Resurrection复活

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General Information一般资料

The concept of resurrection from the dead is found in several religions, although it is associated particularly with Christianity because of the central belief in the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Hope of a resurrection from the dead may have entered Judaism from Persian sources, although the idea has deeper roots in Old Testament Yahwism and the concept of God's covenant with Israel.死者复活,从概念的是发现在一些宗教,虽然它是相关联的,特别是与基督教的,因为死者复活从中央信仰的耶稣基督复活的希望可能已经进入犹太教来源从波斯,虽然这个想法已深深扎根在旧约Yahwism和神与以色列的盟约的概念。 The resurrection life was variously conceived, but the type of hope that passed into early Christian thought centered on the transformation of human life from the dead into a transcendental mode of existence.复活的生命是不同的设想,但希望的类型分为早期基督教通过思想对人的生命从死亡为中心转变为一个超越的存在方式。 This was expressed poetically as "shining like the stars in heaven" (Dan. 12:3) or becoming "like the angels" (Mark 12:25).这是诗意地表达为“像天上的星星闪亮”(Dan. 12:3)或成为“像天使”(马克12:25)。

After the Easter experiences, earliest Christianity expressed its faith in what had happened to Jesus as resurrection in the transcendental sense.复活节后的经验,在最早的基督教表示发生了什么事,如耶稣复活的先验意识的信心。This concept is sharply distinguished from resuscitation, or a return to this worldly existence, as narrated in the raisings of Lazarus and others attributed to Jesus.这个概念是区别于急剧复苏,或对这个世俗的存在返回,在拉撒路和他人的叙述筹集归功于耶稣。Saint Paul conceived the resurrection of Jesus as the first instance of an apocalyptic type resurrection ("Christ the first fruits," 1 Cor. 15:20, 23); as a result of Christ's resurrection, all believers may hope for resurrection at the Second Coming of Christ.圣保罗设想作为一个世界末日式的复活(“基督的第一批成果,”1肺心病15:20,23)。一审耶稣的复活是基督的复活,因此,所有信徒对复活的希望可能会在第二次未来的基督。 Paul indicates that the resurrection body will be new and "spiritual" (1 Cor. 15:35 - 54); most theologians interpret this to mean that it is the personality that is resurrected.保罗表示,复活的身体将是新的,“精神”(1肺心病15:35 - 54。);大多数神学家解释这意味着它是,是复活的个性。

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Islam also believes in the resurrection of the dead, as did traditional Judaism.伊斯兰教还认为,在复活的死人一样,传统的犹太教。

Reginald H Fuller雷金纳德ħ富勒

Bibliography 参考书目
RH Fuller, The Formation of the Resurrection Narratives (1971); SH Hooke, The Resurrection of Christ as History and Experience (1967); P Perkins, Resurrection: New Testament Witness and Contemporary Reflection (1984); N Perrin, The Resurrection according to Matthew, Mark, and Luke (1977). RH环境下,复活的叙述(1971)形成富勒;上海胡克,以基督为历史和经验(1967)复活; P帕金斯,复活:新约证人和当代反思(1984); ñ佩林,复活根据马太,马克,路加(1977年)。


Resurrection复活

Advanced Information先进的信息

That Jesus Christ died and afterward rose from the dead is both the central doctrine of Christian theology and the major fact in a defense of its teachings. 基督死,耶稣死里复活,后来从既是基督教神学教义的中央和其教义主要事实上,在辩护。This was true in the earliest church and remains so today.这是真实的,在最早的教堂和今天仍然如此。

The Centrality of the Resurrection复活的掌

It is the witness of the NT that the resurrection of Jesus is the pivotal point of Christian theology and apologetics.这是新台币见证说,耶稣的复活是基督教神学和护教学的关键点。Paul reports an early creed in I Cor.保罗报告在我肺心病早期的信条。15:3ff.15:3几段。which both includes the resurrection as an integral part of the gospel and reports several eyewitness appearances.其中既包括作为一个组成部分的福音复活和一些目击者的报告露面。

Then Paul relates the importance of this event, for if Jesus did not literally rise from the dead, then the entire Christian faith is fallacious (vs. 14) and ineffective (vs. 17).于是保罗涉及这一事件的重要性,因为如果耶稣没有从死里复活字面上,那么整个基督教的信仰是错误的(相对于14)和无效(对17)。 Additionally, preaching is valueless (vs. 14), Christian testimony is false (vs. 15), no sins have been forgiven (vs. 17), and believers have perished without any Christian hope (vs. 18).此外,说教是毫无价值(相对于14),基督徒的见证是假的(相对于15),没有被原谅的罪(与17),并没有任何基督教信徒有希望灭亡(比18)。 The conclusion is that, apart from this event, Christians are the most miserable of all people (vs. 19).结论是,除了这种情况下,基督徒是最痛苦的人(比19)。Paul even states that without the resurrection we should "eat and drink, for tomorrow we die" (vs. 32).保罗甚至说,如果没有复活,我们应该“吃的喝的,因为明天要死了”(比32)。If Jesus was not raised, believers have no hope of resurrection themselves and may as well turn to hedonistic philosophies of life.如果耶稣没有复活,信徒没有复苏希望的自己,不如转向享乐主义的生活理念。He thereby strongly implies that it is this event that separates Christianity from other philosophies.他从而强烈地暗示,这是本次活动区别于其他哲学的基督教。

Paul teaches the centrality of the resurrection in other passages as well.保罗教的其他段落中的中心地位,以及复活。In another ancient creed (Rom. 1:3-4) he recites a brief Christology and asserts that Jesus was shown to be the son of God, Christ, and Lord by his resurrection (cf. Rom. 14:9).在另一个古老的信条(罗马书1:3-4),他朗诵简短的基督,并声称是耶稣被证明是由他的复活的上帝,基督,上帝的儿子(见光盘。14:9)。 This event also provides salvation (Rom. 10:9-10) and ensures the resurrection of believers (I Cor. 15:20; II Cor. 4:14; I Thess. 4:14).此事件也提供救赎(罗马书10:9-10),确保信徒的复活(林前15:20;。二,肺心病4:14。。我帖4:14)。

Similarly, Luke's writings relate several instances where the resurrection provided the basis for the Christian proclamation.同样,卢克的著作涉及地方复活宣布基督教为基础的几个实例。Jesus taught that his death and resurrection was a central message of the OT (Luke 24:25-27).耶稣教导说,他的死亡和复活是一个催产素(路加福音24:25-27)的中心思想。Peter held that the miracles which Jesus performed, and his resurrection in particular, were the chief indications that God approved of his teachings (Acts 2:22-32).彼得认为,耶稣执行,尤其是他的复活的奇迹,是神的行政迹象表明,他的教诲(徒2:22-32)批准。Paul's teaching frequently utilized the resurrection as the basis of the gospel message (cf. Acts 13:29-39; 17:30-31).保罗的教学经常利用作为福音的消息(参见行为13:29-39; 17:30-31)的基础上复活。

Other NT writings share the same hope.其它NT著作共享相同的希望。Jesus utilized his resurrection as the sign vindicating the authority of his teachings (Matt. 12:38-40).耶稣利用他作为平反了他的教诲(太12:38-40)管理局签署的复活。This event both ensures the believer's salvation (I Pet. 1:3) and provides the means by which Jesus serves as the believer's high priest (Heb. 7:23-25).此事件既保证了信徒的救赎(我的宠物。1:3),并提供方法,使耶稣的信徒的大祭司(希伯来书7:23-25​​)服务。

Even such a brief survey indicates the centrality of the resurrection for the NT writers.即使这样一个简短的调查表明了复活的新台币作家的中心地位。Clearly, early believers such as Paul realized that this event provided the central claim of Christianity.显然,早期的信徒,如保罗意识到这一事件提供了基督教的中心索赔。With it the Christian message of eternal life is secure, resting on the reality of Jesus' victory over death.有了它,永恒的生命基督教的信息是安全的,对耶稣战胜死亡的现实休息。Without it the Christian message is reduced to that of one of man's philosophies.没有它的基督徒的讯息是降低到人的理念之一。

The earliest postapostolic writings held this same message of the centrality of Jesus' resurrection.最早postapostolic著作举行的耶稣的复活中心相同的信息。For example, Clement of Rome asserts that this event both demonstrates the truthfulness of Christ's message (Cor. 42) and is an example of the believer's resurrection (24-26).举例来说,克莱门特的罗马断言,这项活动既体现了基督的消息的真实性(Cor. 42),是对信徒的复活(24-26)的例子。Ignatius insists on the literal facticity of this occurrence as an event in time (Mag. 11; Trall. 9; Smyr. 1), which is the believer's hope (Trall., Introduction) and an example of our resurrection (Trall. 9).伊格坚持以这个事件发生的时间字面真实性(Mag. 11; Trall 9;。Smyr 1。),这是信徒的希望(Trall.,导言),是我们复活的例子(Trall. 9) 。He also stresses the belief that it was Jesus' flesh that was raised (Smyr. 3).他还强调,相信这是耶稣的肉这是提高(Smyr. 3)。

This latter issue of whether it was Jesus' flesh which was resurrected, as supported by Ignatius and later by Tertullian, or whether it was a resurrected body not composed of flesh, as championed by the Alexandrian school and Origen in particular, was a major question in early Christian theology. 这种特殊的,后一个问题是否是耶稣的肉是复活,正如伊格支持,后来由良,或是否由一个复活的身体不是肉体渊源,作为倡导和亚历山大所学校是一个重大问题在早期基督教神学。 It was the former position, or forms of it, which gradually became the more widely accepted view in the medieval church and even afterward. 这是原来的位置,或者是形式,逐渐成为了中世纪教堂更广泛接受的观点,甚至以后。

For many scholars today who accept the literal resurrection of Jesus, the emphasis has shifted to stress Paul's concept of the "spiritual body" (I Cor. 15:35-50, eg), endeavoring to do justice to both elements.对于许多学者今天谁接受字面复活的耶稣,重点已转向强调保罗的“精神体”的概念(我肺心病。15:35-50,如),努力去实现这两个因素。 Thus, Jesus was raised in a real body which had new, spiritual qualities.因此,耶稣是一个真正的身体提出了哪些新的精神素质。

The Resurrection and Contemporary Theology复活与当代神学

There is virtual agreement, even among most critical theologians, that the resurrection of Jesus is the central claim of Christianity.虚中有协议,即使在最关键的神学家,是耶稣的复活是基督教的中心索赔。Willi Marxsen asserts that it is still the decisive issue in Christian theology today; to have uncertainty concerning this claim is to jeopardize all of Christianity.威利Marxsen声称,它仍然是今天在基督教神学的决定性问题,有关于这种说法是不确定性的危害所有的基督教。 Gunther Bornkamm agrees that without the message of Jesus' resurrection there would be no church, no NT, and no Christian faith even to this day.冈瑟博恩卡姆同意,如果没有耶稣的复活的信息就没有教堂,没有NT,没有基督教信仰,甚至到今天。Jurgen Moltmann clearly states that Christianity either stands or falls with Jesus' resurrection.于尔根莫特曼明确指出,无论是站在基督教或耶稣的复活下降。

Yet a major issue here concerns the question of whether all that is required is the message of the resurrection, or the literal event itself.然而,这里的主要问题涉及到是否所有需要的就是复活的消息,或者文字事件本身的问题。This is not only a dispute between evangelicals and higher critical theologians, but also among these critical scholars themselves.这不仅是一个福音派之间的争执和较高的临界神学家,而且自己在这些关键的学者。The pivotal fact, recognized as historical by virtually all scholars, is the original experiences of the disciples.在关键的事实,作为历史的认识上几乎所有的学者,是门徒的原始经验。It is nearly always admitted that the disciples had real experiences and that "something happened."它几乎总是承认门徒真实经历,以及“发生了一些事情。”Yet, while contemporary scholars rarely utilize the naturalistic alternative theories, various views exist concerning the exact nature of these experiences. At the risk of oversimplification and partial repetition, at least four major critical positions can be outlined with regard to this question.然而,尽管当代学者很少运用自然选择理论,存在不同的意见关于这些经验的确切性质。 在重复的风险简单化和片面的,至少有四个主要的关键位置可问题方面概述了这一点。

First, more radical critics hold that the nature of the original eyewitnesses' experiences cannot be ascertained. For example, Rudolf Bultmann and his followers claim that the actual cause of the disciples' transformation is obscured in the NT text. 首先,越来越激进的批评者认为,目击者性质的原始的经验不能确定。例如,鲁道夫布特曼和他的追随者声称,实际造成的弟子转型是文字遮蔽在新台币。 Regardless, it is not really important to inquire into the object of these experiences.无论如何,这并不重要,调查这些经验的对象。Similarly, Marxsen also believes that the constitution of these encounters cannot be known, including whether the disciples actually saw the risen Jesus.同样,Marxsen也认为,宪法的这些遭遇不能知道,包括是否真的看到了复活的门徒耶稣。Paul van Buren believes that "something happened" which changed the disciples' outlook from discouragement of faith.保罗凡布伦认为,“事情发生”,改变信仰的挫折,从门徒的前景。Although these experiences were more than subjective and were expressed in terms of actual appearances of Jesus, we still cannot judge their nature.虽然这些经验更不是主观的,并在实际露面的耶稣来表示,我们仍然无法判断其性质。

A second group of scholars is distinguished from the first not only by exhibiting some interest in the nature of the disciples' experiences, but often by the acceptance of the literal resurrection itself. Yet while the naturalistic theories are usually rejected, this group still insists that the event can be known only by faith completely apart from any verification. 第二组的学者首先是区别于不仅展示了一些经验兴趣'的性质的弟子,但往往被接受,把自己的文字里复活。然而,尽管自然主义理论通常是拒绝的,这个小组仍然坚持该事件可以被称为只有信仰完全除任何核查。

The theologians in this second group have usually been influenced by Soren Kierkegaard and more recently by Karl Barth, who held that the resurrection may be accepted by faith as a literal event, but that it cannot be ascertained by any historical investigation.在这第二组的神学家们通常是索伦克尔凯郭尔的影响以及最近由卡尔巴特,谁认为可以接受的复活作为文字事件的信心,但是它不能被任何历史调查确定。 Barth emphatically rejected naturalistic theories and asserted that Jesus appeared empirically to his disciples, yet this event occurred in a different sphere of history and thus cannot be verified by history.巴特断然拒绝自然的理论,并声称耶稣向门徒显现经验,但这一事件发生在不同的历史领域,因而不能被历史所验证。Similar views were held by neo-orthodox theologians such as Emil Brunner and Dietrich Bonhoeffer, and are also popular in more contemporary works.举行了类似的看法,如埃米尔布伦纳和迪特里希朋霍费尔新正统神学家,也是当代作品更受欢迎。For example, Bornkamm notes the invalidity of naturalistic theories but yet, in a manner reminiscent of Barth, states that this event can be accepted only by faith apart from historical examination.例如,博恩卡姆注意到自然理论无效,但尚未在巴特,各国的方式让人想起,这个事件可以被接受的,只有信心,从历史的考试分开。

The third position is characterized by a significant interest in more historical aspects of the resurrection. Not only are naturalistic theories usually rejected, but the empty tomb is often held to be a historical fact. 第三位的特点是显着的兴趣,更多的复活历史方面。不仅是自然主义理论通常被拒绝,但往往是空墓认为是一个历史事实。Additionally, these scholars proceed a step further by setting forth a more or less abstract reconstruction of the historical nature of the appearances.此外,这些学者进行更进一步的设置提出了对历史性质的外表或多或少抽象的重建。However, it is still held that the resurrection itself is an eschatological event and is not demonstrable by historical methodology, although some hold that it will be verifiable in the future.但是,它仍然是认为复活本身是一个末世事件,并非由历史证明的方法,虽然有人认为这将是在未来核查。

Moltmann holds that the disciples were the recipients of appearances of the risen Jesus, which involved spoken messages and commissioned the hearers to service in the world.莫特曼认为,弟子们对耶稣复活的,这涉及到口头讯息,并委托听众服务在世界上露面的收件人。These events, which are not strictly verifiable, are placed in eschatological history and are subject to future verification.这些事件,这是不严格的核查,被放置在末世论的历史,并受到未来的核查。Ulrich Wilckens likewise concludes that history cannot decide exactly what happened.乌尔里希Wilckens同样的结论,历史不能决定到底发生了什么。Thus, while naturalistic theories can be refuted and the facticity of the empty tomb upheld, the appearances themselves were private revelations, indications of a future, eschatological existence.因此,虽然自然理论可以反驳和真实性的空墓坚持,自己的出现是私人的启示,一个未来,末世论的存在迹象。

Reginald Fuller notes that the disciples' transformations necessitate a cause.雷金纳德富勒指出,门徒的转变需要一种原因。This cause is Jesus' appearances, which are historically defined as visionary experiences of light and auditions of meaning communicated to the earliest eyewitnesses.这项事业是耶稣的外表,这是历史经验的光作为有远见和意义传达到最早的目击者试镜定义。The messages both proclaimed that Jesus was risen and imparted a mission to his followers.这些消息都宣称耶稣复活,并传授给他的追随者的使命。Such phenomena were not subjective visions but actual experiences.这种现象不是主观的看法,但实际经验。They were the source of the Easter faith and message, but are removed from historical demonstration.他们是复活节的信仰和信息来源,而是从历史实证删除。Joachim Jeremias similarly taught that the appearances of Jesus were spiritual visions of shining light by which the disciples experienced Jesus as the risen Lord.约阿希姆赫雷米亚斯同样告诉我们,耶稣的外表都是闪亮的光,其中有经验的弟子为复活的主耶稣的精神视野。

