Spiritualism招魂

General Information一般资料

Spiritualism, in philosophy, is sometimes used as a synonym for Idealism.唯心论,哲学,有时被用来作为一种理想主义的代名词。A far more common usage, however, refers to a system of religious beliefs centered on the presumption that communication with the dead, or spirits, is possible.一个更常见的用法,不过,指的是一个可能的系统,是精神的宗教信仰为中心的推定死者沟通,或。

Attempts to evoke the spirits of the dead are recorded in ancient Near Eastern and Egyptian sources, and spiritualistic practices have a long history in India, where they are regarded as bhuta worship, or worship of the dead.试图唤起死者的精神,是在近东和埃及古录来源,并spiritualistic做法在印度,在那里他们被视为bhuta崇拜,或崇拜死算是历史悠久。 Spiritualism in its modern sense, though, traces its origins to the activities of Margaret Fox and, to a lesser extent, her two sisters.唯心论,在其现代意义上说,虽然,迹其起源的吴福克斯,并在较小的程度上,她的两个姐妹的活动。Beginning in 1848 at their parents' farmhouse near Hydesville, NY, the Fox sisters were able to produce spirit "rappings" in answer to questions put to them.在1848年开始在父母的近Hydesville,纽约州的农舍,狐狸姐妹们是否能够产生在回答向他们提出问题的精神“rappings”。 After moving to Rochester, NY, and receiving a wider audience, their fame spread to both sides of the Atlantic.入住后,以纽约州罗切斯特市,并接受更广泛的观众,他们的名声传到了大西洋两岸。By the mid 1850s they had inspired a host of imitators.到19世纪50年代中期,他们曾鼓舞了模仿者的主机。Margaret Fox admitted later in life that she had produced rapping noises through manipulation of her joints.玛格丽特福克斯承认,以后的生活中,她曾制作说唱通过操纵她的关节的声音。

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A person who "channeled" communications between the earthly and spirit worlds was first referred to as a medium, although now they are often called channelers.一个人谁“渠道”之间的通信俗世的和精神的世界最早被称为一种媒介,虽然现在他们通常被称为channelers。 The repertoire of the early mediums included table levitations, Extrasensory Perception, speaking in a spirit's voice during trances, Automatic Writing, and the manifestation of apparitions and "ectoplasmic" matter.初期的媒介剧目包括表levitations,超感官知觉,说在一个精神的声音在trances,自动写作,和显现的表现,“ectoplasmic”的问题。 All such phenomena were attributed by the mediums to the agency of spirits.所有这些现象是由于受介质,以该机构的精神。Early supporters of spiritualistic phenomena included American journalist Horace Greeley, British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, and British scientists AR Wallace and Sir William Crookes.早期的支持者包括spiritualistic现象格里利美国记者,英国作家柯南道尔爵士,英国科学家华莱士和威廉爵士受体克鲁克斯。 Support for spiritualism diminished, however, as many 19th century mediums were proven to be fakes.支持唯心减弱,然而,由于许多19世纪的媒介被证明是假货。

Spiritualism has had, since its inception, a large following.唯心论已自成立以来,有大批追随者。 Many churches and societies have been founded that profess some variety of spiritualistic beliefs.许多教会和社团已经成立的一些信奉各种信仰的唯灵论。It achieved particularly widespread popular appeal during the 1850s and '60s and immediately following World War I. Closely aligned with other New Age beliefs, belief in spiritualism again became popular during the 1980s, particularly in the United States.它实现了19世纪50年代和60年代期间,立即密切地与其他新时代的信仰相一致,特别是第一次世界大战后广为流传的吸引力,相信唯心论再次成为流行在80年代,特别是在美国。 One new facet of spiritualism is that modern day channelers are as apt to attempt contact with extraterrestrials or spirits from ancient mythical societies as they are to try to communicate with the recently deceased.唯心论的一个新的层面,是因为现代一天channelers是apt尝试与外星人或烈酒,从古代神话的社会接触,因为他们是设法沟通与最近去世。

