General Information一般资料

Religion is a complex phenomenon, defying definition or summary.宗教是一种复杂的现象,不畏定义或摘要。Almost as many definitions and theories of religion exist as there are authors on the subject.几乎同样多的定义和宗教理论的存在,有关于这个问题的作者。In the broadest terms, three approaches are generally taken to the scholarly study of religion: the historical, the phenomenological, and the behavioral or social - scientific.在广义上,一般采取三种方法对宗教学术研究:历史,现象学,和行为或社会 - 科学。

Scholarly Approaches治学方法


The historical approach deals, of necessity, with texts, whether these be the doctrinal, devotional, or ritual texts that stem from the religious community per se or secular documents such as statistics through which the historian attempts to reconstruct the religious life of a community.历史的方式交易,必然与文本,无论是在教义,灵修,文本,干或仪式,如统计,从文件本身或世俗的宗教社会历史学家试图通过它来重建一个社会的宗教生活。 The historians may weave both types of documents together to create a rich sense of the role of religion in the life of a people as a whole.历史学家可能这两种类型的文件编织在一起,创造出了宗教在整个一个富有责任感的人生活中的作用。 A particularly fine recent example of this approach is Le Roy Ladurie's Montaillou (1975; Eng. trans., 1978), in which the social and economic life of a small medieval French village is seen against the backdrop of religious heterodoxy.一场极为精彩的这种方法最近的例子是勒华拉杜里的蒙泰罗(1975;。工程反,1978年。),其中的一个小村庄的中世纪法国社会和经济生活是违背宗教异端的背景下出现。

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The phenomenological study of religion, although often starting with the results of the historian, is directed toward discovering the nature of religion - the fundamental characteristics that lie behind its historical manifestations.宗教的现象学研究,虽然往往与历史学家的结果出发,对发现的是宗教性质的指示 - 向谎言背后的历史表现的基本特征。In this particular field the classic treatment remains Gerardus van der Leeuw's Religion in Essence and Manifestation: A Study in Phenomenology (1933; Eng. trans., 1938).在这一特定领域的经典待遇仍然赫拉尔杜斯凡德在本质和表现Leeuw的宗教:现象学研究(1933;工程反,1938年。。)。 Many scholars of comparative religion, such as Mircea Eliade, may also be said to fall into this category, although their relations to the historical traditions are often complex.许多学者比较宗教学等米尔恰利亚德,也可以说是属于这一类,虽然他们的关系的历史传统,往往是复杂的。The phenomenological tradition has been criticized, both by the historians and the social scientists, for losing sight of the details of particular religions in overly general comparison and speculation, but contemporary scholars are attempting to overcome these problems by dissolving the artificial boundaries between the disciplines.现象学的传统一直批评,无论是由历史学家和社会科学家,为失去过于一般的比较和猜测的特定宗教的细节景象,但当代学者们试图克服解散学科之间的人为界限这些问题。


A clear example of this tendency may be seen in the rise of social scientific studies of religion in the last hundred years.这种趋势的一个明显的例子可以看出,在对宗教的社会科学研究在过去百年上升。Psychology, sociology, and especially anthropology have contributed great depth to the understanding of religious phenomena.心理学,社会学,人类学作出了贡献,特别是深入到了宗教现象的理解。In the psychology of religion, the two most important figures remain William James and Sigmund Freud.在宗教心理学,最重要的两个数字仍威廉詹姆斯和弗洛伊德。James's Varieties of Religious Experience (1902) established a set of topics and approaches to those topics that set the overall tone for much later work in the field.詹姆斯的宗教经验的品种(1902年)设立了一个主题和方法设置这些主题为很久以后在外地工作的总体基调。