The fourth approach to the resurrection is that the available historical evidence demonstrates the probability that Jesus was literally raised from the dead. Perhaps the best-known recent theologian accepting this conclusion is Wolfhart Pannenberg, who both argues against naturalistic theories and concludes that the historical facts demonstrate the empty tomb and the literal appearances of Jesus. 第四个办法,以复活的是,现有的历史证据表明死者的概率耶稣是从字面上提高。也许最有名的神学家最近接受这个结论是Wolfhart潘内伯格,谁反对都认为自然的理论和历史事实得出结论认为,证明了空墓,耶稣的文字外观。 Yet Pannenberg argues against a corporeal resurrection body in favor of appearances which are described in terms of a spiritual body which was recognized as Jesus, who appeared from heaven, imparted an audition, and, at least in Paul's case, was accompanied by a phenomenon of light.然而潘内伯格反对在其中的一个灵性的身体是耶稣,谁从天上出现了公认的术语来描述出场赞成有形的复活的身体认为,传授了面试,并至少在保罗的情况下,被一个现象伴随着光。

AM Hunter utilizes historical investigation to conclude that Jesus' resurrection can be demonstrated by the facts.上午亨特利用历史调查的结论是耶稣复活的事实可证明。JAT Robinson points out that historical studies cannot ascertain the exact details, but they may be sufficient to formulate a probable case for the probability of this event.李祖泽罗宾逊指出,历史研究不能确定的具体细节,但他们可能足以制定一个为这个事件的概率疑似病例。Raymond Brown, after an extensive study of the textual data, likewise supports the historical verification of Jesus' resurrection.雷蒙德布朗,经过大量的文本数据的研究,同样支持了耶稣复活的历史考证。Additionally, Hunter, Robinson, and Brown all favor the concept of the spiritual body.此外,猎人,罗宾逊和布朗都赞成的精神体的概念。

It is important to note that of these four critical positions only the first is generally characterized by a rejection of or agnostic attitude toward the literal resurrection of Jesus.重要的是要注意到,这四个关键职位只有一个是一般的拒绝或对不可知的字面复活的耶稣的态度特征。Just as significant is the observation that the first position not only appears to be losing ground, but varying positions which support the facticity of the resurrection are presently quite popular.同样重要的是观察,不仅第一的位置似乎是节节败退,但不同的态度是支持复活真实性目前很受欢迎。

The Resurrection as History作为历史的复活

Historical arguments for the resurrection have traditionally been based on two lines of support. First, naturalistic theories have failed to explain away this event, chiefly because each is disproven by the known historical facts.复活的历史论据,传统上是基于两个支撑线的。 第一,自然主义的理论已经无法解释了这次活动,主要是因为每个事实disproven由已知的历史。

Additionally, critics themselves have attacked each theory.此外,批评者曾攻击每一个理论。For instance, in the nineteenth century David Strauss disarmed the swoon theory while Theodor Keim and others pointed out the weaknesses in the hallucination theory.例如,在十九世纪国宝施特劳斯解除了昏厥的理论,而西奥多凯姆等人指出了幻觉理论的弱点。Form critical studies later revealed the futility of the legend theory popularized by the history of religions school of thought.后来形式的批判性研究揭示了联想理论徒劳由宗教学校的历史思想普及。In the twentieth century such diverse thinkers as Barth, Tillich, Bornkamm, and Pannenberg are examples of higher critical theologians who have rejected these alternative hypotheses.在二十世纪,巴特,蒂利希,博恩卡姆和潘内伯格这些不同的思想家有较高谁拒绝接受这些替代假说关键神学家的例子。

Second, historical evidences for the resurrection are often cited, such as the eyewitness testimony for Jesus' appearances, the transformed lives of the disciples, the empty tomb, the inability of the Jewish leaders to disprove these claims, and the conversion of skeptics such as Paul and James, the brother of Jesus. 二,复活的历史证据为经常被引用,如弟子目击者的证词为耶稣的改变生活的外表,在,空墓,无力的犹太领袖反驳这些指控,并持怀疑态度的转换,如保罗和詹姆斯,耶稣的兄弟。 When combined with the absence of naturalistic alternative theories these evidences are quite impressive.当理论结合的自然选择的情况下这些证据是相当可观。

However, contemporary apologetics has moved even beyond these important issues to other arguments in favor of the resurrection. One crucial center of attention has been I Cor.然而,当代护感动甚至超越了这些重要的问题,其他参数在复活赞成。关注的一个重要中心被我肺心病。 15:3-4, where Paul records material which he had "received" from others and then "delivered" to his listeners.15:3-4,保罗记录材料,他已“收到”,然后从别人“交付”给他的听众。It is agreed by virtually all contemporary theologians that this material contains an ancient creed that is actually much earlier than the book in which it is recorded.这是几乎所有的同意,这种材料含有一个古老的信条,它实际上比它记录在本书前面当代神学家。

The early date of this tradition is indicated not only by Paul's rather technical terms for receiving and passing on tradition, but also by the somewhat stylized content, the non-Pauline words, the specific names of Peter and James (cf. Gal. 1:18-19), and the possible Semitic idioms used.在这个传统的早日不仅是由保罗的,而技术对传统的接受和传递方面表示,但也有点程式化的内容,非保利娜的话,彼得和詹姆斯(参见加尔的具体名单1。: 18-19日),以及可能使用的犹太人的成语。

These facts have accounted for the critical agreement as to the early origin of this material.这些事实都占了,以这种材料的早期形成的关键协议。In fact, Fuller, Hunter, and Pannenberg date Paul's receiving of this creed from three to eight years after the crucifixion itself. These data are quite significant in that they further indicate that both Paul and the other eyewitnesses proclaimed the death and resurrection of Jesus (I Cor. 15:11) immediately after the events themselves. This anchors their report firmly in early eyewitness testimony and not in legendary reports arising later.事实上,富勒,亨特和潘内伯格日期保罗的年七时五十七收到这个信条,从受难后本身。 这些数据是非常重要的,因为它们还表明,无论保罗和其他目击者宣告死亡和耶稣复活(我肺心病。15:11)后,立即事件本身。锚他们的报告,这在早期的目击者的证词坚决,而不是在传说中的报告后发生的。

Another extremely strong argument for the resurrection is derived from the known facts that are admitted as historical by virtually all critical scholars who deal with this subject. 另一个非常有力的论据复活的是来自这方面承认,是已知的事实作为历史的处理几乎所有重要的学者谁。Events such as Jesus' death by crucifixion, the subsequent despair of the disciples, their experiences which they believed to be appearances of the risen Jesus, their corresponding transformations, and the conversion of Paul due to a similar experience are five facts which are critically established and accepted as historical by most scholars. 弟子的事件,如耶稣的'死亡十字架绝望,随后,他们的经验,他们认为是转换外表的复活的耶稣,他们的对应,转换和保罗因类似的经历,有五个是严格确定的事实并接受历史的大多数学者。

Of these facts the nature of the disciples' experiences is the most crucial. As historian Michael Grant asserts, historical investigation demonstrates that the earliest eyewitnesses were convinced that they had seen the risen Jesus. 这些事实的经验性质的弟子'是最重要的。正如历史学家迈克尔格兰特称,历史调查表明,最早的目击者都确信,他们看到了复活的耶稣。 Carl Braaten explains that skeptical historians agree with this conclusion.卡尔Braaten解释说,这一结论表示怀疑历史学家同意。 One major advantage of these critically accepted historical facts is that they deal directly with the issue of these experiences.其中一个批判地接受历史事实的主要优势是,他们处理这些问题直接经验。On a more limited scale these facts are capable both of arguing decisively against each of the naturalistic alternative theories and of providing some strong evidences for the literal appearances of the risen Jesus as reported by the eyewitnesses.在一个更大的规模这些事实都在反对自然主义的替代理论的每一个果断和为耶稣的复活字面露面一些强有力的证据能够按照目击者的报告。

Not only can the historical resurrection be established on this basis, but the additional advantage of these facts is that they are admitted by virtually all scholars as knowable history. Since such a minimum number of facts is adequate to historically establish the literal resurrection as the best explanation for the data, this event therefore should not be rejected even by those critics who disbelieve the reliability of Scripture. 不仅可以复活的历史建立在此基础上,但这些事实的另一个优点是,他们承认历史上几乎所有的学者为可知。由于这种最低数量的事实,足以确立为历史最好的字面复活对于数据的解释,这一事件不应被拒绝,因此即使那些批评谁不信圣经的可靠性。 Their questions on other issues do not disprove this basic conclusion, which can be established by critical and historical procedures.在其他问题上他们的问题并不否定这个基本结论,这可以通过建立关键和历史过程。

Especially when viewed in conjunction with the eyewitness evidence from the early creed, we have a strong twofold apologetic for the historicity of Jesus' resurrection. 特别是当信条认为早在契合与目击证人的证据,我们有一个强大的双重歉意,为复活'的历史性的耶稣。This contemporary approach also complements the more traditional apologetic summarized earlier, all of which combine to historically demonstrate the fact that Jesus was raised from the dead.这个当代办法还补充了传统的歉意,总结之前,所有这些结合起来,展示历史事实,耶稣的死是由原来的。

As Paul asserted in I Cor.正如保罗断言我肺心病。15:12-20, the resurrection is the center of the Christian faith and theology. 15:12-20,复活是基督教信仰和神学的中心。This event signals the approval of Jesus' teachings (Acts 2:22-23) and thus continues to provide a basis for Christian belief today.此事件标志着耶稣的教诲(徒2:22-23)的批准,从而继续提供今天的基督教信仰的基础。 It guarantees the reality of eternal life for all who trust the gospel (I Cor. 15:1-4, 20).它保证为所有谁相信福音的永恒的生命现实(我肺心病。15:1-4,20)。

GR HabermasGR的哈贝马斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
K. Barth, Church Dogmatics, IV/1, 334-52; D. Bonhoeffer, Christ the Center; G. Bornkamm, Jesus of Nazareth; RE Brown, The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus; E. Brunner, Dogmatics, II, 366-72; R. Bultmann, Theology of the NT; DP Fuller, Easter Faith and History; RH Fuller, The Formation of the Resurrection Narratives; M. Grant, Jesus: An Historian's Review of the Gospels; GR Habermas, The Resurrection of Jesus: An Apologetic; AM Hunter, Bible and Gospel; J. Jeremias, NT Theology; W. Marxsen, The Resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth; J. Moltmann, Revolution and the Future; J. Orr, The Resurrection of Jesus; W. Pannenberg, Jesus, God and Man; JAT Robinson, Can We Trust the NT? k.巴特,教会教义学,第IV / 1,334-52; 4,朋霍费尔,基督的中心;克博恩卡姆,拿撒勒的耶稣,重新布朗,处女的概念和耶稣身体复活;大肠杆菌布伦纳,教义学,二,366-72;河布特曼,神学的新台币; DP的富勒,复活节的信仰和历史;相对湿度富勒,复活的叙事形成的M.格兰特,耶稣:一个历史学家的审查福音;遗传资源哈贝马斯,复活耶稣:一个辩护;上午猎人,圣经和福音的J. jeremias,新台币神学;瓦特Marxsen,在拿撒勒的耶稣复活的J.莫特曼,革命与未来的J.奥尔,复活的耶稣; W 。潘内伯格,耶稣,上帝和人;李祖泽罗宾逊,我们能否相信新台币?PM van Buren, The Secular Meaning of the Gospel; U. Wilkens, Resurrection.下午范布伦,福音的世俗意义;美国威尔肯斯,复活。


Resurrection复活

Advanced Information先进的信息

The Resurrection is one of the cardinal facts and doctrines of the gospel.复活是事实和红衣主教的福音教义之一。If Christ be not risen, our faith is vain (1 Cor. 15:14).如果基督没有复活,我们的信念是徒劳的(1肺心病。15:14)。The whole of the New Testament revelation rests on this as an historical fact.新约圣经的启示在于作为一个整体在这个历史事实。On the day of Pentecost Peter argued the necessity of Christ's resurrection from the prediction in Ps.彼得在五旬节当天说,基督​​的复活从诗预测的必要性。16 (Acts 2:24-28). 16(徒2:24-28)。In his own discourses, also, our Lord clearly intimates his resurrection (Matt. 20:19; Mark 9:9; 14:28; Luke 18:33; John 2:19-22).在他自己的话语,同时,我们的主明确暗示,他的复活(太20:19,马可福音9:9; 14:28;路加福音18:33,约翰福音2:19-22)。The evangelists give circumstantial accounts of the facts connected with that event, and the apostles, also, in their public teaching largely insist upon it.福音给间接账户涉嫌与这一事件的事实,并在他们的公开教学的使徒,也很大程度上取决于它坚持。

Ten different appearances of our risen Lord are recorded in the New Testament. They may be arranged as follows: 复活的主十个不同的面貌,我们都记录在新约如下他们可能被安排为:

  1. To Mary Magdalene at the sepulchre alone.要在坟墓马利亚孤单。This is recorded at length only by John (20:11-18), and alluded to by Mark (16:9-11).这是记录在长度只有约翰(20:11-18),并提到马克(16:9-11)来。
  2. To certain women, "the other Mary," Salome, Joanna, and others, as they returned from the sepulchre.对于某些妇女,“另一个玛丽,”莎乐美,乔安娜,和其他人,因为他们返回了坟墓。Matthew (28:1-10) alone gives an account of this.马修(28:1-10),仅给出了一个此帐户。(Comp. Mark 16:1-8, and Luke 24:1-11.)(comp.马克16:1-8,和路加福音24:1-11)。
  3. To Simon Peter alone on the day of the resurrection.西门彼得独自在当天的复活。(See Luke 24:34; 1 Cor. 15:5.) (路加福音24:34; 1。肺心病15:5)。
  4. To the two disciples on the way to Emmaus on the day of the resurrection, recorded fully only by Luke (24:13-35. Comp. Mark 16:12, 13).要在对复活的日子厄玛乌两个弟子的方式,记录完全只由卢克(24:13-35。比赛。马克16时12分,13)。
  5. To the ten disciples (Thomas being absent) and others "with them," at Jerusalem on the evening of the resurrection day.对于十大弟子(托马斯缺席)和其他“他们,”在耶路撒冷复活的那天晚上。One of the evangelists gives an account of this appearance, John (20:19-24).的福音,说了这样的一个外观,约翰(20:19-24)帐户。
  6. To the disciples again (Thomas being present) at Jerusalem (Mark 16:14-18; Luke 24:33-40; John 20:26-28. See also 1 Cor. 15:5).再次向门徒(托马斯在场)在耶路撒冷(马克16:14-18,路加福音24:33-40。约翰20:26-28也见林前15:5)。。
  7. To the disciples when fishing at the Sea of Galilee.何时捕鱼的加利利海的弟子。Of this appearance also John (21:1-23) alone gives an account.这一面貌也约翰(21:1-23),仅给出了一个帐户。
  8. To the eleven, and above 500 brethren at once, at an appointed place in Galilee (1 Cor. 15:6; comp. Matt. 28:16-20).到了十一点,在以上500弟兄一次在指定地点,在加利利(1肺心病15时06。可比马特28:16-20。。)。
  9. To James, but under what circumstances we are not informed (1 Cor. 15:7).詹姆斯,但在什么情况下,我们没有被告知(1肺心病。15:7)。
  10. To the apostles immediately before the ascension.要立即升天前的门徒。They accompanied him from Jerusalem to Mount Olivet, and there they saw him ascend "till a cloud received him out of their sight" (Mark 16:19; Luke 24:50-52; Acts 1:4-10).他们从耶路撒冷陪同他到山奥利韦,在那里看到他登上“到云收到他离开自己的视线”(马克16点19分,路加福音24:50-52,徒1:4-10)。
It is worthy of note that it is distinctly related that on most of these occasions our Lord afforded his disciples the amplest opportunity of testing the fact of his resurrection. He conversed with them face to face. 值得注意的是,这是明显相关的,有时我们的主,其中最给予他的弟子,他的复活amplest的测试机会的事实。他与他们面对面。They touched him (Matt. 28:9; Luke 24:39; John 20:27), and he ate bread with them (Luke 24:42, 43; John 21:12, 13).他们触动了他(太28:9,路加福音24:39;约翰20时27分),他与他们吃面包(路加福音24:42,43;约翰21时12,13)。 (11.) In addition to the above, mention might be made of Christ's manifestation of himself to Paul at Damascus, who speaks of it as an appearance of the risen Saviour (Acts 9:3-9, 17; 1 Cor. 15:8; 9:1).(11。)除上述情况外,可以提到基督的对自己的表现在大马士革保罗,谁是它说,作为一个复活的救主(徒9:3-9,17出现1肺心病15。: 8; 9:1)。It is implied in the words of Luke (Acts 1:3) that there may have been other appearances of which we have no record.这是隐含的卢克(徒1:3)的话,有可能已被记录,我们没有其他亮相。

The resurrection is spoken of as the act (1) of God the Father (Ps. 16:10; Acts 2:24; 3:15; Rom. 8:11; Eph. 1:20; Col. 2:12; Heb. 13:20); (2) of Christ himself (John 2:19; 10:18); and (3) of the Holy Spirit (1 Peter 3:18).复活是口语的,因为该法(1)神的父亲(诗篇16时10,徒2:24,3:15;罗马书8时11分。弗1:20;。上校2:12;希伯来。13:20),(2)基督自己(约翰2:19,10:18)和(3圣灵(彼前3:18))。 The resurrection is a public testimony of Christ's release from his undertaking as surety, and an evidence of the Father's acceptance of his work of redemption.复活的基督是从他作为保证人承担发布公开作证,以及对父亲对他的救赎工作验收的证据。It is a victory over death and the grave for all his followers.这是一个战胜死亡的胜利和他的所有追随者的坟墓。