Bibliography 参考书目
G Abell and B Singer, eds., Science and the Paranormal (1986); R Brandon, The Spiritualists (1984); M Gardner, The New Age: Notes of a Fringe Watcher (1988); H Kerr and C Crow, The Occult in America (1983); J Oppenheim, The Other World (1985); J Webb, ed., The Mediums and the Conjurers (1979). Ğ阿贝尔和B歌手合编,科学与超自然现象(1986)与r布兰登,招魂(1984);米加德纳,新时代:。一个附带的守护者(1988年); h克尔和C乌鸦,隐匿在美国(1983年); Ĵ奥本海姆,其他世界(1985);。Ĵ韦伯,版,培养基和魔术师(1979年)。


Spiritualism招魂

Catholic Information天主教新闻

The term "spiritualism" has been frequently used to denote the belief in the possibility of communication with disembodied spirits, and the various devices employed to realize this belief in practice.这个词,“唯心论”一直是经常被用来指在与游魂沟通的可能性的信念,以及各种设备,以实现这个信念在实践中。The term "Spiritism", which is used in Italy, France, and Germany, seems more apt to express this meaning.所谓“通灵术”,这是在意大利,法国,德国,似乎更容易表达这个意思。

Spiritualism, then, suitably stands opposed to materialism.唯心论,然后,适当地站在反对唯物主义。 We may say in general that Spiritualism is the doctrine which denies that the contents of the universe are limited to matter and the properties and operations of matter.我们可以概括地说,这是唯心的学说,否认宇宙的内容仅限于物质和物质的属性和操作。It maintains the existence of real being or beings (minds, spirits) radically distinct in nature from matter.它坚持从根本上不同性质的问题真实的存在或人的存在(头脑,烈酒)。It may take the form of Spiritualistic Idealism, which denies the existence of any real material being outside of the mind; or, whilst defending the reality of spiritual being, it may also allow the separate existence of the material world.它可以是唯灵唯心主义,它拒绝任何真正介意以外的物质存在的形式,或者,虽然捍卫精神是现实的,它也可能允许单独存在的物质世界。 Further, Idealistic Spiritualism may either take the form of Monism (eg, with Fichte), which teaches that there exists a single universal mind or ego of which all finite minds are but transient moods or stages: or it may adopt a pluralistic theory (eg with Berkeley), which resolves the universe into a Divine Mind together with a multitude of finite minds into which the former infuses all those experiences that generate the belief in an external, independent, material world.此外,理想的唯心论可采取的一元论的形式(例如,与费希特),教导存在一个单一的普遍心态或自我所有这些都只是短暂的有限的思想情绪或阶段:或者它可能采取一个多元化的理论(如与伯克利),解决了成一个神圣的宇宙心灵与头脑的有限许多共同到其中的所有这些经验产生在外部的,独立的,物质世界的信念前注入。 The second or moderate form of Spiritualism, whilst maintaining the existence of spirit, and in particular the human mind or soul, as a real being distinct from the body, does not deny the reality of matter.对唯心论,同时保持精神的存在,特别是人的心灵或灵魂的第二或温和的形式,作为一个真实的存在,从不同的身体,不否定物质现实。 It is, in fact, the common doctrine of Dualism.它是在事实上,二元论共同原则。However, among the systems of philosophy which adhere to Dualism, some conceive the separateness or mutual independence of soul and body to be greater and others less.然而,在哲学的系统,坚持二元论,一些怀孕的灵魂和身体分开或相互独立,以更大,其他人少。With some philosophers of the former class, soul and body seem to have been looked upon as complete beings merely accidentally united.与前类的一些哲学家,灵魂和身体似乎只是偶然被看作是对美国完整的生命体。For these a main difficulty is to give a satisfactory account of the inter-action of two beings so radically opposed in nature.基于上述的一个主要困难是给了跨两个人,以便从根本上反对行动的性质满意的交代。

