Sabbath安息日 中文 - Zhong Wen


General Information一般资料

The seventh day of the Jewish week - from sundown Friday to sundown Saturday - the Sabbath commemorates the seventh day of creation, on which God rested. It is a divinely appointed day of rest (Exod. 20:8), to be devoted to prayer and study, and its observance is a mark of Jewish faith. 犹太周第七天的-从星期五日落至周六日落-安息日纪念第七天创造,在祈祷上帝休息。这是一个神圣的指定日期当日休息(出20:8),将致力于学习,遵守,其是一个信仰犹太教的标志。

Christians have generally considered the Sabbath to be fulfilled by Christ's Sabbath rest in the tomb and celebrate, instead, the Lord's Day (Sunday) as a weekly day of worship.基督徒普遍认为是履行了基督的安息日休息的墓和庆祝,而不是安息日,主日(星期日)为每周日的礼拜。It is the first day of the new week, symbolic of the unending Day of the Lord, the day of Christ's resurrection and of his expected return.这是新的一周的第一天,主,基督的复活和他的预期回报天无休止日的象征。Some Protestant groups have traditionally called Sunday the Sabbath and apply to it the Old Testament Sabbath regulations (Sabbatarianism).一些新教团体传统上称为星期天安息日,并适用于它的旧约安息日法规(Sabbatarianism)。 In many places these have been given the force of civil law (Blue Laws).在许多地方,这些都被赋予了民法(蓝法律)的力量。

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Bibliography 参考书目
T Gaster, Festivals of the Jewish Year (1953); HB Porter, Day of Light (1960); W Rordorf, Sunday (1968); Schauss, Hayyim, Jewish Festivals (1938). T法莫替丁,在犹太新年(1953)节日;乙肝波特,轻日(1960年); W Rordorf,周日(1968年); Schauss,Hayyim,(1938)犹太节日。


Advanced Information先进的信息

Sabbath (Heb. verb shabbath, meaning "to rest from labour") is the day of rest.安息日(希伯来动词shabbath,意思是“从劳动休息”)是休息日。It is first mentioned as having been instituted in Paradise, when man was in innocence (Gen. 2:2).这是第一次提到为已在天堂,当人在无辜的人(创2:2)提起。"The sabbath was made for man," as a day of rest and refreshment for the body and of blessing to the soul. “安息日是为男子,”作为一个休息和身体小食一天和祝福的灵魂。It is next referred to in connection with the gift of manna to the children of Israel in the wilderness (Ex. 16:23); and afterwards, when the law was given from Sinai (20:11), the people were solemnly charged to "remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy."它接着提到与甘露在旷野(出16:23),以色列人的礼物连接,以及事后,当法律是从西奈半岛(11分)给出,人郑重记入“记住安息日,守为圣日。” Thus it is spoken of as an institution already existing.因此,它是口语的,作为一个机构已经存在。In the Mosaic law strict regulations were laid down regarding its observance (Ex. 35:2, 3; Lev. 23:3; 26:34).在镶嵌法中规定了严格的规定,就其遵守(出埃及记35:2,3;。利未记23:3; 26:34)。

These were peculiar to that dispensation.这些都是特有的体制。In the subsequent history of the Jews frequent references are made to the sanctity of the Sabbath (Isa. 56:2, 4, 6, 7; 58:13, 14; Jer. 17:20-22; Neh. 13:19).在随后的历史的犹太人经常提到的向神圣的安息日(以赛亚书56:2,4,6,7,58:13,14;。耶17:20-22;尼13:19)。 。In later times they perverted the Sabbath by their traditions.在稍后的时间,他们扭曲了他们传统的安息日。Our Lord rescued it from their perversions, and recalled to them its true nature and intent (Matt. 12:10-13; Mark 2:27; Luke 13:10-17).我们的主救出它从他们的变态,并回顾他们的真正性质和意图(太12:10-13,马可福音14:27,路加福音13:10-17)。 The Sabbath, originally instituted for man at his creation, is of permanent and universal obligation.安息日,原本对人提起他的创造,是长期和普遍的义务。The physical necessities of man require a Sabbath of rest.人的身体需要必须休息安息日。He is so constituted that his bodily welfare needs at least one day in seven for rest from ordinary labour.他是这样构成,他的身体的福利需求,从普通劳动力中至少有一个休息七天。

Experience also proves that the moral and spiritual necessities of men also demand a Sabbath of rest.经验还证明,人的道德和精神的生活必需品也要求休息安息日。"I am more and more sure by experience that the reason for the observance of the Sabbath lies deep in the everlasting necessities of human nature, and that as long as man is man the blessedness of keeping it, not as a day of rest only, but as a day of spiritual rest, will never be annulled. I certainly do feel by experience the eternal obligation, because of the eternal necessity, of the Sabbath. The soul withers without it. It thrives in proportion to its observance. The Sabbath was made for man. God made it for men in a certain spiritual state because they needed it. The need, therefore, is deeply hidden in human nature. “我比较多的经验,确保了遵守安息日的深层原因在于人性的永恒的必需品,而且,只要人,只要是人对不符合作为一个只有一天的休息,幸福,但作为一种精神休息一天,将永远不会被废止。我确实感到体验永恒的义务,因为永恒的必要性的安息日。没有它的灵魂凋谢。正是在其遵守比例兴旺。安息日是对人做的。神为男性则在一定的精神状态,因为他们需要它。需要,因此,这是深植于人性隐藏。