The importance of Christ's resurrection will be seen when we consider that if he rose the gospel is true, and if he rose not it is false. His resurrection from the dead makes it manifest that his sacrifice was accepted. 基督复活的重要性的时候,我们可以看出他认为,如果上涨的福音是真的,如果他站起来它是不是假的。他从死里复活,使他的牺牲是明显的,被接受。 Our justification was secured by his obedience to the death, and therefore he was raised from the dead (Rom. 4:25).我们的理由是,他服从担保的死亡,因此他从死里复活(罗马书4:25)。His resurrection is a proof that he made a full atonement for our sins, that his sacrifice was accepted as a satisfaction to divine justice, and his blood a ransom for sinners.他的复活是一个证明,他为我们的罪作了充分赎罪,他的牺牲是作为一个满意的神圣的正义,他的血赎金为罪人接受。

It is also a pledge and an earnest of the resurrection of all believers (Rom. 8:11; 1 Cor. 6:14; 15:47-49; Phil. 3:21; 1 John 3:2).这也是一个承诺,也是对所有信徒认真复活(罗马书8时11分,1肺心病6:14;。15:47-49;菲尔21分;。约翰一书3:2)。 As he lives, they shall live also.正如他的生活,他们也要活着。It proved him to be the Son of God, inasmuch as it authenticated all his claims (John 2:19; 10:17).事实证明他是神的儿子,因为它验证他的所有债权(约翰2:19; 10:17)。"If Christ did not rise, the whole scheme of redemption is a failure, and all the predictions and anticipations of its glorious results for time and for eternity, for men and for angels of every rank and order, are proved to be chimeras. 'But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the first-fruits of them that slept.' “如果基督没有上升,赎回整个计划是失败的,所有的预测和光辉业绩预期的时间和永恒,为男人和每一个等级和秩序的天使,被证明是嵌合体。'但现在基督已经从死里复活,并成为首个睡的果实。'

Therefore the Bible is true from Genesis to Revelation. The kingdom of darkness has been overthrown, Satan has fallen as lightning from heaven, and the triumph of truth over error, of good over evil, of happiness over misery is for ever secured." Hodge. With reference to the report which the Roman soldiers were bribed (Matt. 28:12-14) to circulate concerning Christ's resurrection, "his disciples came by night and stole him away while we slept," Matthew Henry in his "Commentary," under John 20:1-10, fittingly remarks, "The grave-clothes in which Christ had been buried were found in very good order, which serves for an evidence that his body was not 'stolen away while men slept.' 因此,圣经是真正从创世记到启示录。黑暗王国被推翻,撒旦从天坠落,像闪电一样,真理战胜了错误的,善战胜邪恶的快乐,在苦难担保是永远。“霍奇。参考的报告,罗马士兵被贿赂(太28:12-14)分发有关基督的复活,“他的门徒来把他偷去了晚上我们睡觉的时候,”在他的马修亨利“评论”根据约翰20:1-10,恰当的言论,说:“扫墓在基督已被埋葬在非常良好的秩序,这对于一个,他的身体并没有发现证据提供衣服的人睡觉的时候偷走了。' Robbers of tombs have been known to take away 'the clothes' and leave the body; but none ever took away 'the body' and left the clothes, especially when they were 'fine linen' and new (Mark 15:46).墓葬劫匪已经知道拿走'衣服'和离开身体,但没有以往任何时候都拿走'的身体,离开了衣服,尤其是当他们是'细麻布'和新的(马克15:46)。 Any one would rather choose to carry a dead body in its clothes than naked.任何一个宁愿选择携带的衣服比裸体尸体。Or if they that were supposed to have stolen it would have left the grave-clothes behind, yet it cannot be supposed they would find leisure to 'fold up the linen.'"或者,如果他们被窃取应该会离开扫墓衣服后面,但它不能假定他们会发现闲'折叠起来的亚麻布。“

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Resurrection复活

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray来自:主页圣经M灰色研究评论詹姆斯

Matthew Chapter 28马太福音第28章

Perhaps the most important comment we can make on this chapter will be the order of the ten events on the day of which it speaks.也许最重要的评论,我们可以就这一章将是当日的,它道出了十事件的顺序。(1) The three women, Mary Magdalene; Mary, the mother of James; and Salome, start for the sepulcher, followed by other women bearing spices. (1)三女,马利亚;,詹姆斯的母亲玛丽和莎乐美,为坟墓开始,对其他女人轴承香料之后。(2) These find the stone rolled away and Mary Magdalene, goes to tell the disciples (Luke 23:55-24:9; John 20:1, 2).(2)这些发现石头滚开和马利亚,去告诉门徒(路加福音23:55-24:9;约翰20:1,2)。(3) Mary, the mother of James, draws near the tomb and discovers the angel (Matthew 28:2). (3)玛丽,詹姆斯的母亲,临近墓,并发现天使(马太28:2)。(4) She returns to meet the other women bearing the spices.(4)她的回报,以满足其他妇女承受香料。(5) Peter and John arrive, look in and go away.(5)彼得和约翰抵达,看看去了。(6) Mary Magdalene returns, sees the two angels and Jesus (John 20:11-18). (6)马利亚的回报,看到两个天使和耶稣(约20:11-18)。(7) She goes to tell the disciples.(7)她去告诉门徒。(8) Mary, the mother of James, returns with the other women, all of whom see the two angels (Luke 24:4, 5; Mark 15:15).(8)玛丽,詹姆斯的母亲,与其他妇女的回报,所有的人看到两个天使(路加福音24:4,5;马克15:15)。 (9) They receive the angel's message.(9),他们收到天使的消息。(10) While seeking the disciples are met by Jesus (Matthew 28:8-10).(10)同时寻求满足的耶稣门徒(马太28:8-10)。

Another comment of interest is the order of the appearances of Jesus on this day.另一个有趣的评论是耶稣在这一天的出现顺序。(1) To Mary Magdalene (John 20:14-18); (2) To the women returning from the tomb with the angel's message (Matthew 28:8-10); (3) To Peter (Luke 24:34; 1 Cor. 15:5); (4) To the two on the way to Emmaus (Luke 24:13-31); (5) To the apostles in the absence of Thomas (Luke 24: 36-43; John 20:19-24)). (1)马利亚(约20:14-18),(2)向妇女从与天使的讯息(马太28:8-10)墓返回;(3)对彼得(路加福音24:34; 1林前15:5),(4)在以马忤斯(路加福音24:13-31)的方式向二,(五)在没有托马斯使徒(路加福音24:。36-43;约翰20时19分-24))。

In dividing the chapter we have (1) The narative of the resurrection with the appearance of Jesus to the women (vv. 1-10); (2) The false invention of the Jews (v. 11-15); (3) The gathering in Galilee (vv. 16-20).在分裂的章节我们有(1)与耶稣的外貌的妇女(vv. 1-10)复活的叙事;(2)虚假发明的犹太人(五11-15),(3)在加利利(vv. 16-20)聚会。We can only touch upon the most important things, one of which is Christ's reference to His disciples as His "brethren" (v. 10).我们只能触及最重要的事情,其中​​之一是基督的参考,作为他的“兄弟”(10节)他的弟子。 For the first time does he use that word in such connection, showing that until His death and resurrection on their behalf the relationship had not become possible.第一次他用这个词等方面,显示直到他的死亡和复活代表他们的关系还没有成为可能。(Compare Ps. 22: 22 and Heb. 2:11, 12.)(比较诗22:22。与希伯来书2:11,12。。)

Another important thing is verse 13, "Say ye, His disciples came by night, and stole Him away while we slept."另一个重要的事情是13节,“你们要这样说,他的门徒来晚,并偷走了他离开我们睡觉的时候。”We give excerpts from Gaebelein on this verse: "The watch recover from their fright, and some hasten to the city. Surely something happened or why should they leave their post to make a report? Then it is strange they went to the priests first and not the Roman governor. This was an irregular proceeding, from which we conclude that what they had to report was of greater importance for the priests than Pilate. Who knows but these priests had instructed the guard that if He should come forth they were to come to them first of all?我们就这诗句从Gaebelein摘录:“手表恢复其恐惧,有的急急忙忙地到城市或肯定发生了一些事情,他们为什么要离开自己的职位,作报告,然后奇怪的是他们到第一和祭司。?不是罗马总督。这是一个不规则的法律程序,我们得出这样的结论,他们不得不比报告更重要的是祭司彼拉多。谁知道,但这些神职人员已指示警卫说,如果他应该站出来,他们要来他们首先?

Their report was a witness of the resurrection and that the tomb was empty.他们的报告是一个复活的见证和该墓是空的。"The Sanhedrin was hastily summoned to receive the report in an offical way. The straightforward statement, as men of military training are apt to report, made doubt about veracity impossible. To impeach them would have been insane. But what would happen if this truth got out among the people? "The resurrection must be denied which could only be by inventing a lie. “公会是匆忙召集到接收一个正式的方式报告。直截了当的声明,作为军事训练的人很容易的报告,提出关于真实性无法怀疑。弹劾他们本来疯了。但会发生什么事,如果这个真理人民内部出了吗?“复活必须否认这只能由发明一个谎言。 The only possible lie was that His disciples stole the body.唯一可能的谎言就是他的弟子偷走了身体。The story is incredible.这个故事是令人难以置信。

It is easier to believe He arose from the dead than to believe what the Jews invented about His resurrection.这是比较容易相信他是由死比相信什么关于他​​的复活的犹太人发明的产生。The disciples had forgotten about the resurrection promised and they were a scattered, poor, timid lot of people.门徒已经忘记了所承诺的复活,他们是分散的,可怜的,胆小的人很多。But even if they had been anxious to steal the body, how could they have done it?不过,即使他们被急于窃取了身体,怎么可能他们都做到了?Here was the company of armed men.这里是公司的武装人员。Then there was the sealed, heavy stone.然后是密封的,沉重的石头。"But the ridiculous side of the lie came out with the report the soldiers were to circulate. The disciples came and stole the body, while they were sleeping! It is incredible that all these men had fallen asleep at the same time, and so fast asleep that the commotion of rolling away the stone and the carring away of the dead did not disturb them. “但可笑的谎言方推出了该报告的士兵分发。门徒进前来,偷走了身体,而他们​​正在睡觉!这是令人难以置信的是,所有这些人已经睡着了在同一时间,这么快睡着了滚动石头挪开骚动和洪涛的死了没有打扰他们。

Furthermore, sleeping at a post meant death for the Roman soldier.此外,在睡觉的意思后的罗马士兵死亡。One might have nodded and risked his life, but that all slept is an impossiblity.人们也许会点点头,冒着生命危险,但都睡是微乎其微。But the report is foolish; they were asleep, and while asleep witnessed how the disciples stole the body of Jesus!但是,该报告是愚蠢的,他们都睡着了,睡觉时目睹和门徒偷走了耶稣的身体!It was a miserable lie, and is continued to the present day." We might mention here the testimony of Josephus, who says in his antiquities: "He appeared to them alive on the third day, as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning Him."这是一个悲惨的谎言,并持续到现在的一天“我们可能会在这里提到约瑟夫的证词,说谁在他的古董:”。他出现活着的第三天他们为先知曾预言这些和十神圣的,万其他美好的东西,关于他。“

A third matter of importance is the "Great Commission" as it is called (vv. 19, 20).一个重要的第三个问题是“大使命”,因为它是所谓的(vv. 19,20)。Note the word "Name" as indicative of the Trinity.注意单词作为三位一体的指示“姓名”。It is not names but "Name."这不是谩骂“的名字。”"Father, Son and Holy Spirit is the final name of the one true God. The conjunction in one name of the three affirms equality and oneness of substance." “父亲,儿子和圣灵是最后的一真神的名称。于一体的三个名称同时申明平等和物质统一性。”Note the peculiarity of the terms.请注意该条款的特殊性。This is the Kingdom commission, as another expresses it, not the Christian commission.这是英国委员会,它的另一个表现,而不是基督教委员会。The latter is in Luke, distinctively the Gentile Gospel, but not here, which is distinctively the Jewish Gospel.后者是在路加,鲜明的詹蒂莱福音,但不是在这里,这是鲜明的犹太福音。And this is all the more remarkable because in Luke, the disciples are commanded to go to the Jews (24:47), while here they are commanded to go to "all nations."这更是了不起,因为在路加,弟子是指挥去的犹太人(24:47),而在这里他们指挥到“所有国家。”

It points to the close of the age when the commission will be carried out by the faithful remnant of the Jews so often spoken about.它指向的年龄时关闭该委员会将由犹太人的信徒经常谈到的残余了。 It has not yet been carried out.它尚未进行。The story of the Acts is not its fulfilment.作者的行为的故事并非其履行。Its accomplishment has been interrupted, but will be taken up before the Lord comes to deliver Israel at the last.其成就已被中断,但将采取主来之前,在最后交付以色列。

Questions 1.问题 1。Repeat the order of the events on the day of resurrection.重复上一天的复活事件的顺序。2.2。Do the same with reference to the appearances of Jesus.不要参照耶稣的外表一样。3.3。Divide the chapter into three parts.分为三个部分章节。4.4。How would you answer the argument that the disciples stole the body of Jesus?你会如何​​回答这个论点,即弟子偷走了耶稣的身体? 5.5。What is the significance of the word "Name" in the "Great Commission"?什么是单词“名称”中的“大使命”的意义?6.6。How do you distinguish the "Commission" in Matthew from that in Luke?你如何区分,在卢克在马太“委员会”?