While James dealt primarily with conscious expressions of religious experience, Freud and the psychoanalytic tradition stemming from him attempted to fit the various forms of religious experience into the framework of a general theory of the unconscious.而詹姆斯处理了宗教体验,弗洛伊德和精神分析的传统,从他的表情所产生的意识,主要试图融入一个无意识的一般理论框架的宗教体验的各种形式。 CG Jung in particular has been influential among interpreters of religion, in part, no doubt, as the best developed alternative to Freud himself.荣格特别是有影响力的宗教之间的翻译,部分,毫无疑问,作为最佳开发替代弗洛伊德本人。

One problem usually associated with the psychological approach is the difficulty of moving from the individual's experience to the structure and experience of the religious community.一个问题通常与方法有关的心理是从个人的经验的结构和社会经验的宗教运动的困难。This problem has been confronted by the sociological and the anthropological traditions since the last third of the 19th century.这个问题已经面临着社会学和自19世纪最后三分之一的人类学传统。William Robertson Smith, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber were the leading figures in creating a sociological tradition in the analysis of religion.威廉罗伯逊史密斯,涂尔干和韦伯是在创造一个以宗教社会学分析传统的领军人物。

The year 1922 is sometimes taken as marking the beginning of modern anthropology and with it the complex studies of existing cultures and their religions that have done much to illuminate contemporary thought about religion.在1922年,有时被标志着现代人类学开始,与它的现有的文化和他们已经做了许多复杂的研究宗​​教对宗教采取照亮当代思想。 In that year Bronislaw Malinowski and AR Radcliffe - Brown published studies based on in - depth field work in foreign cultures.在这一年马林诺夫斯基和AR拉德克利夫 - 深入外国文化领域的工作 - 布朗发表在基础的研究。Their functionalist approach to the analysis of religion became a school, from which a steady flow of detailed studies of religion in cultural context continues unabated.他们的功能主义对宗教的分析成为一所学校,从其中一个在宗教文化背景的详细研究,源源不断有增无减。Perhaps the most eminent figure in this tradition was Sir Edward Evans - Pritchard, whose influential works continue to serve as points of departure for analysts of religion.也许在这个传统的最杰出的人物是尤德爵士埃文斯 - 普里查德,他继续担任宗教为出发点,分析师有影响力的作品。

Meanwhile, a French tradition was developing out of the school of Durkheim that was in some ways analogous with and in others opposed to the British school.与此同时,法国的传统正在开发出涂尔干的学校,在某些方面是相似的,在反对英国学校等。In this context structure has played a role akin to that of function.在这方面的结构发挥了作用类似于该功能。Claude Levi - Strauss has developed a complex theory of the way in which religious symbol and myth are transformed in the articulation by a culture of the cosmos in which it finds itself.列维 - 斯特劳斯已经制定了在其中的宗教象征和神话是在衔接改变了文化的一个宇宙中找到自己的方式复杂的理论。

This brief treatment cannot do justice to the variety of approaches to the study of religion, but one thing should be made clear.这个简短的治疗不能公正地对待了对宗教研究各种方法,但有一点必须明确。Any approach taken in isolation from the others will lead to distortion and bias.孤立地从其他人的任何做法将导致扭曲和偏见。 The attempt to integrate a number of theories stemming from a wealth of traditions is necessary to grasp the character of the religions of the world.整合的尝试了从传统理论所产生的财富数量要把握世界的宗教性质。

Characteristics of Religion宗教的特点

Keeping in mind the dangers of general characterizations, what are the distinctive features of religion?铭记一般特征,什么是宗教的显着特点的危险?Several concepts may be isolated that, even though not necessary or sufficient conditions if taken separately, may jointly be considered "symptomatic" of religions.几个概念可能是孤立的,即使没有必要或充分条件,如果将它们分开,可共同被视为“症状”的宗教。

