的灭亡(Denz.,神经网络。318,321)。 God foresaw the everlasting pains of the impious from all eternity, and preordained this punishment on account of their sins (Denz., n. 322), though He does not fail therefore to hold out the grace of conversion to sinners (Denz., n. 807), or pass over those who are not predestined (Denz., n. 827).上帝预见到从所有永恒的impious永恒的痛苦,注定这个考虑他们的罪孽(Denz.,注322)惩罚,但他并没有失败,因此伸出的转换宽限期,以罪人(Denz.,氮。807),或通过对这些谁不命中注定(Denz.,注827)。 As long as the reprobate live on earth, they may be accounted true Christians and members of the Church, just as on the other hand the predestined may be outside the pale of Christianity and of the Church (Denz., nn. 628, 631).只要地球上的坏人长期居住,他们可能占真正的基督徒和公正另一方面命中注定,可能超出了苍白的基督教和教会的教会成员(Denz.,神经网络。628,631) 。Without special revelation no one can know with certainty that he belongs to the number of the elect (Denz., nn. 805 sq., 825 sq.).如果没有特别的启示,没有人能肯定地知道,他属于的选举人数(Denz.,神经网络。805平方米,825平方米)。

III.三。THEOLOGICAL CONTROVERSIES神学争论

Owing to the infallible decisions laid down by the Church, every orthodox theory on predestination and reprobation must keep within the limits marked out by the following theses: (a) At least in the order of execution in time (in ordine executionis) the meritorious works of the predestined are the partial cause of their eternal happiness; (b) hell cannot even in the order of intention (in ordine intentionis) have been positively decreed to the damned, even though it is inflicted on them in time as the just punishment of their misdeeds; (c) there is absolutely no predestination to sin as a means to eternal damnation.由于由教会规定,每一个宿命和reprobation正统理论下,必须保持在限制犯错的决定标志着由以下论文进行:(一)至少在时间中的执行顺序(在秩序报executionis)的有功工程的命中注定是其永恒的幸福的部分原因;(二)地狱甚至不能在意向订单(在秩序报intentionis)已积极下令该死的,即使它是造成在时间作为公正的惩罚对他们他们的错误行为;(三)完全没有缘分,作为一个永恒的诅咒罪恶手段。 Guided by these principles, we shall briefly sketch and examine three theories put forward by Catholic theologians.在这些原则的指导下,我们将简要地写生,研​​究提出了三点天主教神学家的理论。

A. The Theory of Predestination ante prœvisa merita答:事前prœvisa梅里塔理论的宿命

This theory, championed by all Thomists and a few Molinists (as Bellarmine, Francisco Suárez, Francis de Lugo), asserts that God, by an absolute decree and without regard to any future supernatural merits, predestined from all eternity certain men to the glory of heaven, and then, in consequence of this decree, decided to give them all the graces necessary for its accomplishment.这个理论,所有Thomists拥护和一些Molinists断言(如贝拉明,弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯,弗朗西斯德卢戈),即上帝,以绝对法令,并没有考虑到今后的任何超自然的优点,从所有永恒注定了某些男人的荣耀天堂,然后,在这项法令的后果,决定给他们所有的青睐其完成必要的。 In the order of time, however, the Divine decree is carried out in the reverse order, the predestined receiving first the graces preappointed to them, and lastly the glory of heaven as the reward of their good works.在时间顺序,但是,神圣的法令是相反的顺序进行的,是注定要他们先接收preappointed的青睐,最后作为他们的优秀作品奖励天国的光荣。 Two qualities, therefore, characterize this theory: first, the absoluteness of the eternal decree, and second, the reversing of the relation of grace and glory in the two different orders of eternal intention (ordo intentionis) and execution in time (ordo executionis).两个素质,因此,这一理论的特点:第一,绝对的永恒的法令,以及第二,在两个不同的订单在时间的永恒的意图(奥intentionis)和执行有关的恩典和荣耀(奥executionis)扭转。 For while grace (and merit), in the order of eternal intention, is nothing else than the result or effect of glory absolutely decreed, yet, in the order of execution, it becomes the reason and partial cause of eternal happiness, as is required by the dogma of the meritoriousness of good works (see MERIT).因为虽然宽限期(择优)在永恒的意向订单,只不过是绝对的结果或颁布法令,但在执行的顺序,荣耀的效果一样,它成为永恒的幸福的原因和部分原因,因为需要由(见优异)好作品体面的教条。 Again, celestial glory is the thing willed first in the order of eternal intention and then is made the reason or motive for the graces offered, while in the order of execution it must be conceived as the result or effect of supernatural merits.同样,天体的荣耀是意志的东西,在永恒的意向订单,然后再作出对所提供的青睐的原因或动机,而在执行的顺序必须作为结果或超自然所造成的影响怀孕。 This concession is important, since without it the theory would be intrinsically impossible and theologically untenable.这项优惠是重要的,因为没有它的理论将是不可能的,神学本质上是站不住脚的。