General Resurrection全面复活

Catholic Information天主教新闻

Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life.复活是从死再次上升,对生活的恢复。The Fourth Lateran Council teaches that all men, whether elect or reprobate, "will rise again with their own bodies which they now bear about with them" (cap. "Firmiter").第四次拉特兰会教导我们,所有的人,无论选举或坏人“,将增加自己的身体,他们现在承担了与他们有关”(香港法例“Firmiter”)。 In the language of the creeds and professions of faith this return to life is called resurrection of the body (resurrectio carnis, resurrectio mortuoram, anastasis ton nekron) for a double reason: first, since the soul cannot die, it cannot be said to return to life; second the heretical contention of Hymeneus and Philitus that the Scriptures denote by resurrection not the return to life of the body, but the rising of the soul from the death of sin to the life of grace, must be excluded.在信条和信仰这个生命回报专业语言是所谓的身体复活(resurrectio carnis,resurrectio mortuoram,anastasis吨nekron)的双重原因:首先,由于灵魂不能死,也不能说是回报生活,二是Hymeneus和Philitus邪教的论点,即圣经的复活不是到肉体的生命回报,但对从死亡的罪过灵魂生命的恩典上升,表示必须排除。 (We shall treat of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ in a separate article; here, we treat only of the General Resurrection of the Body.) "No doctrine of the Christian Faith", says St. Augustine, "is so vehemently and so obstinately opposed as the doctrine of the resurrection of the flesh" (In Ps. lxxxviii, sermo ii, n. 5). (我们将治疗耶稣基督的复活在一个单独的文章。在这里,我们只对身体的全面复活治疗)“没有信仰的基督教教义”说,圣奥古斯丁,“是如此强烈,所以硬是反对作为肉体的复活学说“(在PS。lxxxviii,sermo二,注5)。 This opposition had begun long before the days of St. Augustine: "And certain philosophers of the Epicureans and of the Stoics", the inspired writer tells us (Acts 17:18, 32), "disputed with him [Paul] and when they had heard of the resurrection of the dead, some indeed mocked, but others said: We will hear thee again concerning this matter."这种反对很久以前就开始的日子,圣奥古斯丁:“和伊壁鸠鲁和斯多葛学派的某些哲学家”,灵感的作家告诉我们(使徒17时18分,32),“有争议的和他[保] 而当他们有死人的复活听到,有些甚至嘲笑,但也有人说:我们将再次听到你关于这个问题“。Among the opponents of the Resurrection we naturally find first those who denied the immortality of the soul; secondly, all those who, like Plato, regarded the body as the prison of the soul and death as an escape from the bondage of matter; thirdly the sects of the Gnostics and Manichæans who looked upon all matter as evil; fourthly, the followers of these latter sects the Priscillianists, the Cathari, and the Albigenses; fifthly, the Rationalists, Materialists, and Pantheists of later times.复活之间的对手,我们自然首先找到那些谁否认灵魂的不朽;其次,所有那些谁,像柏拉图,视为灵魂,作为一个从物质的束缚逃逸致人死亡监狱的身体;第三the与摩尼教的gnostics呼吁所有谁是邪恶的事情看起来教派;第四,后者的追随者,这些教派的Priscillianists的卡塔利,和比根斯派;第五,理性,唯物主义者,和后来的泛神论。 Against all these we shall first establish the dogma of the resurrection, and secondly consider the characteristics of the risen body.对所有这些,我们应首先树立教条的复活,其次考虑复活的身体特征。 A. DOGMA OF THE RESURRECTION The creeds and professions of faith and conciliar definitions do not leave it doubtful that the resurrection of the body is a dogma or an article of faith.答教条的复活的教义和信仰的专业和conciliar的定义不给它投以怀疑的是,身体的复活是教条或信仰的文章。We may appeal, for instance, to the Apostles' Creed, the so-called Nicene and Athanasian Creeds, the Creed of the Eleventh Council of Toledo, the Creed of Leo IX, subscribed by Bishop Peter and still in use at the consecration of bishops the profession of faith subscribed by Michael Palaeologus in the Second Council of Lyons, the Creed of Pius IV, and the Decree of the Fourth Lateran Council (c. "Firmiter") against the Albigenses.我们可能会上诉,例如,在使用中的使徒们的信条,即所谓nicene和亚他那修信条,托莱多的第十一届委员会,由主教彼得利奥九认购,信仰信念和仍处在主教祝圣由迈克尔Palaeologus认购第二届理事会的里昂,四信条的庇护专业的信念,以及第四次拉特兰对国务院令比根斯派(3,“Firmiter”)。 This article of faith is based on the belief of the Old Testament, on the teaching of the New Testament, and on Christian tradition.这种信心的文章是基于旧约的信仰,对教学的新约,并在基督教的传统。(1) Old Testament The words of Martha and the history of the Machabees show the Jewish belief towards the end of the Jewish economy.(1)旧约玛莎词和历史的Machabees显示对经济的结束,犹太犹太信仰。"I know", says Martha, "that He shall rise again, in the resurrection at the last day" (John 11:24). “我知道”,玛莎说,“他将再度崛起,在复活,在最后一天”(约11:24)。And the third of the Machabee martyrs put forth his tongue and stretched out his hands, saying: "These I have from heaven, but for the laws of God I now despise them: because I hope to receive them again from him" (2 Maccabees 12:11; cf. 9:14).以及第三Machabee烈士提出他的舌头,伸出他的手说:“这些我从天堂,而是为上帝的法律我现在看不起他们:因为我希望得到他们再次从他”(2马加比12点11;比照9:14)。。 The Book of Daniel (xii, 2; cf. 12) inculcates the same belief: "Many of those that sleep in the dust of the earth, shall awake: some unto life everlasting, and others unto reproach, to see it always."但以理书(。十二,二,比照12)灌输同样的信念:“对那些在地球上,应清醒灰尘睡眠很多:一些得生命永恒的,你们和其他人的谴责,看到它永远。” The word many must be understood in the light of its meaning in other passages, eg Is., liii, 11-12; Matt., xxvi, 28; Rom., v, I8-19.这个词许多必须了解其在其他段落的意思光,例如是,liii,11-12;。。马特,26,28;。光碟,五,为I8 - 19。Though Ezechiel's vision of the resurrection of the dry bones refers directly to the restoration of Israel, such a figure would be hardly Israel, such a figure would be hardly intelligible except by readers familiar with the belief in a literal resurrection (Ezekiel 37).虽然Ezechiel的干骨头的眼光,是指直接复活了以色列恢复,这个数字将是难以以色列,这个数字将是很难的,除非由读者在字面复活(以西结书37)信念熟悉理解。 The Prophet Isaias foretells that the Lord of hosts "shall cast down death headlong forever" (xxv, 8), and a little later he adds: "Thy dead men shall live, my slain shall rise again. . . the earth shall disclose her blood, and shall cover her slain no more" (xxvi, 19-21).先知伊萨亚斯罗预示了万军之主“应投下来死亡仓促永远”(25,8),过了一会儿,他补充说:“你死了的人将生活,我的被杀的人必复活地球应披露了她。。。血液,并应当支付她的被杀没有更多的“(二十六,19-21)。 Finally, Job, bereft of all human comfort and reduced to the greatest desolation, is strengthened by the thought of the resurrection of his body: "I know that my Redeemer liveth, and in the last day I shall rise out of the earth. And I shall be clothed again with my skin, and in my flesh I shall see God. Whom I myself shall see, and my eyes shall behold, and not another; this hope is laid up in my bosom" (Job 19:25-27).最后,工作,丧失所有人体舒适度,降低到最大荒凉,是加强了对他的身体复活,心想:“我知道我的救赎主活着,并在最后一天,我在世上的崛起和。我将再次穿上我的皮肤,在我的肉体,我会看见上帝谁,我自己会看到,我的眼睛会看,而不是另一个。这种希望放在我怀里“(伯19:25-27注册)。 The literal translation of the Hebrew text differs somewhat from the foregoing quotation, but the hope of resurrection remains.在希伯来文直译有所不同,上述报价,但复活的希望依然存在。(2) New Testament The resurrection of the dead was expressly taught by Christ (John 5:28-29; 6:39-40; 11:25; Luke 14:14) and defended against the unbelief of the Sadducees, whom He charged with ignorance of the power of God and of the Scriptures (Matthew 22:29; Luke 20:37).(2)新约圣经,死人复活是明确教导基督(约翰福音5:28-29; 6:39-40; 11:25;路加福音14:14),反对撒,不信的人,他被控辩护与无知的神的力量和圣经(马太22时29分;路加福音20点37分)。St. Paul places the general resurrection on the same level of certainty with that of Christ's Resurrection: "If Christ be preached, that he rose again from the dead, how do some among you say that there is no resurrection of the dead? But if there be no resurrection of the dead, then Christ is not risen again. And if Christ be not risen again, then is our preaching vain, and your faith is also vain" (1 Corinthians 15:12 sqq.).圣保罗地方上的确定性与基督的复活,复活同级一般:“如果基督是鼓吹过,他再次上升,从死了,怎么在你们中间有人说没有死人复活,但如果有没有死人复活,基督是没有复活了。若基督没有复活,我们所传的便是枉然,你们所信的也是枉然“(林前15:12 sqq。)。The Apostle preached the resurrection of the dead as one of the fundamental doctrines of Christianity, at Athens, for instance (Acts 17:18, 31, 32), at Jerusalem (xxiii, 6), before Felix (xxiv, 15), before Agrippa (xxvi, 8).使徒鼓吹为一体的基督教的基本教义在雅典,死者复活,例如(使徒17时18,31,32),在耶路撒冷(二十三,6),前菲利克斯(24,15),前阿格里帕(二十六,8)。 He insists on the same doctrine in his Epistles (Romans 8:11; 1 Corinthians 6:14; 15:12 sqq.; 2 Corinthians 4:14; 5:1 sqq.; Philippians 3:21; 1 Thessalonians 4:12-16; 2 Timothy 2:11; Hebrews 6:2), and in this he agrees with the Apocalypse (xx, 12 sqq.).他坚持以相同的学说在他的书信(罗马书8时11分;哥林多前书6:14; 15时12 sqq;哥林多后书4点14分,5时01分sqq;腓21分;帖4时十二 - 。。 16; 2蒂莫西2:11;希伯来书6:2),并在此,他同意与启示(XX条,12 sqq)。。(3) Tradition It is not surprising that the Tradition of the early Church agrees with the clear teaching of both the Old and New Testaments. (3)传统,这并不奇怪的是,早期教会的传统与双方的旧约和新约明确的教学表示赞同。We have already referred to a number of creeds and professions of faith which may be considered as part of the Church's official expression of her faith.我们已经提到了一些信条和信仰可能被视为教会的官方表达她的信仰的一部分专业数目。Here we have only to point out a number of patristic passages, in which the Fathers teach the doctrine of the general resurrection in more or less explicit terms.在这里,我们只点了一些段落的教父,其中父亲教的或多或少明确全面复活的教义。St. Clement of Rome, I Cor., xxv; St. Justin Martyr, "De resurrect.", vii sqq.; Idem, "Dial. c. Tryph.", lxxx; Athenagoras, "De resur. carn.", iii; Tatian, "Adv. Graec.", vi; St. Irenæus, "Contra haer.", I, x; V, vi, 2; Tertullian, "Contra Marcion.", V, ix; Idem, "De praescript.", xiii; Idem, "De resurrect. carn.", I, xii, xv, Ixiii; Minucius Felix, "Octav.", xxxiv; Origen, tom.圣克莱门特的罗马,我肺心病,二十五。圣贾斯汀烈士,“德复活。”七sqq。同上,“拨号角Tryph。。”,lxxx;哥拉,“德resur卡恩。。”三;塔蒂安“。高级Graec。”六;圣爱任纽,“魂斗罗haer。”,我中,x;,六,二五;良,“魂斗罗马吉安。”,第五,第九,同上,“德praescript 。“十三,同上,”德复活卡恩“,我想,十二,十五,Ixiii;米诺西乌菲利克斯,”。。Octav“,三十四。奥利,汤姆。XVII, in Matt., xxix; Idem, "De princip.", praef., v; Idem, "In Lev.", v, 10; Hippolytus, "Adv. Graec."十七,在马特,第29届。同上,“。德普林西普”,praef,五;。同上,“。在列弗”,五,10岁;西波吕,“腺病毒Graec。。” in PG, X, 799; St. Cyril of Jerusalem, "Cat.", XVIII, xv; St. Ephraem, "De resurrect. mort."; St. Basil, "Ep. cclxxi", 3; St. Epiphanius, "In ancor.", lxxxiii sq., xcix; St. Ambrose, "De excessu frat. sui Satyri", II, lxvii, cii; Idem, "In Ps. cxviii", serm.在编号,第十,799;圣西里尔耶路撒冷,“猫。”,十八,十五,圣塞拉斯E,“德复活莫特。。”;圣罗勒“。内啡肽cclxxi”,3;圣埃皮法尼乌斯, “在ancor。”捌拾叁平方米,xcix;圣刘汉铨,“德excessu兄弟会隋Satyri。”第一,二,lxvii,中基,同上,“在PS cxviii。”变换SERM。x, n.十,全18; Ps. 18;诗。Ambr., "De Trinit.", xxiii, in PL XVII, 534; St. Jerome, "Ep. ad Paul" in LIII, 8; Rufinus, "In symbol.", xliv sq.; St. Chrysostom (Ps. Chrysostom), "Fragm. in libr. Job" in PG, LXIV, 619; St. Peter Chrysologus, serm.式污泥,“德Trinit。”二十三,在临时立法会十七,534;。圣杰罗姆,“的EP广告保罗。”在LIII,8;“。在象征”Rufinus,四十四平方米;圣金口(诗篇金口),“。。Fragm在溴化锂工作”在编号,LXIV,619;圣彼得Chrysologus,变换SERM。 103, 118; "Apost. Constit.", VII, xli; St. Augustine "Enchirid.", 84; Idem, "De civit. Dei", XX, xx; Theodoret, "De provident.", or.103,118;“Apost Constit。。”,第七章,四十一,圣奥古斯丁“Enchirid。”84;同上,“德civit棣。”第二十条,二十; Theodoret,“德诚。”,或。ix; "Hist. eccl.", I, iii.九,“历史传道书。。”,第一,第三。The general resurrection can hardly be proved from reason, though we may show its congruity.一般复活难以证实的原因,尽管我们可能会显示它的一致性。As the soul has a natural propensity to the body, its perpetual separation from the body would seem unnatural.由于灵魂有一种自然的倾向,身体,从身体的永久分离,似乎不自然。As the body is the partner of the soul's crimes, and the companion of her virtues, the justice of God seems to demand that the body be the sharer in the soul's punishment and reward.由于身体是灵魂的犯罪伙伴,而她的美德的伴侣,正义的上帝似乎要求该机构是在灵魂的惩罚和奖励的分享者。As the soul separated from the body is naturally imperfect, the consummation of its happiness, replete with every good, seems to demand the resurrection of the body.由于脱离身体的灵魂,自然是不完美的,其幸福圆满,与每一个良好的充满,似乎要求身体的复活。The first of these reasons appears to be urged by Christ Himself in Matt., xxii, 23; the second reminds one of the words of St. Paul, I Cor., xv, 19, and II Thess., i, 4.这些原因似乎是第一个由基督自己在马特呼吁,二十二,23岁;。。第二想起了圣保罗,我肺心病的词汇之一,十五,19日和第二帖,我,4。。 Besides urging the foregoing arguments, the Fathers appeal also to certain analogies found in revelation and in nature itself, eg Jonas in the whale's belly, the three children in the fiery furnace, Daniel in the lions' den, the carrying away of Henoch and Elias, the raising of the dead, the blossoming of Aaron's rod, the preservation of the garments of the Israelites in the desert, the grain of seed dying and springing up again, the egg, the season of the year, the succession of day and night.除了要求上述论点,父亲也同时吸引着在启示和自然界本身发现某些类比,例如,在鲸鱼的肚子乔纳斯,在火热熔炉,丹尼尔的三个孩子在狮子的巢穴时,带走的过敏性和埃利亚斯,死者的不断提高,亚伦的杖开花,是在沙漠以色列人的衣服保存,种子死亡和雨后春笋再次谷物,蛋,一年中的季节,白天和夜间继承。 Many pictures of early Christian art express these analogies.早期基督教艺术表达这些类比多张图片。But in spite of the foregoing congruities, theologians more generally incline to the opinion that in the state of pure nature there would have been no resurrection of the body.但在上述congruities尽管如此,神学家更普遍倾向于认为,在纯自然状态存在就没有复活的身体的意见。B. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RISEN BODY All shall rise from the dead in their own, in their entire, and in immortal bodies; but the good shall rise to the resurrection of life, the wicked to the resurrection of Judgment.二特色的上升应当引起全身从死在自己,在他们的整个,在不朽的身体,但好的应上升到生命的复活,复活的审判邪恶。 It would destroy the very idea of resurrection, if the dead were to rise in bodies not their own.它会破坏这个想法复活,如果死者是上升的机构中没有自己。Again, the resurrection, like the creation, is to be numbered amongst the principal works of God; hence, as at the creation all things are perfect from the hand of God, so at the resurrection all things must be perfectly restored by the same omnipotent hand.同样,复活,像创作,是由他管有的神的主体工程编号,因此,截至创造所有的东西都是从上帝之手完美,所以在所有的事情必须完全恢复了复活一样无所不能手。 But there is a difference between the earthly and the risen body; for the risen bodies of both saints and sinners shall be invested with immortality.但是有一个与俗世和复活的身体差异,为两个圣人和罪人复活的机构应与不朽的投资。This admirable restoration of nature is the result of the glorious triumph of Christ over death as described in several texts of Sacred Scripture: Is., xxv, 8; Osee, xiii, 14; I Cor., xv, 26; Apoc., ii, 4.这种自然令人钦佩的恢复是光荣的基督战胜死亡的神圣经文中描述的几个文本胜利的结果:是,二十五,八; Osee,十三,十四,我肺心病,十五,26;载脂蛋白C,二。。。 4。But while the just shall enjoy an endless felicity in the entirety of their restored members, the wicked "shall seek death, and shall not find it, shall desire to die, and death shall fly from them" (Revelation 9:6).不过,虽然只是人享有在其成员全部恢复了无尽的幸福,恶人“应设法死亡,并没有找到它,愿意死,死他们应悬挂”(启示录9:6)。 These three characteristics, identity, entirety, and immortality, will be common to the risen bodies of the just and the wicked.这三个特点,身份,整体性,和不朽,将共同的正义与邪恶的复活的尸体。But the bodies of the saints shall be distinguished by four transcendent endowments, often called qualities.但是,圣人的机构应当区分四个超然的禀赋,通常被称为素质。The first is "impassibility", which shall place them beyond the reach of pain and inconvenience.首先是“impassibility”,这应当将超越痛苦和不便达到这些目标。"It is sown", says the Apostle, "in corruption, it shall rise in incorruption" (1 Corinthians 15:42). “这是种”,使徒说,“在腐败,它须起立廉政建设”(林前15:42)。The Schoolmen call this quality impassibility', not incorruption, so as to mark it as a peculiarity of the glorified body; the bodies of the damned will be incorruptible indeed, but not impassible; they shall be subject to heat and cold, and all manner of pain.该schoolmen呼吁这个品质impassibility',而不是不朽坏的,以商标作为荣耀的身体特点它,像是在地狱里的机构都将在廉洁的确,但不是无动于衷,他们应受到热和冷,所有的方式疼痛。 The next quality is "brightness", or "glory", by which the bodies of the saints shall shine like the sun.接下来的品质是“光明”,或“荣耀”,其中的圣人的遗体应明亮如太阳。"It is sown in dishonour," says the Apostle, "it shall rise in glory" (1 Corinthians 15:43; cf. Matthew 13:43; 17:2; Philippians 3:21). “这是在羞辱播种,​​”使徒说,“这应引起的荣耀”(哥林多前书15时43分;比照马太13时43分。17时02分,腓3:21)。All the bodies of the saints shall be equally impassible, but they shall be endowed with different degrees of glory.所有的圣徒机构应同样无动于衷,但他们应与不同程度赋予的光荣。According to St. Paul: "One is the glory of the sun, another the glory of the moon, another the glory of the stars. For star differeth from star in glory"'(1 Corinthians 15:41-42).据圣保罗:“一个是太阳,另一个荣耀的月亮,星星的另一星differeth从明星的荣耀荣耀荣耀。”'(哥林多前书15:41-42)。 The third quality is that of "agility", by which the body shall be freed from its slowness of motion, and endowed with the capability of moving with the utmost facility and quickness wherever the soul pleases.第三质量就是“敏捷”,由该机构应摆脱其运动缓慢,并与以最大的设施和快捷的地方,灵魂为所欲为的能力赋予移动。 The Apostle says: "It is sown in weakness, it shall rise in power" (1 Corinthians 15:43).使徒说:“它播下的是软弱的,应当上升的力量”(哥林多前书15时43分)。The fourth quality is "subtility", by which the body becomes subject to the absolute dominion of the soul.第四个素质是“subtility”,其中身体变得受灵魂的绝对统治。This is inferred from the words of the Apostle: "It is sown a natural body, it shall rise a spiritual body" (1 Corinthians 15:44).这是从使徒推断的话:“这是种自然的身体,应当引起一种精神体”(林前15:44)。The body participates in the soul's more perfect and spiritual life to such an extent that it becomes itself like a spirit.该机构参加了灵魂的更加完善和精神生活到这样的程度,它变得像一个精神。We see this quality exemplified in the fact that Christ passed through material objects.我们看到一个事实,即通过实物传递基督体现这种品质。Publication information Written by AJ Maas.出版信息的书面由AJ马斯。Transcribed by Donald J. Boon.转录的唐纳德J福音。Dedicated to Bishop Andre Cimichella of Montreal, and to Blessed Kateri Tekakwitha The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.献给主教安德烈Cimichella蒙特利尔,并祝福卡特里Tekakwitha天主教百科全书,体积十二。Published 1911.1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