He who can dispense with it must be holy and spiritual indeed.他谁可以免除它必须圣地和精神实在。And he who, still unholy and unspiritual, would yet dispense with it is a man that would fain be wiser than his Maker" (FW Robertson). The ancient Babylonian calendar, as seen from recently recovered inscriptions on the bricks among the ruins of the royal palace, was based on the division of time into weeks of seven days. The Sabbath is in these inscriptions designated Sabattu, and defined as "a day of rest for the heart" and "a day of completion of labour." The change of the day. Originally at creation the seventh day of the week was set apart and consecrated as the Sabbath. The first day of the week is now observed as the Sabbath.和他谁,仍然不圣洁和非精神,将尚未免除它是一个男人,会欣然比造他的聪明“(星期六罗伯逊)。古巴比伦日历,看到从最近收回的铭文砖之间的废墟皇宫,是根据时间划分成几个星期七天。安息日,在指定的Sabattu这些铭文是,作为“一种对心脏休息日”,定义为“完成一天的劳动。”这种变化一天。本来在创建一周的第七天,除了成立和神圣的安息日。一周的第一天是观察到现在的安息日。

Has God authorized this change?有上帝认可这个变化?There is an obvious distinction between the Sabbath as an institution and the particular day set apart for its observance.之间有一个安息日作为一个机构的特定日期确定其遵守除了明显的区别。The question, therefore, as to the change of the day in no way affects the perpetual obligation of the Sabbath as an institution.这个问题,因此,有关在一天的任何方式改变影响安息日作为一个机构长期义务。Change of the day or no change, the Sabbath remains as a sacred institution the same.在白天或没有变化的变化,安息日仍然是一个神圣的机构一样。It cannot be abrogated.它不能被废除。If any change of the day has been made, it must have been by Christ or by his authority.如果一天中的任何更改已经作出,但必须是被基督或由他的权威。Christ has a right to make such a change (Mark 2:23-28).基督有权利作出这样的改变(马克2:23-28)。As Creator, Christ was the original Lord of the Sabbath (John 1:3; Heb. 1:10).作为创造者,基督是安息日的原始主(约翰1:3;以弗所书1:10)。。It was originally a memorial of creation.它原先是一个创造的纪念。A work vastly greater than that of creation has now been accomplished by him, the work of redemption.一个大大的工作比创造的总和,现已完成由他的救赎工作。

We would naturally expect just such a change as would make the Sabbath a memorial of that greater work.我们自然想到了这样的变化将使安息日纪念这一更大的工作。True, we can give no text authorizing the change in so many words.诚然,我们不能文本授权在这么多的话改变。We have no express law declaring the change.我们没有明确法律,宣布更改。But there are evidences of another kind.但也有另一种形式的证据。We know for a fact that the first day of the week has been observed from apostolic times, and the necessary conclusion is, that it was observed by the apostles and their immediate disciples.我们知道,对于一个每周的第一天,已经从使徒时代观察到的事实,以及必要的结论是,它是由使徒和他们的切身弟子观察。 This, we may be sure, they never would have done without the permission or the authority of their Lord.这一点,我们可以肯定,他们决不会做未经许可或他们的主的权威。After his resurrection, which took place on the first day of the week (Matt. 28:1; Mark 16:2; Luke 24:1; John 20:1), we never find Christ meeting with his disciples on the seventh day.之后,他的复活,其中发生在一周的第一天举行(28:1,马可福音16:2,路加福音24:1,约翰福音20:1),我们永远也找不到,第七日基督和他的弟子会议。 But he specially honoured the first day by manifesting himself to them on four separate occasions (Matt. 28:9; Luke 24:34, 18-33; John 20:19-23).但他特别荣幸体现在四个不同场合向他们自己的第一天(太28:9,路加福音24:34,18-33;约翰20:19-23)。

Again, on the next first day of the week, Jesus appeared to his disciples (John 20:26).同样,在未来一周的第一天,耶稣向门徒显现(约翰20:26)。Some have calculated that Christ's ascension took place on the first day of the week.有人计算过,基督升天发生在一周的第一天举行。And there can be no doubt that the descent of the Holy Ghost at Pentecost was on that day (Acts 2:1). ,也可以是毫无疑问的是,在五旬节圣灵后裔当日(徒2:1)了。Thus Christ appears as instituting a new day to be observed by his people as the Sabbath, a day to be henceforth known amongst them as the "Lord's day."因此,基督出现。“主日”为实行新的一天将作为安息日,他们当中将从此被称为他的人,每天观察The observance of this "Lord's day" as the Sabbath was the general custom of the primitive churches, and must have had apostolic sanction (comp. Acts 20:3-7; 1 Cor. 16:1, 2) and authority, and so the sanction and authority of Jesus Christ.这个“主日”为遵守安息日是原始教会的一般习惯,而且必须有使徒制裁(comp.行为20:3-7;。1肺心病16:1,2)和权威,所以制裁和耶稣基督的权威。 The words "at her sabbaths" (Lam. 1:7, AV) ought probably to be, as in the Revised Version, "at her desolations."“在她的安息日”的话(Lam. 1:7,AV)的应该可能是,如在修订版本“,在她的荒凉。”