Historically, we find the early Greek philosophers tending generally towards Materialism.从历史上看,我们发现早期趋于普遍希腊唯物主义哲学家。Sense experience is more impressive than our higher, rational consciousness, and sensation is essentially bound up with the bodily organism.更有意义的经验比我们高,令人印象深刻的理性意识,感觉基本上是约束与人体组织注册。 Anaxagoras was the first, apparently, among the Greeks to vindicate the predominance of mind or reason in the universe.阿那克萨哥拉是第一次,显然是在希腊人,以维护在宇宙中占主导地位的想法或理由。It was, however, rather as a principle of order, to account for the arrangement and design evident in nature as a whole, than to vindicate the reality of individual minds distinct from the bodies which they animate.这是,但是,而不是作为一个秩序的原则,以帐户为安排和设计作为一个整体的性质明显,比平反的团体,他们从不同的动画个人头脑的现实。 Plato was virtually the father of western spiritualistic philosophy.柏拉图实际上是西方的唯灵哲学之父。He emphasized the distinction between the irrational or sensuous and the rational functions of the soul.他强调了非理性或感性和理性的灵魂的功能区别。He will not allow the superior elements in knowledge or the higher "parts" of the soul to be explained away in terms of the lower.他不会允许在知识和较高的“零件”的灵魂上级元素被解释的条件下了。Both subsist in continuous independence and opposition.在连续两个独立和反对生存。Indeed, the rational soul is related to the body merely as the pilot to the ship or the rider to his horse.事实上,理性的灵魂,是有关机构只是作为进入船舶或他的马骑手试点。Aristotle fully recognized the spirituality of the higher rational activity of thought, but his treatment of its precise relation to the individual human soul is obscure.亚里士多德充分认识到活性较高的思想的理性精神,但他的确切关系到个别人的灵魂的治疗是模糊不清。On the other hand, his conception of the union of soul and body, and of the unity of the human person, is much superior to that of Plato.另一方面,他的构想的灵魂和身体联盟和人类团结的人,远远优于柏拉图的。Though the future life of the human soul, and consequently its capacity for an existence separate from the body, was one of the most fundamental and important doctrines of the Christian religion, yet ideas as to the precise meaning of spirituality were not at first clear, and we find several of the earliest Christian writers (though maintaining the future existence of the soul separate from the body), yet conceiving the soul in a more or less materialistic way (cf. Justin, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Clement, etc.).虽然人类灵魂的未来生活,因此,其为一独立存在,从身体的能力,是对基督教最根本,最重要的理论,但以思想的灵性的确切含义起初没有一个明确的,我们发现最早的基督教作家,有几个(虽然保持了独立的灵魂从身体未来存在),但在构思或多或少功利的方式(参见官,爱任纽,良,克莱门特等)的灵魂。 The Catholic philosophic doctrine of Spiritualism received much of its development from St. Augustine, the disciple of Platonic philosophy, and its completion from Albertus Magnus and St. Thomas, who perfected the Aristotelian account of the union of soul and body.天主教哲学学说的唯心收到的,其发展,从圣奥古斯丁,弟子柏拉图哲学,它从Albertus马格纳斯和圣托马斯,完善了谁的灵魂和身体联盟亚里士多德帐户完成了。