Resurrection of Jesus Christ耶稣基督的复活

Catholic Information天主教新闻

Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life.复活是从死再次上升,对生活的恢复。In this article, we shall treat only of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ.在这篇文章中,我们应将只有耶稣基督的复活。(The General Resurrection of the Body will be covered in another article.) The fact of Christ's Resurrection, the theories opposed to this fact, its characteristics, and the reasons for its importance must be considered in distinct paragraphs. (身体的全面复活将包括在另一篇文章。)基督的复活的事实,反对这个事实,它的特点,以及其重要性的原因理论必须考虑在不同的段落。

I. THE FACT OF CHRIST'S RESURRECTION一,基督复活的事实

The main sources which directly attest the fact of Christ's Resurrection are the Four Gospels and the Epistles of St. Paul.的主要来源,直接证明了基督的复活其实是四福音和圣保禄书信。Easter morning is so rich in incident, and so crowded with interested persons, that its complete history presents a rather complicated tableau.复活节早晨是如此丰富的事件,因此与有兴趣的人拥挤,其完整的历史呈现一个相当复杂的场景。It is not surprising, therefore, that the partial accounts contained in each of the Four Gospels appear at first sight hard to harmonize.这并不奇怪,因此,部分帐户的四福音中的每个乍一看似乎难以调和。But whatever exegetic view as to the visit to the sepulchre by the pious women and the appearance of the angels we may defend, we cannot deny the Evangelists' agreement as to the fact that the risen Christ appeared to one or more persons.但无论exegetic认为的要由坟墓和虔诚的妇女的天使,我们可以保卫外观访问,我们也不能否认的福音,因为这样的事实:复活的基督似乎一人或多人的协议。 According to St. Matthew, He appeared to the holy women, and again on a mountain in Galilee; according to St. Mark, He was seen by Mary Magdalen, by the two disciples at Emmaus, and the Eleven before his Ascension into heaven; according to St. Luke, He walked with the disciples to Emmaus, appeared to Peter and to the assembled disciples in Jerusalem; according to St. John, Jesus appeared to Mary Magdalen, to the ten Apostles on Easter Sunday, to the Eleven a week later, and to the seven disciples at the Sea of Tiberias.根据圣马太,他出现在神圣的妇女,并再次在加利利山,据圣马克,有人看见他由玛丽马格达伦,深受马忤斯的两个门徒,他的前升天十一个;据圣卢克,他走路时已经以马忤斯的门徒,似乎是彼得和门徒聚集在耶路撒冷,据圣约翰,耶稣显现给玛丽magdalen,要在复活节周日十使徒,就和十一个星期后来,并在海上的太巴列的七个弟子。 St. Paul (1 Corinthians 15:3-8) enumerates another series of apparitions of Jesus after His Resurrection; he was seen by Cephas, by the Eleven, by more than 500 brethren, many of whom were still alive at the time of the Apostle's writing, by James, by all the Apostles, and lastly by Paul himself.圣保罗(哥林多前书15:3-8)列举耶稣显灵的另一个复活后,他的系列,他是看到矶法,由7-11由500多名弟兄们,其中许多人仍然在活着的时候,使徒的写作,由詹姆斯,所有的使徒,最后由保罗自己。

Here is an outline of a possible harmony of the Evangelists' account concerning the principal events of Easter Sunday:这里是一个的福音'关于复活节​​的主要事件的叙述可能的和谐概要:

The holy women carrying the spices previously prepared start out for the sepulchre before dawn, and reach it after sunrise; they are anxious about the heavy stone, but know nothing of the official guard of the sepulchre (Matthew 28:1-3; Mark 16:1-3; Luke 24:1; John 20:1).香料的账面神圣的妇女事先准备好的开始黎明​​前坟墓出来,并能在日出,他们自然是对沉重的石头焦急不安,但知道的坟墓(马太28:1-3官方后卫什么;马克16 :1 - 3;路加福音24:1,约翰福音20:1)。

The angel frightened the guards by his brightness, put them to flight, rolled away the stone, and seated himself not upon (ep autou), but above (epano autou) the stone (Matthew 28:2-4).天使吓​​坏了他的亮度人员,把他们的飞行,把石头辊开,坐在自己不要在(选举程序autou),但以上(epano autou)石(马太28:2-4)。

Mary Magdalen, Mary the Mother of James, and Salome approach the sepulchre, and see the stone rolled back, whereupon Mary Magdalen immediately returns to inform the Apostles (Mark 16:4; Luke 24:2; John 20:1-2).马格达伦玛丽,玛丽的母亲詹姆斯和莎乐美接近坟墓,看到石头已经回来了,于是立即返回玛丽马格达伦通知使徒(马可福音16:4;路加福音24:2,约翰福音20:1-2)。

The other two holy women enter the sepulchre, find an angel seated in the vestibule, who shows them the empty sepulchre, announces the Resurrection, and commissions them to tell the disciples and Peter that they shall see Jesus in Galilee (Matthew 28:5-7; Mark 16:5-7).另外两个神圣的妇女进入了坟墓,发现在前庭,表明他们谁坐在空坟墓天使,宣布复活,并委托他们告诉门徒和彼得说,他们将看到耶稣在加利利(马太28:5 - 7,马可福音16:5-7)。

A second group of holy women, consisting of Joanna and her companions, arrive at the sepulchre, where they have probably agreed to meet the first group, enter the empty interior, and are admonished by two angels that Jesus has risen according to His prediction (Luke 24:10).一种圣洁女子第二组,乔安娜和她的同伴组成,到达坟墓,在那里他们可能已经约好第一组进入空内部,由两个天使告诫说,耶稣已上升根据他的预测(路加福音24:10)。

Not long after, Peter and John, who were notified by Mary Magdalen, arrive at the sepulchre and find the linen cloth in such a position as to exclude the supposition that the body was stolen; for they lay simply flat on the ground, showing that the sacred body had vanished out of them without touching them.不久之后,彼得和约翰,谁是玛丽马格达伦通知,到达坟墓,发现在这样一个位置,以排除这具尸体被偷走假设亚麻布,因为他们只是躺在平坦的地面上,显示出神圣的身体已经消失了,他们不碰他们。 When John notices this he believes (John 20:3-10).当约翰注意到这一点,他认为(约翰20:3-10)。

Mary Magdalen returns to the sepulchre, sees first two angels within, and then Jesus Himself (John 20:11-l6; Mark 16:9).玛丽马格达伦返回到坟墓,看到两个天使在第一,然后耶稣自己(约翰福音20:11,第十六,马可福音16:9)。

The two groups of pious women, who probably met on their return to the city, are favored with the sight of Christ arisen, who commissions them to tell His brethren that they will see him in Galilee (Matthew 28:8-10; Mark 16:8).虔诚的妇女,谁可能在他们回城会见了两组,被赐予的景象出现基督的,谁委托他们告诉他的弟兄,他们将看到他在加利利(马太28:8-10;马克16 :8)。The holy women relate their experiences to the Apostles, but find no belief (Mark 16:10-11; Luke 24:9-11).神圣的妇女诉说他们的经验,以使徒,但发现没有信仰(马可福音16:10-11,路加福音24:9-11)。

Jesus appears to the disciples, at Emmaus, and they return to Jerusalem; the Apostles appear to waver between doubt and belief (Mark 16:12-13; Luke 24:13-35).耶稣似乎对弟子,在以马忤斯,就回耶路撒冷的使徒之间出现怀疑和动摇的信念(马可福音16:12-13,路加福音24:13-35)。

Christ appears to Peter, and therefore Peter and John firmly believe in the Resurrection (Luke 24:34; John 20:8).基督似乎彼得,彼得和约翰,因此坚决相信在复活(路加福音24:34;约翰二十时08分)。

After the return of the disciples from Emmaus, Jesus appears to all the Apostles excepting Thomas (Mark 16:14; Luke 24:36-43; John 20:19-25).后返回从厄玛乌的门徒,耶稣似乎所有的使徒除外托马斯(马可福音16:14,路加福音24:36-43,约翰福音20:19-25)。

The harmony of the other apparitions of Christ after His Resurrection presents no special difficulties.在基督的复活后,他没有提出其他的幻影和谐的特殊困难。

Briefly, therefore, the fact of Christ's Resurrection is attested by more than 500 eyewitnesses, whose experience, simplicity, and uprightness of life rendered them incapable of inventing such a fable, who lived at a time when any attempt to deceive could have been easily discovered, who had nothing in this life to gain, but everything to lose by their testimony, whose moral courage exhibited in their apostolic life can be explained only by their intimate conviction of the objective truth of their message.简单地说,因此,基督的复活的事实是证明了500多名目击者说,他的经验,简单和生活正直,使他们的发明不能这样一则寓言,谁在一时间住当任何企图欺骗本来是很容易发现,谁曾在此生活,一无所获,但一切都失去了他们的证词,其道德表现在他们的使徒生活的勇气可以解释他们对他们的信息客观真理只有亲密的信念。 Again the fact of Christ's Resurrection is attested by the eloquent silence of the Synagogue which had done everything to prevent deception, which could have easily discovered deception, if there had been any, which opposed only sleeping witnesses to the testimony of the Apostles, which did not punish the alleged carelessness of the official guard, and which could not answer the testimony of the Apostles except by threatening them "that they speak no more in this name to any man" (Acts 4:17).同样,基督的复活的事实是证明了有哪些做了一切努力防止欺骗,它可以很容易发现的欺骗,如果有任何犹太教堂,是反对只睡证人的使徒,这也证明雄辩沉默不惩罚的正式指控不小心防范,并不能回答威胁他们的使徒的见证,除了“,他们说没有给任何人名下的”(徒4:17)。 Finally the thousands and millions, both Jews and Gentiles, who believed the testimony of the Apostles in spite of all the disadvantages following from such a belief, in short the origin of the Church, requires for its explanation the reality of Christ's Resurrection, fot the rise of the Church without the Resurrection would have been a greater miracle than the Resurrection itself.最后,数千万元,无论是犹太人和外邦人,谁相信在短期教会起源的使徒们在所有的缺点,尽管证词这样的信念下,要求其解释基督复活的事实,光纤收发器的崛起的教会没有复活将是一个比自己更大的奇迹复活。

II.二。OPPOSING THEORIES对立的理论

By what means can the evidence for Christ's Resurrection by overthrown?通过什么方式才能使基督复活的证据所推翻?Three theories of explanation have been advanced, though the first two have hardly any adherents in our day.三种解释的理论已经被先进的,但前两个都在我们的日常生活几乎没有任何信徒。

(1)The Swoon Theory(1)昏厥理论

There is the theory of those who assert that Christ did not really die upon the cross, that His supposed death was only a temporary swoon, and that His Resurrection was simply a return to consciousness.还有就是那些谁主张,基督并没有真正死在十字架上,他的死是应该只是暂时的昏厥,他的复活只是一个意识的收益理论。 This was advocated by Paulus ("Exegetisches Handbuch", 1842, II, p. 929) and in a modified form by Hase ("Gesch. Jesu", n. 112), but it does not agree with the data furnished by the Gospels.这是倡导保卢斯(“Exegetisches手册”,1842年,第二,第929),并在修改后的形式由长谷(的“Gesch。耶稣”,注112),但不同意提供的数据的福音。 The scourging and the crown of thorns, the carrying of the cross and the crucifixion, the three hours on the cross and the piercing of the Sufferer's side cannot have brought on a mere swoon. The鞭子和荆棘冠,十字架和受难携带,在十字架上的三个小时,对患者的侧穿孔不能仅仅带来了昏厥。His real death is attested by the centurion and the soldiers, by the friends of Jesus and by his most bitter enemies.他真正的死亡是证明了百夫长和兵丁,由耶稣的朋友和他最痛苦的敌人。His stay in a sealed sepulchre for thirty-six hours, in an atmosphere poisoned by the exhalations of a hundred pounds of spices, which would have of itself sufficed to cause death.他留在一个密封的坟墓为三十六小时中的香料100英镑,这将有自己的呼气毒害的气氛,足以致人死亡。Moreover, if Jesus had merely returned from a swoon, the feelings of Easter morning would have been those of sympathy rather than those of joy and triumph, the Apostles would have been roused to the duties of a sick chamber rather than to apostolic work, the life of the powerful wonderworker would have ended in ignoble solitude and inglorious obscurity, and His vaunted sinlessness would have changed into His silent approval of a lie as the foundation stone of His Church.此外,如果耶稣只是从昏厥返回,复活节早上的感情本来,而不是使徒工作的人的同情,而不是喜悦和胜利的人,使徒本来激奋的病室的职责,强大的神奇露的一生可能要结束了不光彩的孤独和不​​光彩的默默无闻,和他吹嘘的清白,他将成为一个为他的教会的基石在于无声批准改变。 No wonder that later critics of the Resurrection, like Strauss, have heaped contempt on the old theory of a swoon.难怪像施特劳斯的复活,后来批评,都堆满了昏厥的旧理论的蔑视。

(2) The Imposition Theory(2)判处理论

The disciples, it is said, stole the body of Jesus from the grave, and then proclaimed to men that their Lord had risen.弟子,这是说,他偷了耶稣从坟墓尸体,然后传给男性,他们的主上升。This theory was anticipated by the Jews who "gave a great sum of money to the soldiers, saying: Say you, His disciples came by night, and stole him away when we were asleep" (Matthew 28:12 sq.).这一理论预期的犹太人谁“做了一大笔钱给战士,他说:说你,他的弟子在夜间来了,把他偷去了,当我们睡着了”(马太福音28:12平方米)。 The same was urged by Celsus (Orig., "Contra Cels.", II, 56) with some difference of detail.同样是敦促塞尔苏斯(Orig.,“魂斗罗透明片。”第一,二,56)与一些细节的差异。But to assume that the Apostles with a burden of this kind upon their consciences could have preached a kingdom of truth and righteousness as the one great effort of their lives, and that for the sake of that kingdom they could have suffered even unto death, is to assume one of those moral impossibilities which may pass for a moment in the heat of controversy, but must be dismissed without delay in the hour of good reflection.但是,假定有一本后,他们的良知一种可以负担的使徒作为一个宣扬自己的生活努力的真理和正义的王国,和对他们有遭受直到死亡的王国而这,是承担这些道德不可能的,可能在传递热量争议的时刻之一,但必须没有很好地反映在小时的延迟驳回。

(3) The Vision Theory(3)视觉理论

This theory as generally understood by its advocates does not allow visions caused by a Divine intervention, but only such as are the product of human agencies.这个一般理解理论的倡导者不允许干预造成了一个神圣的理想,但只有这样的一样,都是人类的机构的产品。For if a Divine intervention be admitted, we may as well believe, as far as principles are concerned, that God raised Jesus from the dead.因为,如果承认一个神圣的介入,我们不妨认为,就原则而言,上帝耶稣从死里复活。 But where in the present instance are the human agencies which might cause these visions?但是,在本实例是人类的机构,可能会导致这些看法?The idea of a resurrection from the grave was familiar to the disciples from their Jewish faith; they had also vague intimations in the prophecies of the Old Testament; finally, Jesus Himself had always associated His Resurrection with the predictions of his death.一个从坟墓中复活的想法是熟悉的,从他们的犹太信徒的信仰,他们也对旧约的预言模糊的暗示,最后,耶稣自己一直与他有关他死亡的预言复活。 On the other hand, the disciples' state of mind was one of great excitement; they treasured the memory of Christ with a fondness which made it almost impossible for them to believe that He was gone.另一方面,门徒的精神状态是一个非常兴奋,他们十分珍视与喜爱这使他们几乎不可能相信,他走了基督的记忆。In short, their whole mental condition was such as needed only the application of a spark to kindle the flame.总之,他们的整个精神状态是诸如只需要一个应用程序的火花点燃了圣火。The spark was applied by Mary Magdalen, and the flame at once spread with the rapidity and force of a conflagration.火花应用于玛丽莫德林,并立即与速度和力量的大火蔓延的火焰。What she believed that she had seen, others immediately believed that they must see.她相信,她看到了,立刻相信一定要让他们看到别人。Their expectations were fulfilled, and the conviction seized the members of the early Church that the Lord had really risen from the dead.他们的期望得到满足,并检获定罪的早期教会,主真的从死里复活的成员。

Such is the vision theory commonly defended by recent critics of the Resurrection.这就是视觉理论普遍的复活最近的批评辩护。But however ingeniously it may be devised, it is quite impossible from an historical point of view.但是,无论它可能是设计巧妙,那是完全不可能从历史的角度来看。

It is incompatible with the state of mind of the Apostles; the theory presupposes faith and expectancy on the part of the Apostles, while in point of fact the disciples' faith and expectancy followed their vision of the risen Christ.它与使徒的精神状态不符;理论前提上的使徒信仰和期望的一部分,而在实际上点门徒的信心和期望跟随他们复活的基督的愿景。

