Sacrament, Ordinance, Mystery圣礼

shèng lǐ

General Information一般资料

Sacraments are Christian rites that are believed to be outward visible signs of inward spiritual grace to which the promise of Christ is attached. The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches accept seven sacraments: Baptism, the Eucharist, Confirmation (or Chrismation), Confession, Anointing of the Sick, marriage, and Holy Orders. The Council of Trent (1545 - 63) declared that all were instituted by Christ. Protestants accept only baptism and the Eucharist as instituted by Christ. The Anglican (Episcopal) church, however, accepts the other five as sacramental rites that evolved in the church. 圣礼,是基督教的仪式被认为是外在附加的迹象可见的外来精神的宽限期,以基督的承诺是:。罗马天主教和东正教教堂接受洗礼七个圣礼,圣体,确认(或Chrismation),供述,恩膏的病人,婚姻和神圣的订单特伦特安理会- 63)宣布,所有被提起基督新教徒 。( 只接受洗礼和圣体为提起。基督 1545年英国圣公会(英国国教 ​​)教堂,但是,接受其他五个教会的发展,在圣仪式。Other churches consider those of the five they observe as ecclesiastical ceremonies.考虑到其他教会他们观察到的五个教会的仪式。

Christians have differed widely as to the meaning of the sacraments and how God works through them. Catholics, and many Protestants, consider them means of grace through which God bestows spiritual gifts. This view was held by Martin Luther and John Calvin.基督徒有很大的差异,以圣事的意义,以及如何通过他们的神的作品。 天主教徒,许多新教徒,他们认为礼物手段,通过它上帝赐给的恩典的精神。持有这种看法是卡尔文马丁路德和约翰。

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Other Protestants, following Ulrich Zwingli, view the sacraments as signs of Christian profession and testimony to grace that has already been given through faith. Some Protestant groups, notably the Quakers and the Salvation Army, do not use sacraments.其他新教徒,以下乌尔里希茨温利, 查看通过信仰的行业为标志的基督教圣礼和证词来恩给已经。一些新教团体,特别是贵格会和救世军,不要使用圣礼。

LL Mitchell当地雇员米切尔

Bibliography 参考书目
M Hellwig, The Meaning of the Sacraments (1972); B Leeming, Principles of Sacramental Theology (1956); J Martos, Doors to the Sacred (1982); E Russell and J Greenhalgh, eds., Signs of Faith, Hope, and Love: The Christian Sacraments Today (1988); Schmemann, Alexander, For the Life of the World: Sacraments and Orthodoxy (1973).M埃维希,圣事(1972年),意,乙利明,圣礼神学(1956年)原则; Ĵ马尔托斯,到圣(1982)门;。é拉塞尔和J格林哈尔希合编,信仰,希望的迹象,并爱:基督教圣礼的今天(1988年);舒梅曼,亚历山大为了世界的生命:圣礼和东正教(1973年)。


General Information一般资料


A Sacrament is any of several liturgical actions of the Christian church, believed to have been instituted by Christ and to communicate the grace or power of God through the use of material objects.阿圣是几个礼仪行动的基督教教堂被认为是由基督和沟通,通过实物使用宽限期或上帝的力量,任何。In the 4th-century theologian St. Augustine's definition, the sacraments are "outward and visible signs of an inward and spiritual grace."在4世纪的神学家圣奥古斯丁的定义,圣礼是“一种内在的和精神的恩典的外在和可见的迹象。”

Sacrament in the New Testament在新约圣事

The word sacrament does not appear in the Bible, although baptism, Eucharist, and perhaps other rites that fit the definition are reported there.圣礼一词没有出现在圣经中,尽管洗礼,圣体圣事,也许是符合定义的其他仪式还报告。The New Testament basis for sacraments is found in its teaching about Mystery, which remains the Eastern Orthodox word for sacrament.约圣礼的新的依据是发现在其圣餐教学有关之谜,这仍是东方正统字。 In the New Testament, the word mystery refers to God's plan for the redemption of the world through Christ, a plan that is hidden from the understanding of unbelievers but revealed to those who have faith (see Ephresians 1:9-10).在新约中,这个词是指神秘的世界,透过基督,一个是隐藏的,不信的理解,但谁透露给那些有信心计划赎回上帝的计划(见Ephresians 1:9-10)。

In the Christian experience, the saving action of Christ is made known and accessible to the church especially through certain liturgical actions such as baptism and the Eucharist.在基督教的经验,基督的拯救行动是众所周知的,并向教堂,特别是通过诸如洗礼和圣体的某些礼仪行动。Therefore, these actions came to be known among the Greeks as mysteries, perhaps by analogy to mystery cults.因此,这些行动后来被称为希腊人之间的奥秘可能通过类比神秘的邪教。

From Mystery to Sacrament从圣谜

In the early 3rd century, Tertullian, the first Latin theologian, translated the Greek word musterion ("mystery") by the Latin sacramentum, which in pre-Christian use denoted a pledge of future performance, as in oath of loyalty taken by soldiers to their commander; emphasis fell on the thing that was given in pledge. In the Christian case, the word sacrament came to focus attention on the water of baptism and on the bread and wine of the Eucharist. These different nuances of mystery and sacrament account in part for the differing character of Eastern and Western sacramental theology.早在3世纪,良,是第一个拉美神学家,翻译希腊字musterion(“奥秘”)由拉丁sacramentum,在公元前使用表示了服务承诺的未来,以士兵采取宣誓效忠他们的指挥官;重点落在了承诺的事情,在给定的帐户。 在基督教的情况下,字圣来到注意力集中在水的洗礼和对面包和酒,圣体和圣事这些不同的细微差别之谜一部分东圣事的不同特点和西方神学。

Sacraments and Signs圣礼和体征

Sacraments are sometimes called signs.有时被称为圣礼的迹象。In Roman Catholic and much Protestant theology, sacraments are regarded as "communicating signs."在罗马天主教和新教神学多,圣礼被认为是“沟通的迹象。”That is, the sign itself actually conveys the reality for which it stands.也就是说,实际上传达了标志本身所代表的现实。 In some Protestant theology, however, sacraments are not thought to be the vehicles of divine reality; rather, they are "arbitrary signs" that simply call to the believer's mind the inner reality of grace.在一些新教神学,但是,圣礼,是不是认为是神圣的现实的车辆,相反,他们是“武断的迹象”,简单地号召信徒心目中的宽限期内在现实。

Ex Opere Operato前Opere Operato

If the communicative nature of the sacraments is acknowledged, a sacrament properly performed is seen to convey God's grace independently of the faith or moral character of the celebrant or recipients.如果沟通的本质是承认圣礼,圣礼正确执行被看作是传达的信仰或礼或收件人品德神的恩典独立。Its value springs from its divine institution, "from the work already done" (Latin ex opere operato ), in which the sacrament participates.它的价值源于其神圣的机构,“从已经做过的工作”( 拉丁语 ex opere operato),其中参加圣餐。The opposite position has been maintained by some - that the value of the sacrament does depend in some way on those who celebrate and receive, ex opere operantis ("from the work being done").与此相反的立场一直保持一些-这圣餐价值的方式并不取决于谁在某些方面的庆祝和接受, 当然opere operantis(“从正在开展的工作”)。

Sacramental Character圣事的性质

Certain sacraments, such as the Eucharist and penance, are to be repeated often.如某些圣礼圣体和忏悔,要经常重复。 Others - baptism, confirmation, Holy Orders - are to be administered to a person only once.其他 - 洗礼,确认,神圣的订单 - 要管理,以一个人只有一次。From the time of Augustine, this second group of sacraments has been recognized as having "character."从奥古斯丁的时间,这圣礼第二组已被确认为具有“字符。”In other words, because God is faithful to his promises, the gift in these sacraments cannot be withdrawn. Grace may become latent if a person fails to act as the church intends, but the sacrament need not be repeated if the person is restored to the communion of the church.换句话说,因为神是信实的,他的诺言,圣礼礼物这些不能撤回。 格雷斯可能成为潜在的,如果一个人不能担任教会打算,但圣餐不需要重复,如果该人是恢复到共融的教会。

Number of Sacraments数圣礼

The New Testament affirms one Mystery - God's plan for redeeming the world through Christ.新约圣经申明一个疑案 - 通过基督的救赎世界的神的计划。In the history of Christian thought, however, a large number of acts have been called Mysteries or Sacraments. In the 12th century, the Italian theologian Peter Lombard summarized a growing consensus that there should be just seven: baptism, confirmation, Eucharist, penance, extreme unction, anointing of the sick, Holy Orders, and marriage. These were, in fact, what the church found necessary for the regular, adequate liturgical celebration of the Christian Mystery. A series of conciliar decisions in the 13th century made the number seven official. Orthodox churches also recognize these seven rites as sacraments, but no official decision enjoins that number.在思想史中的基督徒,但是,大量的行为被称为奥秘,或圣礼:。在12世纪,意大利神学家彼得隆巴德总结出了越来越多的共识,应该只是七洗礼,确认,圣体,忏悔,临终,婚姻恩膏的病人,神圣的订单,以及。这些人,其实什么教堂发现神秘必要的定期,基督教足够的礼仪庆典。 一个世纪系列大公决定在13所取得的第七位官员。东正教教堂也承认这七个圣礼仪式的,但没有正式决定责成该号码。The 16th-century Protestant reformers declared that there are but two sacraments, baptism and Eucharist - these having been instituted by Christ.16世纪的新教改革者宣布,但有两个圣礼,洗礼和圣餐 - 这已被由基督。 The reformers dismantled the rest of the sacramental system, maintaining that God's grace is morereadily accessible through more personal channels - prayer, the Scripture, and preaching Reformation.改革者拆除了系统的其余部分的圣事,认为上帝的恩典是morereadily通过更多的渠道获得个人 - 祈祷,圣经,宣讲改革。

Charles P. Price查尔斯P价格

The Seven Sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church罗马天主教会的七个圣礼

General Information一般资料

The sacramental principle is another characteristic tenet of Roman Catholicism. The sacramental system worked out especially in the Middle Ages by the schoolmen and subsequently at the Council of Trent envisaged sacraments primarily as causes of grace that could be received independent of the merit of the recipient. 圣事的原则是另一特色为宗旨的罗马天主教。圣事的系统的工作,特别在中世纪的经院哲学,并随后在安理会的遄达收件人的设想圣礼的原因主要是由于宽限期优点,可能是收到独立。 Recent Catholic sacramental theology emphasizes their function as signs of faith.最近的天主教圣事作为宗教神学强调其功能的迹象。Sacraments are said to cause grace insofar as they are intelligible signs of it, and that the fruitfulness, as distinct from the validity, of the sacrament is dependent on the faith and devotion of the recipient.据说造成圣礼宽限期只要是它的可理解的迹象,而结实,从不同的有效性的圣餐,是在信仰和收件人的奉献而定。Sacramental rites are now administered in the vernacular, rather than in Latin, to increase the intelligibility of the signs.现下辖圣仪式在白话,而不是在拉丁美洲,增加的迹象清晰度。

Conservative Catholicism connected sacramental theology to Christology, stressing Christ's institution of the sacraments and the power of the sacraments to infuse the grace of Christ, earned on Calvary, to the recipient.保守的天主教神学,以基督圣连接,强调基督的机构的圣礼和圣事的权力,注入了基督的恩典,赚取髑髅地,就到收件人。 The newer emphasis connects the sacraments to ecclesiology.较新的重点连接圣礼的教会。We do not encounter Christ directly, but in the church, which is his body. The church mediates the presence and action of Christ.我们不直接接触基督,但在教会,这是他的身体。 教会和基督的存在介导作用。

The number of sacraments was finally fixed at seven during the medieval period (at the councils of Lyons 1274, Florence 1439, and Trent 1547).圣礼终于定数 1547年) 在七个在中世纪时期 ,(在议会的里昂1274年,佛罗伦萨1439特伦特。In addition Roman Catholicism has innumerable sacramentals, eg, baptismal water, holy oil, blessed ashes, candles, palms, crucifixes, and statues.此外罗马天主教有无数sacramentals,例如,水的洗礼,圣油,祝福灰烬,蜡烛,棕榈树,十字架,和雕像。 Sacramentals are said to cause grace not ex opere operanto like the sacraments, but ex opere operantis, through the faith and devotion of those using them. Sacramentals据说引起恩典不象前opere圣礼op​​eranto,但通过前opere operantis的信念和献身精神,用起来。

Three of the sacraments,三圣礼,
baptism, confirmation, Eucharist,洗礼,确认,圣体,
are concerned with Christian initiation基督教开始关心


The sacrament is understood to remit original sin and all personal sin of which the recipient sincerely repents.圣餐的理解是汇原罪及个人的罪过其中收件人真诚忏悔。All must be baptized or they cannot enter the kingdom of heaven. But not all baptism is sacramental baptism by water.所有人都必须接受洗礼,或他们不能进入天堂的王国。但不是所有的洗礼,是由水圣洗礼。There is also "baptism of blood," which is received by dying for Christ (eg, the "holy innocents," Matt. 2:16 - 18), and "baptism of desire," which is received by those who, implicitly or explicitly, desire baptism but are prevented from receiving it sacramentally. "Even those who through no fault of their own do not know Christ and his church may be counted as anonymous Christians if their striving to lead a good life is in fact a response to his grace, which is given in sufficient measure to all."也有“血的洗礼”,这是由基督的死收到(例如,“神圣的无辜者,”马特2时16 - 18。)和“洗礼的愿望,”这是由那些收到谁,暗示或明确,欲望的洗礼,但无法接受它sacramentally。“即使是那些没有自己的错谁通过他们不认识基督和他的教会可能会被视为匿名的基督徒,如果他们的努力过上美好生活的事实是在给他的回应恩,这是考虑到所有足够的措施。“

Confirmation (Christmation)确认(Christmation)

A theology of confirmation was not developed until the Middle Ages.神学是一个确认没有发展到中世纪。Confirmation was said to be the gift of the Spirit for strengthening (ad robur) while baptismal grace is for forgiveness (ad remissionem).确认被说成是为加强对精神礼品(广告栎),而洗礼的恩典宽恕(广告remissionem)是。 This distinction has no basis in the Scriptures or the fathers, but has been retained to the present following ratification by the Council of Trent.这种区别没有在念经或父亲的基础上,但一直保留到现在由理事会特伦特以下的批准。Today, however, the rite is sometimes administered at the same time as baptism and by the priest, not the bishop, to emphasize that both are really aspects of the one sacrament of initiation.然而,今天的仪式是在管理,有时同一时间洗礼的牧师,而不是主教,强调这两个是真正的圣事引发一个方面。


Distinctively Catholic doctrines on the Eucharist include the sacrificial nature of the Mass and transubstantiation. Both were defined at Trent and neither was modified at Vatican II.圣体圣事天主教的教义,包括鲜明的群众祭祀性质及陷于。都被定义在特伦特,亦不是第二修订于梵蒂冈。 The unbloody sacrifice of the Mass is identified with the bloody sacrifice of the cross, in that both are offered for the sins of the living and the dead.的群众unbloody牺牲是确定与十字架的流血牺牲,在这两者都是为活人与死人的罪过提供。Hence Christ is the same victim and priest in the Eucharist as he was on the cross.因此,基督是相同的受害者和神父的圣体,因为他在十字架上了。Transubstantiation, the belief that the substance of bread and wine is changed into the body and blood of Christ, was first spoken of at the Fourth Lateran Council (1215). The Eucharist is also known as Holy Communion.陷于变体,基督信仰的面包和酒的物质转变为的是身体和血液,首次谈到在第四次拉特兰会议(1215年)。 圣体也被称为神圣的共融。

Two sacraments,两个圣礼,
penance and anointing the sick,忏悔和恩膏病人,
are concerned with healing关心愈合


By the Middle Ages the sacrament of penance had four components which were confirmed by the Council of Trent: satisfaction (the doing of an act of penance), confession, contrition, and absolution by a priest. All grave sins had to be confessed to a priest who acted as judge.到了中世纪的忏悔圣事的有四个组件,分别遄证实了本会: 做一个忏悔法,忏悔),忏悔,并赦免了一名牧师的满意度(即所有严重的罪过都必须承认牧师谁担任法官。Since Vatican II the role of the priest in penance is understood as healer, and the purpose of the sacrament is reconciliation with the church rather than the restoration of friendship with God.自从梵蒂冈第二,在忏悔的神父角色被理解为医治者,和圣礼的目的是与教会,而不是友谊与上帝恢复和解。Through contrition the sinner's union with God is restored, but he is still required to seek forgiveness in the sacrament of penance because his sin compromises the mission of the church to be a holy people.通过忏悔的罪人与上帝的联盟正在恢复,但他仍然需要寻求宽恕的忏悔圣事,因为他的罪过损害了教会的使命是神圣的人。

Anointing the Sick生病的恩膏

During the Middle Ages the rite of anointing the sick was reserved increasingly for the dying, hence the description of Peter Lombard: extreme unctio (last anointing).在中世纪的恩膏成年礼病人临终日益保留,因此描述彼得隆巴德:极端unctio(最后恩膏)。Vatican II relabeled the sacrament "anointing of the sick," stating explicitly that it "is not a sacrament reserved for those who are at the point of death."梵二重新标记的圣事“的病人恩膏”明确指出它“不是为那些谁在临终圣礼保留一个。”The last sacrament is now known as viaticum, received during Mass if possible. Earlier, this was called Extreme Unction.最后圣礼是现在被称为viaticum, 涂油过程中收到的群众,如果可能的极限此前,这个被称为。

There are two sacraments有两个圣礼
of vocation and commitment:职业和承诺:
marriage and orders婚姻和订单


The sacramentality of marriage was affirmed by the councils of Florence and Trent.婚姻的sacramentality是由佛罗伦萨和特伦特议会的肯定。Marriage is understood to be indissoluble, although dispensations, chiefly in the form of annulment (a declaration that a valid marriage never existed), are permitted.婚姻是牢不可破的,虽然理解为特许,主要是在形式的废止(一种有效的婚姻根本不存在的声明),是允许的。The grounds of nullity so carefully delimited in the 1918 Code of Canon Law have now been broadened to embrace many deficiencies of character.如此精心的无效,在1918年佳能法码分隔的理由现在已经扩大到拥抱的性格很多不足。


Vatican II recognized that all the baptized participate in some way in the priesthood of Christ, but confirmed Catholic tradition on the clerical hierarchy by decreeing that there is a distinction between the priesthood conferred by baptism and that conferred by ordination. 梵二认识到,所有的洗礼方式参加一些基督在圣职,但他证实了协调天主教的洗礼,并赋予传统的层次结构下令文书是有区别的由神职人员所赋予的。

The ordained priesthood has three orders: bishops, priests, and deacons. The first and third are offices of the NT church. 在祝圣司铎有三个订单:,司铎和执事。主教教堂是第一个和第三个办事处新台币。The office of priest emerged when it was no longer practical to continue recognizing the Jewish priesthood (owing to the destruction of the temple and the great influx of Gentiles into the church) and with the development of a sacrificial understanding of the Lord's Supper.办公室的牧师出现时,它已不再切合实际的继续承认犹太祭司(由于销毁庙和外邦人进入教会大量涌入)和一个主的晚餐牺牲认识的发展。

FS Piggin财政司司长Piggin

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)


Advanced Information先进的信息

A religious rite or ceremony instituted or recognized by Jesus Christ.一个宗教礼仪或仪式,提起或由耶稣基督承认。Baptism and the Lord's Supper were given a prominent place in the fellowship of the early church (Acts 2:41 - 42; 10:47; 20:7, 11), along with the proclamation (kerygma) and teaching (didache).洗礼和主的晚餐分别获得了在早期教会团契的显眼处(使徒2时41分 - 42; 10时47分,20点07分,11),随着公告(kerygma)和教学(十二使徒遗训)。Both rites were regarded as means appointed by Jesus Christ to bring the members of the church into communion with his death and resurrection, and thus with himself through the Holy Spirit (Matt. 28:19 - 20; Acts 2:38; Rom. 6:3 - 5; 1 Cor. 11:23 - 27; Col. 2:11 - 12).这两个仪式被视为指耶稣基督共融任命,使他的死亡与复活的教会的成员,并与自己从而通过圣灵(太28:19 - 20;。徒2:38;罗6 :3 - 5,1肺心病11时23分 - 27;上校2时11分 - 12)。。They were linked together in our Lord's teaching (Mark 10:38 - 39) and in the mind of the church (1 Cor. 10:1 - 5ff.) as having such significance.他们联系在一起,我们的主的教导(马克10时38分 - 39),并在心中的教会(1肺心病10时01分 - 。5ff。)作为具有如此重要。They were the visible enactment of the word proclaimed in the kerygma, and their significance must be understood as such.他们是通过这个词可见在kerygma宣布,其意义必须这样理解。