Modern Spiritualism, especially of the more extreme type, has its origin in Descartes.近代唯心论,尤其是较为极端的类型,有其笛卡尔的起源。Malebranche, and indirectly Berkeley, who contributed so much in the sequel to Monistic Idealism, are indebted to Descartes, whilst every form of exaggerated Dualism which set mind and body in isolation and contrast traces its descent from him.马勒伯朗士,间接伯克利,谁贡献,所以在续集很大的一元论唯心主义,非常感激笛卡尔,而其中的每一个夸张的二元孤立和对比度设置的痕迹,从他的头脑和身体其后裔的形式。 In spite of serious faults and defects in their systems, it should be recognized that Descartes and Leibnitz contributed much of the most effective resistance to the wave of Materialism which acquired such strength in Europe at the end of the eighteenth and during the first half of the nineteenth centuries.在严重的缺点和缺陷,尽管在他们的系统,应该承认,笛卡尔和莱布尼兹功不可没的最有效的抵抗浪潮的唯物主义收购了欧洲在十八世纪末,在这样的实力和在上半场十九世纪。 In particular, Maine de Biran, who emphasized the inner activity and spirituality of the will, followed by Jouffroy and Cousin, set up so vigorous an opposition to the current Materialism as to win for their theories the distinctive title of "Spiritualism".特别是,缅因州因德雅沃夫比让谁强调党内活动和灵性的意愿,由jouffroy和表姐,成立了,所以大力反对目前的唯物论,以赢得他们的理论的“唯心论”独特称号。 In Germany, in addition to Kant, Fichte, and other Monistic Idealists, we find Lotze and Herbart advocating realistic forms of Spiritualism.在德国,除了康德,费希特,以及其他monistic理想主义者,我们发现lotze和赫尔巴特主张现实形式的唯心论。 In England, among the best-known advocates of Dualistic Spiritualism, were, in succession to the Scottish School, Hamilton and Martineau; and of Catholic writers, Brownson in America, and WG Ward in England.在英国,在二元唯心论最著名的倡导者,是在继承中,以苏格兰学校,汉密尔顿和马蒂诺,以及天主教作家,布朗森在美国,病房工作组在英格兰。

EVIDENCE FOR THE DOCTRINE OF SPIRITUALISM证据对于唯心论学说

Whilst modern Idealists and writers advocating an extreme form of Spiritualism have frequently fallen into grievous error in their own positive systems, their criticisms of Materialism and their vindication of the reality of spiritual being seem to contain much sound argument and some valuable contributions, as was indeed to be expected, to this controversy.虽然现代理想主义者和作家主张一种极端形式的唯心论,经常为严重错误爱上了自己的正面系统,他们的批评的唯物论和他们的精神被平反的现实似乎包含大量无害的说法和一些有价值的贡献,因为确实可以预料,这一争议。

(1) Epistemological Proof(1)认识论证明

The line of reasoning adopted by Berkeley against Materialism has never met with any real answer from the latter.推理的路线,反对唯物主义伯克利通过从来没有遇到任何来自后者真正的答案。If we were compelled to choose between the two, the most extreme Idealistic Materialism would be incomparably the more logical creed to hold.如果我们被迫选择两者之间,最极端的理想主义的唯物论,将是无法比拟的,更合乎逻辑的信条举行。Mind is more intimately known than matter, ideas are more ultimate than molecules.心是更密切地比已知此事,思路更比分子极致。External bodies are only known in terms of consciousness.外部机构是唯一已知的意识方面。To put forward as a final explanation that thought is merely a motion or property of certain bodies, when all bodies are, in the last resort, only revealed to us in terms of our thinking activity, is justly stigmatized by all classes of Spiritualists as utterly irrational.为了把它作为最终的解释,只是想提出一个议案或某些机构在最后才发现在我们的思维活动对我们而言,当所有机构,财产,是理直气壮地通过招魂各阶层诬蔑为根本不合理。 When the Materialist or Sensationist reasons out his doctrine, he is landed in hopeless absurdity.当唯物主义或他的学说感觉派的理由,他降落在无望的荒谬。Materialism is in fact the answer of the men who do not think, who are apparently quite unaware of the presuppositions which underlie all science.唯物史观是谁的男人不相信,谁显然是相当的前提是所有科学的基础不知道答案的事实。