But what about the positive proof?但对于积极的证明?The theory can find decisive evidence in Scripture only on the supposition that predestination to heavenly glory is unequivocally mentioned in the Bible as the Divine motive for the special graces granted to the elect.该理论可以找到只有在这宿命到天堂的光荣,是在圣经中明确提到了授予特别青睐神圣的选举动机的假设,在经文的决定性证据。 Now, although there are several texts (eg Matthew 24:22 sq.; Acts 13:48, and others) which might without straining be interpreted in this sense, yet these passages lose their imagined force in view of the fact that other explanations, of which there is no lack, are either possible or even more probable.现在,虽然有几个文本(如马修24:22平方米;行为13时48分,和其他人)可能没有紧张,在这个意义上加以解释,但这些通道失去鉴于他们想像的力量,其他的解释,其中不乏,要么可能甚至更多的可能。 The ninth chapter of the Epistle to the Romans in particular is claimed by the advocates of absolute predestination as that "classical" passage wherein St. Paul seems to represent the eternal happiness of the elect not only as the work of God's purest mercy, but as an act of the most arbitrary will, so that grace, faith, justification must be regarded as sheer effects of an absolute, Divine decree (cf. Romans 9:18: "Therefore he hath mercy on whom he will; and whom he will, he hardeneth").在第九章的书信向罗马人,特别是声称的那种“经典”的通过绝对宿命的倡导者,其中圣保罗似乎代表了永恒的幸福的选举,不仅为神的工作,最纯净的怜悯,而是作为一个最武断行为的意志,使恩典,信仰,理由必须被视为一个绝对的,神圣的法令,纯粹的效果(参见罗马书9:18:“因此,他所怜悯的人,他的意志,他将与谁,他刚硬“)。 Now, it is rather daring to quote one of the most difficult and obscure passages of the Bible as a "classical text" and then to base on it an argument for bold speculation.现在,它是相当大胆引用了圣经中最困难和模糊了它作为“经典文本”的段落之一,然后在此基础争论的一个大胆猜测。 To be more specific, it is impossible to draw the details of the picture in which the Apostle compares God to the potter who hath "power over the clay, of the same lump, to make one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour" (Romans 9:21), without falling into the Calvinistic blasphemy that God predestined some men to hell and sin just as positively as he pre-elected others to eternal life.为了更具体,它是不可能得出的图片,其中比较神的使徒陶工谁作的细节“的力量在同一粘土块,使一个荣耀的器皿,又拿耻辱”(罗马书9:21),没有下降到加尔文亵渎上帝注定有些人地狱般的罪过,因为他前当选人以永恒的生命一样积极。

