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In the Judeo Christian tradition, Satan, from the Hebrew word for "adversary," is the principal figure of the demonic world that is hostile to God and his will.在犹太教和基督教的传统,撒旦,从希伯来语单词“对手”,是世界上主要的恶魔的数字,是敌视上帝和他的意志。In the Old Testament (for example, the Book of Job), Satan is presented as a distinct personality of darkness and accusation - the heavenly prosecutor.在旧约(例如,这本书的工作​​),撒旦是一个充满黑暗和鲜明的个性提出控诉 - 天上的检察官。A fuller expression of his role is presented in the New Testament, where he is called "the tempter," "the slanderer," "the enemy," "the liar," and "the angel of the bottomless pit."一个更充分地表达他的角色,提出在新约,在那里他是所谓的“诱惑”,“的诽谤者”,“敌人”,“骗子”和“天使的无底洞。” Collectively, these titles present Satan as the one who has the power of death, rules with lies and deception, accuses humankind before God, and opposes the purpose of God in the world (while remaining obedient to God).总的来说,这些产品目前已经作为一个谁死权的魔鬼,用谎言和欺骗的规则,人类在神面前指责,反对神在世界的目的(而其余服从神)。

The Bible nowhere explains Satan's origin, but in both testaments he is presented as a part of the created order rather than as an eternal entity. 撒旦圣经无处解释的来源,但都证明他是创造了一个实体表现为秩序的一部分,而不是作为一个永恒的。Although no explanation is given in the Bible for God's allowing Satan to exist, it does indicate that his time is short (only for this age of time and history) and his end is certain - ultimately he will be banished by the Messiah.虽然没有给出的解释是圣经中对上帝存在的,允许撒旦, 它确实表明,他的时间很短 (仅适用于这段历史的时间和年龄)和他的结局是肯定的- 他最终将被放逐的弥赛亚。

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This concept of a temporal dualism in which Satan has influence is brought to expression most clearly in apocalyptic literature, such as the Book of Revelation.这一个时间的二元论中,撒旦的影响力的概念带到表达最清楚,在世界末日的文学,如这本书的启示。Two ages are reflected in apocalyptic cosmology: "this age" and "the age to come."两个年龄都反映在世界末日的宇宙论:“这个时代”和“时代的到来。”Satan appears to be prevailing in this age, but in the age to come God will clearly display his sovereignty.撒旦似乎是在这个年龄普遍,但在年龄来上帝会清楚地显示他的主权。In later Christian tradition Satan was described as a fallen angel.在后来的基督教传统,撒旦被描述​​为一个堕落的天使。

The concept of a leader of the powers of darkness found expression in cultures outside the Hebrew tradition.一类黑暗的势力领导人概念外发现希伯来传统文化表达。The Babylonians, Chaldeans, and Persians believed in a dualism between the forces of darkness and light.巴比伦人,迦勒底人,波斯人信奉一个光明与黑暗之间的二元对立的力量。Ahriman, in Zoroastrianism, and Set, in Egyptian mythology, manifest characteristics similar to Satan's.阿里曼,在祆教,和设置,在埃及神话中,类似撒旦的表现特征。

Douglas Ezell道格拉斯艾齐尔

Bibliography 参考书目
E Langton, Satan, A Portrait: A Study of the Character of Satan through all the Ages (1973); TO Ling, The Significance of Satan (1961); JB Russell, Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1986); W Woods, A History of the Devil (1973). é兰顿,一个人像撒旦:一个魔鬼的特性研究,通过所有的年龄(1973年);凌,就是撒但的意义(1961年);巴顿罗素,梅菲斯特:在现代世界的魔鬼(1986年); W老虎伍兹,一个是魔鬼(1973年)的历史。