The Holy

Religious belief or experience is usually expressed in terms of the holy or the sacred.宗教信仰或经验,通常表示为神圣的或神圣的条款。The holy is usually in opposition to the everyday and profane and carries with it a sense of supreme value and ultimate reality.通常是在神圣的反对和世俗的日常生活也带来了一场最高价值和终极的现实意义。The holy may be understood as a personal God, as a whole realm of gods and spirits, as a diffuse power, as an impersonal order, or in some other way.神圣的可被理解为个人的上帝,作为一个整体的神和精神境界,作为一个分散权力,因为一个客观的秩序,或以其他方式。Although the holy may ultimately be nothing but the social order, a projection of the human mind, or some sort of illusion, it is nevertheless experienced in religion as an initiating power, coming to human life and touching it from beyond itself.虽然最终可能什么也不是神圣的,但社会秩序,是人类心灵的投影,或者一些虚幻的排序,但它仍然是一个经历了宗教作为启动电源,未来人类生活与探触,超出它本身。

Religions frequently claim to have their origin in Revelations, that is, in distinctive experiences of the holy coming into human life.宗教经常声称有其原产地的启示,那就是,在神圣的生命来为人类独特的经验。Such revelations may take the form of visions (Moses in the desert), inner voices (Muhammad outside Mecca), or events (Israel's exodus from Egypt; the divine wind, or kamikaze, which destroyed the invading Mongol fleet off Japan; the death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ).这种启示可以采取愿景形式(摩西在沙漠),内心的声音(外麦加穆罕默德),或事件(以色列的外流,从埃及,神圣的风,或敢死队,摧毁入侵的蒙古人过日本队;死亡和耶稣基督的复活)。 Revelations may be similar to ordinary religious experience, but they have a creative originating power from which can flow an entire religious tradition.启示可能类似于普通的宗教经验,但他们有一个创意源于权力从一个完整的,可流动的宗教传统。


Response to the holy may take the form of participation in and acquiescence to the customs and rituals of a religious community or of a commitment of faith.回应神圣可能采取的参与和默许的形式向海关和宗教社区或信仰的承诺仪式。Faith is not merely belief but an attitude of persons in which they commit themselves to the holy and acknowledge its claim upon them.信仰不单单是一个人的信仰,但他们在自己神圣的承诺,并承认其索赔后,他们的态度。In a deeply religious person, faith commitment tends to shape all of that person's life and character.在一个深深的宗教人士,信仰的承诺往往形成该人的生活和性格的。


As religious traditions develop, they generate systems of belief with respect to both practice and doctrine.由于宗教传统的发展,就产生两方面的实践和理论的信仰体系。These systems serve to situate the members of the religious tradition in the world around them and to make intelligible this world in relation to the holy.位于这些系统有助于在世界上的宗教传统的成员周围,制定有关的神圣理解这个世界。In early or primitive traditions this practice and doctrine usually find expression in bodies of myth or in ritual law.在早期或原始的传统,这个实践和理论,通常发现在神话机构或礼法的表达。In those traditions which develop an extensive literate class, Theology often comes to supplant myth as the vehicle for refining and elaborating belief.在这些传统的发展广泛的识字班,神学常常来取代作为车辆提炼和阐述信仰的神话。The more this happens, the more the belief system has to be evaluated.这种情况越多,越有信仰体系进行评估。The importance attached to right belief ("orthodoxy") has varied from religion to religion and from period to period.连接到正确的信念(“正统”)的重要性各不相同,从宗教到宗教和不同期间。It has loomed large in Christianity, as for example in the great Christological and Trinitarian controversies from the 3d century onward.它突然出现在基督教的大,至于在大基督和三位一体从3D世纪起争议的例子。

Rituals and Liturgy仪式和礼仪

Religious traditions almost invariably involve ritual and liturgical forms as well as systems of belief.几乎无一例外地涉及到宗教传统仪式和礼仪形式,以及信仰体系。These may take the form of Sacrifice or Sacrament, Passage Rites, or invocations of God or the gods.这些可能采取牺牲或圣餐,通过仪式,或上帝或神的调用形式。The most important cultic acts are in most cases those performed by the entire community or a significant portion of it, although in many traditions private devotional forms such as prayer, fasting, and pilgrimage are also practiced.最重要的邪教行为在大多数情况下,整个社区或它的一个重要部分进行的,虽然在许多传统的私人虔诚的形式,如祈祷,斋戒,朝圣也实行。 A distinction is often made between religion and magic in this context.往往是有区别宗教与魔法,在这方面。In magic, attempts are made to manipulate divine forces through human acts.在魔术,企图通过人类作出操纵行为的神圣力量。 In truly cultic acts such as prayer and sacrifice, the prevailing attitude is one of awe, worship, and thanksgiving.在如祈祷和牺牲真正的邪教行为,普遍的态度是敬畏,崇拜和感恩节。