The proclamation of the gospel in the NT was no mere recital of the events of the life, death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus, the Son of God.作者在新台币宣讲福音是没有生命,死亡,复活,和耶稣,上帝的儿子提升的事件仅仅是演奏会。It was the representation of these events to the hearers in the power of the Spirit so that through such proclamation they could become related to these events in a living way through faith.这是在权力的精神这些事件的听众表示通过这样的宣讲,使他们能成为关系到这些通过信仰生活的方式活动。In the proclamation of the gospel the once - for - all event continued to be effective for salvation (1 Cor. 1:21; 2 Cor. 5:18 - 19).在宣讲福音的一次 - - 所有的事件仍然是有效的救赎(林前1:21。。林后5:18 - 19)。 The word of the kerygma gave men fellowship in the mystery of the kingdom of God brought nigh in Jesus (Matt. 13:1 - 23; Mark 4:11), and the preacher in fulfilling his task was the steward of this mystery (1 Cor. 4:1; Eph. 3:8 - 9; Col. 1:25).该kerygma了字,在神国的奥秘,使人们在耶稣亲近奖学金(太13时01分 - 23;马克4:11),并在履行其任务的牧师是这个神秘的管家(1林前4:1;弗3:8 - 9。。上校1:25)。The miracles or signs accompanying the proclamation in the early church were the visible aspect of the living power the word derived from its relation to the mystery of the kingdom of God.随行的奇迹或标志,在早期教会宣布是可见的生活用电方面来自它相对于神国的奥秘,这个词。

It was inevitable, therefore, that baptism and the Lord's Supper, the other visible counterparts of the kerygma, should also come to be regarded as giving fellowship in the same mysterion of the Word made flesh (1 Tim. 3:16), and should be interpreted as themselves partaking in the mystery of the relationship between Christ and his church (Eph. 5:32).这是不可避免的,因此,洗礼和主的晚餐,对kerygma其他可见同行,也应被视为给予的Word相同mysterion金成肉身视为(1添。3:16),并应被解释为自己在基督与他的教会(以弗所书5:32)partaking的关系之谜。

The Greek word mysterion was later often given the Latin sacramentum, and the rites themselves came to be spoken of as sacramenta.希腊字mysterion后来常常给拉丁美洲sacramentum,和自己的仪式后来被作为sacramenta的发言。 The word sacramentum meant both "a thing set apart as sacred" and "a military oath of obedience as administered by the commander."这个词意味着双方sacramentum“的事也除了作为神圣的”和“宣誓服从军事指挥官所管理的。” The use of this word for baptism and the Lord's Supper affected the thought about these rites, and they tended to be regarded as conveying grace in themselves, rather than as relating men through faith to Christ.对这个洗礼和主的晚餐一词的使用影响了对这些仪式的思想,他们往往被视为输送恩典视为本身,而不是通过信的人与基督。

A sacrament came later to be defined (following Augustine) as a "visible word" or an "outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace."一个圣餐来到后来被定义为“看得见的字”或(以下奥古斯丁)“外在可见的外来及精神风度的标志。”The similarity between the form of the sacrament and the hidden gift tended to be stressed.之间的圣餐礼的形式和隐藏的相似性往往被强调。Five lesser sacraments became traditional in the church: confirmation, penance, extreme unction, order, matrimony.五小圣礼成为传统的教会:确认,忏悔,终傅,秩序,婚姻。But the church had always a special place for baptism and the Lord's Supper as the chief mysteries, and at the Reformation these were regarded as the only two that had the authority of our Lord himself, and therefore as the only true sacraments.但教堂洗礼一直为特殊的地方作为首席奥秘,上帝的晚餐,并在改革这些被作为唯一有两个,因此,作为唯一真正的圣事,我们的主把自己的权威。

Since God in the OT also used visible signs along with the word, these were also regarded as having sacramental significance.由于在加时赛上帝也一起使用这个词的明显迹象,这也被视为有圣事的意义。 Among the OT sacraments the rites of circumcision and the passover were stressed as being the OT counterparts of baptism (Col. 2:11 - 12) and the Lord's Supper (1 Cor. 5:7).在加时赛圣礼的割礼仪式和逾越节同时存在的洗礼同行的催产素(上校2点11分 - 12)强调,和主的晚餐(1肺心病5时07分。)。

RS Wallace遥感华莱士
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
Calvin, Institutes 4.14; R Bruce, Sermons upon the Sacraments; TF Torrance, "Eschatology and the Eucharist," in Intercommunion; G Bornkamm, TDNT , IV; OC Quick, The Christian Sacraments; JI Packer, ed., Eucharistic Sacrifice.卡尔文学院4.14与r布鲁斯,经圣礼讲道; tF的托兰斯,“末世论和圣体”,在暹; Ğ博恩卡姆,TDNT,四;业主立案法团快,基督教圣礼;巴刻版,圣体圣事祭祀。。


Catholic Information天主教新闻

Sacraments are outward signs of inward grace, instituted by Christ for our sanctification (Catechismus concil. Trident., n.4, ex S. Aug. "De Catechizandis rudibus").圣礼有外来的宽限期由基督为我们的圣洁,离港的迹象(Catechismus concil。三叉戟。,n.4,前学八月“德Catechizandis rudibus”)。The subject may be treated under the following headings:这个主题可视为按下列标题:

I. The necessity and the nature of the sacramental system一,必要性和圣事制度的本质

II.二。The nature of the sacraments of the new law对新法律性质的圣礼

III.三。The origin (cause) of the sacraments圣事的起源(事业)

IV.四。The number of the sacraments圣事的数目

V. The effects of the sacraments五,圣礼的影响

VI.六。The minister of the sacraments圣事的部长

VII.七。The recipient of the sacraments收件人的圣礼


(1) In what sense necessary(1)在什么意义上必要

Almighty God can and does give grace to men in answer to their internal aspirations and prayers without the use of any external sign or ceremony.全能的上帝可以,而且确实给在回答他们的愿望和祈祷的宽限期内对男人没有任何外部符号或仪式使用。This will always be possible, because God, grace, and the soul are spiritual beings.这将永远是可能的,因为神的恩典,是精神和灵魂的存在。God is not restricted to the use of material, visible symbols in dealing with men; the sacraments are not necessary in the sense that they could not have been dispensed with.上帝不是限于​​材料的使用,在与男性打交道可见的符号;圣礼,是不是在他们已经不能感觉有必要取消。But, if it is known that God has appointed external, visible ceremonies as the means by which certain graces are to be conferred on men, then in order to obtain those graces it will be necessary for men to make use of those Divinely appointed means.但是,如果它被称为上帝任命为手段,使某些青睐男人要赋予外部视觉仪式,那么为了获得这些青睐有必要对男人利用这些神委任的手段。 This truth theologians express by saying that the sacraments are necessary, not absolutely but only hypothetically, ie, in the supposition that if we wish to obtain a certain supernatural end we must use the supernatural means appointed for obtaining that end.这条真理的神学家表示说,圣礼,是必要的,不是绝对的,但只有假设,即在假设,如果我们想获得一定的超自然的目的,我们必须使用超自然的方式获取该年底任命。 In this sense the Council of Trent (Sess. VII, can. 4) declared heretical those who assert that the sacraments of the New Law are superfluous and not necessary, although all are not necessary for each individual.在这个意义上,安理会的遄达(sess.七,可以的。四)宣布邪教那些谁断言,新税法的圣礼,是多余的,没有必要的,但都没有为每个单独的必要。 It is the teaching of the Catholic Church and of Christians in general that, whilst God was nowise bound to make use of external ceremonies as symbols of things spiritual and sacred, it has pleased Him to do so, and this is the ordinary and most suitable manner of dealing with men.这是天主教教会和在一般的,而上帝是毫不必然会使作为事物的精神和神圣的仪式使用外部符号,它具有高兴他这样做基督徒的教学,这是普通和最合适与男子打交道的方式。

Writers on the sacraments refer to this as the necessitas convenientiae, the necessity of suitableness.在圣礼作家把这种作为necessitas convenientiae,在适宜性的必要性。It is not really a necessity, but the most appropriate manner of dealing with creatures that are at the same time spiritual and corporeal.这是不是一个真正的必要性,而是与动物,在同一时间精神和肉体是最适当的方式处理。 In this assertion all Christians are united: it is only when we come to consider the nature of the sacramental signs that Protestants (except some Anglicans) differ from Catholics.这句话所有的基督徒团结:只有当我们考虑的是新教徒(除了一些圣公会)由天主教圣事的不同性质的迹象。"To sacraments considered merely as outward forms, pictorial representations or symbolic acts, there is generally no objection", wrote Dr. Morgan Dix ("The sacramental system", New York, 1902, p. 16). “为了视为外在形式,图案陈述或只是象征性的行为圣礼,一般不存在异议”,摩根博士说迪克斯(“圣事制度”,纽约,1902年,第16页)。"Of sacramental doctrine this may be said, that it is co-extensive with historic Christianity. Of this there is no reasonable doubt, as regards the very ancient days, of which St. Chrysostom's treatise on the priesthood and St. Cyril's catechetical lectures may be taken as characteristic documents. Nor was it otherwise with the more conservative of the reformed bodies of the sixteenth century. Martin Luther's Catechism, the Augsburg, and later the Westminster, Confessions are strongly sacramental in their tone, putting to shame the degenerate followers of those who compiled them" (ibid., p. 7, 8) “在圣事的原则,这可能是说,它是配合历史的基督教广泛。其中有没有合理的怀疑,至于非常古老的天,其中圣金口对神职人员的论文和圣西里尔的问答讲座会被视为特色文献。也不是与更多的第十六世纪的改革机构。马丁路德的问答,奥格斯堡,以及后来的威斯敏斯特,忏悔都在他们的语气强烈圣保守,否则,把羞愧的退化信徒他们编制的谁“(同上,第7,8)

(2) Why the sacramental system is most appropriate(2)为什么系统是最合适的圣礼

The reasons underlying a sacramental system are as follows:其原因是相关A圣礼制度如下:

Taking the word "sacrament" in its broadest sense, as the sign of something sacred and hidden (the Greek word is "mystery"), we can say that the whole world is a vast sacramental system, in that material things are unto men the signs of things spiritual and sacred, even of the Divinity.参与最广泛意义上的字“圣事”,作为神圣的东西和隐藏符号(希腊字是“谜”),我们可以说,整个世界是一个巨大的圣事的系统,因为物质的东西,都是你们男人事物的精神和神圣的符号,甚至是神。 "The heavens show forth the glory of God, and the firmament declareth the work of his hands" (Ps. xviii, 2). “老天爷彰显神的荣耀,传扬他手中的工作苍穹”(诗篇十八,2)。The invisible things of him [ie God], from the creation of the world, are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made; his eternal power also, and divinity" (Romans 1:20).他的无形的东西[即上帝]从世界的创造,都清楚地看到,被认为是使事情明白,他的永恒力量也和神“(罗马书1:20)。

The redemption of man was not accomplished in an invisible manner.人类的赎回并没有在一个看不见的方式完成。God renewed, through the Patriarchs and the Prophets, the promise of salvation made to the first man; external symbols were used to express faith in the promised Redeemer: "all these things happened to them [the Israelites] in figure" (1 Corinthians 10:11; Hebrews 10:1).上帝再次,通过先祖与先知,由于取得了第一个人类的救赎的承诺;外部符号被用来表达承诺的救赎的信念:“所有这些事情发生在他们身上图[以色列人]”(哥林多前书10 :11;希伯来书10:1)。"So we also, when we were children, were serving under the elements of the world. But when the fullness of time was come, God sent his Son, made of a woman" (Galatians 4:3-4). “因此,我们同样,当我们还是孩子,都曾经是世界的元素服务。但当丰满的时间到了,上帝派他的儿子,为女子”(加拉太书4:3-4)。The Incarnation took place because God dealt with men in the manner that was best suited to their nature.发生的化身,因为上帝在认为最适合男人的方式处理它们的性质。

The Church established by the Saviour was to be a visible organization (see CHURCH: The Visibility of the Church): consequently it should have external ceremonies and symbols of things sacred.的救世主,建立的教会是一个有形的组织(见教会:教会的能见度):因此它应该有外在的东西神圣的仪式和符号。

The principal reason for a sacramental system is found in man.对于一个系统的主要理由是圣中发现的人。It is the nature of man, writes St. Thomas (III:61:1), to be led by things corporeal and sense-perceptible to things spiritual and intelligible; now Divine Providence provides for everything in accordance with its nature (secundum modum suae conditionis); therefore it is fitting that Divine Wisdom should provide means of salvation for men in the form of certain corporeal and sensible signs which are called sacraments.这是人的本性,写圣托马斯(三:61:1),由有形的事物和感觉,感知和理解事物的精神领导,现在神意提供一切按照其性质(孔型modum suae conditionis),因此它是恰当的神圣智慧应提供在某些有形的和合理的迹象圣礼的形式被称为男人的拯救手段。(For other reasons see Catech. Conc. Trid., II, n.14.)(因其他原因见儿茶酚。浓。论坛报。第一,二,n.14)。

(3) Existence of sacred symbols(3)存在的神圣象征

(a) No sacraments in the state of innocence.(一)在无罪状态没有圣礼。According ot St. Thomas (III:61:2) and theologians generally there were no sacraments before Adam sinned, ie, in the state of original justice.根据加时赛圣托马斯(三:61:2)和神学家一般没有圣礼亚当犯罪之前,在原司法国务即。Man's dignity was so great that he was raised above the natural condition of human nature.人的尊严是如此巨大,他是可以被人性的自然条件提出的。His mind was subject to God; his lower faculties were subject to the higher part of his mind; his body was subject to his soul; it would have been against the dignity of that state had he been dependent, for the acquisition of knowledge or of Divine grace, on anything beneath him, ie, corporeal things.他的思想是受神,他的下院系都受到他的心灵较高的一部分,他的身体是受他的灵魂,它会针对该国的尊严得到了他一直依赖知识的收购或,神的恩典,在他身下,即有形的东西什么。 For this reason the majority of theologians hold that no sacraments would have been instituted even if that state had lasted for a long time.基于这个原因,大多数的神学家认为,没有圣礼会被提起,即使该国已经持续了很长一段时间。

(b) Sacraments of the law of nature.(二)自然规律圣礼。Apart from what was or might have been in that extraordinary state, the use of sacred symbols is universal.除了是什么或有可能在这不平凡的状态,是神圣的符号运用是很普遍。St. Augustine says that every religion, true or false, has its visible signs or sacraments.圣奥古斯丁说,每一种宗教,真或假的,有其明显的标志或圣礼。"In nullum nomen religionis, seu verum seu falsum, coadunari homines possunt, nisi aliquo signaculorum seu sacramentorum visibilium consortio colligantur" (Cont. Faust., XIX, xi). “在法无nomen religionis,东南大学东南大学falsum八角,possunt coadunari homines,暂准aliquo signaculorum东南大学sacramentorum visibilium consortio colligantur”(续浮士德。,十九,十一)。Commentators on the Scriptures and theologians almost unanimously assert that there were sacraments under the law of nature and under the Mosaic Law, as there are sacraments of greater dignity under the Law of Christ.在圣经和神学论者几乎一致断言,有圣礼下的自然规律,根据镶嵌法,因为有基督的律法下更大的尊严圣礼。Under the law of nature -- so called not to exclude supernatural revelation but because at that time there existed no written supernatural law -- salvation was granted through faith in the promised Redeemer, and men expressed that faith by some external signs.根据自然法则 - 所谓不排除超自然的启示,但因为当时没有书面超自然存在法律 - 拯救被授予通过在承诺的救赎的信念,和男子表示,一些外部的迹象信心。What those signs should be God did not determine, leaving this for the people, most probably to the leaders or heads of families, who were guided in their choice by an interior inspiration of the Holy Ghost.这些迹象应该是什么神没有确定,剩下的人这一点,最有可能的领导人或家庭,谁在自己选择的指导下由一个内部的圣灵启示头。 This is the conception of St. Thomas, who says that, as under the law of nature (when there was no written law), men were guided by interior inspiration in worshiping God, so also they determined what signs should be used in the external acts of worship (III:60:5, ad 3).这是圣托马斯,谁称,按照自然规律(当时有没有书面的法律),人被内部激励引导下,敬拜神,观念也是如此,他们决定什么标志应在外部使用崇拜行为(三:60:5,公元3)。 Afterwards, however, as it was necessary to give a written law: (a) because the law of nature had been obscured by sin, and (b) because it was time to give a more explicit knowledge of the grace of Christ, then also it became necessary to determine what external signs should be used as sacraments (III:60:5, ad 3; III:61:3, ad 2) This was not necessary immediately after the Fall, by reason of the fullness of faith and knowledge imparted to Adam.可是后来,因为它是必要的书面法律:(一)由于自然法已经掩盖罪恶,和(b),因为它是时候给一个基督的恩典更明确的认识,那么也它成为必要,以确定哪些外​​部标志应作为圣礼(三:60:5,广告3;三:61:3,广告2)这是没有必要的退却后,立即向信徒和知识丰满的原因,传授给亚当。 But about the time of Abraham, when faith had been weakened, many had fallen into idolatry, and the light of reason had been obscured by indulgence of the passions, even unto the commission of sins against nature, God intervened and appointed as a sign of faith the rite of circumcision (Genesis 17; ST III:70:2, ad 1; see CIRCUMCISION).但对亚伯拉罕,当信仰已被削弱,当时许多已陷入偶像崇拜,轻的理由已被掩盖的激情放纵,甚至你们的佣金对性质罪,神介入并任命一个迹象信仰的割礼仪式(创17;圣三:,公元1 70:2,见割礼)。

The vast majority of theologians teach that this ceremony was a sacrament and that it was instituted as a remedy for original sin; consequently that it conferred grace, not indeed of itself (ex opere operato), but by reason of the faith in Christ which it expressed.绝大多数的神学家告诉我们,这个仪式是圣和,这是作为补救原罪提起,因此,它赋予的宽限期,而不是​​本身确实(前opere operato),而是由在基督信仰的原因,它表示。"In circumcisione conferebatur gratia, non ex virtute circumcisionis, sed ex virtute fidei passionis Christi futurae, cujus signum erat circumcisio -- quia scilicet justitia erat ex fide significata, non ex circumcisione significante" (ST III:70:4). “在circumcisione conferebatur特惠,非当然virtute circumcisionis,中美战略经济对话前virtute fidei passionis斯蒂futurae,cujus Signum的erat circumcisio - quia换句话说justitia erat前善意significata,非当然circumcisione significante”(圣三:70:4)。Certainly it was at least a sign of something sacred, and it was appointed and determined by God himself as a sign of faith and as a mark by which the faithful were distinguished from unbelievers.当然,这至少是一个神圣的标志的东西,它是由上帝亲自任命并作为一种信仰的象征,并作为其中的信徒们不信的杰出标志确定。 It was not, however, the only sign of faith used under the law of nature.它不是,但是,根据自然法则用于信仰的唯一迹象。It is incredible, writes St. Augustine, that before circumcision there was no sacrament for the relief (justification) of children, although for some good reason the Scriptures do not tell us what that sacrament was (Cont. Jul., III, xi).令人难以置信的是,圣奥古斯丁写道,割礼之前,没有为儿童的救济(理由​​)圣事,尽管有些很好的原因,圣经没有告诉我们那是什么圣礼为(续七月,三,十一) 。The sacrifice of Melchisedech, the sacrifice of the friends of Job, the various tithes and oblations for the service of God are mentioned by St. Thomas (III:61:3, ad 3; III:65:1, ad 7) as external observances which may be considered as the sacred signs of that time, prefiguring future sacred institutions: hence, he adds, they may be called sacraments of the law of nature.该Melchisedech,对朋友的工作,各什一税和为上帝服务的供奉牺牲奉献,所提到的圣托马斯(三:,公元3 61:3;三:65:1,广告七)外部这可能被认为是那个时代的神圣的符​​号,预示未来的神圣机构纪念活动:因此,他补充说,他们可能是自然法则称为圣礼。

(c) Sacraments of the Mosaic Law.的镶嵌法(三)圣礼。As the time for Christ's coming drew nearer, in order that the Israelites might be better instructed God spoke to Moses, revealing to him in detail the sacred signs and ceremonies by which they were to manifest more explicitly their faith in the future Redeemer.正如基督的未来时间的临近,为了使以色列人可能会更好指示神对摩西说话,详细地揭示他的神圣的符​​号和仪式,使他们更明确地体现了他们对未来救世主的信仰。 Those signs and ceremonies were the sacraments of the Mosaic Law, "which are compared to the sacraments which were before the law as something determined to something undetermined, because before the law it had not been determined what signs men should use" (ST III:61:3, ad 2).这些迹象和仪式是圣礼的镶嵌法“,这是相对于圣礼面前的东西,作为确定法律是不确定的东西,因为之前它尚未确定何种症状的人应使用法”(圣三: 61:3,广告2)。With the Angelic Doctor (I-II:102:5) theologians usually divide the sacraments of this period into three classes:随着天使般的医生(第一和第二:102:5)神学家通常划分为三个类此期间圣礼:

The ceremonies by which men were made and signed as worshippers or ministers of God.其中男子的提出和作为神的崇拜者或部长签署仪式。Thus we have (a) circumcision, instituted in the time of Abraham (Genesis 17), renewed in the time of Moses (Leviticus 12:3) for all people; and (b) the sacred rites by which the Levitical priests were consecrated.因此,我们有(A)割礼,在亚伯拉罕(创17),摩西(利未记12:3)为所有的人的时间延长,提起;及(b)由祭司利未人的神圣神圣的仪式。 The ceremonies which consisted in the use of things pertaining to the service of God, ie (a) the paschal lamb for all the people, and (b) the loaves of proposition for the ministers.仪式是在有关的上帝,即(一)所有的人逾越节的羔羊,和(b)为部长们主张用面包服务的东西组成。

The ceremonies of purification from legal contamination, ie (a) for the people, various expiations, (b) for the priests, the washing of hands and feet, the shaving of the head, etc. St. Augustine says the sacraments of the Old Law were abolished because they had been fulfilled (cf. Matthew 5:17), and others have been instituted which are more efficacious, more useful, easier to administer and to receive, fewer in number ("virtute majora, utilitate meliora, actu faciliora, numero pauciora", Cont. Faust., XIX, xiii).从法律的污染,为人民,各种expiations即(a)的净化仪式,(b)为祭司,手和脚,剃了头,洗衣机等圣奥古斯丁说,旧的圣礼法律被废除,因为他们已经完成(参见马修5:17),和其他人已提起这是更有效,更实用,更易于管理和接受,在数量较少(“virtute阴唇,utilitate meliora,ACTU的faciliora ,numero pauciora“,续。浮士德。,十九,十三)。The Council of Trent condemns those who say that there is no difference except in the outward rite between the sacraments of the Old Law and those of the New Law (Sess. VII, can. ii).安理会的遄达说,谴责那些谁没有,除了在与圣礼的旧法和那些新的法律向外仪式达(sess.七,可以的。二)之差。The Decree for the Armenians, published by Order of the Council of Florence, says that the sacraments of the Old Law did not confer grace, but only prefigured the grace which was to be given by the Passion of Christ.对于由佛罗伦萨国务院令公布的亚美尼亚人,法令说,旧法没有赋予的圣礼宽限期,但只预示的恩典,这是由基督的受难给出。 This means that they did not give grace themselves (ie ex opere operato) but only by reason of the faith in Christ which they represented -- "ex fide significata, non ex circumcisione significante" (ST I-II:102:5)这意味着,他们没有把自己的宽限期(即前opere operato),但只有在基督原因他们所代表的信念 - “当然善意significata,非当然circumcisione significante”(意法半导体第一和第二:102:5)


(1) Definition of a sacrament(1)定义的一种圣礼

The sacraments thus far considered were merely signs of sacred things.迄今所考虑的仅仅是圣礼的神圣的东西的迹象。According to the teaching of the Catholic Church, accepted today by many Episcopalians, the sacraments of the Christian dispensation are not mere signs; they do not merely signify Divine grace, but in virtue of their Divine institution, they cause that grace in the souls of men.根据天主教的教学,今天接受许多圣公会,基督教福音圣礼,是不是单纯的迹象,但并不仅仅意味着神的恩典,但凭借其神圣的机构,他们在事业的灵魂恩典男子。 "Signum sacro sanctum efficax gratiae" -- a sacrosanct sign producing grace, is a good, succinct definition of a sacrament of the New Law.“Signum的骶圣地efficax gratiae” - 一个神圣的符号生产的恩典,是一个很好的,一个新税法的圣餐简洁的定义。Sacrament, in its broadest acceptation, may be defined as an external sign of something sacred.圣事,在其最广泛的验收,可被定义为一个神圣的东西的外部标志。In the twelfth century Peter Lombard (d. 1164), known as the Master of the Sentences, author of the manual of systematized theology, gave an accurate definition of a sacrament of the New Law: A sacrament is in such a manner an outward sign of inward grace that it bears its image (ie signifies or represents it) and is its cause -- "Sacramentum proprie dicitur quod ita signum est gratiae Dei, ei invisibilis gratiae forma, ut ipsius imaginem gerat et causa existat" (IV Sent., dI, n.2).在十二世纪彼得隆巴德(草1164)作为船长的句子,系统化的神学手册撰文称,介绍了一种新的法律圣礼准确的定义:一个圣餐用这种方式是一种外在的标志外来的恩典,它承担的形象(即意味或代表它),是它的原因 - “Sacramentum proprie dicitur狴意大利Signum的美国东部时间gratiae棣,荣invisibilis gratiae预计,UT斯达康ipsius imaginem大等病因existat”(四发送。直接投资,n.2)。This definition was adopted and perfected by the medieval Scholastics.这个定义是通过和中世纪经院哲学家完善。From St. Thomas we have the short but very expressive definition: The sign of a sacred thing in so far as it sanctifies men - "Signum rei sacrae in quantum est sanctificans homines" (III:60:2).从圣托马斯我们有短,但非常富有表现力的定义:一个神圣的东西,只要它成圣的人想 - “在美国东部时间sanctificans homines Signum的量子REI的sacrae”(三:60:2)。

All the creatures of the universe proclaim something sacred, namely, the wisdom and the goodness of God, as they are sacred in themselves, not as they are sacred things sanctifying men, hence they cannot be called sacraments in the sense in which we speak of sacraments (ibid., ad 1um).所有的宇宙生物宣布神圣的,即智慧和善良的上帝,因为它​​们本身就是神圣的,而不是因为他们是圣洁的人神圣的东西,因此他们不能在这个意义上所谓的圣礼中,我们讲圣礼(同上,广告1微米)。 The Council of Trent includes the substance of these two definitions in the following: "Symbolum rei sacrae, et invisibilis gratiae forma visibilis, sanctificandi vim habens" -- A symbol of something sacred, a visible form of invisible grace, having the power of sanctifying (Sess. XIII, cap.3).安理会的遄包括这两个定义,下列内容:“Symbolum REI的sacrae,等invisibilis gratiae预计visibilis,sanctificandi Vim的habens” - 一个象征神圣的东西,有形的无形的恩典的形式,有权力的sanctifying达(sess.第十三cap.3)。The "Catechism of the Council of Trent" gives a more complete definition: Something perceptible by the senses which by Divine institution has the power both to signify and to effect sanctity and justice (II, n.2).而“安理会的遄达问答”给出了一个更完整的定义:通过感官的由神圣的机构有能力既象征和神圣的东西感知到的影响和正义(二,n.2)。 Catholic catechisms in English usually have the following: An outward sign of inward grace, a sacred and mysterious sign or ceremony, ordained by Christ, by which grace is conveyed to our souls.天主教要理问答中英通常有以下几种:一种外来的恩典,一个神圣而神秘的符号或仪式,由基督受戒,离港的迹象,其中宽限期传达给我们的灵魂。 Anglican and Epscopalian theologies and catechisms give definitions which Catholics could accept.圣公会和Epscopalian神学和Catechisms给予天主教徒可以接受的定义。In every sacrament three things are necessary: the outward sign; the inward grace; Divine institution.在每一个圣三样东西是必需的:外在标志;外来恩典;神圣的机构。A sign stands for and represents something else, either naturally, as smoke represents fire, or by the choice of an intelligent being, as the red cross indicates an ambulance.一个符号代表,并代表其他东西,不论是自然,因为烟代表火,或由一个聪明的被选择,因为红十字会表示救护车。 Sacraments do not naturally signify grace; they do so because they have been chosen by God to signify mysterious effects.圣礼并不意味着优雅自然,他们这样做是因为他们已经被神选择的象征神秘的效果。Yet they are not altogether arbitrary, because in some cases, if not in all, the ceremonies performed have a quasi-natural connection with the effect to be produced.不过,他们不是完全任意的,因为在某些情况下,如果不是在所有的仪式表演有一个产生的效果要准自然连接。Thus, pouring water on the head of a child readily brings to mind the interior purification of the soul.因此,浇了一个儿童头部很容易让人想到水的净化室内的灵魂。The word "sacrament" (sacramentum), even as used by profane Latin writers, signified something sacred, viz., the oath by which soldiers were bound, or the money deposited by litigants in a contest.这个词“圣事”(sacramentum),甚至亵渎拉丁美洲作家所使用,标志着神圣的,即。,通过宣誓,士兵们被束缚,或存入的钱在比赛诉讼人。 In the writings of the Fathers of the Church the word was used to signify something sacred and mysterious, and where the Latins use sacramentum the Greeks use mysterion (mystery).在教会的教父们的著作这个词是用来表示神圣和神秘的东西,并在拉丁人,希腊人使用sacramentum使用mysterion(神秘)。 The sacred and mysterious thing signified is Divine grace, which is the formal cause of our justification (see GRACE), but with it we must associate the Passion of Christ (efficient and meritorious cause) and the end (final cause) of our sanctification, viz., eternal ife.神圣和神秘的东西,是神的恩典标志着,这是我们的理由(见宽限期)正式原因,但我们必须与它相关联的基督(效率和有功原因)和结束(最终原因)我们成圣的激情,即。,永恒的伊费。 The significance of the sacraments according to theologians (eg ST III:60:3) and the Roman Catechism (II, n.13) extends to these three sacred things, of which one is past, one present, and one future.圣事的意义根据神学家(如圣三:60:3)和罗马问答(二,n.13)延伸到这三个神圣的东西,其中一个是过去,一本,和同一个未来。 The three are aptly expressed in St. Thomas's beautiful antiphon on the Eucharist: "O sacrum convivium, in quo Christus sumitur, recolitur memoria passionis ejus, mens impletur gratia, et futurae gloriae nobis pignus datur -- O sacred banquet, in which Christ is received, the memory of the passion is recalled, the soul is filled with grace, and a pledge of future life is given to us".三人都正好在圣托马斯的美丽安提在圣体表示:“啊,骶骨convivium,在基督sumitur现状,recolitur备忘passionis ejus,男子impletur特惠,等futurae gloriae nobis pignus datur - 噢,神圣的宴会,是在基督收到的激情记忆回顾,灵魂充满了优雅,和未来生活的承诺是给我们“。

(2) Errors of Protestants(2)错误的新教徒

Protestants generally hold that the sacraments are signs of something sacred (grace and faith), but deny that they really cause Divine grace.新教徒普遍认为,圣礼是什么神圣的符号(恩典和信心),但否认他们真的会造成神的恩典。Episcopalians, however, and Anglicans, especially the Ritualists, hold with Catholics that the sacraments are "effectual signs" of grace.圣公会教徒,但是,​​英国圣公会教徒,特别是礼官,同天主教的圣礼是“有效的标志”的宽限期。In article XXV of the Westminster Confession we read:在第二十五的西敏寺自白,我们读到:

Sacraments ordained of God be not only badges or tokens of Christian men's profession, but rather they be certain sure witnesses and effectual signs of grace and God's good will towards us by which He doth work invisibly in us, and doth not only quicken but strengthen and confirm our faith in Him (cf. art. XXVII).神受戒圣礼不仅徽章或基督教男子职业记号,而是他们肯定知道证人和宽限期有效标志和神的对我们的善意,其中他doth工作在我们看不见的,并唆使不仅加快,但加强和证实了我们的信念在他(参见艺术。二十七)。

"The Zwinglian theory", writes Morgan Dix (op.cit., p.73), "that sacraments are nothing but memorials of Christ and badges of Christian profession, is one that can by no possible jugglery with the English tongue be reconciled with the formularies of our church." “在Zwinglian理论”,写道:摩根迪克斯(前引书。,第73页),“那只不过是圣礼基督和基督教界纪念徽章,是一个根本无法与英文舌头可能把戏调和与我们教会的处方。“ Mortimer adopts and explains the Catholic formula "ex opere operato" (loc. cit., p. 122).莫蒂默采用并解释了天主教公式“前opere operato”(如上。,第122页)。Luther and his early followers rejected this conception of the sacraments.路德和他的早期追随者拒绝了这一概念的圣礼。They do not cause grace, but are merely "signs and testimonies of God's good will towards us" (Augsburg Confessions); they excite faith, and faith (fiduciary) causes justification.它们不会导致风度,但仅仅是“标志和上帝的善意向我们见证”(奥格斯堡自白),他们激发信任,信任(信托)引起的理由。 Calvinists and Presbyterians hold substantially the same doctrine.加尔文和长老持大致相同的教义。Zwinglius lowered still further the dignity of the sacraments, making them signs not of God's fidelity but of our fidelity.Zwinglius进一步下调的圣礼的尊严,使他们不是上帝的忠诚,但富达的迹象。By receiving the sacraments we manifest faith in Christ: they are merely the badges of our profession and the pledges of our fidelity.靠接受圣礼我们表现在基督信仰:他们只是在我们专业的徽章及富达的承诺。Fundamentally all these errors arise from Luther's newly-invented theory of righteousness, ie the doctrine of justification by faith alone (see GRACE).所有这些错误的出现从根本上从路德的新发明的正义观,即通过独自的教义信仰的理由(见宽限期)。If man is to be sanctified not by an interior renovation through grace which will blot out his sins, but by an extrinsic imputation through the merits of Christ, which will cover his soul as a cloak, there is no place for signs that cause grace, and those used can have no other purpose than to excite faith in the Saviour.如果人是要由一个圣洁的恩典,将通过涂抹他的罪室内装修,而是由一个基督的优点,通过外在归集,将涵盖他作为斗篷的灵魂,没有任何迹象的地方,造成的恩典,和那些使用可以没有其他目的,而不是激发了救世主的信仰。 Luther's convenient doctrine on justification was not adopted by all his followers and it is not baldly and boldly proclaimed by all Protestants today; nevertheless they accept its consequences affecting the true notion of the sacraments.路德的学说的理由,方便所有没有通过他的追随者,这是不是露骨地,大胆地宣布今天所有新教徒,然而他们接受其后果影响的圣礼真实的概念。

(3) Catholic Doctrine(3)天主教教义

Against all innovators the Council of Trent declared: "If anyone say that the sacraments of the New Law do not contain the grace which they signify, or that they do not confer grace on those who place no obstacle to the same, let him be anathema" (Sess. viii,对所有创新安理会的遄达宣称:“如果有人说,新税法的圣礼不包含他们的恩典,这意味着,或者他们并不赋予那些谁没有障碍的地方同样的恩典,让他被诅咒“达(sess.八,。 "If anyone say that grace is not conferred by the sacraments ex opere operato but that faith in God's promises is alone sufficient for obtaining grace, let him be anathema" (ibid., can. viii; cf. can.iv, v, vii).“如果有人说,恩典不是圣礼所赋予的前opere operato但在上帝的信仰是孤独的承诺取得足够的恩典,让他被诅咒”(同上,可以八。。比照can.iv,五,七)。The phrase "ex opere operato", for which there is no equivalent in English, probably was used for the first time by Peter of Poitiers (D. 1205), and afterwards by Innocent III (d. 1216; de myst. missae, III, v), and by St. Thomas (d. 1274; IV Sent., dist. 1, Qi, a.5).这句话“当然opere operato”,其中有英文中并无当量,可能是对因彼得的普瓦捷(草1205)首次使用,后来由无辜的第三(四1216;德神秘岛missae,三。 ,),以及由圣托马斯(草1274伏;。。四,发送,区一,齐,A.5节)。It was happily invented to express a truth that had always been taught and had been introduced without objection.这是愉快地发明了表示与一直被教导,并已推出无异议的真理。It is not an elegant formula but, as St. Augustine remarks (In Ps. cxxxviii): It is better that grammarians should object than that the people should not understand.这不是一个优雅的公式,但正如圣奥古斯丁的言论,(在PS cxxxviii。):这是更好的语法应该反对的人应该比不明白。"Ex opere operato", ie by virtue of the action, means that the efficacy of the action of the sacraments does not depend on anything human, but solely on the will of God as expressed by Christ's institution and promise.“前opere operato”,由该行动的美德,即意味着该行为效力的圣礼不依赖于任何人,而只是对上帝的意志为表达基督的机构和承诺。"Ex opere operantis", ie by reason of the agent, would mean that the action of the sacraments depended on the worthiness either of the minister or of the recipient (see Pourrat, "Theology of the Sacraments", tr. St. Louis, 1910, 162 sqq.).“前opere operantis”,由代理的原因,即,将意味着对价值取决于圣礼行动任部长或收件人(见Pourrat,文。圣路易斯的“圣礼神学”, 1910年,162 sqq。)。Protestants cannot in good faith object to the phrase as if it meant that the mere outward ceremony, apart from God's action, causes grace.新教徒不能真诚地反对词组,这是否意味着单纯的外在仪式,除了上帝的行为,使恩典。It is well known that Catholics teach that the sacraments are only the instrumental, not the principal, causes of grace.众所周知,天主教徒教导说,圣礼仅是工具,而不是本金,宽限期的原因。Neither can it be claimed that the phrase adopted by the council does away with all dispositions necessary on the part of the recipient, the sacraments acting like infallible charms causing grace in those who are ill-disposed or in grievous sin.也不能由第三方声称,安理会通过的短语摒弃了所有性格上的收件人是必要的,圣礼像个谁是造成这些不怀好意的宽限期或罪孽犯错的魅力。 The fathers of the council were careful to note that there must be no obstacle to grace on the part of the recipients, who must receive them rite, ie rightly and worthily; and they declare it a calumny to assert that they require no previous dispositions (Sess. XIV, de poenit., cap.4).理事会的父亲是谨慎地指出,没有任何障碍,必须在宽限期受助人,谁必须接受他们的仪式,即正确和抱负的一部分,他们宣布这一个诽谤断言,他们不需要以前的处置(自编码扩频通信。十四,德poenit。,第4章)。 Dispositions are required to prepare the subject, but they are a condition (conditio sine qua non), not the causes, of the grace conferred.气质是需要准备的主题,但它们是一个条件(必要条件),而不是原因,授予的恩典。 In this case the sacraments differ from the sacramentals, which may cause grace ex opere operantis, ie by reason of the prayers of the Church or the good, pious sentiments of those who use them.在这种情况下,圣礼不同于sacramentals,这可能会导致前opere operantis宽限期,由教会或好,谁使用他们的虔诚祈祷的原因,即情绪。

(4) Proofs of the Catholic Doctrine天主教教义(四)证明

In examining proofs of the Catholic doctrine it must be borne in mind that our rule of faith is not simply Scripture, but Scripture and tradition.在审查证据的天主教教义它必须牢记,我们的法治的信仰不只是圣经,但圣经和传统。

(a) In Sacred Scripture we find expressions which clearly indicate that the sacraments are more than mere signs of grace and faith: "Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God" (John 3:5); "He saved us, by the laver of regeneration, and renovation of the Holy Ghost" (Titus 3:5); "Then they laid their hands upon them, and they received the Holy Ghost" (Acts 8:17); "He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood, hath everlasting life . . . For my flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is drink indeed" (John 6:55-56). (一)在神圣的经文,我们发现表达,这清楚地表明,圣礼较恩典和信心单纯的迹象:“只有当一个人重生水和圣灵,他不能进神的国”(约翰3:5),“他救了我们,由再生紫菜,和圣灵更新”(提多书3:5),“然后,他们奠定了他们自己的手里,他们受了圣灵”(使徒8: 17),“他不吃我肉,喝我血的人有永生对我的肉是肉确实,我的血真是可喝。。。”(约6:55-56)。These and similar expressions (see articles on each sacrament) are, to say the least, very much exaggerated if they do not mean that the sacramental ceremony is in some sense the cause of the grace conferred.这些和(见各圣餐文章)是,类似的用语,至少可以说,非常夸张,如果他们不意味着在某种意义上圣仪式的宽限期事业赋予的。

