Revivalism复兴

General Information一般资料

Revivalism is a predominantly North American Protestant phenomenon in which itinerant preachers exhort their hearers to accept forgiveness of personal sin through faith in Jesus Christ and to commit themselves to spiritual self discipline and religious exercises such as prayer, Bible reading, and church support.复兴是一个主要的北美巡回新教传教士的现象,其中劝他们的听众接受基督信仰耶稣宽恕通过个人的罪,并承诺自律精神的宗教活动和教会的支持,如祈祷,读经,和。

Revivalism in America has been in reaction to a perceived overemphasis by the major denominations on ritual, cultural accommodation, and doctrinal or ideological correctness at the expense of personal religious experience.在美国的复兴已反应,通过对仪式,文化适应,思想和理论的正确性或在牺牲个人的宗教经验主要教派认为过分强调。 Four specific periods of intense religious revival were:强烈的宗教复兴的四个特定时期是:

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Bibliography 参考书目
WG McLoughlin, Modern Revivalism (1959); T Smith, Revivalism and Social Reform (1957); WW Sweet, Revivalism in America (1944); BA Weisberger, They Gathered at the River (1958).工作组麦克拉克林,现代复兴(1959年); T史密斯,复兴和社会改革(1957年);第一次世界大战甜,在美国复兴(1944);广管局维斯贝格尔,他们聚集在河(1958年)。


Revivalism复兴

Advanced Information先进的信息

A movement within the Christian tradition which emphasizes the appeal of religion to the emotional and affectional nature of individuals as well as to their intellectual and rational nature.一个在基督教的传统,强调以他们的智力和理性的本质,宗教呼吁个人,以及情绪和情感的自然运动。 It believes that vital Christianity begins with a response of the whole being to the gospel's call for repentance and spiritual rebirth by faith in Jesus Christ.它认为,重要的基督教与一对被福音的悔改和信仰耶稣基督重生呼吁整个响应开始。This experience results in a personal relationship with God.在与神的个人关系,这方面的经验的结果。

Some have sought to make revivalism a purely American and even a predominantly frontier phenomenon.一些人试图复兴作出一个纯粹的美国,甚至是主要边境的现象。Revivalism, however, can be seen as a much broader Christian tradition.复兴,但是,可以被看作是一个更广泛的基督教传统。Recent studies have discovered a revivalist tradition in the Roman Catholic Church.最近的研究发现,在罗马天主教教会的复兴传统。

The Reformation Roots改革根

Modern revival movements have their historical roots in Puritanpietistic reactions to the rationalism of the Enlightenment and the formalized creedal expression of Reformation faith that characterized much of seventeenth century Protestantism.在现代复兴运动的启蒙和形式化的改革信仰教义表达这么多的特点对17世纪的新教理性Puritanpietistic反应中的历史根源。 Lutherans such as Johann Arndt, Philipp Spener, and August Francke resisted this depersonalization of religion.如约翰阿恩特,菲利普Spener,八月弗朗克路德会抗拒这种缺乏人性的宗教。They discovered a more experiential element in Reformation faith which emphasized personal commitment and obedience to Christ and a life regenerated by the indwelling Holy Spirit.他们发现了一个在改革的信心元素,更强调个人体验的承诺,并服从基督和留置圣灵重生的生活。They also emphasized witness and missions as a primary responsibility of the individual Christian and the church.他们还强调,作为一个个人基督教和教会的首要责任和使命的见证。Subjective religious experience and the importance of the individual became a new force in renewing and expanding the church.主观的宗教经验和个人的重要性成为教会更新和扩大了新的力量。These concerns gradually permeated much of Protestantism, especially the developing churches in America.这些问题逐步渗透到许多新教,尤其是在美国发展的教堂。