It is not even admissible to read into the Apostle's thought a negative reprobation of certain men.它甚至不是受理读入宗徒的思想对某些人负非难。For the primary intention of the Epistle to the Romans is to insist on the gratuity of the vocation to Christianity and to reject the Jewish presumption that the possession of the Mosaic Law and the carnal descent from Abraham gave to the Jews an essential preference over the heathens.为主旨的书信向罗马人是坚持对职业酬金基督教,拒绝接受犹太推定的马赛克法和肉体的后裔,从亚伯拉罕拥有了向犹太人比异教徒基本偏好。 But the Epistle has nothing to do with the speculative question whether or not the free vocation to grace must be considered as the necessary result of eternal predestination to celestial glory [cf.但信无关,与投机的问题是否自由职业,以恩典必须作为永恒的宿命到天上的荣耀[比照必然结果考虑。Franzelin, "De Deo uno", thes. Franzelin,“德迪奥乌诺”,帖。lxv (Rome, 1883)].第六十五(罗马,1883年)]。It is just as difficult to find in the writings of the Fathers a solid argument for an absolute predestination.这同样是难以找到的父亲了坚实的论据是绝对宿命的著作。The only one who might be cited with some semblance of truth is St. Augustine, who stands, however, almost alone among his predecessors and successors.唯一一个谁可能是一些外表引真理是圣奥古斯丁,谁主张,但是,在他的前任和继任者几乎是独自。Not even his most faithful pupils, Prosper and Fulgentius, followed their master in all his exaggerations.甚至连他最忠实的学生,繁荣和傅箴修,随后他们在他的所有夸张的主人。But a problem so deep and mysterious, which does not belong to the substance of Faith and which, to use the expression of Pope Celestine I (d. 432), is concerned with profundiores difficilioresque partes incurrentium quœstionum (cf. Denz., n. 142), cannot be decided on the sole authority of Augustine.但问题如此之深,神秘的,它不属于物质的信仰和其中使用的教皇天青石我(草432)的表达,是有关当事方之间incurrentium quœstionum profundiores difficilioresque(参见Denz。,注142),不能决定对奥古斯丁的唯一机构。 Moreover, the true opinion of the African doctor is a matter of dispute even among the best authorities, so that all parties claim him for their conflicting views [cf.此外,非洲医生的真实想法是一个即使在最权威的机构争议,让所有当事人的请求为他们相互冲突的意见[比照他。O. Rottmanner, "Der Augustinismus" (Munich, 1892); Pfülf, "Zur Prädestinationslehre des hl. Augustinus" in "Innsbrucker Zeitschrift für kath. Theologie", 1893, 483 sq.].澳Rottmanner,“明镜Augustinismus”(慕尼黑,1892年); Pfülf,“论Prädestinationslehre万的HL奥古斯丁。”中的“Innsbrucker Zeitschrift毛皮与Kath神学。”,1893年,483平方米]。As to the unsuccessful attempt made by Gonet and Billuart to prove absolute predestination ante prœvisa merita "by an argument from reason", see Pohle, "Dogmatik", II, 4th ed., Paderborn, 1909, 443 sq.至于不成功的试图通过戈内特和Billuart作出证明“由一个从理性论证”绝对宿命前厅prœvisa梅里塔,见Pohle,“Dogmatik”,第二章,第4版。,帕德博恩,1909年,443平方米