(b) Tradition clearly indicates the sense in which they have been interpreted in the Church.(二)传统中,清楚地表明,他们已在教会的解释意义。From the numerous expressions used by the Fathers we select the following: "The Holy Ghost comes down from heaven and hovers over the waters, sanctifying them of Himself, and thus they imbibe the power of sanctifying" (Tertullian, De bapt., c. iv).我们的父亲从以下选择使用的众多表情:“圣灵从天上降下来,并在水面上盘旋,他们自己圣洁的,因此他们吸取了圣洁的力量”(良,德BAPT的角。四)。 "Baptism is the expiation of sins, the remission of crimes, the cause of renovation and regeneration" (St. Gregory of Nyssa, "Orat. in Bapt."). “洗礼是罪孽赎罪,罪行缓解,更新和再生的原因”(圣的果树,格雷戈里“由于以下原因造成。在BAPT的。”)。"Explain to me the manner of nativity in the flesh and I will explain to you the regeneration of the soul . . . Throughout, by Divine power and efficacy, it is incomprehensible; no reasoning, no art can explain it" (ibid.) "He that passes through the fountain [Baptism] shall not die but rises to new life" (St. Ambrose, De sacr., I, iv). “向我解释,在肉体的耶稣诞生的方式,我会解释给你的灵魂再生自始至终的神圣权力和有效性,它是不可理​​解的。。。没有推理,没有艺术可以解释”(同上) “他说,通过喷泉[洗礼]不得死,但上升到新的生活通行证”(圣刘汉铨,德启用SACR。,我,四)。"Whence this great power of water", exclaims St. Augustine, "that it touches the body and cleanses the soul?" “何时这种水大国”,感叹地说圣奥古斯丁,“它触及了身体和净化灵魂?”(Tr. 80 in Joann). (编辑部在约安80)。"Baptism", writes the same Father, "consists not in the merits of those by whom it is administered, nor of those to whom it is administered, but in its own sanctity and truth, on account of Him who instituted it" (Cont. Cres., IV). “洗礼”,写道:同一个父亲,“包括在其中的是非曲直不是由人,这是管理,也不是那些人,这是管理,但在它自己的尊严和真理,谁对他提起它帐户”(续。雷斯。,四)。 The doctrine solemnly defined by the Council of Trent had been announced in previous councils, notably at Constantinople (381; Symb. Fid.), at Mileve (416; can.ii) in the Second Council of Orange (529; can. xy); and in the Council of Florence (1439; Decr. pro. Armen., see Denzinger-Bannwart, nn. 86, 102, 200, 695).庄严的遄达理事会确定的原则,已经公布在以往的议会,特别是在君士坦丁堡(381;。Symb FID检测器。),在Mileve(416; can.ii)在第二届理事会的橙(529,能xy)。 ;在安理会的佛罗伦萨(1439; Decr亲阿尔缅,见登青格,Bannwart,神经网络86,102,200,695。。。。)。The early Anglican Church held fast to the true doctrine: "Baptism is not only a sign of profession and a mark of difference, whereby christened men are discerned from those that be not christened, but is also a sign of regeneration or New-Birth, whereby as by an instrument they that receive Baptism rightly are grafted into the church" (Art. XXVII).早期的英国圣公会教堂举行快速向真正的教义:“洗礼不仅是专业的标志和差异,据此命名男人从那些不被察觉命名标志,但也是一个再生或新出生的迹象,作为一个工具,即由他们接受正确的洗礼嫁接到教堂“(第二十七)。

(c) Theological argument.(三)神学争论。-- The Westminster Confession adds: "The Baptism of children is in any wise to be retained in the church as most agreeable with the institution of Christ".- 威斯敏斯特信条补充说:“儿童的洗礼,在任何明智的,是被保留在教堂最符合基督机构同意。”If Baptism does not confer grace ex opere operato, but simply excites faith, then we ask: (1) Of what use would this be if the language used be not understood by the recipient, ie an infant or an adult that does not understand Latin?如果不赋予宽限期洗礼前opere operato,只是激发信心,那么我们要问:(1)有什么用,如果使用这会不会是不被接受者理解的语言,即婴儿或成年人不理解拉丁美洲?In such cases it might be more beneficial to the bystanders than to the one baptized.在这种情况下,可能更有利,而不是一个受洗的旁观者。(2) In what does the Baptism of Christ surpass the Baptism of John, for the latter could excite faith? (2)在什么基督的洗礼超越了约翰的洗礼,因为后者能激发信心吗?Why were those baptized by the Baptism of John rebaptized with the Baptism of Christ?为什么是由约翰的洗礼洗礼的rebaptized与基督的洗礼?(Acts 19).(徒19)。(3) How can it be said that Baptism is strictly necessary for salvation since faith can be excited and expressed in many other ways?(3)如何能说洗礼是必要的,因为严格的拯救信仰可以被激发,而且在许多其他方式表达?Finally Episcopalians and Anglicans of today would not revert to the doctrine of grace ex opere operato unless they were convinced that the ancient faith was warranted by Scripture and Tradition.最后圣公会教徒的今天将无法恢复到前的宽限期opere operato学说,除非他们相信,古老的信仰是由经文和传统有道理的。

(5) Matter and Form of the sacraments(5)物质与形式的圣礼

Scholastic writers of the thirteenth century introduced into their explanations of the sacraments terms which were derived from the philosophy of Aristotle.十三世纪作家,在学术引入其中的圣礼从亚里士多德哲学派生条款的解释。William of Auxerre (d. 1223) was the first to apply to them the words matter (materia) and form (forma).的欧塞尔(草1223)威廉是第一个适用于他们的单词的问题(本草纲目)和形式(试算)。As in physical bodies, so also in the sacramental rite we find two elements, one undetermined, which is called the matter, the other determining, called the form.正如在体能,所以也是在圣仪式,我们发现两个要素,一个不确定的,这是所谓的事,其他决定,所谓的表格。For instance, water may be used for drinking, or for cooling or cleansing the body, but the words pronounced by the minister when he pours water on the head of the child, with the intention of doing what the Church does, determines the meaning of the act, so that it signifies the purification of the soul by grace.例如,水可用于饮用,或用于冷却或清洗身体,而是由部长时,他倒对儿童头部的水会不会做什么意图,发音的话,决定意义该法,因此,它标志着由恩典心灵的净化。 The matter and form (the res et verba) make up the external rite, which has its special significance and efficacy from the institution of Christ.这个问题和形式(水库等维巴)弥补外部仪式,这与基督的机构其特殊的意义和效果。 The words are the more important element in the composition, because men express their thoughts and intentions principally by words.这些话是更重要的组成元素,因为男人用文字表达自己的想法和意图主要。"Verba inter homines obtinuerunt principatum significandi" (St. Augustine, De doct. christ.", II, iii; ST III:60:6). It must not be supposed that the things used for the acts performed, for they are included in the res, remarks St. Thomas (ST III:60:6, ad 2) have no significance. They too may be symbolical, eg anointing the body with oil relates to health; but their significance is clearly determined by the words. "In all the compounds of matter and form the determining element is the form: (ST III:60:7).“维巴间homines obtinuerunt principatum significandi”(圣奥古斯丁,德doct基督“,二,三;圣三:。。60:6)。它不能被假定用于从事的行为,因为它们包含的东西在res,备注圣托马斯(圣三:60:6,广告2)。没有任何意义,他们也可能是象征性的,如抹油涉及人体健康,但其意义是很清楚的话待定“。在所有物质的化合物,形成的决定因素是形式:(圣三:60:7)。

The terminology was somewhat new, the doctrine was old; the same truth had been expressed in former times in different words.该术语是有点新,旧学说;相同的事实已经在不同的词语表达从前。 Sometimes the form of the sacrament meant the whole external rite (St. Augustine, "De pecc. et mer.", xxxiv; Conc. Milev., De bapt.).有时形式的圣餐仪式意味着整个外部(圣奥古斯丁,“德议会等Mer的。。”,三十四。。浓米利夫,德BAPT的。)。 What we call the matter and form were referred to as "mystic symbols"; "the sign and the thing invisible"; the "word and the element" (St. Augustine, tr. 80 in Joann.).我们所说的问题和形式被称为“神秘符号”的;“牌和无形的东西”,“字和元素”(圣奥古斯丁,文中的乔安娜80。。)。 The new terminology immediately found favour.新术语立即发现的青睐。It was solemnly ratified by being used in the Decree for the Armenians, which was added to the Decrees of the Council of Florence, yet has not the value of a conciliar definition (see Denzinger-Bannwart, 695; Hurter, "Theol. dog. comp.", I, 441; Pourrat, op.cit., p. 51).这是庄严被批准为亚美尼亚人,这是加在安理会的佛罗伦萨使用法令的法令,但已经不是一个大公的定义(见登青格,Bannwart,695的价值; Hurter“Theol狗。。训练班“,我,441。。Pourrat,前引书,第51页)。The Council of Trent used the words matter and form (Sess. XIV, cap. ii, iii, can. iv), but did not define that the sacramental rite was composed of these two elements.安理会的遄达使用的单词的问题,形成达(sess.十四,帽。二,三,可以的。四),但没有界定的圣仪式是这两个元素组成。 Leo XIII, in the "Apostolicae Curae" (13 Sept., 1896) made the scholastic theory the basis of his declaration, and pronounced ordinations performed according to the ancient Anglican rite invalid, owing to a defect in the form used and a lack of the necessary intention on the part of the ministers.利奥十三世,在“Apostolicae Curae”(1896年9月13日)所作的学术理论基础,他的声明,并宣布祝演出根据古老的英国圣公会的仪式无效,原因是所采用的形式缺陷和缺乏自信对部分的部长们所需的意图。 The hylomorphistic theory furnishes a very apt comparison and sheds much light on our conception of the external ceremony.The hylomorphistic理论furnishes一个非常恰当的比较和揭示了我们对外部仪式概念的光线。 Nevertheless our knowledge of the sacraments is not dependent on this Scholastic terminology, and the comparison must not be carried too far.然而我们对知识的圣礼学术上没有这个术语依赖性,比较不能走得太远。The attempt to verify the comparison (of sacraments to a body) in all details of the sacramental rite will lead to confusing subtilities or to singular opinions, eg, Melchior Cano's (De locis theol., VIII, v.3) opinion as to the minister of Matrimony (see MARRIAGE; cf. Pourrat, op.cit., ii).在尝试验证比较(附于一体的圣礼)在圣仪式的所有细节将导致混乱subtilities或奇异的意见,例如,梅尔基奥尔Cano的(德位点theol。,八,3节)的意见,以部长的婚姻(见婚姻;比照Pourrat,前引书,二。。)。


It might now be asked: in how far was it necessary that the matter and form of the sacraments should have been determined by Christ?它现在可能会问:在多大程度上是有必要的物质和形式的圣礼由基督应已确定的?

(1) Power of God(1)电源神

The Council of Trent defined that the seven sacraments of the New Law were instituted by Christ (Sess. VII, can.i).安理会的遄达确定,新税法的七个圣礼由基督提起达(sess.七,看得出)。This settles the question of fact for all Catholics.这解决了所有天主教徒的事实问题。Reason tells us that all sacraments must come originally from God.理智告诉我们,所有的圣礼必须来自神原。Since they are the signs of sacred things in so far as by these sacred things men are sanctified (ST III:60:2); since the external rite (matter and form) of itself cannot give grace, it is evident that all sacraments properly so called must originate in Divine appointment.因为他们在迄今为止的迹象,神圣的东西,这些人神圣的东西都是圣洁的(圣三:60:2),由于外部性的仪式本身(物质与形式)不能给的恩典,这是显而易见的,所有正确圣礼所谓必须源于神的任命。 "Since the sanctification of man is in the power of God who sanctifies", writes St. Thomas (ST III:60:2), "it is not in the competency of man to choose the things by which he is to be sanctified, but this must be determined by Divine institution". “自从人类圣洁的神的力量是谁成圣”,写道:圣托马斯(圣三:60:2),“这不是在人的选择要发生的事情,他是被神圣化的能力,但是这必须由神圣的机构。“ Add to this that grace is, in some sense, a participation of the Divine nature (see GRACE) and our doctrine becomes unassailable: God alone can decree that by exterior ceremonies men shall be partakers of His nature.再加上恩典是,在某种意义上,是神圣的性质(见宽限期)的参与,我们的学说变得无懈可击:只有上帝可以判令由男性所应受外部仪式,他的本性同伙。

(2) Power of Christ(2)电源的基督

God alone is the principal cause of the sacraments.只有上帝是圣礼的主要原因。He alone authoritatively and by innate power can give to external material rites the power to confer grace on men.他独自权威性和先天力量可以给外部物质仪式的权力,授予男子风度。Christ as God, equally with the Father, possessed this principal, authoritative, innate power.基督为上帝,同样具有这种与主要的,权威的,天生的权力的父亲。As man He had another power which St. Thomas calls "the power of the principal ministry" or "the power of excellence" (III:64:3).作为人,他有另一个权力,圣托马斯称为“权力的主要部”或“卓越的力量”(三:64:3)。"Christ produced the interior effects of the sacraments by meriting them and by effecting them. . . The passion of Christ is the cause of our justification meritoriously and effectively, not as the principal agent and authoritatively but as an instrument, inasmuch as His Humanity was the instrument of His Divinity" (III:64:3; cf. III:13:1, III:13:3). “基督产生meriting通过影响他们,他们的圣礼内部的影响。。。基督的激情是我们事业功德和有效的理由,而不是作为主要代理和权威性,但作为一种工具,是因为他的人性在他的神性“文书(三:64:3;比照三:13:1,第三:13:3。)。 There is theological truth as well as piety in the old maxim: "From the side of Christ dying on the cross flowed the sacraments by which the Church was saved" (Gloss. Ord. in Rom.5: ST III:62:5).有神学真理以及虔诚的老格言:“从基督死在十字架上侧流过,其中教会圣礼得救”(Gloss.条例在Rom.5:。圣三:62:5) 。The principal efficient cause of grace is God, to whom the Humanity of Christ is as a conjoined instrument, the sacraments being instruments not joined to the Divinity (by hypostatic union): therefore the saving power of the sacraments passes from the Divinity of Christ, through His Humanity into the sacraments (ST III:62:5).主要的宽限期高效率的原因是上帝,谁基督的人性关怀连体仪器,仪表的圣礼是不加入到神(由本质联盟):因此,节电的圣礼由基督的神的推移,通过他对人性的圣礼(圣三:62:5)。 One who weighs well all these words will understand why Catholics have great reverence for the sacraments.一个谁重以及这一切的话就会明白,为什么天主教徒的圣礼崇敬。Christ's power of excellence consists in four things: (1) Sacraments have their efficacy from His merits and sufferings; (2) they are sanctified and they sanctify in His name; (3) He could and He did institute the sacraments; (4) He could produce the effects of the sacraments without the external ceremony (ST III:64:3).基督的优秀力量在于四个方面:(1)圣礼从他的优点和痛苦其功效;(2)他们是圣洁的,他们在他的名字为圣;(3)他可以和他研究所的圣礼;(4)他可以生产没有外部仪式(圣三:64:3)的圣礼的影响。 Christ could have communicated this power of excellence to men: this was not absolutely impossible (III:64:4).基督可以传达这个良好的权力,男性:这不是绝对不可能的(三:64:4)。But, (1) had He done so men could not have possessed it with the same perfection as Christ: "He would have remained the head of the Church principally, others secondarily" (III:64:3).但是,(1)如果他这样做的人不可能拥有与基督同为完善它:“他会仍然是教会的主要负责人,其他人为辅”(三:64:3)。 (2) Christ did not communicate this power, and this for the good of the faithful: (a) that they might place their hope in God and not in men; (b) that there might not be different sacraments, giving rise to divisions in the Church (III:64:1). (2)基督没有这项权力沟通,并为良好的忠诚这样的:(一),他们可能将它们的上帝,没有人希望和(b)有可能不是不同圣礼,引起分歧在教会(三:64:1)。 This second reason is mentioned by St. Paul (1 Corinthians 1:12-13): "every one of you saith: I indeed am of Paul; and I am of Apollo; and I of Cephas; and I of Christ. Is Christ divided? Was Paul then crucified for you? Or were you baptized in the name of Paul?"这第二个原因是所提到的圣保罗(哥林多前书1:12-13):“你们每一个人说:。我的确是保罗的;上午,我和阿波罗,而我是属矶法,我是基督,基督分?保罗然后你钉在十字架上?还是你受洗保罗的名字吗?“

(3) Immediate or Mediate Institution(3)直接或调解机构

The Council of Trent did not define explicitly and formally that all the sacraments were instituted immediately by Christ.安理会的遄没有明确界定,并正式,所有的圣礼由基督立即被提起。 Before the council great theologians, eg Peter Lombard (IV Sent., d. xxiii), Hugh of St. Victor (De sac. II, ii) Alexander of Hales (Summa, IV, Q. xxiv, 1) held that some sacraments were instituted by the Apostles, using power that had been given to them by Jesus Christ.安理会面前的伟大的神学家,如彼得隆巴德(四发送。,四二十三),圣维克托休(德囊。二,二),亚历山大黑尔斯(总结,四,问:二十四,1)认为,一些圣礼被提起的使徒,用权力,已获得由耶稣基督给他们。 Doubts were raised especially about Confirmation and Extreme Unction.提出了质疑,特别是关于确认和临终。St. Thomas rejects the opinion that Confirmation was instituted by the Apostles.圣托马斯拒绝确认这是由使徒提起的意见。 It was instituted by Christ, he holds, when he promised to send the Paraclete, although it was never administered whilst He was on earth, because the fullness of the Holy Ghost was not to be given until after the Ascension: "Christus instituit hoc sacramentum, non exhibendo, sed promittendo" (III. Q.lxii, a.1, ad 1um).它是由基督提起,他认为,当他答应送的圣灵,但它从来没有管理,而他在地上时,因为圣灵丰满并没有被提升之后才考虑:“克里斯特斯instituit特别sacramentum非exhibendo,桑达promittendo“(III. Q.lxii,A.1节,广告1微米)。The Council of Trent defined that the sacrament of Extreme Unction was instituted by Christ and promulgated by St. James (Sess. XIV, can.i).安理会的遄达明确了对临终圣礼是由基督和圣雅各福群颁布达(sess.十四,看得出)。 Some theologians, eg Becanus, Bellarmine, Vasquez, Gonet, etc. thought the words of the council (Sess. VII, can.i) were explicit enough to make the immediate institution of all the sacraments by Christ a matter of defined faith.一些神学家,如Becanus,贝拉明,Vasquez联系,戈内特等认为,安理会的话达(sess.七,看得出)是明确的,足以使基督圣礼的所有机构的界定立即信念的问题。 They are opposed by Soto (a theologian of the council), Estius, Gotti, Tournély, Berti, and a host of others, so that now nearly all theologians unite in saying: it is theologically certain, but not defined (de fide) that Christ immediately instituted all the sacraments of the New Law.他们反对由索托(安理会的一个神学家),Estius,戈蒂,Tournély,贝尔蒂,以及其他许多,所以现在几乎所有的神学家团结起来,说:这是神学上确定的,但没有定义(德善意)的基督立即提起新税法所有的圣礼。 In the decree "Lamentabili", 3 July, 1907, Pius X condemned twelve propositions of the Modernists, who would attribute the origin of the sacraments to some species of evolution or development.在法令“lamentabili”7月3日,1907年,庇护X谴责十二主张的现代主义,谁属性的圣礼起源的进化或发展中的一些物种。 The first sweeping proposition is this: "The sacraments had their origin in this that the Apostles, persuaded and moved by circumstances and events, interpreted some idea and intention of Christ", (Demzinger-Bannwart, 2040).首先清扫命题是:“圣礼曾在这样的情况,原产地的使徒,劝和的情况和事件感动,解释的一些想法和基督的意图”,(Demzinger - Bannwart,2040)。Then follow eleven propositions relating to each of the sacraments in order (ibid., 2041-51).然后,按照有关命题十一,以每个的圣礼(同上,2041-51)。These propositions deny that Christ immediately instituted the sacraments and some seem to deny even their mediate institution by the Saviour.这些主张立即提起否认基督圣礼和一些人似乎否认甚至调解的救世主机构。

(4) What does Immediate Institution Imply?(4)什么是直属机构意味着什么?Power of the Church.教会的权力。

Granting that Christ immediately instituted all the sacraments, it does not necessarily follow that personally He determined all the details of the sacred ceremony, prescribing minutely every iota relating to the matter and the form to be used.给予基督立即提起所有的圣礼,这并不一定表示他决心亲自所有的神圣仪式的细节,每分钟每处方丝毫有关此事的形式被使用。 It is sufficient (even for immediate institution) to say: Christ determined what special graces were to be conferred by means of external rites: for some sacraments (eg Baptism, the Eucharist) He determined minutely (in specie) the matter and form: for others He determined only in a general way (in genere) that there should be an external ceremony, by which special graces were to be conferred, leaving to the Apostles or to the Church the power to determine whatever He had not determined, eg to prescribe the matter and form of the Sacraments of Confirmation and Holy Orders.这是足够的(立即机构偶数)说:基督决定什么特别青睐的是由外部授予仪式意味着:对于某些圣礼(如洗礼,圣体),他决定每分钟(实物)的问题和形式:对于其他的,他决定只在一般的方式(在genere)应该有一个外部的仪式,其中要特别青睐赋予了,留下来的使徒或教会的权力,决定不管他尚未决定,例如,规定有关事宜,并确认和神圣的订单形式的圣礼。 The Council of Trent (Sess. XXI, cap. ii) declared that the Church had the power to change the "substance" of the sacraments.安理会的遄达(sess.二十一章。二)宣布,教会有能力改变“物质”的圣礼。She would not be claiming power to alter the substance of the sacraments if she used her Divinely given authority to determine more precisely the matter and form in so far as they had not been determined by Christ.她不会声称有权改变物质的圣礼,如果她用她的神给予的权力,以确定更准确的问题和形式,只要他们没有被基督的决定。 This theory (which is not modern) had been adopted by theologians: by it we can solve historical difficulties relating, principally, to Confirmation and Holy Orders.这个理论(这不是现代)的神学家已经通过:通过它,我们能够解决有关历史的困难,主要是,以确认和神圣的命令。

(5) May we then say that Christ instituted some sacraments in an implicit state? (五)可能我们当时说,基督在一个隐含的国家提起一些圣礼?