It is inconsistent with the nature of Christ's manifestations; they ought to have been connected with heavenly glory, or they should have continued the former intimate relations of Jesus with His disciples, while actually and consistently they presented quite a new phase that could not have been expected.这是与基督的表现性质不符,他们应该已经与天上的荣耀连接,或者他们应该继续与他的弟子耶稣前的亲密关系,而实际上,坚持他们提出不少新的阶段,已经不能预期。

It does not agree with the conditions of the early Christian community; after the first excitement of Easter Sunday, the disciples as a body are noted for their cool deliberation rather than the exalted enthusiasm of a community of visionaries.它不同意与早期的基督教社区的条件;复活节后的第一次激动,作为一个机构的弟子是冷静考虑,而不是一个有远见的热情表示崇高的社会。

It is incompatible with the length of time during which the apparitions lasted; visions such as the critics suppose have never been known to last long, while some of Christ's manifestations lasted a considerable period.它是随着时间的长度在此期间,幻影历时相抵触;愿景,如批评者假设从未被称为持续太久,而基督的某些表现持续了相当长的时间。

It is not consistent with the fact that the manifestations were made to numbers at the same instant.这是不符合的表现进行了在同一瞬间为数字其实是一致的。

It does not agree with the place where most of the manifestations were made: visionary appearances would have been expected in Galilee, while most apparitions of Jesus occurred in Judea.它不同意其中的表现形式进行了大部分的位置:富有远见的外表就已经在加利利预期,而大部分的耶稣显灵在朱迪亚发生。

It is inconsistent with the fact that the visions came to a sudden end on the day of Ascension.这与事实的异象来到了关于耶稣升天节突然结束不一致。

Keim admits that enthusiasm, nervousness, and mental excitement on the part of the disciples do not supply a rational explanation of the facts as related in the Gospels.凯姆承认,热情,紧张,并在部分的弟子精神兴奋不提供一个合理的解释的事实,如相关的福音。According to him, the visions were directly granted by God and the glorified Christ; they may even include a "corporeal appearance" for those who fear that without this they would lose all.据他介绍,愿景直接天赐和荣耀基督,他们甚至可能包括“有形的外观”对于那些谁不担心这一点,他们将失去一切。But Keim's theory satisfies neither the Church, since it abandons all the proofs of a bodily Resurrection of Jesus, nor the enemies of the Church, since it admits many of the Church's dogmas; nor again is it consistent with itself, since it grants God's special intervention in proof of the Church's faith, though it starts with the denial of the bodily Resurrection of Jesus, which is one of the principal objects of that faith.但是,凯姆的理论满足无论是教会,因为它放弃所有证据的耶稣的身体复活,也不是教会的敌人,因为它承认了教会的教条,许多人也再次是与自己一致的,因为它赋予上帝的特殊在教会的信仰证明干预,但它首先的耶稣,这是身体复活的信仰的主要对象之一的否定。

(4) Modernist View(4)现代查看

The Holy Office describes and condemns in the thirty-sixth and thirty-seventh propositions of the Decree "Lamentabili", the views advocated by a fourth class of opponents of the Resurrection.圣办事处描述和在法令“lamentabili”,由一对对手的复活第四类主张的意见,第三十六和第三十七命题谴责。 The former of these propositions reads: "The Resurrection of our Saviour is not properly a fact of the historical order, but a fact of the purely supernatural order neither proved nor provable, which Christian consciousness has little by little inferred from other facts."这些命题前写着:“我们的救主复活是一个不正确的历史命令的事实,而是一种纯粹的超自然秩序既不证实,也不具证明,其中基督教意识已经渐渐从其他事实推断小的事实。” This statement agrees with, and is further explained by the words of Loisy ("Autour d'un petit livre", p. viii, 120-121, 169; "L'Evangile et l'Eglise", pp. 74-78; 120-121; 171).这项声明同意,并进一步由卢瓦西文字(“真正的出走德联合国叫小及女方”,第八,120-121,169解释说,“欧莱雅乐王吉尔堡等欧莱雅埃格斯”,页74-78; 120-121; 171)。According to Loisy, firstly, the entrance into life immortal of one risen from the dead is not subject to observation; it is a supernatural, hyper-historical fact, not capable of historical proof.据卢瓦西,首先,把一个不朽的生命,从死里复活的入口并不受观察,它是一种超自然,超历史事实,历史证明没有能力。The proofs alleged for the Resurrection of Jesus Christ are inadequate; the empty sepulchre is only an indirect argument, while the apparitions of the risen Christ are open to suspicion on a priori grounds, being sensible impressions of a supernatural reality; and they are doubtful evidence from a critical point of view, on account of the discrepancies in the various Scriptural narratives and the mixed character of the detail connected with the apparitions.为耶稣基督的复活所声称的证据不足;空坟墓只是一个间接的论点,而复活的基督的显现是开放的一个先验的理由怀疑,作为一个超自然的现实,​​明智的印象,他们是值得怀疑的证据从临界点的观点对圣经叙事中的各种差异,以及与连接的详细的幽灵混合性质的帐户。 Secondly, if one prescinds from the faith of the Apostles, the testimony of the New Testament does not furnish a certain argument for the fact of the Resurrection.其次,如果一个从使徒,在新约的见证信仰prescinds不提供一个复活的事实的某些论点。This faith of the Apostles is concerned not so much with the Resurrection of Jesus Christ as with His immortal life; being based on the apparitions, which are unsatisfactory evidence from an historical point of view, its force is appreciated only by faith itself; being a development of the idea of an immortal Messias, it is an evolution of Christian consciousness, though it is at the same time a corrective of the scandal of the Cross.这种信仰的使徒来说并不那么的耶稣基督与他的不朽的生命复活了;正就显现,这是从历史的角度来看不满意证据的基础上,它的力量是信仰本身赞赏仅是一一个不朽的弥赛亚思想的发展,这是一个基督教意识进化,虽然它在同一时间一个十字架的丑闻纠正的。 The Holy Office rejects this view of the Resurrection when it condemns the thirty-seventh proposition in the Decree "Lamentabili": "The faith in the Resurrection of Christ pointed at the beginning no so much to the fact of the Resurrection, as to the immortal life of Christ with God."圣处不接受这一观点的复活时,谴责在法令“lamentabili”第三十七命题:“在基督复活的信仰在一开始没有这么多的复活的事实指出,以不朽的与神基督的生命。“

Besides the authoritative rejection of the foregoing view, we may submit the following three considerations which render it untenable: First, the contention that the Resurrection of Christ cannot be proved historically is not in accord with science.除了上述观点权威的否决,我们可以提出以下三个方面的考虑而使其站不住脚的:第一,好叫基督的复活不能证明历史上的论点是不符合科学一致。 Science does not know enough about the limitations and the properties of a body raised from the dead to immortal life to warrant the assertion that such a body cannot be perceived by the senses; again in the case of Christ, the empty sepulchre with all its concrete circumstances cannot be explained except by a miraculous Divine intervention as supernatural in its character as the Resurrection of Jesus.科学并不了解的局限性,一个机构所提出的从死到不朽的生命,不值得这样的身体能不能由感官知觉判断性质不够的;又在基督里,与所有的具体空坟墓案无法解释的情况下除非奇迹般的神圣就像是耶稣复活的性格超自然干预。 Secondly, history does not allow us to regard the belief in the Resurrection as the result of a gradual evolution in Christian consciousness.其次,历史不允许我们把在作为一个在基督教意识逐渐演变的结果复活的信念。The apparitions were not a mere projection of the disciples' Messianic hope and expectation; their Messianic hope and expectations had to be revived by the apparitions.的幻象是不是弟子'救世主的希望和期待只是投影,他们的救世主的希望和期望,必须由显现复苏。Again, the Apostles did not begin with preaching the immortal life of Christ with God, but they preached Christ's Resurrection from the very beginning, they insisted on it as a fundamental fact and they described even some of the details connected with this fact: Acts, ii, 24, 31; iii, 15,26; iv, 10; v, 30; x, 39-40; xiii, 30, 37; xvii, 31-2; Rom., i,4; iv, 25; vi, 4,9; viii, 11, 34; x, 7; xiv, 9; I Cor., xv, 4, 13 sqq.; etc. Thirdly, the denial of the historical certainty of Christ's Resurrection involves several historical blunders: it questions the objective reality of the apparitions without any historical grounds for such a doubt; it denies the fact of the empty sepulchre in spite of solid historical evidence to the contrary; it questions even the fact of Christ's burial in Joseph's sepulchre, though this fact is based on the clear and simply unimpeachable testimony of history.同样,使徒们并没有开始鼓吹与神基督不朽的生命,但他们所宣扬基督从一开始复活,他们坚持它作为一个基本的事实,他们形容,甚至与此事实连接的一些细节:行为,二,24,31;三,15,26;四,10;五,30,x为39-40;十三,30,37;十七,31-2。光碟,我,4;四,25;六,4,9,八,11,34,x为7;十四,9,我肺心病,十五,4,13 sqq;等第三,基督的复活历史必然性否认涉及几个历史失误:。。它问题的显现客观现实不为这种怀疑任何历史原因,它否认了在深厚的历史证据,相反,尽管空坟墓的事实,它的问题甚至是基督在约瑟的坟墓里埋葬的事实,但这个事实基于明确和简单无可指责的历史见证。

III.三。CHARACTER OF CHRIST'S RESURRECTION基督复活的特征

The Resurrection of Christ has much in common with the general resurrection; even the transformation of His body and of His bodily life is of the same kind as that which awaits the blessed in their resurrection.基督的复活有很多与一般常见的复活,甚至连他的身体和他的身体生活的转变,作为这里面等待他们的是同一种祝福的复活。 But the following peculiarities must be noted:但是,必须注意以下特点:

Christ's Resurrection is necessarily a glorious one; it implies not merely the reunion of body and soul, but also the glorification of the body.基督的复活是必然的光荣之一,它意味着不只是身体和心灵的团聚,而且身体的赞美。

Christ's body was to know no corruption, but rose again soon after death, when sufficient time had elapsed to leave no doubt as to the reality of His death.基督的身体是要知道没有腐败,而是再次上升后不久死亡,当有足够的时间已经过去了离开至于他的死亡的现实毫无疑问的。

Christ was the first to rise unto life immortal; those raised before Him died again (Colossians 1:18; 1 Corinthians 15:20).基督是率先崛起得生命不朽的提出先死,再次(歌罗西书1:18;哥林多前书15:20)。

As the Divine power which raised Christ from the grave was His own power, He rose from the dead by His own power (John 2:19; 10:l7-18).作为神圣的权力,提出了从坟墓基督是他自己的力量,他从死了由他自己的权力(约翰2时19,10:7层- 18)。

Since the Resurrection had been promised as the main proof of Christ's Divine mission, it has a greater dogmatic importance than any other fact.由于已被复活的基督的神圣使命主要证明承诺,它有一个更大的比任何其他事实教条式的重要性。"If Christ be not risen again, then is our preaching vain, and your faith is also vain" (1 Corinthians 15:14). “如果基督没有复活,我们所传的便是枉然,你们所信的也是枉然”(林前15:14)。

IV.四。IMPORTANCE OF THE RESURRECTION复活的重要性

Besides being the fundamental argument for our Christian belief, the Resurrection is important for the following reasons:除了为我们的基督教信仰的基本参数,复活是重要的原因如下:

It shows the justice of God who exalted Christ to a life of glory, as Christ had humbled Himself unto death (Phil., ii, 8-9).它显示了正义的上帝谁高举基督荣耀的生活,基督谦卑自己,以至于死(腓,二,8-9)。

The Resurrection completed the mystery of our salvation and redemption; by His death Christ freed us from sin, and by His Resurrection He restored to us the most important privileges lost by sin (Romans 4:25).复活完成了我们的拯救和赎回的奥秘;对他的逝世我们基督脱离了罪,因他的复活,他恢复给我们的最重要的罪恶失去特权(罗4:25)。

By His Resurrection we acknowledge Christ as the immortal God, the efficient and exemplary cause of our own resurrection (1 Corinthians 15:21; Philippians 3:20-21), and as the model and the support of our new life of grace (Romans 6:4-6; 9-11).通过他的复活,我们承认为不朽的神,就是我们自己的复活效率和模范因为基督(林前15:21;腓3:20-21),以及模型和我们新生活的恩典(罗马书支持6:4-6; 9-11)。

Publication information Written by AJ Maas.出版信息的书面由AJ马斯。Transcribed by Donald J. Boon.转录的唐纳德J福音。Dedicated to Bishop Andre Cimichella of Montreal, and to Blessed Kateri Tekakwitha The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.献给主教安德烈Cimichella蒙特利尔,并祝福卡特里Tekakwitha天主教百科全书,体积十二。Published 1911.1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


Resurrection复活

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观资料

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

Like all ancient peoples, the early Hebrews believed that the dead go down into the underworld and live there a colorless existence (comp. Isa. xiv. 15-19; Ezek. xxxii. 21-30).像所有古老的民族,早期的希伯来人认为,死者下到地狱去住有无色的存在(comp.伊萨十四15-19;。。。以西结书三十二21-30)。。 Only an occasional person, and he an especially fortunate one, like Enoch or Elijah, could escape from Sheol, and these were taken to heaven to the abode of Yhwh, where they became angels (comp. Slavonic Enoch, xxii.).只是偶尔的人,他是一个特别幸运的那一个像伊诺克或以利亚,可以摆脱阴间,这些被带到天上的耶和华,他们在那里成了天使居留权(可比斯拉夫伊,二十二。)。 In the Book of Job first the longing for a resurrection is expressed (xiv. 13-15), and then, if the Masoretic text may be trusted, a passing conviction that such a resurrection will occur (xix. 25, 26).在这本书的工作​​首先是一个复活的渴望是表达(xiv. 13-15),然后,如果马所拉文本可能被信任,路过的信念,这样的复活将发生(xix. 25,26)。The older Hebrew conception of life regarded the nation so entirely as a unit that no individual mortality or immortality was considered.老希伯来人的生命的观念认为这样的国家作为一个完全没有个人死亡或不朽被认为是单位。Jeremiah (xxxi. 29) and Ezekiel (xviii.) had contended that the individual was the moral unit, and Job's hopes are based on this idea.耶利米(xxxi. 29)和以西结(xviii.)曾辩称,个人是道德的单位,与工作的希望是基于这个想法。

A different view, which made a resurrection unnecessary, was held by the authors of Ps.一种不同的看法,这使不必要的复活,是举行由诗的作者。xlix.第四十九届。and lxxiii., who believed that at death only the wicked went to Sheol and that the souls of the righteous went directly to God.和lxxiii。,谁相信,只有在死亡恶人去阴间,而正义的灵魂直接去了神。This, too, seem based on views analogous to those of Jeremiah and Ezekiel, and probably was not widely held.这也似乎类似意见的基础上耶利米和以西结的,可能没有得到广泛举行。In the long run the old national point of view asserted itself in the form of Messianic hopes.在运行旧全国来看,在长期断言形式本身的救世主的希望。These gave rise to a belief in a resurrection in order that more might share in the glory of the Messianic kingdom.这引起了一个信念,才能在复活可能有更多分享的弥赛亚王国的荣耀。This hope first finds expression in Isa.这首先表现在伊萨希望表达。xxvi.二十六。19, a passage which Cheyne dates about 334 BC The hope was cherished for faithful Israelites. 19,一个通道,其中进益日期约公元前334年的希望是忠实以色列人珍惜。In Dan.在丹。xii.十二。1-4 (about 165 BC) a resurrection of "many . . . that sleep in the dust" is looked forward to. 1-4(约公元前165)的复活“很多。。。这在尘土睡眠”是期待。This resurrection included both righteous and wicked, for some will awake to everlasting life, others to "shame and everlasting contempt."这既包括复活正义与邪恶,对一些将醒着永恒的生命,给他人“永远的耻辱和蔑视。”

-In Extra-Canonical Apocalypses:在课外典型启示:

In the earliest part of the Ethiopic Book of Enoch (i.-xxxvi.) there is a great advance on the conceptions of Daniel, although the book is of earlier date.在埃塞俄比亚的伊诺克书(一,三十六。)有一个关于丹尼尔的观念巨大进步,虽然书较早日期最早的一部分。Ch.甲烷。xxii.二十二。contains an elaborate description of Sheol, telling how it is divided into four parts, two of which receive two classes of righteous; the others, two classes of wicked.载有详细的描述阴间,告诉它如何分为四个部分,其中两个获得两分的义类,其余两班的恶人。Of these, three classes are to experience a resurrection.其中,三个类是体验复活。One class of the wicked has been judged and has received its punishment.一类的恶人被认定,并已收到了处罚。In H Maccabees the belief that all Israelites will be resurrected finds expression (comp. vi. 26, vii. 9-36, and xiv. 46).在H马加比,所有以色列人将复活的信念找到表达(comp.六。26,七。9-36,和十四。46)。In the next Enoch apocalypse (Ethiopic Enoch, lxxxiii.-xc.), composed a few years after Daniel, it was thought that only the righteous Israelites would experience a resurrection.在未来伊诺克的启示(埃塞俄比亚伊诺克,lxxxiii. -越野。)组成的丹尼尔几年后,人们认为,只有正义的以色列人将经历一个复活。That was to be a bodily resurrection, and the body was to be subsequently transformed.这将是一个身体的复活,和身体是被后来转化。This writer realized that the earth was not a fit place for Yhwh's permanent kingdom, and so the conception of a heavenly Jerusalem appears, of which the earthly Jerusalem city is the prototype.笔者认识到,地球是不是耶和华的永久王国适当的场合,所以天上的耶路撒冷的概念出现,其中地上的耶路撒冷城是原型。 Against these views some of the later psalmists uttered a protest, declaring that a resurrection was impossible (comp. Ps. lxxxviii. 10, cxv. 17).针对这些意见后来psalmists一些发出一声抗议,声称一复活是不可能的(comp.聚苯乙烯。lxxxviii。10,cxv。17)。 In spite of this protest, however, the idea persisted.尽管在这次抗议,但是,这个想法仍然存在。The next Enoch apocalypse (Ethiopic Enoch, xci.-civ.) looked for a resurrection of the righteous, but as spirits only, without a body (comp. ciii. 3, 4).接下来的伊诺克的启示(埃塞俄比亚伊诺克,xci. -持续输注。)找了一个义人复活,但只有精神,没有一个机构(可比ciii。3,4)。A later Enoch apocalypse (Ethiopic Enoch, xxxvii.-lxx.) expresses the conviction that both the righteous and the wicked will be raised (comp. li 1, 2; lxii. 15, 16), and that the spirits of the righteous will be clothed in a body of glory and light.后来一位伊诺克的启示(。埃塞俄比亚伊诺克,xxxvii. - LXX的)表示,无论是正义与邪恶将提高定罪(可比力1,2;。第六十二号15,16),以及义人的灵魂会这样穿的荣耀和光体。