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Advanced Information先进的信息

The Sabbath is the seventh day of the week in which God ceased from his work of creation and declared the day blessed and holy (Gen. 2:1-3).安息日是一周的第七日,上帝不再从他的作品创作,并宣布当天有福了,圣洁(创2:1-3)。Through the episode of the manna (Exod. 16), the sacred nature of the day was stressed to the Israelites.通过甘露(出16)插曲,神圣性的一天强调要对以色列人。It was to be "a sabbath of the Lord," a day set apart for God and for rest.这是是“安息日的主,”每天为上帝和休息分开。The Decalogue forbids work on the sabbath, both for the Israelites and for their servants and guests (Exod. 20:8-11).十诫禁止在安息日工作,无论是以色列人和他们的仆人和客人(出20:8-11)。Deut.申。5:12-15 implies that there is a humanitarian motive in the sabbath concept. 5:12-15意味着有一个安息日的概念人道主义动机。In God's sight, no man or animal should be required to work seven days a week and to be enslaved as the Israelites were in Egypt.在上帝的视线,没有任何人或动物都应该被要求每周工作七天,和被奴役的以色列人在埃及。The sabbath is therefore a direct indication of God's consecration of Israel, as well as of his creation.因此,一个安息日是神的直接指示以色列奉献,以及他的创作。

Violating the sabbath was a serious offense, and the person who worked on the sabbath was to be "cut off from among his people" (Exod. 31:14).违反安息日是一个严重的罪行,谁的人在安息日工作,是被“切断他的人”(出31:14)。During their wandering in the wilderness, the Israelites brought to trial a man found gathering wood on the sabbath.在他们游荡在旷野,以色列人受审一男子发现收集有关安息日的木材。He was stoned to death according to the commandment of the Lord for profaning the sabbath (Num. 15:32-36).他被石头砸死根据主也是亵渎安息日(民数记15:32-36)戒律。A fire was not to be kindled on the sabbath (Exod. 35:3), and admonitions to reverence the day are linked to reverence toward parents (Lev. 19:3) and reverence toward the Lord's sanctuary (19:30; 26:2).火灾并没有被点燃的安​​息日(出35:3),并告诫该日子敬畏与崇敬对父母(利未记19:3)和对主的崇敬圣殿(19:30; 26: 2)。The sabbath terminated a week of work and was to be a complete rest unto the Lord, a distinguishing mark of God's choosing the Jewish people.安息日结束一周的工作将是一个完整的休息所不欲,主,神所选择的犹太人民的区分标志。

The sabbath was a joyous holy day, a day of spiritual refreshment and reverent worship.安息日是一个愉快的神圣的一天,一个虔诚的精神茶点及敬拜日。It seems to have been a popular day, an opportunity for man to imitate his Creator, to devote himself to contemplation and to community worship.这似乎是一个受欢迎的一天,一个男人有机会模仿他的创造者,立志报国,沉思和社区崇拜。 Those that delighted in the Lord in this fashion were promised that they would "ride on the heights of the earth" (Isa. 58:13-14).那些在主高兴以这种方式得到保证,他们将“骑在地球上的高度”(以赛亚书58:13-14)。Even foreigners who kept from profaning the sabbath and held to God's covenant were promised blessing and deep joy (56:6-8).连外国人不断从谁亵渎安息日和举行上帝的盟约得到许诺的祝福和深厚的喜悦(56:6-8)。Jewish tradition held that Isaiah declared the eventual universalization of the sabbath among all nations (note 66:23).犹太传统认为以赛亚宣布在所有国家(注66:23)安息日最终普遍化。Prophets such as Jeremiah and Ezekiel placed such stress on the importance of observing the sabbath that at times the fate of the Jewish people was directly linked in prophecy to attitudes toward the sabbath (note Jer. 17:19-27 and Ezek. 20:12ff.).如耶利米和以西结先知放在观察,在时代的犹太人民的命运直接预言,对安息日(注哲。17:19-27和以西结书态度的重要性,这种压力与安息日。20:12几段。)。