That Christ was satisfied to lay down the essential principles from which, after a more or less protracted development, would come forth the fully developed sacraments?基督满意地放下从其中的基本原则,经过长期的发展或多或少,将充分开发出来的圣礼?This is an application of Newman's theory of development, according to Pourrat (op.cit., p.300), who proposes two other formulae; Christ instituted all the sacraments immediately, but did not himself give them all to the Church fully constituted; or Jesus instituted immediately and explicitly Baptism and Holy Eucharist: He instituted immediately but implicitly the five other sacraments (loc.cit., p.301).这是纽曼的发展理论的应用,根据Pourrat,谁提出另外两个公式(前引书,p.300。);基督立即提起所有的圣礼,但他们并没有亲自给所有的教会正式成立;或耶稣立即采取明确的洗礼和圣体圣事:立即提起,但他含蓄的其他五个圣礼(loc.cit,p.301。)。 Pourrat himself thinks the latter formula too absolute.Pourrat本人都认为后者的公式太绝对。Theologians probably will consider it rather dangerous, and at least "male sonans".神学家认为它可能会相当危险的,至少是“男性sonans”。If it be taken to mean more than the old expression, Christ determined in genere only the matter and the form of some sacraments, it grants too much development.如果它被理解更比旧的表达,基督只确定genere问题和一些圣礼的形式,它赋予太多的发展。If it means nothing more than the expression hitherto in use, what is gained by admitting a formula which easily might be misunderstood?如果这意味着在使用中没有什么比迄今为止较为表达,什么是一所获得承认可能被误解,容易公式?


(1) Catholic Doctrine: Eastern and Western Churches(1)天主教教义:东部和西部教会

The Council of Trent solemnly defined that there are seven sacraments of the New Law, truly and properly so called, viz., Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Orders, and Matrimony.安理会的遄达庄严地界定,有七个圣礼的新税法,真实,所谓正确,即。,洗礼,坚振,圣体圣事,忏悔,临终,订单和婚姻。 The same enumeration had been made in the Decree for the Armenians by the Council of Florence (1439), in the Profession of Faith of Michael Palaelogus, offered to Gregory X in the Council of Lyons (1274) and in the council held at London, in 1237, under Otto, legate of the Holy See.同样列举了在该法令的亚美尼亚人由安理会的佛罗伦萨(1439),在迈克尔Palaelogus提供在里昂(1274)理事会格雷戈里十,职业信仰和在伦敦举行的理事会,在1237年,奥托下,罗马教廷使节。 According to some writers Otto of Bamberg (1139), the Apostle of Pomerania, was the first who clearly adopted the number seven (see Tanquerey, "De sacr.").据一些作家奥托班贝格(1139),波美拉尼亚的使徒,明确谁是第一个通过的第七位(见Tanq​​uerey,“德启用SACR。”)。 Most probably this honour belongs to Peter Lombard (d. 1164) who in his fourth Book of Sentences (d. i, n.2) defines a sacrament as a sacred sign which not only signifies but also causes grace, and then (d.ii, n.1) enumerates the seven sacraments.最可能的这个荣誉属于彼得伦巴第(四1164)谁在他的句第四册​​(D.我,n.2)定义为一个神圣的标志,不仅标志着圣事,但也造成宽限期,然后(四二,n.1)列举了七个圣礼。 It is worthy of note that, although the great Scholastics rejected many of his theological opinions (list given in app. to Migne edition, Paris, 1841), this definition and enumeration were at once universally accepted, proof positive that he did not introduce a new doctrine, but merely expressed in a convenient and precise formula what had always been held in the Church.这是值得注意的是,虽然伟大scholastics拒绝了他的神学的许多意见(在给定的应用程序。向米涅版,巴黎,1841年的清单),这个定义和列举了一次普遍接受的,积极的,证明他并没有引进新学说,而只是在一个方便和精确的计算公式是什么一直在教会举行的表达。 Just as many doctrines were believed, but not always accurately expressed, until the condemnation of heresies or the development of religious knowledge called forth a neat and precise formula, so also the sacraments were accepted and used by the Church for centuries before Aristotelian philosophy, applied to the systematic explanation of Christian doctrine, furnished the accurate definition and enumeration of Peter Lombard.正如许多教义认为,但并不总是准确地表达,直到谴责异端邪说或宗教知识的发展,要求提出了整洁和精确的计算公式,所以也被接受圣礼,由几个世纪前,教会使用的亚里士多德哲学,应用基督教教义的解释系统,提供的准确定义和彼得隆巴德枚举。 The earlier Christians were more concerned with the use of sacred rites than with scientific formulae, being like the pious author of the "Imitation of Christ", who wrote: "I had rather feel compunction than know its definition" (I, i).早期的基督徒更关注的是神圣的仪式使用比科学的配方,像“基督的模仿”,虔诚的作者是谁写的:“我感到内疚,而不是已经知道它的定义”(一,一)。

Thus time was required, not for the development of the sacraments - except in so far as the Church may have determined what was left under her control by Jesus Christ -- but for the growth and knowledge of the sacraments.因此,需要时间并非为圣礼发展 - 除了在迄今为止的教会可能已经确定是什么情况下离开她的耶稣基督控制 - 但对于增长和圣礼的知识。For many centuries all signs of sacred things were called sacraments, and the enumeration of these signs was somewhat arbitrary.许多世纪以来的所有迹象神圣的东西被称为圣礼,并列举了这些征兆是有点武断。Our seven sacraments were all mentioned in the Sacred Scriptures, and we find them all mentioned here and there by the Fathers (see THEOLOGY; and articles on each sacrament).我们的七个圣礼都提到,在神圣的经文,我们发现他们都提到了父亲在这里和那里(见神学,并在每个圣餐文章)。 After the ninth century, writers began to draw a distinction between sacraments in a general sense and sacraments properly so called.九世纪后,作家开始画在一般意义上的区别和圣礼圣礼之间的所谓正确。The ill-fated Abelard ("Intro. ad Theol.", I, i, and in the "Sic et Non") and Hugh of St. Victor (De sacr., I, part 9, chap. viii; cf. Pourrat, op.cit., pp.34, 35) prepared the way for Peter Lombard, who proposed the precise formula which the Church accepted.命运多舛阿伯拉尔(“。介绍广告Theol。”,我,我,并在“骰等非”)和圣维克多休(德启用SACR,我,第9部分,第八章。。。比照Pourrat ,前引书。,pp.34,35)准备了彼得隆巴德,谁提出了精确的计算公式,教会接受的方式。Thenceforward until the time of the so-called Reformation the Eastern Church joined with the Latin Church in saying: by sacraments proper we understand efficacious sacred signs, ie ceremonies which by Divine ordinance signify, contain and confer grace; and they are seven in number.从此以后,直到所谓的改革与东部教会在拉丁美洲教会加入时说:我们理解正确的圣礼有效神圣的符号,即仪式,这标志着由神条例,遏制和授予的恩典,他们是排名第七。 In the history of conferences and councils held to effect the reunion of the Greek with the Latin Church, we find no record of objections made to the doctrine of seven sacraments.在议会的会议和举办的历史作用的希腊与拉丁教会聚会,我们没有发现向七个圣礼教义反对纪录。On the contrary, about 1576, when the Reformers of Wittenberg, anxious to draw the Eastern Churches into their errors, sent a Greek translation of the Augsburg Confession to Jeremias, Patriarch of Constantinople, he replied: "The mysteries received in this same Catholic Church of orthodox Christians, and the sacred ceremonies, are seven in number -- just seven and no more" (Pourrat, op.cit., p.289).相反,约1576年,当维滕贝格改革者,急于吸引到自己的错误的东方教会,派出了希腊翻译的奥格斯堡自白赫雷米亚斯,君士坦丁堡牧首,他回答说:“在同一个奥秘收到天主教教会正统的基督徒,神圣的仪式,是在第七位 - 短短七年没有更多的“(Pourrat,前引书,p.289。)。The consensus of the Greek and Latin Churches on this subject is clearly shown by Arcadius, "De con. ecc. occident. et orient. in sept. sacr. administr."关于这一问题的希腊和拉丁教会的共识是由Arcadius清楚地表明,“德浓度。ECC的。欧美。等东方。在九月启用SACR。administr。” (1619); Goar in his "Euchologion" by Martene (qv) in his work "De antiquis ecclesiae ritibus", by Renaudot in his "Perpetuite de la foi sur sacrements" (1711), and this agreement of the two Churches furnishes recent writers (Episcopalians) with a strong argument in support of their appeal for the acceptance of seven sacraments. (1619),戈尔在他的“Euchologion”的Martene(请参阅)在他的作品“德antiquis,该书ritibus”的勒诺多,在他的“Perpetuite德拉信息公开河畔sacrements”(1711),这两个教会最近的协议furnishes在与他们的七个圣礼接受有力的论据支持上诉作家(圣公会)。

(2) Protestant Errors(2)新教错误

Luther's capital errors, viz.路德的资本错误,即。private interpretation of the Scriptures, and justification by faith alone, logically led to a rejection of the Catholic doctrine on the sacraments (see LUTHER; GRACE).私营解释圣经,信仰,仅理由,在逻辑上导致了对圣礼天主教教义(见路德;恩典)拒绝。Gladly would he have swept them all away, but the words of Scripture were too convincing and the Augsburg Confession retained three as "having the command of God and the promise of the grace of the New Testament".勤于他已经横扫他们全都冲去,但借用圣经的话太有说服力和保留的奥格斯堡自白“有上帝的命令和新约的恩典承诺”三。 These three, Baptism, the Lord's Supper, and Penance were admitted by Luther and also by Cranmer in his "Catechism" (see Dix, "op.cit.", p. 79).这三个,洗礼,主的晚餐,和被承认的忏悔,并通过克兰默路德在他的“问答”(见迪克斯,“前引书。”,第79页)。Henry VIII protested against Luther's innovations and received the title "Defender of the Faith" as a reward for publishing the "Assertio septem sacramentorum" (re-edited by Rev. Louis O'Donovan, New York, 1908).亨利八世抗议路德的创新,并获得作为奖励为出版“Assertio年九月份sacramentorum”(再度获致路易斯多诺万,纽约,1908年编辑)的标题是“信仰捍卫者”。 Followers of Luther's principles surpassed their leader in opposition to the sacraments.路德的原则的追随者超过了反对的圣礼他们的领导人。Once granted that they were merely "signs and testimonies of God's good will towards us", the reason for great reverence was gone.一旦想当然地认为他们只是“标志和神的对我们善意的证词”,为伟大的崇敬的原因消失了。Some rejected all sacraments, since God's good will could be manifested without these external signs.有些拒绝一切圣礼,因为上帝的善意可以在没有这些外部的迹象显现。Confession (Penance) was soon dropped from the list of those retained.自白(忏悔)很快下降,从保留的名单。The Anabaptists rejected infant Baptism, since the ceremony could not excite faith in children.再洗礼派拒绝婴儿的洗礼,因为在仪式不能激发孩子的信心。Protestants generally retained two sacraments, Baptism and the Lord's Supper, the latter being reduced by the denial of the Real Presence to a mere commemorative service.新教徒普遍保留两个圣礼,洗礼和主的晚餐,后者是由真实存在拒绝降低到仅仅纪念服务。After the first fervour of destruction there was a reaction.销毁后,有一首热情的反应。Lutherans retained a ceremony of Confirmation and ordination.路德会保留了确认和排序仪式。Cranmer retained three sacraments, yet we find in the Westminster Confession: "There are two Sacraments ordained of Christ Our Lord in the Gospel, that is to say, Baptism, and the Supper of the Lord. Those five commonly called sacraments, that is to say Confirmation, Penance, Orders, Matrimony, and Extreme Unction, are not to be counted for sacraments of the Gospel, being such as have grown partly of the corrupt following of the Apostles, partly are states of life allowed in the Scriptures but yet have not like nature of sacraments with Baptism and the Lord's Supper, for that they have not any visible signs or ceremony ordained by God (art.XXV). The Wittenberg theologians, by way of compromise, had shown a willingness to make such a distinction, in a second letter to the Patriarch of Constantinople, but the Greeks would have no compromise (Pourrat, loc.cit., 290).克兰默保留三个圣礼,但我们在韦斯敏斯德找到:。“有两个圣礼基督我们的主在福音,这就是说,洗礼受戒,和主的晚餐这些俗称五圣礼,即说确认,忏悔,订单,婚姻,和临终,都没有被计算在内圣礼的福音,因为有一部分是这样的腐败的使徒以下增长,部分是在念经的生活状态,但尚未有不喜欢圣礼与洗礼和主的晚餐,因为他们没有任何明显的妥协方式标志或祝圣仪式的上帝(art.XXV)。维滕贝格的神学家,性质已表示愿意作出这样的区分,在第二封信的君士坦丁堡牧首,但希腊人就没有妥协(Pourrat,loc.cit。,290)。

For more than two centuries the Church of England theoretically recognized only two "sacraments of the Gospel" yet permitted, or tolerated other five rites.两个多世纪的英国教会理论上只承认两个“圣礼的福音”,但允许,或容忍其他五个仪式。In practice these five "lesser sacraments" were neglected, especially Penance and Extreme Unction.在实践中这五个“较小的圣礼”被忽视,特别是忏悔和临终。Anglicans of the nineteenth century would have gladly altered or abolished the twenty-fifth article.十九世纪的英国圣公会会乐意改变或废除第二十五文章。There has been a strong desire, dating chiefly from the Tractarian Movement, and the days of Pusey, Newman, Lyddon, etc. to reintroduce all of the sacraments.有一种强烈的欲望,可以追溯到Tractarian运动,主要是,和蒲赛,纽曼,莱登,天等,为恢复所有的圣礼。 Many Episcopalians and Anglicans today make heroic efforts to show that the twenty-fifth article repudiated the lesser sacraments only in so far as they had "grown of the corrupt following of the Apostles, and were administered 'more Romamensium'", after the Roman fashion.许多圣公会和圣公会今天作出了巨大努力显示,第二十五文章批驳了较小的圣礼只有在迄今他们已“的腐败的使徒以下种植,并给予'更多Romamensium'”之后,罗马时尚, 。Thus Morgan Dix reminded his contemporaries that the first book of Edward VI allowed "auricular and secret confession to the priest", who could give absolution as well as "ghostly counsel, advice, and comfort", but did not make the practice obligatory: therefore the sacrament of Absolution is not to be "obtruded upon men's consciences as a matter necessary to salvation" (op.cit., pp.99, 101, 102, 103).因此,摩根迪克斯提醒他的同时代人的爱德华六世的第一本书允许“耳和秘密向牧师忏悔”,谁可以给赦免以及“幽灵般的大律师,咨询和安慰”,但并没有强制性的做法:因此圣礼的赦免,是不被“人身上的良知obtruded作为紧急事项必要的救赎”(前引书。,pp.99,101,102,103)。 He cites authorities who state that "one cannot doubt that a sacramental use of anointing the sick has been from the beginning", and adds, "There are not wanting, among the bishops of the American Church, some who concur in deploring the loss of thiss primitive ordinance and predicting its restoration among us at some propitious time" (ibid., p.105).他援引当局谁的状态,“一个不能怀疑的恩膏生病的圣餐时使用从一开始就被”,并说:“没有想在美国教会的主教,一些谁在痛惜失去同意thiss原始条例和预测一些有利的时间恢复其在我们中间“(同上,第105页)。 At a convention of Episcopalians held at Cincinnati, in 1910, unsuccessful effort was made to obtain approbation for the practice of anointing the sick.在辛辛那提举行的圣公会在公约于1910年,有人向不成功的努力取得了恩膏病人的做法赞许。High Church pastors and curates, especially in England, frequently are in conflict with their bishops because the former use all the ancient rites.高教会牧师和苏格拉底,尤其是在英格兰,频繁的冲突与他们的主教,因为前者使用所有的古老仪式。Add to this the assertion made by Mortimer (op.cit., I, 122) that all the sacraments cause grace ex opere operato, and we see that "advanced" Anglicans are returning to the doctrine and the practices of the Old Church.除此之外,还有由莫蒂默作出断言(前引书。,我,122),所有的圣礼宽限期前opere operato原因,我们看到,“先进”圣公会正在返回的教义和老教堂的做法。Whether and in how far their position can be reconciled with the twenty-fifth article, is a question which they must settle.是否以及在多大程度上能与他们的立场第二十五届文章不甘心,他们是一个必须解决的问题。Assuredly their wanderings and gropings after the truth prove the necessity of having on earth an infallible interpreter of God's word.稳妥流浪,后真相gropings证明地球上有一对神的话语万无一失翻译的必要性。

(3) Division and Comparison of the Sacraments(3)科和圣礼的比较

(a) All sacraments were instituted for the spiritual good of the recipients; but five, viz.(一)所有圣礼被提起,为受助人的精神好,但五,即。Baptism, Confirmation, Penance, the Eucharist, and Extreme Unction, primarily benefit the individual in his private character, whilst the other two, Orders and Matrimony, primarily affect man as a social being, and sanctify him in the fulfillment of his duties tiowards the Church and society.洗礼,确认,忏悔,圣体,和临终,主要受益于他的私人性质的个体,而其他两个,命令和婚姻,主要是影响到社会存在的人,在他的圣职责的履行他tiowards教会和社会。 By Baptism we are born again, Confirmation makes us strong, perfect Christians and soldiers.我们的洗礼重生,确认让我们更坚强,完美的基督徒和士兵。The Eucharist furnishes our daily spiritual food.圣体圣事furnishes我们日常的精神食粮。Penance heals the soul wounded by sin.忏悔罪医治的受伤的灵魂。Extreme Unction removes the last remnant of human frailty, and prepares the soul for eternal life, Orders supplies ministers to the Church of God.临终消除了人的脆弱的最后残余,并准备对永恒生命的灵魂,物资采购部长神的教会。Matrimony gives the graces necessary for those who are to rear children in the love and fear of God, members of the Church militant, future citizens of heaven.婚姻给人的青睐,对于那些谁是在爱情和上帝的恐惧留守儿童需要,教会的激进,天上的未来的公民成员。This is St. Thomas's explanation of the fitness of the number seven (III:55:1).这是圣托马斯的数字的七(三:55:1)健身解释。 He gives other explanations offered by the Schoolmen, but does not bind himself to any of them.他给了经院学派提供的其他解释,但不承担任何人。In fact the only sufficient reason for the existence of seven sacraments, and no more, is the will of Christ: there are seven because He instituted seven.事实上,只有足够的理由七个圣礼的存在,并没有更多的,是基督将:有七个,因为他提起七。The explanations and adaptations of theologians serve only to excite our admiration and gratitude, by showing how wisely and beneficently God has provided for our spiritual needs in these seven efficacious signs of grace.神学家的解释和修改的作用只是通过展示如何明智地激发和beneficently上帝为我们的精神表示钦佩和感谢提供我们在这七个宽限期有效需求的迹象。

(b) Baptism and Penance are called "sacraments of the dead", because they give life, through sanctifying grace then called "first grace", to those who are spiritually dead by reason of original or actual sin. (二)洗礼和忏悔被称为“死人的圣礼”,因为他们给圣洁的生活,然后通过所谓的“第一恩典”宽限期,对那些谁是精神上的罪恶的原件或实际原因死了。 The other five are "sacraments of the living", because their reception presupposes, at least ordinarily, that the recipient is in the state of grace, and they give "second grace", ie increase of sanctifying grace.其他五个是“圣礼的生活”,因为他们的接待先决条件,至少在一般情况下,该收件人在国家的宽限期,而他们给“第二宽限期”,即增加的sanctifying宽限期。 Nevertheless, since the sacraments always give some grace when there is no obstacle in the recipient, it may happen in cases explained by theologians that "second grace" is conferred by a sacrament of the dead, eg when one has only venial sins to confess receives absolution and that "first grace" is conferred by a sacrament of the living (see ST III:72:7 ad 2; III:79:3).然而,由于圣礼总是给一些优雅时没有在收件人的障碍,它可能由神学家解释案件发生的“第二次恩典”授予由死者圣餐,例如当一个人只承认收到venial罪孽赦免,以及“第一恩典”是赋予了生活圣餐(见ST三:72:7广告2;三:79:3)。 Concerning Extreme Unction St. James explicitly states that through it the recipient may be freed from his sins: "If he be in sins, they shall be forgiven him" (James 5:15).关于临终圣雅各福群明确规定,通过它的收件人可能是脱离了他的罪过:“如果他是在罪孽中,他们必蒙赦免”(雅各5:15)。