B. The Theory of the Negative Reprobation of the DamnedB的理论否定非难的诅咒

What deters us most strongly from embracing the theory just discussed is not the fact that it cannot be dogmatically proved from Scripture or Tradition, but the logical necessity to which it binds us, of associating an absolute predestination to glory, with a reprobation just as absolute, even though it be but negative.什么阻止了拥抱刚才讨论的理论我们最强烈的不是它不能教条,从经文或传统证明的事实,但逻辑必然性它所绑定与非难我们,联想绝对宿命走向辉煌,正如绝对,即使它是消极的。 The well-meant efforts of some theologians (eg Billot) to make a distinction between the two concepts, and so to escape the evil consequences of negative reprobation, cannot conceal from closer inspection the helplessness of such logical artifices.一些神学家(如Billot)的善意的努力,使这两个概念之间的区别,因此为了躲避邪恶的后果负reprobation,不能从仔细掩盖这种逻辑手腕的无奈。 Hence the earlier partisans of absolute predestination never denied that their theory compelled them to assume for the wicked a parallel, negative reprobation - that is, to assume that, though not positively predestined to hell, yet they are absolutely predestined not to go to heaven (cf. above, I, B).因此,早期的绝对宿命游击队从来没有否认,他们的理论迫使他们承担恶人一个平行的,消极的非难 - 也就是说,假设,虽然没有正面命中注定地狱,但他们注定是绝对不要去天堂(比照。以上,我的B)。While it was easy for the Thomists to bring this view into logical harmony with their prœmotio physica, the few Molinists were put to straits to harmonize negative reprobation with their scientia media.虽然很容易为Thomists,使逻辑的和谐与prœmotio物理学有鉴于此,一些Molinists被付诸海峡,协调与媒体的负面报ACTA非难。 In order to disguise the harshness and cruelty of such a Divine decree, the theologians invented more or less palliative expressions, saying that negative reprobation is the absolute will of God to "pass over" a priori those not predestined, to "overlook" them, "not to elect" them, "by no means to admit" them into heaven.为了掩饰这种严厉和残酷的一个神圣的法令,神学家发明或多或少姑息表情,说负reprobation是上帝的绝对意志“越过”先验那些不是命中注定,要“忽略”他们, “不选”他们“绝不承认”他们进入天堂。Only Gonet had the courage to call the thing by its right name: "exclusion from heaven" (exclusio a gloria).只有戈内特有勇气打电话给其正确的名称的话:“从天上排斥”(exclusio一凯莱)。

In another respect, too, the adherents of negative reprobation do not agree among themselves, namely, as to what is the motive of Divine reprobation.在另一个方面,也负非难的信徒彼此不同意,即以什么是神圣的非难动机。The rigorists (as Alvarez, Estius, Sylvius) regard as the motive the sovereign will of God who, without taking into account possible sins and demerits, determined a priori to keep those not predestined out of heaven, though He did not create them for hell.该rigorists(如阿尔瓦雷斯,Estius,西尔维于斯)认为动机主权意志的上帝谁,没有考虑到可能的罪孽,决心让那些先天就注定不会从天降下的利弊,同时,虽然他没有创造他们的地狱。

A second milder opinion (eg de Lemos, Gotti, Gonet), appealing to the Augustinian doctrine of the massa damnata, finds the ultimate reason for the exclusion from heaven in original sin, in which God could, without being unjust, leave as many as He saw fit.第二个温和的意见(如德莱蒙斯,戈蒂,戈内特),呼吁马萨damnata奥古斯丁的学说,认为对于原罪排斥从天上,在上帝可以,没有受到不公正的,给尽可能多的最终原因他认为合适的。 The third and mildest opinion (as Goudin, Graveson, Billuart) derives reprobation not from a direct exclusion from heaven, but from the omission of an "effectual election to heaven"; they represent God as having decreed ante prœvisa merita to leave those not predestined in their sinful weakness, without denying them the necessary sufficient graces; thus they would perish infallibility (cf. "Innsbrucker Zeitschrift für kath. Theologie", 1879, 203 sq.).第三和最轻的意见(如古丹,格雷夫森,Billuart)源于非难不是从天上直接排斥,而是来自于一个“有效的选举天堂”不作为,他们表示为事前prœvisa梅里塔颁布后离开那些一成不变的神在他们罪恶的弱点不否认他们提供必要的足够的青睐;因此他们灭亡犯错误(参见“Innsbrucker Zeitschrift毛皮与Kath神学。”,1879年,203平方米)。