Josephus explains that during the first Christian century there were public discourses on the sabbath in the Jewish community.约瑟夫说,在第一个基督教世纪有关于安息日犹太社区的公共话语。 Jesus observed the sabbath, not only worshiping, but also teaching in the synagogue during that time of the week (Mark 6:2).耶稣遵守安息日,不但崇拜,而且在教学过程中的犹太教堂,该周(马可福音6:2)的时间。The incidents regarding his disciples' plucking ears of grain or his healing on the sabbath were not a digression from the sabbath law, but were rather an indication that Jesus knew the content of the commandment very well.这些事件对于粮食门徒的采摘耳朵或他在安息日医治不从安息日法题外话,但而是一个迹象表明,耶稣知道内容的戒律非常好。 Not only his disciples, but also the apostle Paul and the early Jewish Christians observed the sabbath.不仅他的弟子,但也是使徒保罗和早期犹太基督徒遵守安息日。

Jewish tradition has maintained the aspects of Torah observance, community worship, and joyful family participation to the present day.犹太人的传统一直保持遵守律法,社区祭祀,欢乐的家庭参与的各个方面至今。The mother prepares a special meal and kindles the sabbath candles remembering the holy day.母亲准备了特殊的膳食和点燃蜡烛纪念安息日的神圣的日子。As she wafts the aura of the candles toward her and recites the blessing over the candles, she symbolizes the putting of her daily cares from her and acknowledges the historic sacredness of the hour.当她充溢了蜡烛的光环对她和朗诵过的蜡烛祝福,她象征着她每天把从她的关心和承认历史神圣的一小时。Two loaves of bread are placed on the dinner table and covered with a cloth to symbolize the double portion of manna given during the wilderness wandering.两块面包放在餐桌上,并用布覆盖,以象征着甘露,在旷野流浪给予双份。Guests are often invited to share in this sabbath joy, and special prayers and hymns are recited, led by the father of the household.客人经常被邀请分享这安息日的喜悦,特别是背诵祈祷和赞美诗,由家庭父亲领导。The family worships at weekly sabbath services at the synagogue.在每周的安息日在犹太教堂服务的家庭崇拜。A farewell service is observed in a spirit of sadness that the blessed day has passed.告别服务是观察在一个悲伤的,幸福的一天精神,已经过去了。Jewish tradition has proposed that if every Jew kept the sabbath for two consecutive sabbaths, the Messiah would return.犹太传统中提出,如果每一个犹太人保持安息日为两个连续的安息日,弥赛亚将返回。

The Bible also made provision for a sabbath year.圣经也作出一个安息年的规定。During the seventh year the land was to lie fallow so that the land might rest, the needy might feed on the aftergrowth, and the animals might eat the surplus.在第七个年度的土地是休耕使土地可能休息,有需要的饲料可能对二期农作物,动物可能吃了盈余。God promised an abundant harvest the sixth year to carry through the sabbatical period.上帝答应第六年丰收,通过开展休假期。In addition, debts were to be cancelled during that year (note Exod. 23:10-11; Lev. 25:1-7, 18-22; Deut. 15:1-11).此外,债务将在这一年被取消(注Exod 23:10-11。列弗25:1-7,18-22。申命记15:1-11。)。 At the close of seven sabbatical cycles a year of jubilee was instituted.在7一禧年休假周期接近被提起。Land that had been sold was to be returned to its former owner, and there were other sabbatical year provisions.已售出的土地是归还其原拥有人,并有其他休假年的规定。These provisions underscored the fact that ultimately God owned the land.这些规定强调的是,最终神所拥有的土地。

DA Rausch多巴胺劳施
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
AE Millgram, Sabbath: The Day of Delight; GF Moore, Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era; AJ Heschel, The Sabbath; S. Goldman, Guide to the Sabbath; DA Carson, From Sabbath to Lord's Day; RT Beckwith and W. Stott, The Christian Sunday; NE Andreasen, Rest and Redemption.声发射Millgram,安息日:在喜悦日;绿摩尔,在第一世纪的基督教时代犹太教,欧塞尔Heschel,安息日;学高盛,指南安息日;伤残卡森,从安息日到主日;逆转录贝克威思和瓦特斯托特,基督教周日;东北安德烈亚森,休息及赎回。


Catholic Information天主教新闻

(Hebrew shabbath, cessation, rest; Greek Sabbaton; Latin Sabbatum). (希伯来文shabbath,停止,休息,希腊Sabbaton,拉丁美洲Sabbatum)。

The seventh day of the week among the Hebrews, the day being counted from sunset to sunset, that is, from Friday evening to Saturday evening.在希伯来人之间的周第七天,这一天正在清点从日落到日落,即从周五晚上到周六晚上。