The Eighteenth Century Birth第十八世纪的诞生

The appeal for a personal, public response to the gospel that came to characterize revivalism sprang up almost simultaneously in both England and America in the eighteenth century.对于一个个人的,公开回应福音,来刻画复古上诉兴起,在英格兰和美国几乎同时,在十八世纪。The initial signs of the First Great Awakening in the American colonies occurred in the congregation of the Dutch Reformed pastor Theodore J Frelinghuysen in northern New Jersey in 1725, a decade before John Wesley and George Whitefield began their field preaching in England.第一次在美洲殖民地的大觉醒初步迹象发生在荷兰归正教会牧师西奥多Ĵ弗雷灵汉森在新泽西州北部在1725年,十年前,约翰卫斯理和乔治Whitefield的领域开始了他们在英国的说教。 Frelinghuysen had come under the influence of pietism before coming to America.弗雷灵汉森来到虔诚主义的影响下,才来到美国。In 1726 William Tennent, the Presbyterian leader of the Great Awakening, started his "log college" to prepare ministers who would preach a personalized Calvinism which called men and women to repentance.威廉坦南特在1726年,该长老会的领导人大觉醒,开始了他的“日志学院”谁准备的部长将个性化的加尔文主义的鼓吹所谓的男性和女性悔改。

By the time George Whitefield began recurrent revivalistic tours of the American colonies in 1738, Jonathan Edwards, the theologian of the colonial awakening, had already experienced revival in his Northampton, massachusetts, Congregational church.乔治Whitefield的时候在1738年开始的美洲殖民地经常revivalistic旅游,乔纳森爱德华兹,该觉醒殖民神学家,已经在他的经历复兴北安普顿,马萨诸塞州,公理会教堂。 Edwards accepted the validity of much of the religious emotion that accompanied the conversions among his parishioners and wrote in defense of the proper role of emotion in true religion.爱德华兹接受的宗教情感,伴随着他的教民之间的转换,并在真正的宗教情绪在适当的作用辩护说太多的有效性。The revival continued to move south until it touched all the colonies.复兴继续向南移动,直到它感动了所有的殖民地。In England the recognized leader of the "Evangelical Revival" was John Wesley, founder of Methodism and close friend of Whitefield.在英国的“福音复兴”公认的领导者是约翰卫斯理卫理公会的创始人和Whitefield的密友。Whitefield had encouraged Wesley to take up the field preaching that brought the gospel directly to the masses of working people.怀特菲尔德曾鼓励韦斯利采取了实地鼓吹带来了福音直接向劳动人民群众。

The success of this appeal to the heart as well as the head could not be doubted.这项上诉成功的心脏以及头部不能被怀疑。Religious interest was renewed, and people flocked to the churches in significant numbers in both America and England.宗教关心的是新的,人们聚集在教堂大量的在美国和英国。American historians recognize that the sweep of religious fervor from north to south (prior to the Revolution) was one of the few unifying factors among the otherwise disparate American colonies.美国历史学家认识到,宗教狂热,从北扫到南(前革命)是为数不多的因素之一,其中统一,否则不同的美洲殖民地。 In England the revival left an indelible religious and social impact for stability in the midst of the revolutionary unrest which pervaded most of Europe at the time.在英国的复兴留下了不可磨灭的宗教和社会稳定中的革命不安,弥漫在当时欧洲最中间的影响。

The Definitive Stage权威舞台

The pre Revolutionary revivals demonstrated the general patterns which characterized all subsequent awakenings; however, it was the Second Great Awakening at the beginning of the nineteenth century that defined the theology and method of the tradition.预革命复兴的特点体现了所有后续觉醒一般模式,但它是第二次大在十九世纪,确定了神学和传统方法开始觉醒。The revival began at Hampden Sidney and Washington colleges in Virginia in 1787.复兴开始于1787年在弗吉尼亚州汉普顿在悉尼和华盛顿大学。It continued at Yale under Timothy Dwight and at Andover and Princeton at the end of the eighteenth century.它继续在蒂莫西德怀特和安多弗和普林斯顿在十八世纪末期在耶鲁大学。It was popularized in the great camp meetings on the frontier.这是流行在边境上的大营会议。The Cane Ridge, Kentucky, camp meeting in August, 1801, became the most famous of all.在八月,1801年,凯恩里奇,肯塔基州,坎普米廷成为最有名的。The strange emotional phenomena which had shown themselves in the earlier colonial revival reappeared in intensified form.刚才还表现在早期殖民国家在强化自己的形式重新出现复苏奇怪的情感现象。"Falling," "jerking," "rolling," and "dancing" exercises engaged many of the twenty thousand worshipers present.“坠落”,“痉挛”,“滚动”和“跳舞”演习进行了二万目前许多崇拜者。These demonstrations moderated as the revival continued, but physical phenomena have always existed in some measure in popular revival movements.这些示威活动持续放缓的复苏,但物理现象一直在流行的一些复兴运动的措施存在。