Advanced Information先进的信息

Satan (Heb. satan, adversary ).撒旦(希伯来书撒旦的对手)。The devil, a high angelic creature who, before the creation of the human race, rebelled against the Creator and became the chief antagonist of God and man.魔鬼,天使般的生物高谁之前,人类对造物主的反叛,创作,成为神与人的主要敌手。Theologians to a large extent have refused to apply the far-reaching prophecies of Isa.神学家,在很大程度上都拒绝适用伊萨深远的预言。14:12-14 and Ezek. 14:12-14和以西结书。28:12-15 to Satan under the contention that they are addressed solely to the king of Babylon in the first instance and to the king of Tyre in the second. 28:12-15撒旦下,他们仅得到解决的巴比伦国王在一审和对轮胎的第二任国王争夺。Others contend that this interpretation is unwarranted for two reasons.其他人则认为这种解释是不必要的,原因有二。First, it fails to take into account the fact that these prophecies far transcend any earthly ruler and, second, it ignores the close connection Satan has in Scripture with the government of the satanic world system (Dan. 10:13; Eph. 6:12) of which both ancient Babylon and Tyre were an inseparable part.首先,它没有考虑到一个事实,即这些预言远远超越任何世俗的统治者,第二,它忽略了密切的联系与世界体系的撒旦(Dan. 10:13在圣经中的撒旦政府弗6。: 12),其中既古老巴比伦和轮胎是一个不可分割的组成部分。In their full scope these passages paint Satan's past career as "Lucifer" and as "the Anointed Cherub" in his prefall splendor.在他们充分发挥这些通道描绘成“魔鬼”,并在他的prefall辉煌“受膏者切鲁布”撒旦过去的职业生涯。They portray as well his apostasy in drawing with him a great multitude of lesser celestial creatures (Rev. 12:4), making him "the Evil One" or "the Tempter."他们描绘,以及在与他画一个较小的(启示录12:4)天体生物大群他的变节,使得他的“邪恶”或“诱惑”。

These fallen angels (demons) fit into two classes: those that are free and those that are bound.这些堕落的天使(恶魔)适合分为两类:那些是免费的,那些受约束。The former roam the heavenlies with their prince-leader Satan (Matt. 12:24) and as his emissaries are so numerous as to make Satan's power practically ubiquitous.前者用自己的漫游王子领导人撒旦(太12:24),作为他的特使在诸天界是如此之多,以使撒旦的力量几乎无处不在。 The angels (demons) that are bound are evidently guilty of more heinous wickedness and are incarcerated in Tartarus (II Pet. 2:4; Jude 6).天使(恶魔)所约束显然更令人发指的恶犯罪,是在地狱监禁(二宠物2:4;。裘德6)。Many theologians connect these imprisoned demons with fallen angels who cohabited with mortal women (Gen. 6:1-4).许多神学家就可以与这些被囚禁堕落的天使与恶魔谁(创6:1-4)凡人妇女同居。

Satan caused the fall of the human race as "the Serpent" (Gen. 3).撒旦引起了为“蛇”(创3)人类下降。His judgment was predicted in Eden (vs. 15), and this was accomplished at the cross (John 12:13-33).他的判断,预测在伊甸园(相对于15),这是在十字架(约翰12:13-33)来完成。As created, his power was second only to God (Ezek. 28:11-16).为创造,他的权力仅次于神(结28:11-16)。He is nevertheless only a creature, limited, and permitted to have power by divine omnipotence and omniscience.他却只是一个生物,有限的,并获准进入以神的全能和无所不知的力量。

The biblical doctrine of Satan is not a copying of Persian dualism as some scholars unsoundly allege.撒旦圣经的教义,是不是复制的波斯二元论正如一些学者unsoundly指控。Although Satan, even after his judgment in the cross (Col. 2:15), continues to reign as a usurper (II Cor. 4:4), and works in tempting and accusing men (Rev. 12:10), he is to be ousted from the heavenlies (vss. 7-12) as well as the earth (5:1-19:16), and is to be confined to the abyss for a thousand years (20:1-3).撒旦虽然,即使在他的判断在交叉(上校2:15),继续作为一个篡位者(二肺心病。4:4)的桎梏,在诱人的,并指责男子工程(启示录12:10),他是被驱逐出诸天(vss. 7-12)以及地球(5:1-19:16),并只限于一个千年(录20:1-3)向深渊。