Participation in communal rituals marks a person as a member of the community, as being inside and integral to the community that is articulated in the system of beliefs.在社区参与的仪式标志着作为社区成员的人,因为是内部和不可或缺的是在社区的信仰系统挂接。That in many traditions the disfavor of the community is expressed in its barring a person from the important cultic acts is not surprising because these acts insure the proper standing of the individual and community in relation to the holy.在许多传统的社会,是体现在它不赞成禁止从重要的邪教行为的人并不奇怪,因为这些行为进行投保,就神圣的个人和社会的适当地位。

Ethical Codes道德守则

Connected with beliefs is yet another aspect of religion, the possession of an ethical code incumbent upon the members of the community.与连接的信仰宗教的另一个方面,一个道德准则后,现任的社会成员占有。This is particularly evident in highly structured societies such as India, where the caste system is an integral part of traditional Hinduism.这一点尤其明显,如印度,那里的种姓制度是印度教的传统组成部分,高度结构化的社会。 Marduk in ancient Babylon and Yahweh in ancient Israel were believed to be the authors of the laws of those nations, thus giving these laws the weight and prestige of holiness.在古代巴比伦和雅威在古代以色列马尔杜克被认为是这些国家的法律的作者,从而使这些法律的重量和圣洁的威信。

The Prophets of Israel were social critics who claimed that righteous acts rather than cultic acts are the true expression of religion.以色列的先知,谁声称的邪教行为,而不是正义的行为是对宗教的真正表达的社会批评家。As religions develop, they come to place increasing stress on the ethical, and sometimes religion is almost totally absorbed into morality, with only a sense of the holiness of moral demands and a profound respect for them remaining.由于宗教的发展,他们来到放在道德越来越大的压力,有时宗教是几乎完全被吸收到道德,只有一个圣洁的道德要求和对他们深深的敬意其余的感觉。


Although religious solitaries exist, most religion has a social aspect that leads its adherents to form a community, which may be more or less tightly organized.虽然宗教孤独的存在,大多数的宗教有社会方面,导致其党羽,以形成一个社区,这可能是或多或少组织严密。In earlier times the religious community could scarcely be distinguished from the community at large; all professed the same faith, and the ruler was both a political and a religious leader.在早期时代的宗教社会,也很难区分的社会大众,所有自称同样的信念,和统治者既是一个政治和宗教领袖。In the course of time, however, religious and civil societies have become distinct and may even come into conflict.在时间的过程中,但是,宗教和民间社会已成为明显的,甚至可能产生冲突。In modern secular states - India and the United States, for example - a plurality of religious communities coexist peacefully within a single political entity.在现代世俗国家 - 印度和美国,例如 - 一个多元化的宗教社区和平共处在一个单一的政治实体。Each religious community, whether in a pluralistic or homogeneous society, has its own organized structure.每一个宗教社会,无论是在一个多元化的或单一的社会,有自己的组织结构。A common though by no means universal feature of these religious organizations is a priesthood charged with teaching and transmitting the faith and performing liturgical acts.没有共同的一项手段,但这些宗教组织的普遍特点是教学和转递的信仰和礼仪的行为进行收取神职人员。