Camp Meetings and Revivalism营地会议和复兴

The Presbyterians who organized these first camp meetings soon abandoned their use.长老会第一阵营谁组织了这些会议很快就放弃了它们的使用。The Methodists and Baptists, however, continued to use them.在卫和浸信会,然而,持续使用它们。The ambience of the natural setting in which the camps were held, the release from the ordinary routines of home and church, the freedom to worship together in a less sectarian context, the family reunion, community center flavor, all contributed to a mystique that made the camp meeting a continuing factor in future revivalism.的自然设置在该营地举行,在一个不太宗派背景下,家庭团聚,社区中心的味道,从家庭和教会的普通程序,自由释放到一起崇拜的氛围,都促成了神秘感,使得在未来的坎普米廷复兴持续因素。 The frontier camp meetings declined by the time of the Civil War, but the Holiness revival which began to flourish after the Civil War utilized them extensively in both rural and urban settings.边防营地会议拒绝了南北战争的时间,但圣洁复兴的蓬勃发展始于南北战争后,利用在农村和城市环境他们广泛。

Camp meetings became the religious centers that shaped the theology and ethos of the numerous Holiness churches organized at the end of the century.营地会议中心,成为宗教神学和塑造了众多的圣洁在本世纪末有组织的教会精神。Although many camp meetings evolved from their original revivalistic commitments into Chautauquas or Christian family resort centers, in Holiness and Pentecostal churches the camp meeting remains an essential expression of their revivalistic worship.尽管许多营地从原来的演变成Chautauquas或基督教家庭度假中心revivalistic承诺和五旬节圣洁,教会会议坎普米廷仍然是一个重要的revivalistic崇拜的表现。 Even there, however, the camp meeting has become more of a church family rally or reunion than a time for evangelistic outreach to the unchurched.即便是这样,不过,营地会议已成为比布道推广到unchurched时间一教堂集会或家庭团聚了。

Charles Grandison Finney查尔斯格兰迪逊芬尼

The outstanding figure in early nineteenth century revivalism was Charles Grandison Finney.在十九世纪初复兴的杰出人物是查尔斯格兰迪逊芬尼。Finney took the revival ethos of the frontier camp meeting to the urban centers of the northeast.芬尼采取了边境难民营会议精神复兴到东北的中心城市。His success there and his widespread influence as a professor and later president of Oberlin College gave him a platform for propagating a theology and defense of the revival methods he espoused.他的成功那里,他作为奥伯林学院教授,​​后来总统广泛的影响给了他一个宣扬神学和方法,他信奉的复兴防御平台。 In his Revival Lectures Finney contended that God had clearly revealed the laws of revival in Scripture.在他的复兴讲座芬尼争辩说,上帝在圣经中清楚地揭示了复苏的法律。Whenever the church obeyed those laws, spiritual renewal resulted.每当教堂遵守这些法律,精神重建的结果。In the minds of many Calvinists this emphasis on human ability greatly modified the traditional concept of the sovereign movement of God in reviving the church.在许多人的头脑中加尔文这个人的能力大大修改重点在复兴教会的神的主权运动的传统概念。However, the importance which Finney attached to the necessity for prayer and the agency of the Holy Spirit in his revival theory and practice helped to mute such concerns.然而,重要的是芬尼贴在祈祷必要性和圣灵在他的理论和实践的复兴机构帮助静音这些顾虑。

Finney's "new methods" raised as much controversy as his attachment to New School Calvinism.芬尼的“新办法”提出只要他的依恋到新学校加尔文不少争议。Preaching was direct, addressed to the individual, and usually delivered without manuscript or even notes.说教是直接的,给个人,通常没有笔记手稿,甚至交付。The public nature of the conversion experience was focused by the introduction of the "anxious bench," by which the serious seeker placed his intentions on record before the congregation.转换的经验,公共性的重点是通过引进“惶惶不安”,其中严重的导引头记录在案前聚集他的意图。The critics were especially wary of the public platform given to the laity and especially women as they prayed and testified in the revival services.批评家们尤其是考虑到俗人,尤其是妇女,因为他们祈祷,并在服务的复兴证明了公共平台持谨慎态度。After the dramatic Fulton Street or Layman's Revival of 1858, however, most of the critics were silenced, and revivalized Calvinism joined with the revivalized Arminianism of burgeoning American Methodism to set the predominant pattern of American Protestantism for the remainder of the century.之后,戏剧性的富尔顿街或简易1858年复兴,然而,大部分被压制批评,并revivalized加尔文与新兴的美国methodism设置为在本世纪余下的时间新教为主的美国模式revivalized亚米纽斯加入。