Whatever view one may take regarding the internal probability of negative reprobation, it cannot be harmonized with the dogmatically certain universality and sincerity of God's salvific will.无论大家认为可以采取有关内部负非难可能性,也不能教条地协调与一定的普遍性和上帝的救赎将诚意。For the absolute predestination of the blessed is at the same time the absolute will of God "not to elect" a priori the rest of mankind (Suarez), or which comes to the same, "to exclude them from heaven" (Gonet), in other words, not to save them.对于宿命的祝福绝对是在同一时间内,神绝对意志“,不选”先验人类的其余部分(苏亚雷斯),或涉及到同样的,“排除他们从天上”(戈内特)换句话说,没有拯救他们。 While certain Thomists (as Bañez, Alvarez, Gonet) accept this conclusion so far as to degrade the "voluntas salvifica" to an ineffectual "velleitas", which conflicts with evident doctrines of revelation, Francisco Suárez labours in the sweat of his brow to safeguard the sincerity of God's salvific will, even towards those who are reprobated negatively.虽然某些Thomists(如Bañez,阿尔瓦雷斯,戈内特)接受这一结论到目前为止,以降低“voluntas salvifica”到无效“velleitas”,这显然与启示教义冲突,弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯在他额头上的汗水的劳动保障神的救赎将诚意,即使对那些谁是reprobated负面影响。 But in vain.但不成功。How can that will to save be called serious and sincere which has decreed from all eternity the metaphysical impossibility of salvation?如何才能将拯救被称为严肃和认真的已下令从所有永恒的拯救形而上学的不可能性? He who has been reprobated negatively, may exhaust all his efforts to attain salvation: it avail's him nothing.他已reprobated谁负,可能会耗尽他的所有努力实现救赎:它利用的他的事情。Moreover, in order to realize infallibly his decree, God is compelled to frustrate the eternal welfare of all excluded a priori from heaven, and to take care that they die in their sins.此外,为了实现绝对无误他的法令,神不得不挫败所有永恒的福利先验从天上排除在外,要照顾他们在他们的罪孽死亡。Is this the language in which Holy Writ speaks to us?这是圣经中的语言向我们说话?No; there we meet an anxious, loving father, who wills not "that any should perish, but that all should return to penance" (2 Peter 3:9).不,我们遇到一个有焦虑,有爱心的父亲,谁的意志而不是“有一人沉沦,但都应该返回忏悔”(彼得后书3:9)。Lessius rightly says that it would be indifferent to him whether he was numbered among those reprobated positively or negatively; for, in either case, his eternal damnation would be certain. Lessius正确地说,这将是无动于衷他是否是其中reprobated积极或消极的编号,因为,在这两种情况下,他一定会永恒的诅咒。The reason for this is that in the present economy exclusion from heaven means for adults practically the same thing as damnation.这样做的原因是,在目前的经济排斥从天上成人几乎同样的事情,作为诅咒的手段。A middle state, a merely natural happiness, does not exist.一个中间状态,只是一个自然的幸福,不存在。

C. The Theory of Predestination post prœvisa meritaC的理论文章prœvisa梅里塔的宿命

This theory defended by the earlier Scholastics (Alexander of Hales, Albertus Magnus), as well as by the majority of the Molinists, and warmly recommended by St. Francis de Sales "as the truer and more attractive opinion", has this as its chief distinction, that it is free from the logical necessity of upholding negative reprobation.这个理论辩护,由以前院哲学家(亚历山大黑尔斯,Albertus思),以及由Molinists多数,并热烈推荐,由圣弗朗西斯德销售“为更真实,更吸引人的意见”,有此作为其主要区别,它是从逻辑上的必要性负reprobation坚持免费。 It differs from predestination ante prœvisa merita in two points: first, it rejects the absolute decree and assumes a hypothetical predestination to glory; secondly, it does not reverse the succession of grace and glory in the two orders of eternal intention and of execution in time, but makes glory depend on merit in eternity as well as in the order of time.它不同于宿命事前prœvisa梅里塔有两点:第一,它拒绝了绝对的法令,并假定一个假设的宿命走向辉煌;第二,它不会扭转这两个永恒的意向订单和及时执行的恩典和荣耀继承,但这样的荣耀依赖于永恒的优点,以及在时间顺序。 This hypothetical decree reads as follows: Just as in time eternal happiness depends on merit as a condition, so I intended heaven from all eternity only for foreseen merit.这个假设的法令,内容如下:正如在时间永恒的幸福取决于作为条件的优点,所以我打算只预见的好处,从所有永恒的天堂。 -- It is only by reason of the infallible foreknowledge of these merits that the hypothetical decree is changed into an absolute: These and no others shall be saved.- 这只是由犯错的原因预知这些优点,该法令是假设变成一个绝对的:这些和没有其他人得救。