Prescriptions concerning the Sabbath关于安息日处方

The Sabbath was a day of rest "sanctified to the Lord" (Exodus 16:23; 31:15; Deuteronomy 5:14).安息日是一个“神圣的上帝”休息日(出埃及记16:23,31:15;申命记5:14)。All work was forbidden, the prohibition including strangers as well as Israelites, beasts as well as men (Exodus 20:8-10; 31:13-17; Deuteronomy 5:12-14).所有的工作被禁止,包括陌生人以及以色列人,兽以及男子禁止(出埃及记20:8-10; 31:13-17;申命记5:12-14)。The following particular actions are mentioned as forbidden: cooking (ex., xvi, 23); gathering manna (xvi, 26 sqq.); plowing and reaping (xxxiv, 21); lighting a fire (for cooking, xxxv, 3); gathering wood (num., xv, 32 sqq.); carrying burdens (jer., xvii, 21-22); pressing grapes, bringing in sheaves, and loading animals (Nehemiah 13:15); trading (Ibid., 15 sqq.).下面的特别行动,也就是禁止被提及:烹饪(例如,十六,23);收集甘露(16,26 sqq。)春耕和收获(三十四,21);生火(烹饪,三十五,3);收集木材(民数记,十五,32 sqq。);携带负担(耶,十七,21-22),按下葡萄,搬运禾捆,装载动物(尼希米记13:15);交易(同上,15 sqq 。)。Travelling, at least with a religious object, was not forbidden, the prohibition of Ex., xvi, 29, referring only to leaving the camp to gather food; it is implied in the institution of holy assemblies (Leviticus 23:2-3, Heb. text), and was customary in the time of the kings (2 Kings 4:23).旅游,至少有一个宗教的对象,是没有明令禁止,前禁令,十六,29岁,只是指离开营地收集食物;。它是在神圣的议会机构(利未记23:2-3暗示,河北。文本),并在国王队时的习惯(2国王4:23)。 At a later period, however, all movement was restricted to a distance of 2000 cubits (between five and six furlongs), or a "sabbath day's journey" (Acts 1:12).在以后的时期,但是,所有的运动被限制在一(5至6弗隆)距离2000年肘,或“安息日的旅程”(徒1:12)。Total abstention from work was prescribed only for the Sabbath and the Day of Atonement; on the other feast-days servile work alone was prohibited (Exodus 12:16; Leviticus 23:7 sqq.).从工作的总票弃权的规定只适用于安息日和赎罪日;对其他节日天奴性的工作,单是禁止(出埃及记12:16,利未记23:7 sqq。)。Wilful violation of the Sabbath was punished with death (Exodus 31:14-15; Numbers 15:32-36).故意违反的安息日是处以死刑(出埃及记31:14-15;民数记15:32-36)。The prohibition of work made it necessary to prepare food, and whatever might be needed, the day before the Sabbath, hence known as the day of preparation, or Parasceve (paraskeue; Matthew 27:62; Mark 15:42; etc.).禁止做的工作有必要准备食物,并可能需要什么,安息日的前一天,因此,作为一天的准备已知或Parasceve(paraskeue;马太27:62,马可福音15:42,等等)。 Besides abstention from work, special religious observances were prescribed.除了从工作票弃权,特殊的宗教庆祝活动的规定。(a) The daily sacrifices were doubled, that is two lambs of a year old without blemish were offered up in the morning, and two in the evening, with twice the usual quantity of flour tempered with oil and of the wine of libation (num., xxvii, 3-10). (一)每天牺牲了一倍,这是两个羔羊的一岁,没有污点,共提供了早晨起来,并在晚上两个平常的两倍数量的面粉,油和酒的祭酒(招锻炼。,二十七,3-10)。 (b) New loaves of proposition were placed before the Lord (Leviticus 24:5; 1 Chronicles 9:32). (二)命题新饼被放置在主(利未记24:5;历代9:32)。(c) A sacred assembly was to be held in the sanctuary for solemn worship (Leviticus 23:2-3, Heb. text; Ezekiel 46:3).(三)一个神圣的大会,是在圣所举行的庄严的崇拜(利未记23:2-3,希伯来文。以西结书46:3)。We have no details as to what was done by those living at a distance from the sanctuary.我们以任何细节是什么做的那些生活在距庇护的距离。Synagogal worship belongs to the post-Exilic period; still it is probably a development of an old custom. Synagogal崇拜属于后exilic期;但仍然是一个可能是一种古老习俗的发展。In earlier days the people were wont to go to hear the instructions of the Prophets (2 Kings 4:23), and it is not unlikely that meetings for edification and prayer were common from the oldest times.在早期的人都不会去听取指示的先知(2国王4:23),这是不是不可能的启迪和祈祷的会议,从最古老的时代共同。