Perfectionist Revivalism完美主义复兴

A significant new development in revivalism between 1835 and 1875 was the rise of perfectionist revivalism.一个重要的新的发展复兴1835年和1875年之间,是一个完美复古上升。Finney introduced a perfectionist note into his evangelism after his move to Oberlin College in 1835.芬尼引入到他的布道后,他将在1835年奥伯林学院的完美主义者注意。He and his colleague Asa Mahan, president of Oberlin, joined perfectionist leaders in Methodism, such as lay leaders Walter and Phoebe Palmer, in a new Holiness revivalism in the churches.他和他的同事亚撒马汉,总统的奥伯林,加入循道,如躺在一个圣洁的教会复兴的新领导人沃尔特和菲比帕尔默,完美主义者领袖。 The movement used revivalistic methods to call Christians to a second crisis of faith and total commitment subsequent to conversion, commonly called among American Calvinists a "second conversion," a "rest of faith," or the "deeper" or "higher life"; to Methodists it was "entire sanctification," "perfection in love," or "the second blessing."该运动用revivalistic方法来调用基督徒的信仰和总承诺第二次危机之后的转换,通常在美国的加尔文教派被称为“第二次转换,”一“的信念休息”,或者“深刻”或“更高的生命”;以卫,这是“整个成圣”,“完美的爱情”,或者“第二个祝福。”

Both Calvinist and Methodist wings of the revival ultimately gave prominence to a personal "fullness" or "baptism" of the Holy Spirit in speaking of the experience.加尔文主义的复兴和卫翅膀都最终突出了个人的“满”或“洗礼”中的圣灵的经验发言。The creation of the National Camp meeting Association for the Promotion of Holiness by John Inskip and other Methodist ministers in 1867 spread the movement beyond Methodism around the world.在1867年以后蔓延循道运动在世界各地建立全国营由约翰因斯基普卫部长和其他圣洁会议促进协会。In England the Holiness revival gave rise to the Salvation Army and the Keswick Movement.在英格兰复兴的神圣引起救世军及凯瑟克运动。

Institutionalization and Decline制度化与衰落

Dwight L Moody dominated the revival movement from 1875 until his death in 1899.德怀特教士穆迪在1899年占主导地位,直到他死的时候,从1875年复兴运动。Although most of the revivalism of the time was carried on in the local churches and camp meetings of the rapidly growing Baptist and methodist denominations, Moody's leadership was the stimulus which encouraged the continued use of revivalistic methods in churches not as strongly committed to them.虽然大部分的时间进行复兴在当地教堂和迅速增长的浸信会和卫理公会教派营地会议上,穆迪的领导是刺激,鼓励了revivalistic方法没有坚定地致力于他们教会继续使用。 His mass evangelistic campaigns drew vast audiences in Britain and the United States and set the patterns for a more professional revivalism which demanded extensive organization and substantial budgets.他的布道活动吸引了大量英国和美国,并为广大观众更专业的复兴,要求广泛组织和大量的预算模式。Ira Sankey, his musical director, became the best known of the many gospel musicians who formed an essential part of the revivalistic teams which sprang up everywhere in this period.艾拉桑基,他的音乐总监,成为最好的许多福音音乐家谁形成了哪些兴起,在此期间,各地revivalistic队伍的重要组成部分而闻名。

Moody also sponsored educational institutions which furthered his evangelistic aims: the Northfield Institutions in Massachusetts and Moody Bible Institute in Chicago.穆迪还资助教育机构的目的是进一步推动他的福音:在马萨诸塞州的诺斯菲尔德机构穆迪圣经学院和芝加哥。These institutions were representative of the large number of organizations and movements which sprang out of the many revival movements that looked to Moody for inspiration and leadership at the end of the nineteenth century.这些机构的组织和运动的大量涌现的众多复兴运动,寻找灵感和领导穆迪在十九世纪末的代表。Many of these became important components of the growing fundamentalist movement.其中许多人成为日益增长的原教旨主义运动的重要组成部分。