When released from the abyss at the end of the thousand years, he will make one last mad attempt to lead his armies against God (Rev. 20:8-9).当从在千年年底公布的深渊,他将做最后一次疯狂的尝试导致对神(启示录20:8-9),他的军队。This will result in his final doom when he is cast into the lake of fire (vs. 10), which has been prepared for him and his wicked angelic accomplices (Matt. 25:41).这将导致他最后的毁灭时,他是在火湖(相对于10),已经为他和他的邪恶(太25:41)天使的同伙准备演员。This will be the one place where evil angels and unsaved men will be kept and quarantined so that the rest of God's sinless universe will not be corrupted in the eternal state.这将是一个地方邪恶天使和未保存的人将会保存和隔离,使上帝的无罪宇宙的其余部分将不会在永恒的状态损坏。

Satan's present work is widespread and destructive.撒旦的目前的工作是广泛的和毁灭性的。God permits his evil activity for the time being.上帝允许他暂时罪恶活动。Demons must do Satan's bidding.魔鬼撒旦必须做的招标。The unsaved are largely under Satan's authority, and he rules them through the evil world system over which he is head and of which the unregenerate are a part (Isa. 14:12-17; II Cor. 4:3-4; Eph. 2:2; Col. 1:13).未保存的主要是在撒旦的权威,他的规则,通过系统在这邪恶的世界,他是头,其中顽固不化的一部分(以赛亚书14:12-17他们;二,肺心病4:3-4。弗。 2:2;上校1:13)。

As far as the saved are concerned, Satan is in continued conflict with them (Eph. 6:11-18), tempts them, and seeks to corrupt and destroy their testimony, and even their physical life (I Cor. 5:5; I John 5:16).至于储存方面,撒旦是与他们(弗6:11-18)持续不断的冲突,诱骗他们,并试图腐败和破坏他们的证词,甚至他们的物质生活(我肺心病5:5。约翰一书5:1​​6)。 Satanic and demonic fury were unleashed against the incarnate Christ.撒旦和邪恶的愤怒被释放对肉身的基督。The power of a sinless humanity called forth special satanic temptation of our Lord (Matt. 4:1-11).一个无罪的人道力量,提出了所谓的特别,我们的主(太4:1-11)撒旦的诱惑。The full glow of light manifested in the earthly life of him who was "the light of the world" (John 8:12) exposed the darkness of the powers of evil.在世俗生活的他谁是“世界之光”(约8:12)充分体现光焕发暴露了权力的邪恶黑暗。This is the explanation of the unprecedented outburst of demonism that is described in the Gospel narratives.这是前所未有的信仰魔鬼的爆发,是在福音的叙述说明解释。It was because God anointed Jesus of Nazareth "with the Holy Spirit and with power" that he "went about doing good and healing all that were oppressed by the devil" (Acts 10:38).这是因为神膏拿撒勒人耶稣“与圣灵与权力”,他“走遍做,医好凡被魔鬼压制的”(徒10:38)。

MF Unger中频昂格尔
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
LS Chafer, Systematic Theology, II, 33-98; W. Robinson, The Devil and God; E. Langton, Satan: A Portrait; H. Bietenhard et al., NIDNTT, III, 468ff.; E. Lewis, The Creator and the Adversary; DW Pentecost, Your Adversary, the Devil; G. von Rad and W. Foerster, TDNT, II, 71ff.; RS Kluger, Satan in the OT; FA Tatford, The Prince of Darkness.最小二乘金龟子,系统神学,二,33-98;瓦特罗宾逊,魔鬼和上帝大肠杆菌兰顿,撒旦:。一个人像;阁下Bietenhard等,nidntt,三,468ff;大肠杆菌刘易斯,造物主。和对手;德国之声圣灵降临节,你的对手,魔鬼;克冯RAD数据通信和W.福斯特,TDNT,二,71ff。遥感克鲁格,在加时赛撒旦足总杯Tatford,黑暗王子。

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