Meaning of the Sabbath安息日的意义

The Sabbath was the consecration of one day of the weekly period to God as the Author of the universe and of time.安息日是一个时期的每周为宇宙和时间作者奉献给神天。The day thus being the Lord's, it required that man should abstain from working for his own ends and interests, since by working he would appropriate the day to himself, and that he should devote his activity to God by special acts of positive worship.这一天因此被主的,它要求人应该放弃自己的工作目的和利益,因为适当的工作,他将自己的一天,他应把以正面崇拜他的特殊行为活动,以神。 After the Sinaitic covenant God stood to Israel in the relation of Lord of that covenant.之后,西乃半岛盟约上帝站在以色列在该公约主的关系。The Sabbath thereby also became a sign, and its observance an acknowledgment of the pact: "See that thou keep my sabbath; because it is a sign between me and you in your generations; that you may know that I am the Lord, who sanctify you" (Exodus 31:13).安息日从而也成为一个标志,它遵守了该条约承认:“看到你守我的安息日,因为这是在你的后代想我和你之间,那你也许知道,我是主,谁圣你“(出埃及记31:13)。 But while the Sabbath was primarily a religious day, it had a social and philanthropic side.不过,虽然主要是一个宗教安息日一天,它有一个社会和慈善事业的一面。It was also intended as a day of rest and relaxation, particularly for the slaves (Deuteronomy 5:14).也有人打算作为一天的休息和放松,尤其是奴隶(申命记5:14)。Because of the double character, religious and philanthropic, of the day, two different reasons are given for its observance.由于双重性格,宗教和慈善的一天,两个不同的原因,给出了其遵守。The first is taken from God's rest on the seventh day of creation: "For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, . . .and rested on the seventh day: therefore the Lord blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it" (Exodus 20:11; 31:17).第一个是从神对创造的第七天休息:“因为六日之内,耶和华造天,地,就在第七日便安息:。。。所以耶和华赐福给第七日,定为圣”(出埃及记20:11,31:17)。 This does not mean that the Sabbath was instituted at the Creation, as some commentators have thought, but that the Israelites were to imitate God's example and rest on the day which He had sanctified by His rest.这并不意味着安息日,是建立在创作,正如一些评论家认为,但以色列人被模仿神的榜样,他曾在由他的安​​息圣日休息。The Sabbath as the sign of the Sinaitic covenant recalled the deliverance from the bondage of Egypt.作为公约的签署安息日的Sinaitic回顾了从埃及的奴役解脱。Hence, in the second place, the Israelites are bidden to remember that they were once slaves in Egypt, and should therefore in grateful remembrance of their deliverance rest themselves and allow their bond-servants to rest (Deuteronomy 5:14-15).因此,在第二,以色列人被召要记住,他们曾经在埃及的奴隶,因此应当在其解脱自己,让自己休息债券的公务员们去休息(申命记5:14-15)感谢回忆。 As a reminder of God's benefits to Israel the Sabbath was to be a day of joy (Isaiah 57:13) and such it was in practice (cf. Hosea 2:11; Lamentations 2:6).作为上帝的好处提醒以色列的安息日将是一个欢乐的日子(赛57:13),并在实践中是这样它(参见何西阿2:11;哀歌2:6)。 No fasting was done on the Sabbath (Judith 8:6) on the contrary, the choicest meals were served to which friends were invited.禁食是在没有相反的安息日(朱迪思8时06分)完成,上等的膳食起到了哪些朋友应邀参加。

Origin of the Sabbath原产地的安息日

The Sabbath is first met with in connection with the fall of the manna (Exodus 16:22 sqq.), but it there appears as an institution already known to the Israelites.安息日是第一次见面就同在的甘露(出埃及记16时22 sqq。)重挫,但那里已经知道要对以色列人的机构出现​​。 The Sinaitic legislation therefore only gave the force of law to an existing custom.因此,只有在Sinaitic立法赋予法律效力的一个现有的习俗。The origin of this custom is involved in obscurity.这一习俗的起源是参与默默无闻。It was not borrowed from the Egyptians, as the week of seven days closing with a day of rest was unknown to them.这不是借了埃及人,作为每周七天的休息日收盘,他们并不知晓。In recent years a Babylonian origin has been advocated.近年来,巴比伦的起源一直提倡的。A lexicographical tablet gives shabattu as the equivalent of um nuh libbi, "the day of the appeasement of the heart" (of the gods).给出一个辞书片剂作为庵努赫利比相当于shabattu,(神)“的心绥靖日”。Furthermore, a religious calendar of the intercalary month Elul and of the month Marchesvan mentions the 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, and 19th days, the latter probably because it was the 49th (7x7) day from the beginning of the preceding month, as days on which the king, the magician, and the physician were to abstain from certain acts.此外,该闰月Elul和月Marchesvan提到7日,14日,21日,28日和19日宗教日历,后者可能是因为它是第49(7x7)从上月初的一天,天就是王,魔术师,和医生放弃了某些行为。 The king, for instance, was not to eat food prepared with fire, put on bright garments, ride in a chariot, or exercise acts of authority.国王,例如,是不是吃了战车,或行使权力的行为与火调理食品,衣服上放亮,骑。These days were then, days of propitiation, and therefore shabattu days.这些天,然后,天的和解,因此shabattu天。 We have thus periods of seven days the last day of which is marked by abstention from certain actions, and called shabattu, in other words the equivalent of the Sabbath.我们就此七天的最后一天,这是由某些弃权行动,并呼吁shabattu换句话说,安息日的等效标期。A Babylonian origin is not in itself improbable, since Chaldea was the original home of the Hebrews, but there is no proof that such is actually the case.巴比伦的起源本身并不是不可能的,因为迦勒底是希伯来人的发源地,但没有证据表明这种情况其实并非如此。The reading shabattu is uncertain, shapattu being at lest equally probable.阅读shabattu是不确定的,否则同样可能在shapattu福祉。Besides, there is no evidence that these days were called shabattu; the signs so read are found affixed only to the 15th day of the month, where, however, sha patti, "division" of the month is the more probable reading.此外,没有迹象表明这些天,被称为shabattu证据;的迹象使阅读发现只贴了一个月,在那里,不过,沙帕蒂,“分化”的月份是更可能阅读15天。 These days, moreover, differed entirely from the Sabbath.这些天来,而且,不同于完全从安息日。They were not days of general rest, business being transacted as on other days.他们不是一般的休息,业务上已被其他日子交易日。 The abstention from certain acts had for object to appease the anger of the gods; the days were, therefore, days of penance, not of joy like the Sabbath.从某些行为弃权了对象,以安抚​​愤怒的神灵;的日子,因此,忏悔天不象安息日的喜悦。Lastly, these days followed the phases of the moon, whereas the Sabbath was independent of them.最后,这些天跟着月亮的阶段,而安息日是独立了。Since the Sabbath always appear as a weekly feast without connexion with the moon, it cannot be derived, as is done by some writers, from the Babylonian feast of the full moon, or fifteenth day of the month, which, moreover, has only doubtful claim to the designation shabattu.由于安息日总是显示,每周feast不与,也不能得出的月亮,是由一些作家完成从满月巴比伦盛宴,或每月,其中,而且,只有可疑的第十五天,联接声称的指定shabattu。