Large audiences continued to attend the revival campaigns of William "Billy" Sunday, RA Torrey, Gypsy Smith, and others after the turn of the century.大批观众继续参加威廉“比利”星期天,类风湿性关节炎托里,吉普赛史密斯复兴运动,后在世纪之交别人。However, the change of national mood resulting from the economic upheavals that followed World War I, the persistent attacks of such social critics as HL Mencken, and the turn toward a gospel of social concern among the larger denominations led to a decline in the influence of revivalism in the churches and in American life.但是,民族情绪变化,从经济动荡第一次世界大战之后,对这种社会的HL门肯批评者的攻击造成的持久性,和对社会关注的中导致了较大的影响力下降的福音教派转复古在教堂和美国生活。 Nevertheless, the Pentecostal revival which spread swiftly from its center in Los Angeles after 1906 and the effective use of radio by Charles Fuller and other radio evangelists indicated the continuing strength of the revivalist tradition in the churches.然而,五旬节复兴的蔓延,从它的中心在美国洛杉矶1906年以后和查尔斯富勒电台和其他无线电福音迅速有效地使用表明了在教会复兴传统的持续强势。

The Modern Period现代时期

The rise of Billy Graham in the 1950s and his subsequent recognition as one of the most influential religious leaders of the post World War II period signaled the latent residual strength of revivalism in the Christian churches.作者:葛培理在20世纪50年代,他作为该职位的二战时期最有影响力的宗教领袖之一随后承认上升预示着潜在的基督教复兴教会的残余力量。 Graham's success in working with a broad spectrum of Protestant churches as well as significant segments of Catholicism reiterated the fact that revivalism is not a sporadic phenomenon in the Christian tradition but rather a steady force which breaks into public prominence whenever churches and society tend to ignore its concerns for experiential religion.格雷厄姆在同一个新教教会以及天主教很大一部分广谱工作的成功重申一个事实,即复兴不是在基督教传统零星的现象,而是一个稳定的力量,为公共突出休息的时候教会和社会往往忽视其宗教问题的经验。 Billy Graham emphasized again both the method and theology of the tradition.葛培理再次强调,无论是方法和传统的神学。He played down some of the more strident emotional and psychological aspects of the method; he retained, however, the direct, forceful sermon appeal, the biblically oriented message, the call for personal, public response, the use of gospel music and of large mass meetings.他淡化了更为尖锐的情感和心理方面的一些方法,他保留,不过,直接,有力的讲道上诉,圣经为本的信息,个人,公众的反应调用,福音音乐和大型群众性使用会议。

Graham's ministry represented a general revival of religion, as indicated by the rapid growth of evangelical churches and spread of the charismatic revival in the decades following World War II.格雷厄姆的部代表一般的宗教复兴,正如所指出的福音派教会的快速增长和在第二次世界大战后几十年来魅力的复兴蔓延。The charismatic emphases on the baptism and the gifts of the Spirit, especially glossolalia, have had significant influence upon both Protestant and Catholic churches.在洗礼和圣灵,特别是说方言的礼物,有魅力的重点,对双方新教和天主教教会的重大影响。The exposure of revivalism with its message and method to the public through television and the dominant role revivalists currently hold in religious broadcasting are additional signs of the contemporary revitalization of the tradition.在与其信息和方法,通过电视公益和主导作用revivalists目前持有复兴暴露在宗教广播等传统的当代复兴额外的迹象。

The Theology of Revivalism神学的复兴

The intimate historical relationship between the growth of evangelicalism and revivalism indicates many common theological presuppositions.亲切的福音派之间的历史关系和复兴的增长表明许多共同​​的神学前提。 Evangelicalism's commitment to the reliability and authority of Scripture is the basis for revivalism's direct preaching and appeal; the former's belief in the universal need for spiritual rebirth is the basis for the latter's direct call for repentance and faith in Christ.福音派的承诺的可靠性和圣经的权威,是对复古的直接说教和号召力的基础上,前者的重生中普遍需要的精神信仰是对后者的悔过书,并在基督信仰的基础上直接调用。 The evangelical's acceptance of Christ's final commission to his disciples as a mandate for personal witness and world mission reinforces the urgency that characterizes revival movements.福音派的基督的最后验收委员会,以他的弟子作为个人见证和世界的使命任务的紧迫感,强化复兴运动的特点。