(c) Comparison in dignity and necessity.(三)比较有尊严和必要性。The Council of Trent declared that the sacraments are not all equal in dignity; also that none are superfluous, although all are not necessary for each individual (Sess. VII, can.3, 4).安理会的遄达宣布圣礼,是不是所有的尊严平等;还没有一个是多余的,但都没有为每个人不需要达(sess.七,can.3,4)。 The Eucharist is the first in dignity, because it contains Christ in person, whilst in the other sacraments grace is conferred by an instrumental virtue derived from Christ (ST III:56:3) To this reason St. Thomas adds another, namely, that the Eucharist is as the end to which the other sacraments tend, a centre around which they revolve (ST III:56:3).圣体是第一个有尊严的,因为它包含着人的基督的恩典而其他圣礼由来自基督(圣三:56:3)是工具美德赋予这个原因圣托马斯增加了一个,即圣体是作为结束而另一圣礼趋向,他们围绕着一个中心旋转(圣三:56:3)。 Baptism is always first in necessity; Holy Orders comes next after the Eucharist in the order of dignity, Confirmation being between these two.总是在必要的洗礼,是第一次;神圣的订单后,在接下来的尊严秩序圣体,这两个被确认。 Penance and Extreme Unction could not have a first place because they presuppose defects (sins).忏悔和临终不能拥有一个地方,因为他们假定缺陷(罪)。Of the two Penance is the first in necessity: Extreme Unction completes the work of Penance and prepares souls for heaven.在这两个忏悔是必要第一:临终完成工作的忏悔,并准备为天堂的灵魂。Matrimony has not such an important social work as Orders (ST III:56:3, ad 1).婚姻并没有这样一个重要的常规的社会工作(圣三:56:3,公元1)。If we consider necessity alone -- the Eucharist being left out as our daily bread, and God's greatest gift -- three are simply and strictly necessary, Baptism for all, Penance for those who fall into mortal sin after receiving Baptism, Orders for the Church.如果我们认为有必要单独 - 圣体被排除在外作为我们每天的面包,和上帝的最好礼物 - 三是简单而绝对必要的,对所有的洗礼,忏悔对那些属于谁进入弥天大罪后接受洗礼的教堂,订单。The others are not so strictly necessary.其他人不那么绝对必要的。Confirmation completes the work of Baptism; Extreme Unction completes the work of Penance; Matrimony sanctifies the procreation and education of children, which is not so important nor so necessary as the sanctification of ministers of the Church (ST III:56:3, ad 4).确认完成工作的洗礼;临终忏悔的工作就完成了;婚姻成圣的生育和教育孩子,这是不那么重要,也使作为教会(圣三部长成圣必要的:56:3,广告四)。

(d) Episcopalians and Anglicans distinguish two great sacraments and five lesser sacraments because the latter "have not any visible sign or ceremony ordained by God" (art. XXXV).(四)圣公会和圣公会区分两大圣礼圣礼和五小,因为后者“没有任何明显的标志或祝圣仪式的上帝”(第三十五条)。Then they should be classed among the sacramentals since God alone can be the author of a sacrament (see above III).那么就应该归类中sacramentals因为上帝可以是单独的一个圣餐(见上文三)的作者。On this point the language of the twenty-fifth article ("commonly called sacraments") is more logical and straightforward than the terminology of recent Anglican writers.在这一点上第二十十五条(“俗称圣礼”)的语言更符合逻辑,比最近圣公会作家术语简单。The Anglican Catechism calls Baptism and Eucharist sacraments "generally (ie universally) necessary for salvation".英国圣公会的洗礼和圣体问答呼吁圣礼“一般(即普遍)必要的救赎”。Mortimer justly remarks that this expression is not "entirely accurate", because the Eucharist is not generally necessary to salvation in the same way as Baptism (op.cit., I, 127).莫蒂默公正的言论,这句话是不是“完全正确”,因为在圣体是不一样的洗礼一般都需要救赎(前引书。,我,127)。The other five he adds are placed in a lower class because, "they are not necessary to salvation in the same sense as the two other sacraments, since they are not necessary for everyone" (loc.cit., 128).他补充说,其他五名被放置在一个较低的阶层,因为“他们没有在与其他两个圣礼同样的意义上必要的救助,因为他们并不是每个人都需要”(loc.cit。,128)。 Verily this is interpretation extraordinary; yet we should be grateful since it is more respectful than saying that those five are "such as have grown partly of the corrupt following of the Apostles, partly are states of life allowed in the Scriptures" (art. XXV).这是非常实实在在的解释,但我们应该感谢,因为它是更尊重比说,这些五有“,例如有一部分是腐败的使徒以下增长,部分是在念经的生活状态”(第二十五)。 Confusion and uncertainty will be avoided by accepting the declaration of the Council of Trent (above).混乱和不确定性将会避免接受的遄达(上)理事会的声明。


(1) Catholic Doctrine(1)天主教教义

(a) The principal effect of the sacrament is a two-fold grace: (1) the grace of the sacrament which is "first grace", produced by the sacraments of the dead, or "second grace", produced by the sacraments of the living (supra, IV, 3, b); (2) The sacramental grace, ie, the special grace needed to attain the end of each sacrament. (一)主要作用的圣餐是双重的恩典:(1)的圣餐恩典,这是“第一个宽限期”,由死者的圣礼生产,或“第二宽限期”,所生产的圣礼生活(前,四,三,二),(2)圣宽限期,即特殊的恩典需要达到每圣礼结束。 Most probably it is not a new habitual gift, but a special vigour or efficacy in the sanctifying grace conferred, including on the part of God, a promise, and on the part of man a permanent right to the assistance needed in order to act in accordance with the obligations incurred, eg, to live as a good Christian, a good priest, a good husband or wife (cf. ST III:62:2).最有可能它不是一个新的习惯性的礼物,而是一种特殊的活力,或在圣洁优雅疗效赋予的,包括对上帝,承诺的一部分,并于男人的一部分永久权利,以便在必要的援助行动按照产生的义务,如生活作为一个好的基督徒,一个好的牧师,好丈夫或妻子(参见圣三:62:2)。

(b) Three sacraments, Baptism, Confirmation and Orders, besides grace, produce in the soul a character, ie, an indelible spiritual mark by which some are consecrated as servants of God, some as soldiers, some as ministers. (二)三圣礼,洗礼,确认和订单,除了优雅,生产中的灵魂人物,即一个不可磨灭的精神标记,其中一些是作为神的仆人,因为一些士兵,一些神圣的部长。 Since it is an indelible mark, the sacraments which impress a character cannot be received more than once (Conc. Trid., sess. VII, can.9; see CHARACTER).由于它是一个不可磨灭的印记,留下深刻印象的圣礼这不能接收超过一次字符(Conc.论坛报,自编码扩频通信第七can.9。。看到的字符)。

(2) How the sacraments cause Grace: Theological controversies. (2)如何圣礼事业格雷斯:神学争论。

Few questions have been so hotly controverted as this one relative to the manner in which the sacraments cause grace (ST IV, Sent., d.1, Q.4, a.1.).一些问题已如此激烈有争议,因为这一个相对的方式而造成的恩典圣礼(圣四,已发送。,D.1中,问题4,增1。)。

(a) All admit that the sacraments of the New Law cause grace ex opere operato, not ex opere operantis (above, II, 2, 3).(一)所有承认,新税法的原因圣礼宽限期前opere operato,而不是前opere operantis(以上,二,2,3)。

(b) All admit that God alone can be the principal cause of grace (above 3, 1). (二)都承认,只有上帝的恩典,可主要的原因(以上3,1)。

(c) All admit that Christ as man, had a special power over the sacraments (above, 3, 2).(三)都承认,基督作为人,有超过圣礼(以上,3,2)一个特殊的权力。

(d) All admit that the sacraments are, in some sense, the instrumental causes either of grace itself or of something else which will be a "title exigent of grace" (infra e).(d)所有承认圣礼,在一定意义上,无论是自身的宽限期或其他东西将是一个“宽限期称号迫切”器乐原因(下文五)。The principal cause is one which produces an effect by a power which it has by reason of its own nature or by an inherent faculty.主要的原因是它产生的力量,它由一个由它自己的性质或因教师有一种内在的影响。An instrumental cause produces an effect, not by its own power, but by a power which it receives from the principal agent.乐器导致产生的效果,而不是由它自己的权力,而是由权力,它从委托代理接收。When a carpenter makes a table, he is the principal cause, his tools are the instrumental causes.当一个木匠,使一个表,他是主要的原因,他的工具是工具的原因。God alone can cause grace as the principal cause; sacraments can be no more than his instruments "for they are applied to men by Divine ordinance to cause grace in them" (ST III:62:1).只有上帝可以作为主要的原因造成的宽限期;圣礼不能比他的乐器更多“因为他们都是适用于男子的神圣条例,导致他们的恩典”(圣三:62:1)。 No theologian today defends Occasionalism (see CAUSE) ie the system which taught that the sacraments caused grace by a kind of concomitance, they being not real causes but the causae sine quibus non: their reception being merely the occasion of conferring grace.今日无神学辩护偶(见原因)即系统的圣礼,它告诉我们,造成了一种优雅共存,他们是不是真正原因,但causae非正弦quibus:他们的接待仅仅是被赋予优雅的时刻。 This opinion, according to Pourrat (op.cit., 167), was defended by St. Bonaventure, Duns Scotus, Durandus, Occam, and all the Nominalists, and "enjoyed a real success until the time of the Council of Trent, when it was transformed into the modern system of moral causality".这一意见,根据Pourrat(前引书。,167),是由圣文德辩护,邓司各脱,Durandus,奥卡姆,所有的Nominalists,和“喜欢到的遄达,安理会一次真正成功的时候它转化为现代企业制度的道德因果关系“。 St. Thomas (III:62:1, III:62:4; and "Quodlibeta", 12, a, 14), and others rejected it on the ground that it reduced the sacraments to the condition of mere signs.圣托马斯(三:62:1,第三:62:4和“Quodlibeta”,12日,一,14),和其他人拒绝,理由是它减少了圣礼单纯的迹象工作状态。

(e) In solving the problem the next step was the introduction of the system of dispositive instrumental causality, explained by Alexander of Hales (Summa theol., IV, Q. v, membr. 4), adopted and perfected by St. Thomas (IV Sent., d. 1, Q. i, a. 4), defended by many theologians down to the sixteenth century, and revived later by Father Billot, SJ ("De eccl. sacram.", I, Rome, 1900). (五)在解决问题的下一个步骤是因果关系的决定性工具制度,解释了亚历山大黑尔斯(总结theol。,四,问:五,membr。4),通过和圣托马斯完善(四,发送。,四一,问:我,甲4)悍下降到十六世纪,许多神学家,恢复由父亲Billot,律政司司长(即后来的“德传道书。sacram。”,我,罗马,1900) 。According to this theory the sacraments do not efficiently and immediately cause grace itself, but they cause ex opere operato and instrumentally, a something else -- the character (in some cases) or a spiritual ornament or form -- which will be a "disposition" entitling the soul to grace ("dispositio exigitiva gratiae"; "titulus exigitivus gratiae", Billot, loc.cit.).根据这一理论没有有效的圣礼,并立即引起宽限期本身,而是它们会导致前opere operato和工具性,一个别的东西 - 字符(在某些情况下)或装饰或形成一种精神 - 这将是一个“性格“赋予灵魂的宽限期(”dispositio exigitiva gratiae“,”titulus exigitivus gratiae“,Billot,loc.cit。)。It must be admitted that this theory would be most convenient in explaining "reviviscence" of the sacraments (infra, VII, c).必须承认,这一理论在解释将是最“复活”的圣礼(基础设施,七,三)方便。Against it the following objections are made:反对下面的反对意见提出:

From the time of the Council of Trent down to recent times little was heard of this system.从安理会的遄达到近代的停机时间很少有人听说过这个制度。

The "ornament", or "disposition", entitling the soul to grace is not well explained, hence explains very little.在“装饰”,或“处置”,赋予灵魂的恩典是没有得到很好的解释,因而解释很少。

Since this "disposition" must be something spiritual and of the supernatural order, and the sacraments can cause it, why can they not cause the grace itself?由于这“处置”必须是精神和超自然的秩序,它可能导致的圣礼,为什么他们能在宽限期本身不会造成?

In his "Summa theologica" St. Thomas does not mention this dispositive causality: hence we may reasonably believe that he abandoned it.在他的“神学大全”圣托马斯没有提到一个决定性的因果关系:因此,我们有理由相信,他可能会放弃它。

(f) Since the time of the Council of Trent theologians almost unanimously have taught that the sacraments are the efficient instrumental cause of grace itself. (六)由于几乎一致的教导,圣事本身的高效率的宽限期乐器导致神学家理事会特伦特时间。The definition of the Council of Trent, that the sacraments "contain the grace which they signify", that they "confer grace ex opere operato" (Sess. VII, can.6, 8), seemed to justify the assertion, which was not contested until quite recently.该理事会的遄达,这圣礼“包含的恩典,这意味着他们”的定义,他们“赋予宽限期前opere operato”达(sess.七,can.6,8),似乎有理由断言,这是不直到最近争议。Yet the end of the controversy had not come.然而,争论的结束并没有来。What was the nature of that causality?什么是该因果关系的性质?Did it belong to the physical or to the moral order?它是否属于身体或道德秩序?A physical cause really and immediately produces its effects, either as the principal agent or as the instrument used, as when a sculptor uses a chisel to carve a statue.真正的物理原因,并立即产生的影响,无论是作为主事人的代理人或作为工具使用,因为当一个雕塑家用凿子刻一尊雕像。 A moral cause is one which moves or entreats a physical cause to act.一种道义上的原因,是一些移动或恳求身体原因采取行动。It also can be principal or instrumental, eg, a bishop who in person successfully pleads for the liberation of a prisoner is the principal moral cause, a letter sent by him would be the instrumental moral cause, of the freedom granted.它也可以作为主要或工具,例如,一个人成功地在主教谁恳求囚犯解放是主要的道德事业,由他致函将成为器乐道义事业,给予的自由。 The expressions used by St. Thomas seem clearly to indicate that the sacraments act after the manner of physical causes.由圣托马斯用的词句似乎清楚地表明,圣礼后的物理原因的方式行事。He says that there is in the sacraments a virtue productive of grace (III:62:4) and he answers objections against attributing such power to a corporeal instrument by simply stating that such power is not inherent in them and does not reside in them permanently, but is in them only so far and so long as they are instruments in the hands of Almighty God (loc.cit., ad um and 3 um).他说,中有一种美德圣礼生产的宽限期(三:62:4),他的​​回答简单地归咎于声明反对这种权力的权力,反对一个有形的文书也不在他们固有的,并不在他们的永久居住,但他们只有这么远,只要他们在全能的神(loc.cit。,广告庵和3微米)手中的工具。 Cajetan, Francisco Suárez, and a host of other great theologians defend this system, which is usually termed Thomistic.接cajetan,弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯,以及其他伟大的神学家主机保卫这个制度,这是通常被称为托马斯主义。 The language of the Scripture, the expressions of the Fathers, the Decrees of the councils, they say, are so strong that nothing short of an impossibility will justify a denial of this dignity to the sacraments of the New Law.的经文的语言,表达的父亲,在议会的法令,他们说,是如此强烈,简直是不可能的短会,应该对这种尊严剥夺了新税法的圣礼。 Many facts must be admitted which we cannot fully explain.许多事实必须承认,我们不能完全解释。The body of man acts on his spiritual soul; fire acts, in some way, on souls and on angels.火行为的灵魂和天使,在某种程度上,该人的行为对他的精神灵魂的躯体。The strings of a harp, remarks Cajetan (In III, Q.lxii) touched by an unskilled hand, produce nothing but sounds: touched by the hands of a skilful mmusician they give forth beautiful melodies.一个竖琴的琴弦,备注接cajetan(在三,Q.lxii)由非熟练的手摸,生产什么,但声音:由一个熟练的mmusician手中感动,他们给出来优美的旋律。 Why cannot the sacraments, as instruments in the hands of God, produce grace?为什么不能圣礼,因为在上帝的手中工具,生产的恩典?

Many grave theologians were not convinced by these arguments, and another school, improperly called the Scotistic, headed by Melchior Cano, De Lugo, and Vasquez, embracing later Henno, Tournély, Franzelin, and others, adopted the system of instrumental moral causality.许多严重的神学家不相信这些参数和另一所学校,不适当地称为Scotistic,由梅尔基奥尔卡诺,德卢戈和Vasquez保持为首,拥抱后Henno,Tournély,Franzelin等人,通过了器乐道德因果系统。 The principal moral cause of grace is the Passion of Christ.主要的原因是道德的恩典基督的受难。The sacraments are instruments which move or entreat God effectively and infallibly to give his grace to those who receive them with proper disposotions, because, says Melchior Cano, "the price of the blood of Jesus Christ is communicated to them" (see Pourrat, op. cit., 192, 193).圣礼,是移动或文书,有效和infallibly恳求上帝给他的恩典,那些谁得到适当disposotions他们,因为,梅尔基奥尔卡诺说,“对耶稣的血是传达给他们的价格”(见Pourrat,同。前。,192,193)。 This system was further developed by Franzelin, who looks upon the sacraments as being morally an act of Christ (loc.cit., p.194).该系统进一步发展了Franzelin,谁后,似乎在道义上圣礼作基督的行为(loc.cit。,第194页)。The Thomists and Francisco Suárez object to this system:该Thomists和弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯反对这个系统:

Since the sacraments (ie the external rites) have no intrisic value, they do not, according to this explanation, exert any genuine causality; they do not really cause grace, God alone causes the grace: the sacrament do not operate to produce it; they are only signs or occasions of conferring it.由于圣礼(即外部仪式)没有intrisic价值,他们不这样做,根据这个解释,施加任何真正的因果关系,他们并不真正原因恩典,只有上帝使恩典:圣餐不操作生产它;他们是唯一标志或赋予它的场合。

The Fathers saw something mysterious and inexplicable in the sacraments.父亲看到了什么神秘和令人费解的圣礼。In this system wonders cease or are, at least, so much reduced that the expressions used by the Fathers seem altogether out of place.在这个系统停止或奇迹,至少,这样大大减少,到父亲所用的词句似乎完全不相称。

This theory does not sufficiently distinguish, in efficacy, the sacraments of the Gospel from the sacraments of the Old Law.这种理论并没有充分区分,在疗效,从旧法的圣礼的福音圣礼。Nevertheless, because it avoids certain difficulties and obscurities of the physical causality theory, the system of moral causality has found many defenders, and today if we consider numbers alone, it has authority in its favour.不过,因为它避免了一定的困难和物理因果关系的理论晦涩,道德因果关系系统发现许多捍卫者,而今天如果我们考虑到数字本身,它有利于自己的权威。

Recently both of these systems have been vigorously attacked by Father Billot (op.cit., 107 sq.), who proposes a new explanation.最近的这些系统都具有大力攻击父亲Billot(前引书。,107平方米),谁提出了新的解释。He revives the old theory that the sacraments do not immediately cause grace itself, but a disposition or title to grace (above e).他重现了旧理论的圣礼不立即引起恩典本身,而是一个处置或所有权的恩典(以上五)。This disposition is produced by the sacraments, neither physically nor morally, but imperatively.这种气质是由圣事,既不实际,也不道德,但势在必行。Sacraments are practical signs of an intentional order: they manifest God's intention to give spiritual benefits; this manifestation of the Divine intention is a title exigent of grace (op.cit., 59 sq., 123 sq.; Pourrat, op.cit., 194; Cronin in reviews, sup. cit.).圣礼是故意为了实用的迹象:。它们体现上帝的意愿给予精神上的好处,这神圣的意图表现是雍容的标题紧急(前引书,59平方米,123平方米; Pourrat,前引书。 ,194;克罗宁在评论,燮同前)。。。Father Billot defends his opinions with remarkable acumen.父亲以非凡的智慧Billot维护自己的观点。Patrons of the physical causality gratefully note his attack against the moral causality, but object to the new explanation, that the imperative or the intentional causality, as distinct from the action of signs, occasions, moral or physical instruments (a) is conceived with difficulty and (b) does not make the sacraments (ie the external, Divinely appointed ceremonies) the real cause of grace.物理因果关系的赞助人感激地注意到他对道德因果攻击,但反对新的解释,认为必要或故意的因果关系,因为从迹象,场合,道德或物理仪器的操作(一)是难以设想的不同及(b)不使圣礼(即外部,神委任仪式)的宽限期的真正原因。 Theologians are perfectly free to dispute and differ as to the manner of instrumental causality.神学家都完全自由地纠纷,以不同的乐器因果关系的方式。Lis est adhuc sub judice.美国东部时间审理adhuc李氏子。


(1) Men, Not Angels(1)男子,不是天使

It was altogether fitting that the ministration of the sacraments be given, not to the angels, but to men.这是完全恰当的圣礼的职事有付出,而不是天使,而是人。The efficacy of the sacraments comes from the Passion of Christ, hence from Christ as a man; men, not angels, are like unto Christ in His human nature.圣事的效力来自基督的受难,因此从基督作为一个男人,而男人,而不是天使,像祂基督在他的人性。Miraculously God might send a good angel to administer a sacrament (ST III:64:7).奇迹般的神可能派一个好天使管理圣礼(圣三:64:7)。

(2) Ordination Requirements for the Ministers of Particular Sacraments特用圣礼部长(2)排序要求