Observance of the Sabbath遵守安息日

Violations of the Sabbath seem to have been rather common before and during the exile (Jeremiah 17:19 sqq., Ezekiel 20:13, 16, 21, 24; 22:8; 22:38); hence the Prophets laid great stress on its proper observance (Amos 8:5; Isaiah 1:13; 57:13-14; Jeremiah loc. cit.; Ezekiel 20:12 sqq.).安息日的侵犯似乎已经相当普遍之前和期间流亡(耶利米17:19 sqq,以西结书20:13,16,21,24。22时08分,22点38分),因此先知奠定了巨大的压力上其适当的遵守(阿莫斯8:5;以赛亚书1:13; 57:13-14;耶利米在上述引文中。。。以西结书20:12 sqq)。After the Restoration the day was openly profaned, and Nehemias found some difficulty in stopping the abuse (Nehemiah 13:15-22).修复后的一天是公然亵渎和内赫米亚斯发现了一些在制止滥用(尼希米记13:15-22)难度。 Soon, however, a movement set in towrds a meticulous observance which went far beyond what the law contemplated.不久,但是,在towrds设置细致遵守远远超出了法律的设想去运动。At the time of the Machabees the faithful Jews allowed themselves to be massacred rather than fight on the Sabbath (1 Maccabees 2:35-38); Mathathias and his followers realizing the folly of such a policy decided to defend themselves if attacked on the Sabbath, though they would not assume the offensive (1 Maccabees 2:40-41; 2 Maccabees 8:26).在Machabees时间让自己忠实的犹太人,而不是在安息日(1马加比2:35-38)扑灭屠杀; Mathathias和他的追随者实现这种政策的愚蠢决定为自己辩护,如果在安息日袭击虽然他们不会承担进攻(1马加比2:40-41 2马加比8:26)。Under the influence of pharasaic rigorism a system of minute and burdensome regulations was elaborated, while the higher purpose of the Sabbath was lost sight of.下pharasaic rigorism分钟和繁重的法规体系的影响进行了阐述,而较高的安息日的目的是忽视的。The Mishna treatise Shabbath enumerates thirty-nine main heads of forbidden actions, each with subdivisions.弥论文Shabbath列举三九禁行动的主要负责人,与每一个细分。Among the main heads are such trifling actions as weaving two threads, sewing two stitches, writing two letters, etc. To pluck two ears of wheat was considered as reaping, while to rub them was a species of threshing (cf. Matthew 12:1-2; Mark 2:23-24; Luke 6:1-2).其中主要负责人是这样琐碎织造两个线程,缝纫两针,写了两封信行动等,以振奋的两个耳朵被视为小麦收割,而他们是揉谷(参见马修12:1的物种-2;马克2:23-24,路加福音6:1-2)。 To carry an object of the weight of a fig was carrying a burden; hence to carry a bed (John 5:10) was a gross breach of the Sabbath.为了履行对一个背着包袱重无花果对象,因此背上了床(约翰5:10)是一种严重违反安息日。It was unlawful to cure on the Sabbath, or to apply a remedy unless life was endangered (cf. Matthew 12:10 sqq.; Mark 3:2 sqq.; Luke 6:7 sqq.).这是非法的治疗上的安息日,或可申请补救,除非生命受到威胁(参见马修12:10 sqq;。马克3:2 sqq。路加福音6:7 sqq。)。This explains why the sick were brought to Christ after sundown (Mark, I, 32).这就解释了为什么有病被带到基督之后,日落(马克,我,32岁)。It was even forbidden to use a medicament the preceding day if it produced its effect on the Sabbath.它甚至禁止使用药物前一天,如果它产生的影响及其对安息日。In the time of Christ it was allowed to lift an animal out of a pit (Matthew 12:11; Luke 14:5), but this was later modified so that it was not permitted to lay hold of it and lift it out, though it might be helped to come out of itself by means of mattresses and cushions.在基督的时间被允许解除动物的一个坑了(马太12时11分;路加福音14时05分),但这个后来被修改,以便它是不允许要拉住它拉上来,虽然它可能是来帮助自身由床垫和坐垫的手段。 These examples, and they are not the worst, show the narrowness of the system.这些例子,他们不是最差的,表明了该系统的狭隘。 Some of the rules were, however, found too burdensome, and a treatise of the Mishna (Erubin) tempers their rigour by subtle devices.有些规则是,却发现太繁琐,以及对密西拿(Erubin)论文脾气的微妙设备上的严密性。