The author of the Slavonic Book of Enoch (Book of the Secrets of Enoch, xxii. 8-10) believed in a resurrection of spirits, without a body.作者:斯拉夫书伊诺克的精神复活在信(图书的伊诺克的秘密,二十二。8-10)的作者,没有一个机构。He nevertheless believed in a spiritual body, for he describes the righteous as clothed in the glory of God.不过,他认为在一个精神的身体,为他介绍了义如神的荣耀衣服。The authors of the Book of Jubilees and the Assumptio Mosis believed in a resurrection of the spirit only, without a body (comp. Jubilees, xxiii. 31 et al., and Assumptio Mosis, x. 9).的jubilees和Assumptio Mosis本书的作者认为,在一个只有复活的精神,没有一个机构(可比jubilees,二十三。31等。与Assumptio Mosis,十9)。

All these believed that the soul would sleep in Sheol till the judgment, but several Alexandrian writers about the beginning of the common era held, like Ps.所有这些相信灵魂会睡在阴间直到最后审判,但对一些共同的时代的开始举行亚历山大作家像诗。xlix.第四十九届。and lxxiii., that the spirits of the righteous entered on a blessed immortality immediately at death.和lxxiii。,那义人的灵魂进入了一个不朽的祝福在立即死亡。This was the view of the author of the Wisdom of Solomon (iii. 1-4; iv. 7, 10, et al.), of Philo, and of IV Maccabees.这是对智慧的所罗门笔者查看(iii. 1-4;。四,七,十,等。)的斐洛和四马加比。Finally, the scope of the resurrection, which in previous writers had been limited to Israel, was extended in the Apocalypse of Baruch and in II Esdras to include all mankind (comp. Baruch, xlix.-li. 4; II Esd. vii. 32-37).最后,复活,这在以前的作家被限制在以色列的范围,延长在巴鲁克启示和在二埃斯德拉斯到包括所有人类(可比巴鲁克,xlix.-li. 4;二,公共服务电子化七。。 32-37)。

Bibliography: Charles, A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life in Israel, in Judaism, and in Christianity, London, 1899.ECGAB参考书目:查尔斯,一个对未来生活在以色列的犹太教,教义批判的历史,在基督教,伦敦,1899.ECGAB

Resurrection is asserted in all the Apocryphal writings of Pharisaic origin (comp. II Macc. vii. 9-36,xii. 43-44), where arguments against Sadducean Israel are prescented (Book of Jubilees, xxiii. 30; Test. Patr., Judah, 25; Zebulun, 10; Benjamin, 10; Vita Adæ et Evæ, xiii.; Sibyllines, ii. 85; Enoch, li. 1-2; Apoc. Baruch, xxx. 1-5, l.-li.: II Esd. vii. 32; Psalms of Solomon, iii. 16, xiv. 13), and in the Hellenistic writings (see Wisdom iii. 1-9, iv. 7, v. 16, vi. 20; IV Macc. ix. 8; xiii. 16; xv. 2; xvii. 5, 18; xviii. 23).复活,是在所有的断言pharisaic的起源猜测的著作,其中对Sadducean以色列参数prescented(书jubilees,二十三30(comp.二排雷七9-36,十二43-44。。。)。。测试Patr。犹大,25;西布伦,10岁;本杰明,10岁;维塔Adæ等Evæ,十三。Sibyllines,二85;。伊诺克,李1-2;。。载脂蛋白C巴鲁克,三十1-5,l.-li.。 。。:二公共服务电子化七32;所罗门的诗篇,三十六,十四13),在古希腊的著作(见智慧三1-9,四,七,五16,六20;四排雷。。。。。。九,8;。十三16;。第十五2。十七5,18。十八23)。。 Immortality of the soul takes the place of bodily resurrection.不朽的灵魂复活的身体需要的地方。Rabbinical arguments in favor of resurrection are given in Sanh.在复活的青睐犹太教给出参数在sanh。90b-92b, from promises made to the dead (Ex. iv. 4; Deut. xi. 9 [comp. Mark xii. 18]; Num. xviii. 28; Deut. iv. 4, xxxi. 16, xxxii. 39), and from similar expressions in which the future tense is applied to the future life (Ex. xv. 1; Deut. xxxiii. 6; Josh. viii. 30; Ps. lxxxiv. 5 [AV 4]; Isa. lii. 8); also in Ḥul.第90B - 92b,从死者作出承诺(例如:四4;。。。申喜9 [。可比马克十二18。];数量十八28;。。申四,四,三十一16,三十二39。。。。 ),并从其中未来式应用到今后的生活(出十五类似的表达方式1。申命记三十三6;。。。乔希八30;。诗lxxxiv 5 [影音4]。。赛崇礼。。 8);还讫。142a, from promised rewards (Deut. v. 16, xxii. 17), which so frequently are not fulfilled during this life (Ber. 16b; Gen. R. xx. 26). 142a,从承诺的奖励(申命记16节,二十二17。),而这一点常常在今生没有达成(Ber. 16B条;。将军传译二十26)。Arguments are drawn from the grain of wheat (Sanh. 90b; comp. I. Cor. xv. 35-38), from historical parallels-the miracles of revival wrought by Elijah, Elisha, and Ezekiel (Lev. R. xxvii. 4)-and from a necessary conception of divine justice, body and soul not being in a position to be held to account for their doings in life unless, like the blind and the lame man in the parable, they are again brought together as they were before (Sifre, Deut. 106; Sanh. 91a; with reference to Ps. l. 4).争论是来自小麦的粮食(Sanh. 90B型。。比赛一肺心病十五35-38。),从历史上屡见不鲜,由以利亚,以利沙,以西结书(lev.传译二十七造成复兴的奇迹4。 )和从神圣的正义,身体和灵魂在一个位置不被追究责任的,除非他们的所作所为在生活中,像盲人和寓言中的跛脚男子,他们又聚集在一起,因为他们的概念是必要的前(Sifre,申106。葬身91a。。参考的PS湖4)。

The Sadducees denied the resurrection (Josephus, "Ant." xviii. 1, § 4; idem, "BJ" ii. 8, § 14; Acts xxiii. 8; Sanh. 90b; Ab. RN v.).撒都该人否认复活(约瑟夫,“蚂蚁。”十八1,§ 4。同上,“BJ的”二8,§ 14。徒二十三8;。葬身90B型。。抗体护士五)。All the more emphatically did the Pharisees enunciate in the liturgy (Shemoneh 'Esreh, 2d benediction; Ber. v. 2) their belief in resurrection as one of their fundamental convictions (Sanh. x. 1; comp. Abot iv. 22; Soṭah ix. 15).更着重做了法利赛人的礼仪(Shemoneh',二维祝福Esreh。误码率诉2)阐明在复活的信仰作为其基本信念之一(sanh.十1。比赛Abot四22;。Soṭah九。15)。

Both the Pharisees and the Essenes believed in the resurrection of the body, Josephus' philosophical construction of their belief to suit the taste of his Roman readers notwithstanding (see "BJ" ii. 8, § 11; "Ant." xviii. 1, § 5; compare these with the genuine source of Josephus, in Hippolytus' "Refutatio Hæresium," ed. Duncker Schneidewin, ix. 27, 29, where the original ἀνάστασις [= "resurrection"] casts a strange light upon Josephus' mode of handling texts).无论是法利赛和爱色尼认为,在复活的身体,约瑟夫对自己的信仰的哲学建构,以适应读者的口味,尽管他的罗马(见“BJ的”二8,§ 11。。“。蚂蚁”十八1, § 5,比较这些与真正的约瑟夫西波吕源'“Refutatio Hæresium,”海关克尔Schneidewin,九27,29,如果原来ἀνάστασις[=“复活”]后,约瑟夫蒙上了奇怪的光。。'模式处理文本)。 According to the Rabbis, Job and Esau denied resurrection (BB 16a, b).据拉比,就业和以扫否认复活(BB心跳16A条,二)。Whosoever denies resurrection will have no share in it (Sanh. 90b).凡否认复活将在它(Sanh. 90B型)无份额。The resurrection will be achieved by God, who alone holds the key to it (Ta'an. 2a; Sanh. 113a).复活将通过上帝,谁就有持有的钥匙(Ta'an甲。。葬身113a)。At the same time the elect ones, among these first of all the Messiah and Elijah, but also the righteous in general, shall aid in raising the dead (Pirḳe R. El. xxxii.; Soṭah ix. 15; Shir ha-Shirim Zuṭa, vii.; Pes. 68a; comp. "Bundahis," xxx. 17).在选举的同时,在这些所有的弥赛亚和以利亚第一,但也一般正义的,应有助于提高死亡(pirḳe传译下午三十二。。soṭah九15;。事儿公顷Shirim足踏,第七章。瘟68A条。可比“Bundahis,的”XXX 17)。。。

Universal or National.通用或国家。

By means of the "dew of resurrection" (see Dew) the dead will be aroused from their sleep (Yer. Ber. v. 9b; Ta'an. i. 63d, with reference to Isa. xxvi. 19; Ḥag. 12b. with reference to Ps. lxviii. 10 [AV 9]).通过“复活露”的手段(见露水)的死人也引起了他们的睡眠(Yer.苏贝诉9B条。Ta'an岛参考伊萨63d,26 19;。。。女巫12B条。 。参考的PS。lxviii。10 [影音9])。As to the question, Who will be raised from death?至于这个问题,他们将提高至死亡?the answers given vary greatly in rabbinical literature.答案给予差别很大,在犹太教文献。According to R. Simai (Sifre, Deut. 306) and R. Ḥiyya bar Abba (Gen. R. xiii. 4; comp. Lev. R. xiii. 3), resurrection awaits only the Israelites; according to R. Abbahu, only the just (Ta'an. 7a); some mention especially the martyrs (Yalḳ. ii. 431, after Tanḥuma).根据河思迈(Sifre,申306。)和R.Ḥiyya酒吧阿爸(将军河十三4;。。。。比赛列夫河十三3),只等待着复活的以色列人,据河Abbahu,只有公正(Ta'an 7A条。),有些提到特别是烈士(Yalḳ.后Tanḥuma二431。)。R. Abbahu and R. Eleazar confine resurrection to those that die in the Holy Land; others extend it to such as die outside of Palestine (Ket. 111a).河Abbahu和R.埃莱亚萨局限于复活那些死在圣地,其他扩展到诸如死于巴勒斯坦外(Ket. 111A章)。According to R. Jonathan (Pirḳe R. El. xxxiv.), the resurrection will be universal, but after judgment the wicked will die a second death and forever, whereas the just will be granted life everlasting (comp. Yalḳ. ii. 428, 499).根据河乔纳森(pirḳe传译下午。三十四。),复活将是普遍的,但在判决后恶人会死第二次的死,永远,而只是将给予生命永恒(可比Yalḳ。二。428 ,499)。The same difference of view prevails also among the New Testament writers; at times only "the resurrection of the just" is spoken of (Luke xiv. 14, xx. 35); at other times "the resurrection of the dead" in general is mentioned (John v. 29; Acts xxiv. 15; Rev. xx. 45).同样的观点之间的差异也普遍存在新约作家;有时不仅是口语的,(路十四14,二十35。。)“的义人复活”,在其他时候“,死人复活”一般是提到(约翰诉29,徒二十四15;。启示录二十45。)。

Part of the Messianic Hope.部分救世主的希望。

As a matter of fact, resurrection formed part of the Messianic hope (Isa. xxiv. 19; Dan. xii. 2; Enoch, xxv. 5, li. 1, xc. 33; Jubilees, xxiii. 30).由于事实上,复活形成了救世主的希望的一部分(以赛亚书24 19;。。丹第十二2。伊诺克,二十五5,李一,越野33;。。。jubilees,二十三30。)。Especially were those that died as martyrs in the cause of the Law expected to share in the future glory of Israel (II Macc. vii. 6, 9, 23; Yalḳ. to Isa. xxvi. 19; Midr. Teh. xvii. 14; Sibyllines, ii. 85).尤其是那些为烈士死在预期在以色列未来的辉煌(二排雷分享第七条法律,6,9,23岁;。。Yalḳ到赛二十六19;。。。Midr第十七届14。。。 ; Sibyllines,二85)。。The very term used to express the idea of sharing in the future life is "to inherit the land" (Ḳid. i. 10; Matt. v. 5, after Ps. xxxvii. 11; Sanh. xi. 1, with reference to Isa. lx. 21).非常术语,用于表示在今后的生活中分享的想法是“继承土地”(Ḳid.一,10岁;马特诉五,在诗三十七11;。。。。葬身喜一,参考。伊萨。勒克斯。21)。 The resurrection, therefore, was believed to take place solely in the Holy Land (Pesiḳ. R. i., after Ps. cxvi. 9 ["the land of the living," that is, "the land where the dead live again"]; or Gen. R. lxxiv.: Yer. Ket. xii. 35b, with reference to Isa. xlii. 5 ["He giveth breath to the people upon it," that is, upon the Holy Land only]).复活,因此,被认为参与的圣地(pesiḳ.二河岛,地点完全诗后。cxvi。9 [即“土地,在那里死人再活”的“生活之乡” ];或将军河lxxiv:。。。。。。也门里亚尔酮第十二35B条,参照伊萨四十二5 [“他赐气息给人民赋予它”,即,只有在圣地])。Jerusalem alone is the city of which the dead shall blossom forth like grass (Ket. 111b, after Ps. lxxii. 16).耶路撒冷仅是城市的死人要象草开花规定(后诗。lxxii Ket. 111B条。16)。Those that are buried elsewhere will therefore be compelled to creep through cavities in the earth until they reach the Holy Land (Pesiḳ. R. lc, with reference to Ezek. xxxvii. 13; Ket. 111a).那些被掩埋在其他地方因此将不得不通过在地球空洞蠕变,直到他们达到圣地(参考以西结书pesiḳ.二河立法会,三十七13;。。。氯胺酮111A章)。

Day of Judgment Precedes Messianic Era.审判日之前救世主的时代。

The trumpet blown to gather the tribes of Israel (Isa. xxvii. 13) will also rouse the dead (Ber. 15b; Targ. Yer. to Ex. xx. 15; II Esd. iv. 23; comp. I Cor. xv. 52; I Thess. iv. 16; see Enoch, x. 12 et seq., xxv. 4 et seq., xlv. 2, xc. 25, xci. 11, xcviii. 12; Test. Patr., Simeon, 61; Judah, 25; Zebulun, 10; Benjamin, 10).吹小号收集以色列支派也将振奋死亡(Ber. 15B条(以赛亚书二十七13。);。塔尔格也门里亚尔给前二十15。。。二,公共服务电子化四23;。。。可比我肺心病十五。 。52,我帖前四16;。。见伊诺克,十12起,二十五4起,四十五2,越野25 xci 11时候正好12岁;。。。。。。。。测试Patr,西蒙。 61,犹大,25;西布伦,10,本杰明,10)。The nations, together with their guardian angels and stars, shall be cast into Gehenna (Enoch, xc. 24-25).列国,连同他们的守护天使和星星,必被扔在地狱(伊诺克,越野。24-25)。According to R. Eleazar of Modi'im, to the angelic princes of the seventy-two nations who will protest because, though it has sinned like the rest, God favors Israel, God will answer, "Let each nation go through the fire together with its guardian deity "; then all the nations will be consumed in common with their deities, who can not shield them, but Israel will be saved by its God (Cant. R. ii. 1; comp. Tan., Shofeṭim, ed. Buber, end, after Isa. lxvi. 14, Ps. xxiii. 4, and Micah iv. 5).根据河埃莱亚萨的Modi'im,到第七两个国家谁会抗议,因为尽管它已经像其他犯罪天使般的王子,有利于以色列的神,神会回答,“让每一个国家经火同行与它的守护神“,则所有的国家将被消耗在共同与他们的神灵,谁不能保护他们,但以色列将根据其神(Cant.河二,保存1。比赛谈,Shofeṭim,编辑。。 。布伯,结束后,伊萨。lxvi。14,聚苯乙烯。二十三。四,弥迦四。5)。Another view is that the glare of the sun will test the heathen's loyalty to the Law they promised to observe, and they will be cast into the eternal fire ('Ab. Zarah).The conception of God entering Hades to save Israel from Gehenna gave rise to the Christian conception of the Messiah descending into Hades to reclaim his own among those who are imprisoned there (Test. Patr., Benjamin; Sibyllines, i. 377, viii. 310; Yalḳ. ii. 359; Jellinek, "BH" ii. 50 [comp. I Peter iii. 19]; Ascensio Isaiæ, iv. 21, with reference to Isa. ix. 16, lii.-liii.; see Epstein, "Bereshit Rabbati," 1888, p. 31).另一种观点是,刺眼的阳光将考验异教徒的忠诚法律,他们承诺遵守,他们将到永火('抗体。Zarah)演员。神的概念进入地狱拯救地狱以色列给上升到基督教的弥赛亚观念降入地狱谁收回那些被监禁在那里(Test. Patr自己,本杰明。Sibyllines岛377,八310。Yalḳ二359。。耶利内克,“波黑” 。二50 [可比我的彼得三世19。。]; Ascensio Isaiæ,四21,关于赛第九十六lii. - liii。。。。看到爱泼斯坦,“Bereshit Rabbati,”1888年,第31页)。 The sole end of the judgment of the heathen is, according to R. Eleazar of Modi'im (Mek., Beshallaḥ, 'Amaleḳ), the establishment of the kingdom of God.该判决的异教徒的唯一目的是,根据河埃莱亚萨的Modi'im(Mek.,Beshallaḥ,'亚玛力),对建立神的国度。 "When the Messiah appears on the roof of the Temple announcing Israel's redemption, the light emanating from him shall cause the nations to fall prostrate before him; and Satan himself will shudder, for the Messiah will cast him into Gehenna, and death and sorrow shall flee forever" (Pesiḳ. R. 36; Sibyllines, ii. 167, iii. 46-72). “当弥赛亚上的庙宇,宣布以色列的赎回屋顶出现时,光所产生的从他应引起各国匐在他面前;和撒旦自己会不寒而栗,因为弥赛亚将丢在地狱他,死亡和忧愁逃离永远“(pesiḳ.二河36; Sibyllines,二167,三46-72。。)。