Forms of Religious Experience形式的宗教体验

The complex phenomenon described above constitutes what may be called the religious experience of humankind.上述现象的复杂构成什么可称为人类的宗教经验。In different religions and in different individuals, one or more of the characteristics mentioned may predominate, whereas others may be weak or almost nonexistent.在不同宗教和不同的个人,一提到可能占主导地位的特点,而更多的人,可能变弱或几乎不存在。This difference explains why religion is best treated as a polymorphous concept and why it is better to see religions as linked by variable family likenesses than by some constant but elusive essence.这种差异可以解释为什么宗教是最好的治疗为多形性概念,以及为什么它是更好地看到由变量与家庭肖像比一些宗教的本质不变,但难以实现。

Basic Forms基本形式

Even though many varieties of religious experience exist, they seem to occur in two basic forms.尽管存在许多品种的宗教经验,他们似乎发生在两种基本形式。In the first, the sense of the holy is conjoined markedly with an awareness of human finitude.在第一,神圣的感觉是连体明显改善了人类的有限性的认识。This conjunction is expressed in Friedrich Schleiermacher's characterization of religion as a "feeling of absolute dependence"; it might be called the negative approach to religious experience.这种结合体现在弗里德里希施莱尔马赫的是一种“绝对依赖感”宗教特性,它可能被称为消极的做法,对宗教的经验。 The awareness of the holy is set against the foil of finitude, sinfulness, and meaninglessness.的圣地意识是对立的有限性,罪孽,和无意义的陪衬。At an earlier stage in his career, however, Schleiermacher defined religion differently - as the "sense and taste for the Infinite."在他的职业生涯中的早期阶段,但是,不同的宗教施莱尔马赫界定 - 以“感觉和无限的味道。” Here the awareness of the holy is conjoined with the human experience of transcendence, of going beyond every state of existence to a fuller existence that lures on the human being.在这里,神圣的意识是连体与超越人类经验以外每到一个更全面的生存状态存在,对人类的诱惑去。This method may be called the affirmative approach.这种方法可称为积极性的做法。

Although one approach or another may dominate, both belong to the full range of religious experience.虽然其中的一个方法或其他可能主宰,都属于全方位的宗教体验。Both find their place in Rudolf Otto's classic, The Idea of the Holy (1917; Eng. trans., 1923), as a person's encounter with the mysterium tremendum et fascinans.双方找到自己的鲁道夫奥托的经典,神圣的理想场所(1917年;。工程反,1923年。),作为一个人的奥秘tremendum等fascinans遇到的问题。 Mysterium points to the otherness of the holy; tremendum to its overwhelmingness in relation to human finitude; and fascinans to the lure that draws individuals out of and beyond themselves.奥秘指向神圣的差异性; tremendum其在与人类有限性overwhelmingness;及的诱惑,吸引了个人fascinans和超越自己。Otto's work has been regarded as a masterly achievement in the phenomenology of religious experience.奥托的工作已被视为在宗教经验现象学精湛的成就。

Validity of Religious Experience宗教体验的有效性

The question about the validity of religious experience must also be raised.关于宗教经验的有效性问题也必须得到提升。 Do religious people or worshiping communities encounter a holy reality that is outside of themselves and other than anything purely natural?不要崇拜宗教的人或社区遇到一个神圣的现实,是外界对自己和其他纯粹的自然比什么?Schleiermacher believed that the capacity for religious experience is universal in human beings.施莱尔马赫认为,宗教经验的容量是人类普遍。He therefore claimed that it could be accepted as self authenticating and could take the place of the traditional proofs offered for the existence of God.因此,他声称,它可以被接纳为自我认证,可以采取对上帝存在的地方提供了传统的证明。Few people today would concede Schleiermacher's claim.今天很少人会承认施莱尔马赫的索赔。Not only might they deny having the kinds of experiences he described; they might also suggest quite different interpretations for them.他们否认不仅可能具有的各种经验,他介绍,他们可能还表明他们完全不同的解释。 Many traditional revelations, which seemed to be miracles in a prescientific age, might now be judged as natural events or coincidences.许多传统的启示,这似乎是在一个前科学时代的奇迹,现在可能判断为自然事件或巧合。