This view not only safeguards the universality and sincerity of God's salvific will, but coincides admirably with the teachings of St. Paul (cf. 2 Timothy 4:8), who knows that there "is laid up" (reposita est, apokeitai) in heaven "a crown of justice", which "the just judge will render" (reddet, apodosei) to him on the day of judgment.这种观点不是普遍性和上帝的救赎将诚意只保障,但恰逢钦佩与圣保罗(参见提摩太4:8),谁知道有“是奠定了”(reposita美国东部时间,apokeitai)的教义天堂“是正义之冠”,其中“公正的法官将呈现”关于审判的日子(reddet,apodosei)给他。 Clearer still is the inference drawn from the sentence of the universal Judge (Matthew 25:34 sq.): "Come, ye blessed of my Father, possess you the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. For I was hungry, and you gave me to eat" etc. As the "possessing" of the Kingdom of Heaven in time is here linked to the works of mercy as a condition, so the "preparation" of the Kingdom of Heaven in eternity, that is, predestination to glory is conceived as dependent on the foreknowledge that good works will be performed.更清晰的仍然是从普遍法官(马太25:34平方米)得出的推论一句:“来吧,你们祝福我的父亲,拥有你为你准备从基础的世界王国因为我饿了。 ,你们给我吃藏“作为等等”,“天上的王国时间在这里关系到作为条件怜悯工程,因此,”准备“的天国的永恒,那就是宿命被看作是光荣的先见之明的优秀作品将被执行而定。 The same conclusion follows from the parallel sentence of condemnation (Matthew 25:41 sq.): "Depart from me, you cursed, into everlasting fire which was prepared for the devil and his angels. For I was hungry, and you gave me not to eat" etc. For it is evident that the "everlasting fire of hell" can only have been intended from all eternity for sin and demerit, that is, for neglect of Christian charity, in the same sense in which it is inflicted in time.同样的结论如下从并行一句谴责(马太25:41平方米):“离开我,你骂,到永火是为魔鬼和他的使者所预备因为我饿了,你们给了我不要。吃“等因为这是明显的是”地狱永火“,只能是从所有永恒罪和缺点,那就是忽视对基督教慈善拟在同一意义上,它是时间造成的, 。Concluding a pari, we must say the same of eternal bliss.结论一享有,我们必须说是永恒的幸福一样。 This explanation is splendidly confirmed by the Greek Fathers.这种解释是出色地证实了希腊的父亲。Generally speaking, the Greeks are the chief authorities for conditional predestination dependent on foreseen merits.一般来说,希腊人是有条件的命就预见到案情依赖行政当局。The Latins, too, are so unanimous on this question that St. Augustine is practically the only adversary in the Occident.拉丁人,也都是这样在这个问题上,圣奥古斯丁是在西方几乎只有对手的一致。St. Hilary (In Ps. lxiv, n. 5) expressly describes eternal election as proceeding from "the choice of merit" (ex meriti delectu), and St. Ambrose teaches in his paraphrase of Rom., viii, 29 (De fide, V, vi, 83): "Non enim ante prædestinavit quam præscivit, sed quorum merita præscivit, eorum præmia prædestinavit" (He did not predestine before He foreknew, but for those whose merits He foresaw, He predestined the reward).圣希拉里(在PS。lxiv,注5)明确描述为出发从“择优选择”(前meriti delectu)永恒的选举,和圣刘汉铨在他的ROM意译任教。,八,29(德有诚意,五,六,83):“非enim事前prædestinavit华富præscivit,桑达法定人数梅里塔præscivit,eorum præmia prædestinavit”(他之前,他并没有注定预知,但对于那些优点,他预见到,他命中注定的奖励)。To conclude: no one can accuse us of boldness if we assert that the theory here presented has a firmer basis in Scripture and Tradition than the opposite opinion.得出结论:没有人可以指责我们,如果我们大胆断言,在这里提出的理论具有更坚实的基础的经文,比传统相反的意见。