The Sabbath in the New Testament新约中的安息日

Christ, while observing the Sabbath, set himself in word and act against this absurd rigorism which made man a slave of the day.基督,同时遵守安息日,集字并采取行动制止这种荒唐的rigorism这让男人从自己的一天。He reproved the scribes and Pharisees for putting an intolerable burden on men's shoulders (Matthew 23:4), and proclaimed the principle that "the sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath" (Mark 2:27).他责备把一个男人的肩膀(马太23时04分)难以承受的负担,文士和法利赛人,并宣布了原则,即“安息日是为男子,而不是为安息日设立的”(马可福音2:27)。 He cured on the Sabbath, and defended His disciples for plucking ears of corn on that day.他治好的安息日,并捍卫了当天采摘的玉米耳朵他的弟子。In His arguments with the Pharisees on this account He showed that the Sabbath is not broken in cases of necessity or by acts of charity (Matthew 12:3 sqq.; Mark 2:25 sqq.; Luke 6:3 sqq.; 14:5).与此帐户他表示,在安息日不破在必要的情况下,或由慈善行为(马太12:3 sqq法利他的论点;马克2:25 sqq;路加福音6:3 sqq; 14。。。: 5)。St. Paul enumerates the Sabbath among the Jewish observances which are not obligatory on Christians (Colossians 2:16; Galatians 4:9-10; Romans 14:5).圣保罗中列举不属于强制性的犹太基督徒庆祝安息日(歌罗西书2:16;加拉太书4:9-10;罗马书14:5)。The gentile converts held their religious meetings on Sunday (Acts 20:7; 1 Corinthians 16:2) and with the disappearance of the Jewish Christian churches this day was exclusively observed as the Lord's Day.詹蒂莱转换星期日举行的宗教会议(徒20点07分;哥林多前书16:2),并与在这一天只作为主日观察犹太基督教教堂消失。 (See SUNDAY.)(见星期天。)

Publication information Written by F. Bechtel.出版信息撰稿楼柏克德。Transcribed by John Looby.转录由约翰卢比。Dedicated to Christopher James Looby The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.专用克里斯托弗詹姆斯卢比的天主教百科全书,体积十三。 Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年2月1日。Remy Lafort, DD, Censor.人头马lafort,副署长,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


EDERSHEIM, "Life and Times of Jesus II" (New York, 1897), 52-62, 777 sqq.; SCHURER, "Hist. Of the Jewish People" (New York, 1891), see index; PINCHES, "Sapattu, the Babylonian Sabbaath" in "Proceed. Of Soc. Of Bibl. Archeol."爱德生,“耶稣的一生和第二时报”(纽约,1897),52-62,777 sqq。SCHURER,“历史的犹太人民。”(纽约,1891年),见指数;捏,“Sapattu,巴比伦Sabbaath“中的”继续。SOC的。的bibl。Archeol。“ (1904), 51-56; LAGRANGE, "Relig. Semit."(1904年),51-56,拉格朗日,“Relig Semit。。”(Paris, 1905), 291-5; DHORME in "Rev. bibl."(巴黎,1905年),291-5; DHORME在“启示录bibl。”(1908), 462-6; HERN, "Siebenzahl und Sabbath bei den Babyloniern un im AT" (Leipzig, 1907); IDEM, Der Israelitische Sabbath" (Munster, 1909); KEIL, "Babel und Bibelfrage" (Trier, 1903), 38-44; LOTZ, "Quaestiones de histor. (1908年),462-6,亨,“Siebenzahl有限公司安息日北书斋Babyloniern联合国即时通讯”(莱比锡,1907年),同上,明镜Israelitische安息日“(明斯特,1909); Keil公司,”通天塔有限公司Bibelfrage“(特里尔,1903年),38-44;勒茨,“Quaestiones德历史学家。sabbati" (1883); LESETRE in VIGOUROUX, "Dict.sabbati“(1883年);在vigouroux LESETRE,”快译通。de la bible", sv "Sabbat."德拉圣经“,希沃特”萨巴特。“

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