For administering Baptism validly no special ordination is required.对于没有特殊的管理洗礼有效协调是必要的。Any one, even a pagan, can baptize, provided that he use the proper matter and pronounce the words of the essential form, with the intention of doing what the Church does (Decr. pro Armen., Denzinger-Bannwart, 696).任何人,即使是异教徒,可以施洗,只要他使用正确的问题和发音的基本形式的话做什么用的教会确实(Decr.亲阿尔缅。,登青格,Bannwart,696)意向。 Only bishops, priests, and in some cases, deacons may confer Baptism solemnly (see BAPTISM).只有主教,神父,在某些情况下,执事可授予庄严的洗礼(见洗礼)。It is now held as certain that in Matrimony the contracting parties are the ministers of the sacrament, because they make the contract and the sacrament is a contract raised by Christ to the dignity of a sacrament (cf. Leo XIII, Encycl. "Arcanum", 10 Febr., 1880; see MATRIMONY).现在是持有肯定的是,在婚姻缔约双方的部长们的圣餐,因为他们要在合同和圣餐是基督提高到一个圣餐(见利奥十三世,Encycl。“奥秘”尊严的合同10 Febr,1880年;。看到婚姻)。For the validity of the other five sacraments the minister must be duly ordained.对于其他五个圣礼的有效性部长必须得到应有的受戒。The Council of Trent anathematized those who said that all Christians could administer all the sacraments (Sess. VII, can.10).安理会的遄达anathematized说,所有那些谁基督徒可以管理所有的圣礼达(sess.七,can.10)。 Only bishops can confer Sacred Orders (Council of Trent, sess. XXIII, can.7).只有主教可以赋予神圣的命令(理事会的遄达,sess。二十三,can.7)。Ordinarily only a bishop can give Confirmation (see CONFIRMATION).通常只有一个主教可以给予确认(见确认)。The priestly Order is required for the valid administration of Penance and Extreme Unction (Conc. Trid., sess. XIV, can.10, can.4).订购的祭司需要的忏悔和临终有效的管理(Conc.论坛报。,自编码扩频通信。十四,can.10,can.4)。 As to the Eucharist, those only who have priestly Orders can consecrate, ie change bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ.至于圣体,只有那些有祭司的命令谁可以奉献,即改面包和进入人体和血液基督酒。Consecration presupposed, any one can distribute the Eucharistic species but, outside of very extraordinary circumstances this can be lawfully done only by bishops, priests, or (in some cases) deacons.奉献的先决条件,任何一个物种可以分发圣体,但非常特殊情况外,可以依法这只能由主教,司铎,或(在某些情况下)执事完成。

(3) Heretical or Schismatic Ministers(3)邪教或分裂的部长

The care of all those sacred rites has been given to the Church of Christ.所有这些神圣的仪式保健已被赋予基督的教会。Heretical or schismatical ministers can administer the sacraments validly if they have valid Orders, but their ministrations are sinful (see Billot, op.cit., thesis 16).邪教或分裂的部长可以有效地管理圣礼,如果他们有有效的订单,但他们的ministrations是有罪的(见Billot,前引书。,论文16)。 Good faith would excuse the recipients from sin, and in cases of necessity the Church grants jurisdiction necessary for Penance and Extreme Unction (see EXCOMMUNICATION: V, Effects of Excommunication).诚信将受助人从罪的借口,并在必要的情况下授予的管辖权,教会临终忏悔和必要的(见禁教:五,禁教的影响)。

(4) State of Soul of the Minister(4)国家部长的灵魂

Due reverence for the sacraments requires the minister to be in a state of grace: one who solemnly and officially administers a sacrament, being himself in a state of mortal sin, would certainly be guilty of a sacrilege (cf. ST III:64:6).由于崇敬的圣礼部长要求要在一个国家的宽限期:一个谁管理一个庄严,正式圣礼,即在一个国家自己的弥天大罪,肯定是一个亵渎(参见圣三犯:64:6 )。Some hold that this sacrilege is committed even when the minister does not act officially or confer the sacrament solemnly.有人认为这是亵渎承诺甚至认为,当部长没有采取行动或授予圣餐正式郑重。 But from the controversy between St. Augustine and the Donatists in the fourth century and especially from the controversy between St. Stephen and St. Cyprian in the third century, we know that personal holiness or the state of grace in the minister is not a prerequisite for the valid administration of the sacrament.但是,从圣奥古斯丁和之间多纳在第四世纪的争议,特别是从与美督和圣塞浦路斯在三世纪的争议,我们知道,个人的圣洁,或在宽限期部长状态不是一个先决条件为有效管理的圣餐。 This has been solemnly defined in several general councils including the Council of Trent (Sess VII, can.12, ibid., de bapt., can.4).这已庄严地界定,包括安理会的遄达(阶段作业七,can.12,同上。,德BAPT的。,can.4)数一般议会。 The reason is that the sacraments have their efficacy by Divine institution and through the merits of Christ.其原因是,有自己的神圣圣礼机构,并通过基督的优点疗效。Unworthy ministers, validly conferring the sacraments, cannot impede the efficacy of signs ordained by Christ to produce grace ex opere operato (cf. St. Thomas, III:64:5, III:64:9).恶徒部长,有效地赋予圣礼,不能妨碍受戒基督恩典的迹象功效产生前opere operato(参见圣托马斯,三:64:5,第三:64:9)。The knowledge of this truth, which follows logically from the true conception of a sacrament, gives comfort to the faithful, and it should increase, rather than diminish, reverence for those sacred rites and confidence in their efficacy.这个真理,它遵循逻辑从一个真正的圣事的概念,知识给予安慰信徒,而且应该增加,减少,而不是那些神圣的仪式,并在其效力的信心崇敬。 No one can give, in his own name, that which he does not possess; but a bank cashier, not possessing 2000 dollars in his own name, could write a draft worth 2, 000, 000 dollars by reason of the wealth of the bank which he is authorized to represent.没有人能付出,在他自己的名,他不具备,但是银行出纳,不拥有自己的名字在2000元,可以写一个草稿价值20,000,000由该银行的美元财富的原因他被授权代表。 Christ left to His Church a vast treasure purchased by His merits and sufferings: the sacraments are as credentials entitling their holders to a share in this treasure.基督留给他教会了广阔珍惜他的优点和痛苦购买:圣礼作为凭证的持有人有权在这个宝藏份额。On this subject, the Anglican Church has retained the true doctrine, which is neatly proved in article XXVI of the Westminster Confession: "Although in the visible church the evil be ever mingled with the good, and sometimes the evil hath the chief authority in the ministration of the Word and Sacraments, yet forasmuch as they do not the same in their own name, but in Christ's, and do minister by His commission and authority, we may use their ministry both in hearing the Word of God and in receiving the Sacraments. Neither is the effect of Christ's ordinance taken away by their wickedness nor the grace of God's gifts from such as by faith, and rightly, do receive the sacraments ministered unto them; which be effectual, because of Christ's institution and promise, although they be administered by evil men" (cf. Billuart, de sacram., d.5, a.3, sol.obj.)在这个问题上,英国圣公会教堂保留了真正的教义,这是整齐地证明条韦斯敏斯德六卷:“在有形教会的罪恶比以往虽然有良好的交融,有时在祂所行政权力之恶供职的Word和圣礼,但forasmuch因为他们没有在自己的名称相同,但在基督的,也由他委托和授权部长,我们可能会使用他们的部无论是在听到上帝的话,在接受圣事。既不是由他们的恶,也不是上帝的礼物从这样的恩典的信仰了基督的条例生效,这是正确,确实收到伺候他们的圣礼;这是行之有效的,因为基督的制度和承诺,虽然他们是管理工作由邪恶的人“(见Billuart德sacram。,D.5节A.3节,sol.obj。)

(5) Intention of the Minister(5)意向部长

(a) To be a minister of the sacraments under and with Christ, a man must act as a man, ie as a rational being; hence it is absolutely necessary that he have the intention of doing what the Church does. (一)成为下,与基督圣礼牧师,一个人必须作为一个人,即作为一个理性的,因此它是完全必要的,他有做什么教会没有意图。This was declared by Eugene IV in 1439 (Denzinger-Bannwart, 695) and was solemnly defined in the Council of Trent (Sess.VII, can.II).这是尤金四世宣布1439(登青格,Bannwart,695),并郑重地在安理会的遄达(Sess.VII,can.II)来界定。 The anathema of Trent was aimed at the innovators of the sixteenth century.诅咒的遄达目的是十六世纪的创新者。From their fundamental error that the sacraments were signs of faith, or signs that excited faith, it followed logically that their effect in no wise depended on the intention of the minister.从他们的根本错误的圣礼被信仰的标志,或迹象表明,激动的信仰,它遵循逻辑,他们在任何明智的影响该部长的意图而定。 Men are to be "ministers of Christ, and the dispensers of the mysteries of God" (1 Corinthians 4:1), and this they would not be without the intention, for it is by the intention, says St. Thomas (III:64:8, ad 1) that a man subjects and unites himself to the principal agent (Christ).男人是“基督的部长,以及神的奥秘掌柜”(林前4:1),这不会是没有打算,因为它的用意是说,圣托马斯(三: 64:8,公元1),一名男子科目和团结自己的主要代理(基督)。Moreover, by rationally pronouncing the words of the form, the minister must determine what is not sufficiently determined or expressed by the matter applied, eg the significance of pouring water on the head of the child (ST III:64:8).此外,通过合理的形式宣告的话,部长必须确定什么是不充分的决定或所表达的申请事项,例如,浇儿童的头(圣三:64:8)水的意义。 One who is demented, drunk, asleep, or in a stupor that prevents a rational act, one who goes through the external ceremony in mockery, mimicry, or in a play, does not act as a rational minister, hence cannot administer a sacrament.一个谁是疯狂的,喝醉了,睡着,或昏迷,防止一个理性的行为,一个谁通过外部仪式进去嘲弄,模仿,在戏剧或不作为一个理性的部长,因此无法管理一个圣礼。

(b) The necessary object and qualities of the intention required in the minister of the sacrament are explained in the article INTENTION. (二)必要的对象,并在牧师的圣餐所需的意图素质是解释了文章的用意。Pourrat (op.cit., ch.7) gives a history of all controversies on this subject. Pourrat(前引书。,7章)给出了对这一问题的所有争议的历史。Whatever may be said speculatively about the opinion of Ambrosius Catherinus (see POLITI, LANCELOT) who advocated the sufficiency of an external intention in the minister, it may not be followed in practice, because, outside of cases of neccessity, no one may follow a probable opinion against one that is safer, when there is question of something required for the validity of a sacrament (Innoc. XI, 1679; Denzinger-Bannwart, 1151).可以说,不管投机对安布罗Catherinus意见(见波利蒂,兰斯洛特)谁主张,在外部部长意图充足,它可能无法在实践中应遵循的,因为外面的neccessity情况下,任何人不得遵循可能认为这是对一个更安全,且有什么问题,因为一个圣餐(Innoc.十一,1679年,登青格,Bannwart,1151)的有效性要求。

(6) Attention in the Minister(6)应注意的部长

Attention is an act of the intellect, viz.注意是一个智力,即行为。the application of the mind to what is being done.心灵的应用正在做什么。Voluntary distraction in one administering a sacrament would be sinful.自愿一分心管理圣礼将罪恶。The sin would however not be brave, unless (a) there be danger of making a serious mistake, or (b) according to the common opinion, the distraction be admitted in consecrating the Eucharistic species.但该罪将不逞强,除非(a)有做一个严重的错误,或(b)根据共同认为,在供奉分心圣体物种承认的危险。Attention on the part of the minister is not necessary for the valid administration of a sacrament, because in virtue of the intention, which is presupposed, he can act in a rational manner, notwithstanding the distraction.在部长的一部分注意力不为一个有效的管理圣礼必要的,因为在意图,这是先决条件,他可以做一个理性的态度虽有分心,美德。


When all conditions required by Divine and ecclesiastical law are complied with, the sacrament is received validly and licitly.当由神和教会法规定的所有条件都符合,圣礼是有效而合法地获得。If all conditions required for the essential rite are observed, on the part of the minister, the recipient, the matter and form, but some non-essential condition is not complied with by the recipient, the sacrament is received validly but not licitly; and if the condition wilfully neglected be grave, grace is not then conferred by the ceremony.如果出于礼仪的基本要求的所有条件得到遵守,有关部长,收件人的问题和形式的一部分,但一些非必要的条件不符合受方利用,圣礼是有效但不合法地获得;及如果条件故意忽视的是严重的,恩典是不是再由授予仪式。 Thus baptized persons contracting Matrimony whilst they are in the state of mortal sin would be validly (ie really) married, but would not then receive sanctifying grace.因此受洗者承包,而他们在婚姻的弥天大罪国将有效(即真)结婚,但不会再收到sanctifying恩典。

(1) Conditions for valid reception(1)有效的接待条件

(a) The previous reception of Baptism (by water) is an essential condition for the valid reception of any other sacrament.(一)洗礼(水)上一次接收,是任何其他有效的接待圣餐的必要条件。 Only citizens and members of the Church can come under her influence as such; Baptism is the door by which we enter the Church and thereby become members of a mystical body united to Christ our head (Catech. Trid., de bapt., nn.5, 52).只有公民和教会的成员可以因此受到她的影响;洗礼是大门,使我们进入了教堂,从而成为美国基督我们的头(Catech.论坛报一个神秘的机构的成员,去BAPT的,神经网络。。。 5,52)。

(b) In adults, for the valid reception of any sacrament except the Eucharist, it is necessary that they have the intention of receiving it. (二)在成人中,任何有效的,除了圣体圣事接待,这是必要的,他们已经接到的意图。The sacraments impose obligations and confer grace: Christ does not wish to impose those obligations or confer grace without the consent of man.圣礼强加的义务,并赋予宽限期:基督不想强加的义务或不同意的人授予的恩典。 The Eucharist is excepted because, in whatever state the recipient may be, it is always the body and blood of Christ (see INTENTION; cf. Pourrat, op.cit., 392).圣体是例外,因为在任何国家的收件人可能是,它始终是基督的身体和血液(见意图;。比照Pourrat,前引书,392。)。

(c) For attention, see above, VI, 6.(三)需要注意,见上面,六,六。By the intention man submits himself to the operation of the sacraments which produce their effects exopere operato, hence attention is not necessary for the valid reception of the sacraments.提交人的意图通过自己的圣礼而产生的影响exopere operato操作,因此关注的是没有必要的有效接收的圣礼。One who might be distracted, even voluntarily, during the conferring, eg of Baptism, would receive the sacrament validly.一个谁可能分散注意力,甚至在自愿授予,如洗礼,将得到有效的圣餐。It must be carefully noted, however, that in the case of Matrimony the contracting parties are the ministers as well as the recipients of the sacraments; and in the sacrament of Penance, the acts of the penitent, contrition, confession, and willingness to accept a Penance in satisfaction, constitute the proximate matter of the sacraments, according to the commonly received opinion.必须仔细地注意到,不过,在案件的婚姻缔约双方的部长以及圣礼的收件人,以及在圣事的忏悔,在忏悔,忏悔,忏悔,并愿意接受的行为忏悔的满意度,构成了圣礼的型材,根据普遍接受的意见。 Hence in those cases such attention is required as is necessary for the valid application of the matter and form.因此,在这种情况下如此大的关注,需要为所必需的物质,形成有效的应用程序。

(2) Conditions for the Licit Reception为合法招待会(2)条件

(a) For the licit reception, besides the intention and the attention, in adults there is required:(一)为合法接待,除了意图和注意的成年人,有要求:

for the sacraments of the dead, supernatural attrition, which presupposes acts of faith, hope, and repentance (see ATTRITION and JUSTIFICATION);对于死者,超自然的自然减员,这预示着信仰,希望,和忏悔行为的圣礼(见自然减员和理由);

for the sacraments of the living the state of grace.对于生活状态的宽限期圣礼。Knowingly to receive a sacrament of the living whilst one is in the state of mortal sin would be a sacrilege.明知领取的生活,而一个圣餐中的弥天大罪状态将是一个亵渎。

(b) For the licit reception it is also necessary to observe all that is prescribed by Divine or ecclesiastical law, eg as to time, place, the minister, etc. As the Church alone has the care of the sacraments and generally her duly appointed agents alone have the right to administer them, except Baptism in some cases, and Matrimony (supra VI, 2), it is a general law that application for the sacraments should be made to worthy and duly appointed ministers. (二)为合法接待,还必须遵守所有规定的是神圣的或教会法,如以时间,地点,部长等作为教会仅具有一般的护理和她的圣礼正式委任代理才有权利管理他们除了洗礼,在某些情况下,婚姻(前六,2),这是一个普遍规律,对于圣礼申请应作出有价值和正式任命部长。 (For exceptions see EXCOMMUNICATION.)(例外情况见罚。)

(3) Reviviscence of the Sacraments(3)复活的圣礼

Much attention has been given by theologians to the revival of effects which were impeded at the time when a sacrament was received.大部分注意力都给予向其中在圣餐时,收到的时间阻碍复苏的神学家的影响。The question arises whenever a sacrament is received validly but unworthily, ie with an obstacle which prevents the infusion of Divine grace.每当出现的问题得到有效而圣是混迹,其中有一个障碍阻碍了神的恩典注入IE浏览器。The obstacle (mortal sin) is positive, when it is known and voluntary, or negative, when it is involuntary by reason of ignorance or good faith.障碍物(弥天大罪)是积极的,当它是已知的,自愿的,还是消极的,当它被无知或善意的理由是非自愿的。One who thus receives a sacrament is said to receive it feignedly, or falsely (ficte), because by the very act of receiving it he pretends to be properly disposed; and the sacrament is said to be validum sed informe -- valid, but lacking its proper form, ie grace or charity (see LOVE).因此,谁收到一个据说是圣接受它feignedly,或者冒用(ficte),因为它的接收行为后,他假装很妥善处置;和圣礼被认为是validum桑达informe - 有效的,但缺乏其适当的形式,即宽限期或慈善机构(见爱)。Can such a person recover or receive the effects of the sacraments?这样的人恢复或接受圣礼的影响?The term reviviscence (reviviscentia) is not used by St. Thomas in reference to the sacraments and it is not strictly correct because the effects in question being impeded by the obstacle, were not once "living" (cf. Billot, op.cit., 98, note).一词复活(reviviscentia)不使用圣托马斯在参考了圣礼,这是不完全正确,因为有问题的影响,受到的障碍阻碍,是不是一次“活”(见Billot,前引书。 ,98,注)。The expression which he uses (III:69:10), viz., obtaining the effects after the obstacle has been removed, is more accurate, though not so convenient as the newer term.他使​​用的表达(三:69:10)。,即,障碍物后取得的效果已被删除,更准确,虽然没有那么作为新学期方便。

(a) Theologians generally hold that the question does not apply to Penance and the Holy Eucharist.(一)神学家普遍认为,这个问题并不适用于忏悔和圣体圣事。If the penitent be not sufficiently disposed to receive grace at the time he confesses his sins the sacrament is not validly received because the acts of the penitent are a necessary part of the matter of this sacrament, or a necessary condition for its reception.如果没有足够的忏悔被弃置在接收的时候,他承认他的圣礼是因为没有收到有效的忏悔行为是对这一圣餐,或​​为必要条件的接收问题的必要组成部分罪的恩典。 One who unworthily receives the Eucharist can derive no benefit from that sacrament unless, perhaps, he repent of his sins and sacrilege before the sacred species have beeen destroyed.一个谁混迹可以接收到来自该圣体圣事没有任何好处,除非,也许,他忏悔自己的罪和亵渎神圣的物种之前,有beeen销毁。 Cases that may occur relate to the five other sacraments.可能发生的案件涉及到其他五个圣礼。

(b) It is certain and admitted by all, that if Baptism be received by an adult who is in the state of mortal sin, he can afterwards receive the graces of the sacrament, viz.(二)这是肯定的,由均承认,如果洗礼是由成人谁在接收状态弥天大罪,他可以事后接受圣餐,即恩宠。when the obstacle is removed by contrition or by the sacrament of Penance.在障碍消除后的痛悔或圣餐的忏悔。On the one hand the sacraments always produce grace unless there be an obstacle; on the other hand those graces are necessary, and yet the sacrament cannot be repeated.一方面始终产生的圣礼宽限期除非有一个障碍;另一方面是必要的青睐,但圣礼不能重复。St. Thomas (III:69:10) and theologians find a special reason for the conferring of the effects of Baptism (when the "fiction" has been removed) in the permanent character which is impressed by the sacrament validly administered.圣托马斯(三:69:10)和神学家找到一个的洗礼,在长期性的影响(当“虚构”已被删除)这是由圣留下深刻印象的有效管理授予特殊原因。 Reasoning from analogy they hold the same with regard to Confirmation and Holy Orders, noting however that the graces to be received are not so necessary as those conferred by Baptism.类比推理,他们抱在一起关于确认和神圣的订单一样,然而他指出,将要收到的青睐并不那么必要,因为那些赋予的洗礼。