Publication information Written by J. Pohle.出版信息写了J. Pohle。Transcribed by Gary A. Mros.转录由加里答Mros。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.天主教百科全书,卷十二。Published 1911.1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

Besides the works quoted, cf.除了工程报价,比照。PETER LOMBARD, Sent., I, dist.彼得伦巴,已发送。,我区。40-41: ST.40-41:圣。THOMAS, I, Q. xxiii; RUIZ, De prœdest.托马斯,我问:二十三,鲁伊斯,德prœdest。et reprobatione (Lyons, 1828); RAMÍREZ, De prœd.等reprobatione(里昂,1828),拉米雷斯,德prœd。et reprob.等reprob。(2 vols., Alcalá, 1702); PETAVIUS, De Deo, IX-X; IDEM, De incarnatione, XIII; LESSIUS, De perfectionibus moribusque divinis, XIV, 2; IDEM, De prœd.。(2卷,阿尔卡拉,1702); PETAVIUS,德迪奥,第九- X的,同上,德incarnatione,十三; LESSIUS,德perfectionibus moribusque divinis,第十四条,2,同上,德prœd。et reprob., Opusc.等reprob。,Opusc。II (Paris, 1878); TOURNELY, De Deo, qq.二(巴黎,1878年); TOURNELY,德迪奥,QQ号。22-23; SCHRADER, Commentarii de prœdestinatione (Vienna, 1865); HOSSE, De notionibus providentiœ prœdestinationisque in ipsa Sacra Scriptura exhibitis (Bonn, 1868); BALTZER, Des hl.22-23;施拉德,Commentarii德prœdestinatione(维也纳,1865年); HOSSE,德notionibus providentiœ在国际专业保安协会萨克拉圣经exhibitis(波恩,1868年)prœdestinationisque;巴尔策,万的HL。 Augustinus Lehre über Prädestination und Reprobation (Vienna, 1871); MANNENS, De voluntate Dei salvifica et prœdestinatione (Louvain, 1883); WEBER, Kritische Gesch.奥古斯丁Lehre黚Prädestination有限公司非难(维也纳,1871年); MANNENS,德voluntate棣salvifica等prœdestinatione(鲁汶,1883年),韦伯,Kritische Gesch。der Exegese des 9 Kap.明镜Exegese德九甲。des Römerbriefes (Würzburg, 1889).德Römerbriefes(维尔茨堡,1889年)。Besides these monographs cf.除了这些专着比照。FRANZELIN, De Deo uno (Rome, 1883); OSWALD, Die Lehre von der Gnade, di Gnade, Rechtfertigung, Gnadenwahl (Paderborn, 1885); SIMAR, Dogmatik, II, section 126 (Freiburg, 1899); TEPE, Institut. FRANZELIN,德迪奥乌诺(罗马,1883年);奥斯瓦尔德,模具Lehre冯明镜Gnade,直接投资Gnade,Rechtfertigung,Gnadenwahl(帕德博恩,1885年); SIMAR,Dogmatik,二,第126(弗赖堡,1899年); TEPE,研究所。theol., III (Paris, 1896); SCHEEBEN-ATZBERGER, Dogmatik, IV (Freiburg, 1903); PESCH, Prœl. theol,三(巴黎,1896年)。SCHEEBEN - ATZBERGER,Dogmatik,四(弗赖堡,1903年);佩施,Prœl。 Dogmat., II (Freiburg, 1906); VAN NOORT, De gratia Christi (Amsterdam, 1908); P0HLE, Dogmatik, II (Paderborn, 1909).。Dogmat,二(弗赖堡,1906年);加值NOORT,德特惠斯蒂(阿姆斯特丹,1908年); P0HLE,Dogmatik,二(帕德博恩,1909年)。


Also, see:此外,见:
Salvation 救赎
Sanctification 成圣
Justification 理由
Conversion 转换
Confession 自白

Arminianism arminianism
Supralapsarianism supralapsarianism
Infralapsarianism infralapsarianism
Amyraldianism amyraldianism

Determinism 宿命论
Fatalism 宿命论



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