Revivals of religion and the theological presuppositions and practices which have accompanied them through their history have consistently raised a common pattern of criticism.宗教和神学的前提和已通过他们的历史伴随着他们一贯的做法恢复现象提出了批评,常见的模式。The strongly emotional nature of the revivalist's appeal, the critics charge, leads to spiritual instability or even to irrational behavior.该复兴的呼吁,批评人士指责,强烈的情绪自然会导致精神不稳定,甚至非理性的行为。 They also claim that the revivalist's emphasis upon crisis experience tends to deprecate the place of growth and process in Christian living.他们还声称,复兴的危机的经验时强调往往贬低基督教的成长和生活过程中发生。 Opponents also charge that the importance revivalism attaches to a warm hearted, spiritual ministry results in a general anti intellectualism throughout the tradition; they claim as well that the strong appeal to individualized religion leads to a subjectivism that obscures or even denies the social and cultural implications of Christianity.反对者还指责说,该复兴的重要性,一个热心的重视,导致精神部一般反传统,理智全,他们索赔清楚,强烈呼吁宗教导致了个性化的主观主义,从而掩盖甚至否认社会和文化的影响基督教。 The direct praying and preaching, the tendency to popularize and excite interest by use of promotional psychology, and inclination to judgmentalism and separatism are also common accusations brought against revivalists.直接祈祷,传道,普及的趋势,通过宣传和激发心理学的兴趣,并倾向judgmentalism和分裂主义,也有人对revivalists带来共同的指控。

The major response of revival proponents has been to point to the positive results they claim for religious revival and revivalism in church and society since the beginning of the movements in the eighteenth century.复兴的支持者主要反应是指向他们的宗教复兴和在教会和社会复兴运动以来,在十八世纪初的索赔积极成果。The dramatic growth of the churches resulting from special periods of religious revival and the day - to - day revival emphasis in revivalistic churches is part of the historical record.该教堂的急剧增长,从宗教的复兴,这一天特殊时期产生的 - 要 - 在revivalistic教会复兴的重点是一天的历史记录的一部分。Significant moral, social, and cultural changes have accompanied the major awakenings.重要的道德,社会和文化变革的主要陪同醒来。The ecumenical spirit of revival efforts has often produced a level of cooperation among churches not achieved in any other way.复兴的精神,努力基督教之间往往产生了不以任何其他方式取得的教会合作水平。Expanded Christian benevolence and church extension have always accompanied these periods of spiritual renewal.仁和基督教教堂扩大延伸一直伴随着这些时代的精神重建。Religious institutions and organizations to promote Christian causes and social concerns, including most of America's Christian colleges, seminaries, Bible institutes, and many mission bodies, are products of revivalism.宗教机构和组织推动基督教原因和社会的关注,包括美国的基督教学院,神学院,圣经学院最多,许多机构的使命,是复古的产品。

ME Dieter ME的迪特
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
R Carwardine, Transatlantic Revivalism; DW Dayton, Discovering an Evangelical Heritage; ME Dieter, The Holiness Revival of the Nineteenth Century; JP Dolan, Catholic Revivalism; J Edwards, A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God; J F Findlay, Dwight L Moody: American Evangelist 1837 - 1899; CG Finney, Lectures on Revivals of Religion; ES Gaustad, The Great Awakening in New England; CA Johnson, The Frontier Camp Meeting; WG McLaughlin, Modern Revivalism: Charles Grandison Finney to Billy Graham; TL Smith, Revivalism and Social Reform in Mid Nineenth Century America; WW Sweet, Revivalism in America; BA Weisberger, They Gathered at the River.ř Carwardine,跨大西洋复兴;德国之声代顿,发现是一个福音派遗产; ME的迪特,在十九世纪的圣洁复兴;太平绅士多兰,天主教的复兴; Ĵ爱德华兹,一个令人惊讶的工作,上帝的忠实的叙述;怡富芬德利,德怀特教士穆迪:美国福音1837年至1899年,企业管治芬尼,讲座宗教恢复现象;胚胎干Gaustad,在新英格兰的大觉醒; CA的约翰逊,前营会议;工作组麦克劳克林,现代复兴:查尔斯格兰迪逊芬尼到葛培理,热释光史密斯,复兴和社会改革中Nineenth世纪美国,第一次世界大战甜,复兴美国,广管局维斯贝格尔,他们聚集在河边。


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