Inner voices and private visions might be explained psychologically as subconscious mental processes.内心的声音和私人的愿景可能被解释为心理潜意识的心理过程。From Ludwig Feuerbach to Freud, belief in God has been explained as a projection of the human mind; Karl Marx and other social analysts have seen religious belief as the product of socioeconomic forces.从费尔巴哈到弗洛伊德,对上帝的信仰已经被解释为一种人类心灵的投影,卡尔马克思和其他社会分析家都视产品的社会经济力量的宗教信仰。 Each of these naturalistic explanations of religious belief has drawn attention to some element that enters into the religious complex, but it may be questioned whether such theories account exhaustively for the phenomenon of religion.宗教信仰这些自然主义的解释都有提请注意一些元素,进入到复杂的宗教,但它可能会质疑这种理论解释详尽的宗教现象。 The question about the validity of religious experience must ultimately be dealt with by returning to rational arguments for and against theism or, more broadly, for and against the existence of some holy reality, despite Schleiermacher's arguments to the contrary.关于宗教经验的有效性问题最终必须通过返回处理和反对有神论或赞成和反对的一些神圣的现实存在,更广泛地说,理性的论据,尽管施莱尔马赫的论点相反。

A Typology一个类型学

Any typology that attempts an ordering of religions is the product of a particular tradition in which others are seen relatively to its own centrality.任何类型的宗教,试图排序是一个特殊的传统,在其他人被视为相对自身产品的中心。For instance, starting from the perspective of the Christian experience of the holy as both transcendent and immanent makes possible the construction of a series in which the various traditions are related more or less closely to Christianity insofar as they emphasize one or the other.例如,从双方的圣地,因为基督教的超越性和内在体验的角度出发,虽然可以在其中的各种传统或多或少都与紧密合作,因为它们强调基督教的一个或其他系列的建设。 That is, Christian tradition strongly asserts the transcendence of God as an essential element in its Judaic heritage, but it just as strongly insists upon the immanence of God in the incarnation and in the sacraments.也就是说,基督教传统的强烈断言,上帝在其犹太遗产的基本要素超越,但它只是作为强烈呼吁神的化身,内在性和圣礼坚持。 Roughly speaking, Judaism and Islam fall on the transcendent side of the series, whereas Hinduism and Buddhism fall more on the immanent.粗略地说,犹太教和伊斯兰教在该系列超越身旁,而印度教和佛教落在内在更多。

A detailed analysis along these lines, taking into account the variety of traditions within Christianity, reveals illuminating affinities, as for example between Calvinism and Islam and among the various mystical traditions.沿着这些路线的详细分析,同时考虑到在基督教传统的多样性,揭示了启发亲和力,为加尔文主义和伊斯兰教之间在各种神秘传统的例子。 Thus the construction of a typology, despite the limitations of any given perspective, draws attention to both the unity and diversity of religions.因此,建设一个类型学的角度来看,尽管任何给定的限制,提请注意双方的团结和宗教多样性。


In a world where the status and future of religion is in so many ways uncertain, understanding of religious concepts is not likely to be reached with extreme views, whether this extremism takes the form of a dogmatic and isolationist claim to the superiority of an individual's own faith or a vague blurring of the genuine differences among the traditions.在这个世界上的地位和未来的宗教是在很多方面不明朗,对宗教概念的理解并不可能与极端的观点达成,这是否极端主义需要一个教条主义和孤立主义主张的形式向个人的自身优势信仰或传统之间的真正分歧模糊模糊。 A middle ground must be established by those who accept the need for patient dialogue to uncover and explore both the agreements and disagreements among the religions.一个中间地带必须由那些谁接受病人的对话,需要发掘和探索宗教之间的协议和双方的分歧。This third way aims at deepening the commitment and understanding of religious groups in their own traditions while at the same time making them more open to and ready to learn from other traditions.这第三条道路的目的在于加深而在同一时间的承诺和在他们自己的传统宗教集团的了解使他们更开放,并准备借鉴其他传统。

John Macquarrie约翰麦夸里

Bibliography 参考书目
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