(c) The doctrineis not so certain when applied to Matrimony and Extreme Unction. (三)该学说是不那么确定时,适用于婚姻和临终。But since the graces impeded are very important though not strictly necessary, and since Matrimony cannot be received again whilst both contracting parties are living, and Extreme Unction cannot be repeated whilst the same danger of death lasts, theologians adopt as more probable the opinion which holds that God will grant the graces of those sacraments when the obstacle is removed.不过,由于青睐阻碍非常尽管不是绝对必要的重要的,因为婚姻不能接受再而缔约双方都在,临终不能重复,而死亡的同样的危险持续,神学家采取更可能认为持有上帝会给予这些圣礼的青睐,当在障碍消除。 The "reviviscence" of the effects of sacraments received validly but with an obstacle to grace at the time of their reception, is urged as a strong argument against the system of the physical causality of grace (supra, V, 2), especially by Billot (op.cit., thesis, VII, 116, 126).的“复活”的圣礼收到有效的障碍,但与以恩典在他们的接待时间的影响,敦促作为反对的宽限期(上文,五,2)物理因果关系体系有力的论据,特别是Billot (前引书。,论文,第七章,116,126)。For his own system he claims the merit of establishing an invariable mode of causality, namely, that in every case by the sacrament validly received there is conferred a "title exigent of grace".对于他自己的系统,他要求建立一种因果关系不变的模式,即优点,在每一个案件的有效收到圣餐授予有“恩典称号迫切。” If there be no obstacle the grace is conferred then and there: if there be an obstacle the "title" remains calling for the grace which will be conferred as soon as the obstacle is removed (op.cit., th.VI, VII).如无障碍物的恩典是赋予当时有:(。前引书,th.VI,七)如果有一个障碍“标题”的恩典,这仍然将尽快授予在障碍消除调用。 To this his opponents reply that exceptional cases might well call for an exceptional mode of causality.为此他的对手答复特殊情况下可能会要求召开一次特殊的因果关系模式。In the case of three sacraments the character sufficiently explains the revival of effects (cf. ST III:66:1, III:69:9, III:69:10).在三种情况下的字符圣礼充分说明了影响复兴(参见圣三:66:1,第三:69:9,三:69:10)。The doctrine as applied to Extreme Unction and Matrimony, is not certain enough to furnish a strong argument for or against any system.适用于临终和婚姻的学说,是不是一定足以提供支持或反对任何系统一个有力的论据。Future efforts of theologians may dispel the obscurity and uncertainty now prevailing in this interesting chapter.未来的神学家默默无闻的努力可能消除目前普遍存在的不确定性和在这个有趣的一章。

Publication information Written by DJ Kennedy.出版信息写由DJ肯尼迪。Transcribed by Marie Jutras.转录由Marie Jutras。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.天主教百科全书,卷十三。Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年2月1日。Remy Lafort, DD, Censor.人头马lafort,副署长,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约

The Seven Great Mysteries (Sacraments) of the Orthodox Church7大谜(圣礼)的东正教教堂

Catholic Perspective天主教的角度

There are, lastly, services for the administration of the Seven Great Mysteries (the Seven Sacraments) that are printed in the Euchologion after the liturgies (ed. cit., pp. 136-288).还有,最后,这七个大秘管理服务(七圣礼),它们印在Euchologion后的礼仪(编前。,第136-288)。


Baptism is always conferred by immersion (the Orthodox have grave doubts as to the validity of baptism by infusion. See Fortescue, Orth. E. Church, p. 420).洗礼总是赋予浸泡(东正教有至于洗礼输注有效性的严重怀疑。见Fortescue的奥尔特。五堂,第420页)。The child is anointed all over its body and dipped three times with its face towards the east.这孩子是受膏者车身及各地蘸其向东面对三次。The form is: "The servant of God N. is baptized in the name of the Father, Amen, and of the Son, Amen, and of the Holy Ghost, Amen."形式是:“上帝的仆人北路受浸的父亲的名字,阿门,和儿子,阿门,和圣灵,阿门。”


Confirmation follows at once and is conferred by priests (the Holy See recognizes this confirmation as valid and neither rebaptizes nor reconfirms converts from Orthodoxy).下一次确认,是由祭司赋予(教廷承认此确认为有效,也再次确认,既不rebaptizes从正统转换)。The whole body is again anointed with chrism (to hagion hyron) prepared very elaborately with fifty-five various substances by the cumenical patriarch on Maundy Thursday (Fortescue, op. cit., 425-426).整个身体又抹编制五五非常精心的各种物质上濯足节cumenical元老圣油(以hagion hyron)(Fortescue的作品。前。,425-426)。The form is: "The seal of the gift of the Holy Ghost" (Euch., 136-144).的形式是:“对圣灵的恩赐印章”(Euch.,136-144)。 The Orthodox never rebaptize when they are sure of the validity of former baptism; but they reconfirm continually.东正教从未rebaptize当他们都是前洗礼的有效性确认,但他们不断地重新确认。Confirmation has become the usual rite of admittance into their Church, even in the case of apostates who have already been confirmed orthodoxly.确认已成为纳通常把他们的教会仪式,甚至在谁已经被证实orthodoxly变节者的情况。

Holy Communion圣餐

The pious Orthodox layman Communicates as a rule only four times a year, at Christmas, Easter, Whitsunday, and the Falling Asleep of the Mother of God (15 August).作为一个虔诚的东正教只进行沟通规则门外汉一年四次,在圣诞节,复活节,圣灵降临节,和天主之母(8月15日)睡着了。 The Blessed Sacrament is reserved for the sick in the artophorion, (or ierophylakion) under both kinds more or less, that is to say it has been dipped into the chalice and allowed to dry.圣体是在artophorion生病保留(或ierophylakion)下两种或多或少,也就是说它已经浸入圣杯并允许干。 It is given to the sick with a spoon and with the usual form (see above under Holy Liturgy).这是考虑到病人用勺,并用常规形式(见上文教廷礼仪)。They have no tradition of reverence for the reserved Eucharist.他们没有保留的崇敬圣体的传统。


Penance (metanoia) is administered rarely, usually on the same occasions as Holy Communion.忏悔(metanoia)是管理的很少,通常作为圣餐同一场合。They have no confessionals.他们没有忏悔。The ghostly father (pneumatikos) sits before the ikonostasis under the picture of Our Lord, the penitent kneels before him (one of the rare cases of kneeling is in this rite), and several prayers are said, to which the choir answers "Kyrie eleison".幽灵般的父亲(pneumatikos)之前,根据我们的主画面ikonostasis坐在他面前的忏悔跪(跪罕见的案件之一是在这个仪式),以及一些祈祷说,对此,合唱团回答:“主啊,怜悯“。 The "choir" is always the penitent himself.在“合唱团”永远是忏悔自己。Then the ghostly father is directed to say "in a Cheerful voice: Brother, be not ashamed that you come before God and before me, for you do not confess to me but to God who is present here."然后,可怕的是向父亲说:“在一个欢快的声音:兄弟,你不要来惭愧,在上帝和我面前,因为你不承认我,但上帝是谁在座。” He asks the penitent his sins, says that only God can forgive him, but that Christ gave this power to his Apostles saying: "Whose sins ye shall forgive", etc., and absolves him with a deprecatory form in a long prayer in which occur the words: "May this same God, through me a sinner, forgive you all now and for ever."他问他的罪过的忏悔说,只有上帝能原谅他,但是基督了这项权力,他的门徒说:“谁的罪过你们原谅”等,并免除了在一个很长的祷告贬低他以何种形式发生的话:“。五月同一个上帝,通过我是一个罪人,原谅你们现在和永远” (Euch., pp. 221-223.) (Euch.,页221-223。)

Holy Order圣阶

Holy Order (cheirotonia) is given by laying on the right hand only.圣阶(cheirotonia)给出了在右手仅铺设。The form is (for deacons): "The grace of God, that always strengthens the weak and fills the empty, appoints the most religious sub-deacon N. to be deacon. Let us then pray for him that the grace of the Holy Ghost may come to him."该表格​​是(为执事):。“上帝的恩典,始终加强薄弱,填补了空白,任命最虔诚的分全是执事执事那么,让我们为他祈祷圣灵的恩典可以来找他。“ Long prayers follow, with allusions to St. Stephen and the diaconate; the bishop vests the new deacon, giving him an orarion and a ripidion.很长的祷告跟进,与圣斯蒂芬和diaconate典故;主教背心新执事,给他一个orarion和ripidion。 For priests and bishops there is the same form, with the obvious variants, "the most religious deacon N. to be priest", or "the most religious elect N. to be Metropolitan of the holy Metropolis N."司铎和主教有相同的形式具有明显的变种,“最全的宗教执事是神父”,或“最全的宗教选举成为神圣的都市北路都市”(nearly all their bishops have the title Metropolitan), and the subjects receive their vestments and instruments.(几乎所有的主教们大都会的称号),并收到他们的法衣的科目和手段。Priests and bishops concelebrate at once with the ordainer (Euch., 160-181).神父和主教共祭一次与ordainer(Euch.,160-181)。The Orthodox believe that the grace of Holy orders may perish through heresy or schism, so they generally reordain converts (the Russian Church has officially refused to do this, Fortescue, op. cit., 423-424).东正教相信,通过神圣的命令恩典异端或分裂灭亡,所以他们一般reordain转换(俄罗斯教会已正式拒绝这样做,Fortescue的作品。前。,423-424)。


Matrimony (gamos) is often called the "crowning" (stephanoma) from the practice of crowning the spouses (Euch., 238-252).婚姻(gamos)通常被称为“加冕”(stephanoma)从加冕的配偶(Euch.,238-252)的做法。 They wear these crowns for a week, and have a special service for taking them off again (Euch., 252).他们穿了一个星期这些冠冕,有一个脱了下来再次(Euch.,252)的特别服务。

The Anointing of the Sick对生病的恩膏

The Anointing of the Sick (euchelaion) is administered (when possible) by seven priests.对患病者(euchelaion)恩膏是管理(如果可能)由七个祭司。The oil contains as a rule wine, in memory of the Good Samaritan.该油中含有作为一项规则酒,好撒玛利亚人的记忆。It is blessed by a priest just before it is used.它是由一个牧师祝福之前使用它。They use a very long form invoking the all-holy Theotokos, the "moneyless physicians" Sts.他们用很长的形式调用全圣圣母中,“没钱的医生”街。Cosmas and Damian, and other saints.科斯马斯和达米安,以及其他圣人。They anoint the forehead, chin, cheeks, hands, nostrils, and breast with a brush.他们抹在额头,下巴,脸颊,手,鼻孔,用毛笔和乳腺癌。Each priest present does the same (Euch., 260-288).每个祭司目前是否相同(Euch.,260-288)。The service is, as usual, very long.这项服务是,像往常一样,很长。They anoint people who are only slightly ill, (they very much resent our name: Extreme Unction), and in Russia on Maundy Thursday the Metropolitans of Moscow and Novgorod anoint everyone who presents himself, as a preparation for Holy Communion (Echos d'Orient, II, 193-203).膏人,他们只是稍微谁生病了,(他们很反感我们的名字:临终),并在上周四劳动节俄罗斯的莫斯科和诺夫哥罗德膏大家大都市谁介绍自己,作为一个圣餐(回声报德东方准备第一,二,193-203)。


There are many Sacramentals.有许多Sacramentals。People are sometimes anointed with the oil taken from a lamp that burns before a holy icon (occasionally with the form for confirmation: "The seal of the gift of the Holy Ghost").人们有时擦了一盏灯,从一个神圣的图标之前所采取的烧伤油(偶尔为确认表说:“对圣灵的恩赐印章”)。They have besides the antidoron another kind of blessed bread -- the kolyba eaten in honour of some saint or in memory of the dead.他们除了拥有得天独厚的antidoron另一种面包 - 在一些圣人的荣誉或在纪念死者吃了kolyba。 On the Epiphany ("The Holy Lights" -- ta hagia phota) there is a solemn blessing of the waters.在主显节(以下简称“神圣之光” - 钽哈​​吉亚phota)有一个庄严的祝福之水。They have a great number of exorcisms, very stern laws of fasting (involving abstinence from many things besides flesh meat), and blessings for all manner of things.他们有大量的驱魔仪式,对所有事物的方式空腹(涉及很多东西,除了肉肉类禁欲),祝福非常严厉的法律。These are to be found in the Euchologion.这些都是在Euchologion发现。Preaching was till lately almost a lost art in the Orthodox Church; now a revival of it has begun (Gelzer, Geistliches u. Weltliches, etc., 76-82).传教直到最近几乎是在东正教教堂失传的艺术,现在的IT复苏已开始(Gelzer,Geistliches美国Weltliches等,76-82)。 There is a long funeral service (Euch., ed. cit., 393-470).还有很长的葬礼(Euch.,编辑。前。,393-470)。For all these rites (except the Liturgy) a priest does not wear all his vestments but (over his cassock) the epitrachelion and phainolion.对于所有这些仪式(除礼仪)的牧师不穿法衣,但他所有的(在他的袈裟)的epitrachelion和phainolion。 The high black hat without a brim (kalemeukion) worn by all priests of this rite is well known.高黑帽无帽檐(kalemeukion)通过这个仪式是众所周知的所有祭司穿。It is worn with vestments as well as in ordinary life.这是破旧的法衣,以及在平凡的生活。Bishops and dignitaries have a black veil over it.主教和贵族拥有它黑色的面纱。All clerks wear long hair and a beard.所有职员穿长头发和胡须。For a more detailed account of all these rites see "Orth. Eastern Church", pp. 418-428.对于所有这些仪式的更详细说明见“Ortho的。东区教会”,页418-428。

Publication information Written by Adrian Fortescue.出版信息的书面阿德里安Fortescue的。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯j.波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.献给耶稣基督的圣心天主教百科全书,第四卷。 Published 1908.1908年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat.Nihil Obstat。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography 参考书目
The Orthodox Service-books in Greek are published at their official press (ho phoinix) at Venice (various dates: the Euchologion quoted here, 1898); the Uniat ones at Rome (Propaganda).东正教的服务,在希腊书籍在其官方媒体发表在威尼斯(何phoinix)(各种日期:这里的Euchologion引述,1898年),在罗马(宣传)的Uniat的。 There is also an Athenian edition; and the Churches that use translations have published their versions.雅典还有一个版本,以及使用它们的版本翻译发表了教会。Provost ALEXIOS MALTZEW (of the Russian Embassy church at Berlin) has edited all the books in Old Slavonic with a parallel German translation and notes (Berlin, 1892); RENAUDOT, Liturgiarum orientalium collectio (2d ed., 2 vols., Frankfort, 1847); NEALE, The Liturgies of St. Mark, St. James, St. Clement, St. Chrysostom, St Basil (London, 1875, in Greek); another volume contains The Translations of the Primitive Liturgies of St. Mark, etc.; ROBERTSON, The Divine Liturgies of Our Fathers among the Saints John Chrysostom, Basil the Great and that of the Presanctified (Greek and English, London 1894); DE MEESTER, La divine liturgie de S. Jean Chrysostome (Greek and French, Paris, 1907); iHe theia leitourgia, periechousa ton esperinon, ktl (Athens, 1894); CHARON, Les saintes et divines Liturgies, etc. (Beirut, 1904); STORFF, Die griechiechen Liturgien, XLI of THALHOFER, Bibliothek der Kirchenväter (Kempten, 1877); Kitãb al-liturgiãt al-ilahiyyeh (Melchite Use in Arabic, Beirut, 1899); GOAR, Euchologion, sive Rituale Gr corum (2nd ed., Venice, 1720); PROBST, Liturgie der drei ersten christlichen Jahrhunderte (Tübingen, 1870); ANON., Liturgie des vierten Jahrhunderts und deren Reform (Münster, 1893); KATTENBUSCH, Lehrbuch der vergleichenden Konfessionskunde: Die orthodoxe anatolische Kirche (Freiburg im Br., 1892); NILLES, Kalendarium manuale utriusque ecclesi (2nd ed., Innsbruck, 1896-97); PRINCE MAX OF SAXONY, Pr lectiones de Liturgiis orientalibus (Freiburg im Br., 1908), I; HAPGOOD, Service-Book of the Holy Orthodox-Catholic Apostolic (Gr co-Russian) Church (Boston and New York, 1906); ALLATIUS, De libris et rebus eccl.教务长ALEXIOS MALTZEW(俄罗斯大使馆在柏林教堂)已经与平行德语翻译及票据(柏林,1892年)所编辑的书籍在旧斯拉夫;勒诺多,Liturgiarum orientalium资料库(第2版,第2卷,法兰克福,1847年。。 ),尼尔,圣马克liturgies的,圣雅各福群,圣克莱门特,圣金口,圣罗勒(伦敦,1875年,在希腊文),另一卷包含的圣商标等原始liturgies的译丛;罗伯逊,我们祖先的神圣liturgies的圣徒约翰在金口,罗勒,而大的presanctified(希腊和英国,伦敦1894年);德梅斯特,香格里拉神圣liturgie让Chrysostome德第(希腊和法国,巴黎, 1907年); IHE的忒伊亚leitourgia,periechousa吨esperinon,嘉宝(雅典,1894年);卡戎,莱斯桑特等神学liturgies的等(贝鲁特,1904年); STORFF,模具griechiechen Liturgien,对TH​​ALHOFER四十一,藏书明镜Kirchenväter(肯普滕, 1877年);基塔铝liturgiãt铝ilahiyyeh(Melchite使用阿拉伯文,贝鲁特,1899年);戈尔,Euchologion,sive Rituale石墨乔鲁姆(第二版,威尼斯,1720)。普罗布斯特,Liturgie明镜德雷伊ersten christlichen Jahrhunderte(蒂宾根大学, 1870年);佚名,Liturgie德vierten Jahrhunderts有限公司李德仁改革(明斯特,1893年); KATTENBUSCH,Lehrbuch明镜vergleichenden Konfessionskunde:。。。模具orthodoxe anatolische教堂(弗赖堡的IM溴,1892年); NILLES,Kalendarium manuale utriusque ecclesi(第二版,因斯布鲁克,1896年至1897年);最大的萨克森王子,镨lectiones德Liturgiis orientalibus(弗赖堡的IM溴,1908年),我;。哈普古德,服务的神圣东正教天主教使徒书(简称GR合作俄罗斯)教会(波士顿和纽约,1906年); ALLATIUS,德等藏书禁止不传道书。Gr corum (Cologne, 1646); CLUGNET, Dictionnaire grec-français des noms liturgiques en usage dans l'église grecque (Paris, 1895); ARCHATZIKAKI, Etudes sur les principales Fêtes chrétiennes dans l'ancienne Eglise d'Orient (Geneva, 1904); DE MEESTER, Officio dell' inno acatisto (Greek and Italian, Rome, 1903); GELZER, Geistliches und Weltliches aus dem türkisch-griechischen Orient (Leipzig, 1900); GAISSER, Le système musical de l'Eglise grecque (Maredsous, 1901); REBOURS, Traitê de psaltique.克乔鲁姆(科隆,1646年); CLUGNET,辞典grec -日本语德noms liturgiques连接使用丹斯欧莱雅埃格斯grecque(巴黎,1895年); ARCHATZIKAKI,练习曲河畔莱principales Fêtes chrétiennes丹斯欧莱雅ancienne埃格斯德东方(日内瓦,1904年);德梅斯特,职权戴尔的创新科技及acatisto(希腊和意大利,罗马,1903年); GELZER,Geistliches有限公司Weltliches澳大利亚DEM türkisch - griechischen东方(莱比锡,1900年); GAISSER,乐système音乐德欧莱雅埃格斯grecque(马利苏斯, 1901年); REBOURS,Traitê德psaltique。 Théorie et pratique du chant dans l'Eglise grecque (Paris, 1906); FORTESCUE, The Orthodox Eastern Church (London, 1907).Théorie等入港杜咏丹斯欧莱雅埃格斯grecque(巴黎,1906年); Fortescue的东正教(伦敦,1907年)。

Editor's Notes编者的话

There are some differences between the celebration of the Eucharist in various Churches.之间存在的各种教会庆祝圣体圣事一定的差异。For more extensive discussion, including Advanced Information articles, please see either the (Protestant oriented) Last Supper presentation or the (Catholic oriented) Mass presentation, linked below.为更广泛的讨论,其中包括先进的信息文章,请看到的要么是(新教为主的)最后的晚餐简报或(天主教为主)大众介绍,链接如下。

It is generally accepted by Christian scholars that the last meal of Jesus was a (Jewish) Seder meal which is part of the Passover celebration.这是普遍接受的,耶稣的最后一餐是一个(犹太)seder餐这是逾越节的庆祝活动的一部分基督教学者。Below is linked a presentation on the Seder includes the specific foods and procedures involved, along with the Jewish (historic) reasons for them.下面是与演示就seder包括具体的食品和程序所涉及随着犹太人(历史性)为他们的理由。References to Christian adaptations of the Seder are also included.以基督教的seder改编引用也包括在内。

Also, see:此外,见:
Baptism 洗礼
Confirmation 确认
Eucharist 圣体圣事
(Protestant-oriented) Last Supper(新教为本)最后的晚餐
(Catholic oriented) Mass(天主教为主的)质量
(Jewish) Seder(犹太) seder

This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语

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