Resurrection Universal.复活通用。

As in the course of time the national hope with its national resurrection and final day of judgment no longer satisfied the intellect and human sentiment, the resurrection assumed a more universal and cosmic character.随着时间的推移,在与国家的复活和最后审判的日子全国希望不再满足人类的智慧和情感,复活摆出更具有普遍性和宇宙的性质。 It was declared to be solely the act of God, who alone possesses the key that will unlock the tombs (Ber. 15b).它被宣布为唯一的上帝,谁就有拥有的关键,将解开墓(Ber. 15B条)的行为。"As all men are born and die, so will they rise again," says Eleazar ha-Ḳappar (Abot iv. 22). “由于所有的人都出生和死亡,所以他们会再次上升,说:”埃莱亚萨公顷凯谱(Abot四。22)。It was believed that resurrection would occur at the close of the Messianic era (Enoch, xcviii. 10, ciii. 8, civ. 5).据认为,复活将发生在救世主的时代结束(伊诺克,时候正好。10 ciii。八,持续输注。5)。This is particularly emphasized in II Esd.这是特别强调在二,公共服务电子化。vii.七。26-36: "Death will befall the Messiah, after his 400 years' reign, and all mankind and the world will lapse into primeval silence for seven days, after which the renewed earth will give forth its dead, and God will judge the world and assign the evil-doers to the fire of hell and the righteous to paradise, which is on the opposite side." 26-36:“死亡将降临后,他的400年'在位弥赛亚,并把所有的原始人类和无声世界七天,之后重新提出地球将给予它的死将告失效,上帝将审判世界并指派恶人在地狱火和天堂,而在另一侧是正义的。“ Also, according to Syriac Apoc.此外,根据叙利亚文载脂蛋白C。Baruch (xxx. 1-5; l.-lii.; cxxxv. 15), the resurrection will take place after the Messiah has "returned to heaven" and will include all men, the righteous to meet their reward, and the wicked to meet their eternal doom.巴鲁克(xxx. 1-5;湖- 52。。cxxxv 15),复活将发生后,弥赛亚已“回到天堂”,将包括所有的人,就是义,以满足他们的奖励,并在恶人满足他们永恒的厄运。This lasting doom is called "second death" (Targ. Deut. xxxiii. 6; Targ. Isa. xiv. 19; xxii. 14; lxv. 6, 15, 19; Jer. li. 39; Rev. xx. 6, 14).这种持久的厄运被称为“第二次的死”(申命记三十三Targ. 6;。。。塔尔格赛十四19;。。二十二14;。第六十五6,15,19;。。耶李39。启示录二十六日。 14)。

Not the Heathen, but the Wicked Perish.不是异教徒,但恶人灭亡。

Nor is the wrath of the last judgment believed any longer to be brought upon the heathen solely as such.也不是最后的审判的愤怒相信任何更长的时间后,仅作为异教徒等带来的。All evil-doers who have blasphemed God and His Law, or acted unrighteously, will meet with their punishment (Tos. Sanh. xiii.; Midr. Teh. vi. 1, ix. 15).一切邪恶,谁亵渎上帝和他的律师,或担任不公实干家,将会见他们的处罚(Tos.葬身十三。。。。Midr的六一,九15。。)。 It became a matter of dispute between the older school, represented by the Shammaite R. Eliezer, and the Hillelites, represented by R. Joshua, whether or not the righteous among the heathen have a share in the future world, the former interpreting the verse, "The wicked shall return to Sheol, even all the Gentiles that forget God" (Ps. ix. 18 [RV 17]), as condemning as wicked among the Jews and the Gentiles such as have forgotten God; the latter interpreting the verse as consigning to Sheol only such Gentiles as have actually forgotten God (Tos. Sanh. xiii. 2).它成为老年学校之间的争议,由Shammaite河埃利泽表示,并且该hillelites,由R.约书亚表示,无论是否在列国中义人在未来的世界一份额,前解释诗句,“使恶人返回阴间,即使所有的外邦人,就是忘记神”(诗九18 [右心室17]。)作为犹太人和谴责中,如忘记了上帝外邦人为恶人,后者解释诗作为委托阴间作为实际上忘记,只有这样外邦人的神(Tos.葬身。十三。2)。 The doctrine "All Israelites have a share in the world to come" (Sanh. xi. 1), based upon Isa.该学说:“所有以色列人在未来世界出一分力”(Sanh.十一。1),基于伊萨。lx.勒克斯。21 (Hebr.), "Thy people all of them righteous shall inherit the land," is therefore identical with the Pharisaic teaching as stated by Josephus ("Ant." xviii. 1, § 3; "BJ" ii. 8, § 14), that the righteous will rise to share in the eternal bliss. 21(Hebr.),“你的人,他们所有的义人必承受地土”,因此与教学的Pharisaic正如由约瑟夫(“蚂蚁”。十八相同1,§ 3。“BJ的”二8,§。 14),即正义将上升永恒的幸福分享。It is as deniers of the fundamentals of religion that heathen, Samaritans, and heretics are excluded from future salvation (Tos. Sanh. xiii.; Pirḳe R. El. xxxviii.; Midr. Teh. xi. 5).它是作为宗教的基本面异教徒,撒玛利亚,和异教徒从否认排除未来救赎(Tos.葬身十三。。pirḳe传译下午三十八。。Midr席5。。。)。 Regarding the plurality of opinions in favor of the salvation of righteous non-Jews, and the opinions of those who adhere to the national view, see Zunz, "ZG" pp. 371-389.关于在正义的非犹太人得救赞成意见,这些意见谁坚持以国家观,见Zunz,“ZG的”第371-389页多元化。 Related to the older, exclusive view also is the idea that the Abrahamic covenant releases the Israelites from the fire of Gehenna (Gen. R. xlviii.; Midr. Teh. vii. 1; 'Er. 19a).有关老年人,独特的景色也是想法,亚伯拉罕之约释放出的地狱火的以色列人(创传译四十八;。Midr的七1;。。。'呃19A条。)。 At first, it seems, resurrection was regarded as a miraculous boon granted only to the righteous (see Test. Patr., Simeon, 6; Levi, 18; Judah, 25; Zebulun, 10; Vita Adæ et Evæ, 13; comp. Luke xiv. 14, xx. 36).首先,它似乎复活被视为一种神奇的实惠只给予正义(见测试Patr,西麦,6。。列维,18,犹大,25;西布伦,10岁;维塔Adæ等Evæ,13人;比赛。路加福音十四。14日,第xx。36)。 Afterward it came to be regarded as an act of God connected with the last judgment, and therefore universal resurrection of the dead became a doctrine, as expressed in the second benediction of the Shemoneh 'Esreh (; Sifre, Deut. 329; Sanh. 92b).后来,它后来被作为神与最后的审判行为视为连接,因此普遍对死者复活成了一种学说,作为在Shemoneh'Esreh(第二祝福表达。Sifre,申329;葬身92b。 )。In Syriac Apoc.在叙利亚文载脂蛋白C。Baruch, xlix.-li.巴鲁克,xlix.-li.a description is given of the manner in which the righteous at the resurrection are transformed into angels shining like the stars, who behold the beauty of the heavenly "ḥayyot" beneath God's throne, whereas the wicked assume the horrible aspect of the pit of torture below.说明是在其中在复活正义分为犹如天上的星星,谁看见了天上的“活物”下神的宝座的美,闪耀天使转化而恶人承担的坑可怕方面的方式给予酷刑以下。 Whether or not the body at the resurrection undergoes the same process of growth as in the womb at the time of birth is a matter of dispute between the Hillelites and the Shammaites (Gen. R. xiv.; Lev. R. xiv.).无论在复活的身体经历了如在出生时子宫增长是同样的过程之间该hillelites和Shammaites争议事项(创传译十四;。。。列夫河十四)。 In regard to the state of the soul separated from the body by death, whether it is supposed to dwell in heaven, or in some sort of dove-cot or a columbarium (= "guf") in Hades (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, xxx. 2; II Esd. iv. 35, 41; vii. 32, 80, 101), see Immortality of the Soul.至于从体内分离出来的灵​​魂的死亡状态,无论是应该住在天上,或在一些鸽婴儿床或在地狱龛(=“guf”)(叙利亚文载脂蛋白C排序。巴鲁克,某某。2;二公共服务电子化四35,41;。。。七,32,80,101),见不朽的灵魂。

Jewish Creed or Not?犹太人的信仰或不?

The belief in resurrection is expressed on all occasions in the Jewish liturgy; eg, in the morning prayer Elohai Neshamah, in the Shemoneh 'Esreh, and in the funeral services.在复活的信仰是表示对所有的犹太礼仪场合,例如,在早晨的祈祷Elohai Neshamah在Shemoneh'Esreh,并在葬礼服务。Maimonides made it the last of his thirteen articles of belief: "I firmly believe that there will take place a revival of the dead at a time which will please the Creator, blessed be His name."迈蒙尼德使它成为他的13名信仰文章最后说:“我坚信,有将发生一次的创造者,将请他的名字是应当称颂的,是对死者的复兴。” Saadia also, in his "Emunot we-De'ot" (following Sanh. x. 1), declared the belief in resurrection to be fundamental.Saadia此外,在他的“Emunot我们- De'ot”(以下葬身。十1),宣布在复活信仰是根本。 Ḥasdai Crescas, on the other hand, declared it to be a specific doctrine of Judaism, but not one of the fundamental teachings, which view is taken also by Joseph Albo in his "'Iḳḳarim" (i., iv. 35-41, xxiii.). ḤasdaiCrescas,另一方面,宣布它是一个犹太教具体的学说,但没有一个基本教义,认为采取红桦也由约瑟夫在他的“'Iḳḳarim”(一,四。35-41,二十三。)。 The chief difficulty, as pointed out by the latter author, is to find out what the resurrection belief actually implied or comprised, since the ancient rabbis themselves differed as to whether resurrection was to be universal, or the privilege of the Jewish people only, or of the righteous only.的主要困难,因为后者的作者所指出的,是要找出什么是真正复活的信念暗示或组成不同,因为古代的拉比自己,至于是否复活,是具有普遍性,或犹太人民的特权只,或义人而已。 This again depends on the question whether it was to form part of theMessianic redemption of Israel, or whether it was to usher in the last judgment.这又取决于它是否构成对以色列theMessianic赎回一部分,或者是否是为了迎接最后的判断上的问题。Saadia sees in the belief in resurrection a national hope, and endeavors to reconcile it with reason by comparing it with other miraculous events in nature and history recorded in the Bible.Saadia看到了复活的信仰国家的希望,并努力调和的原因,通过比较其他神奇的自然和历史事件记录在圣经中它。Maimonides and Albo in their commentary on Sanh.迈蒙尼德和albo在其关于葬身评论。x.1, Ḳimḥi in his commentary on Ps.1,在他的诗Ḳimḥi评论。i.5, Isaac Aboab in his "Menorat ha-Ma'or" (iii. 4, 1), and Baḥya ben Asher in his commentary on Gen. xxiii.5,以撒Aboab在他的“Menorat公顷Ma'or”(iii. 4,1),并巴希耶伊本舍二十三将军在他的评论。 extend resurrection to the righteous only.义人复活延伸而已。On the other hand, Isaac Abravanel in his "Ma'yene Yeshu'ah" (ii. 9) concedes it to all Israel; Manasseh ben Israel, in his "Nishmat Ḥayyim" (i. 2, 8), and others, to all men.另一方面,以撒在他的“Ma'yene Yeshu'ah”(白介素9)阿布拉瓦内尔承认给所有以色列玛拿西本以色列,在他的“NishmatḤayyim”(一,二,8),和其他人士,所有的人。 Maimonides, however (see his commentary, lc, and "Yad," Teshubah, viii.), took the resurrection figuratively, and substituted for it immortality of the soul, as he stated at length in his "Ma'amar Teḥiyyat ha-Metim"; Judah ha-Levi also, in his "Cuzari," took resurrection figuratively (i. 115, iii. 20-21).迈蒙尼德,但是,(见他的评论,LC和“亚”Teshubah,八。)代为复活的形象,并为它不朽的灵魂取代,因为他终于说在他的“Ma'amarTeḥiyyat公顷Metim “;犹大公顷,列维此外,在他的”Cuzari,“复活了比喻(一115,三20-21)。。

The belief in resurrection is beautifully expressed in the old Morning Benediction, taken from Ber.在复活的信念是美丽旧上午表示,从误码率采取的祝福。60b: "O God, the soul which Thou hast set within me is pure. Thou hast fashioned it; Thou hast breathed it into me, and Thou dost keep it within me and wilt take it from me and restore it to me in time to come. As long as it is within me I will give homage to Thee, O divine Master, Lord of all spirits, who givest back the soul to dead bodies."第60B条:“上帝啊,哪,因为你在我的灵魂,是集纯祢塑造它,你已经注入了我来说,你多斯特保持它在我和枯萎病从我来说,及时恢复到我。来了。只要在我的是我会向你表示敬意,对所有的灵魂,谁赐予的灵魂回到尸体Ø神圣的主,主。“ This benediction, for which the simpler form is given in Yer.这祝福,为此,简单的形式是给定在也门里亚尔。Ber.误码率。iv.四。7d, Pesiḳ.7D的,Pesiḳ。 R. 40, and Midr.河40,Midr。 Teh.的。xvii.: "Blessed be Thou who revivest the dead"-recited after awakening from the night's sleep-throws light upon the whole conception of resurrection.第十七章:。“你是谁revivest是应当称颂的死者”醒来后从-朗诵了一夜的睡眠后,引发整个理念下的复活。 Just as the soul was believed to leave the body in sleep and return at the reawakening, so was the soul, after having left the body in death, to return to "those that sleep in the dust" at the time of the great reawakening.正如人们相信灵魂离开身体在睡眠和回报在觉醒,所以是灵魂离开身体后死亡,返回到“那些睡在尘埃”在伟大复兴的时间。 In modern times the belief in resurrection has been greatly shaken by natural philosophy, and the question has been raised by the Reform rabbis and in rabbinical conferences (see Geiger, "Jüd. Zeit." vii. 246) whether the old liturgical formulas expressing the belief in resurrection should not be so changed as to give clear expression to the hope of immortality of the soul instead.在近代,在复活的信仰已大大动摇了自然哲学,问题已经由改革犹太教拉比和会议中提出的(见盖格,“士。时代。”七。246)是否旧礼仪公式表示在复活的信仰不应该如此修改,给予明确体现出不朽的灵魂,而不是希望。 This was done in all the American Reform prayer-books.这是在所有的美国改革祈祷书。At the rabbinical conference held at Philadelphia it was expressly declared that the belief in resurrection of the body has no foundation in Judaism, and that the belief in the immortality of the soul should take its place in the liturgy.在费城举行的会议是犹太教明确宣布,在复活的身体没有信仰犹太教的基础,在不朽的灵魂信仰应在礼仪的地方。See Conferences, Rabbinical; Prayer-Books; Reform Judaism.见会议,犹太教;祈祷书籍;改革犹太教。

Executive Committee of the Editorial Board, George A. Barton, Kaufmann Kohler执行委员会的编委会,乔治巴顿,考夫曼科勒
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版01年至1906年之间。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Hamburger, RBT sv Auferstehung und Wiederbelebung der Todten; ib.汉堡包,仙踪林希沃特Auferstehung有限公司Wiederbelebung明镜Todten;兴业。sv Belebung der Todten; Schürer, Gesch.希沃特Belebung明镜Todten; Schürer,Gesch。ii.二。3, 547-551; Volz, Jüdische Eschatologie; Weber, Jüdische Theologie, Index.ECK 3,547-551;福尔茨,Jüdische文学Eschatologie,韦伯,Jüdische神学Index.ECK


Also, see:此外,见:
The Arising of Jesus产生的耶稣

This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



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BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
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