(2) Teleological Proof(2)目的论证明

The contention, old as Anaxagoras, that the order, adaptation, and design evidently revealed in the universe postulate a principle distinct from matter for its explanation is also a valid argument for Spiritualism.的论点,因为阿那克萨哥拉岁,该命令,适应和设计显然在宇宙中发现假设一个原则问题从不同的解释,亦是唯心的有效论据。 Matter cannot arrange itself.此事不能安排本身。Yet that there is arrangement in the universe, an that this postulates the agency of a principle other than matter, is continually more and more forced upon us by the utter failure of natural selection to meet the demands made on it during the last half of the past century to accomplish by the blind, fortuitous action of physical agents work demanding the highest intelligence.然而,有在宇宙中的安排,一,这个假设的一个原则问题比其他机构,不断迫使越来越多的自然选择的彻底失败后,我们能满足期间的后半对其提出的要求过去的一个世纪,完成盲人,体育代理偶然行动工作,要求最高的情报。

(3) Ethical Proof(3)道德证明

The denial of spiritual beings distinct from, and in some sense independent of, matter inexorably involves the annihilation of morality.对不同的人从精神的否定,在一定意义上独立的,此事涉及到道德无情湮没。If the mechanical or materialistic theory of the universe be true, every movement and change of each particle of matter is the inevitable outcome of previous physical conditions.如果宇宙的机械或物质的理论是正确的,每一个动作和每一个物质粒子的变化是以前的身体状况的必然结果。There is no room anywhere for effective human choice or purpose in the world.有没有有效的人的选择,还是在世界任何地方活动室。 Consequently, all those notions which form the constituent elements of man's moral creed--duty, obligation, responsibility, merit, desert, and the rest--are illusions of the imagination.因此,所有这些概念的形成人的道德信条的构成要素 - 责任,义务,责任,择优的原则,沙漠,其余部分 - 都是幻想的想象力。Virtue and vice, fraud and benevolence are alike the inevitable outcome of the individual's circumstances, and ultimately as truly beyond his control as the movement of the piston is in regard to the steam-engine.优点和缺点,欺诈和仁是完全一样的个体的情况的必然结果,并最终作为真正超出他作为活塞的运动控制方面的蒸汽发动机。

(4) Inefficacy and Uselessness of Mind in the Materialist View(4)无效和无用的心,在唯物主义观点

Again, unless the reality of spirit distinct from, and independent of, matter be admitted, the still more incredible conclusion inexorably follows that mind, thought, consciousness play no really operative part in the world's history.同样,除非现实的精神有别于和独立的,此事予以承认,更令人难以置信的结论无情地跟随心灵,思想,意识,没有发挥在世界历史上真正的执行部分。 If mind is not a real distinct energy, capable of interfering with, guiding, and influencing the movements of matter, then clearly it has played no real part in the creations of art, literature, or science.如果介意的是不是一个真正独特的能量,干预,指导,影响物质的运动能力,那么显然它一直发挥在艺术,文学或科学作品没有真正的一部分。 Consciousness is merely an inefficacious by-product, an epiphenomenon which has never modified in any degree the movements of matter concerned in the history of the human race.意识不过是一个inefficacious副产品,一个是从来没有在任何物质的运动在人类历史的关注度修改偶然现象。

(5) Psychological Proof(5)心理证明

The outcome of all the main theses of psychology, empirical and rational, in Catholic systems of philosophy is the establishment of a Spiritualistic Dualism, and the determination of the relations of soul and body.所有心理学在天主教系统的理念,经验和理性,主要论题的结果是建立一个二元论唯灵,和对灵魂和身体的关系的决心。Analysis of the higher activities of the soul, and especially of the operations of intellectual conception, judgment, reasoning, and self-conscious reflection, proves the faculty of intellect and the soul to which it belongs to be of a spiritual nature, distinct from matter, and not the outcome of a power inherent in a bodily organ.作者:灵魂的高活动,以及对知识产权的概念,判断,推理和自我意识的反映,尤其是行动证明了教师的智慧和灵魂,它属于是一种精神的本质特征,不同的物质,而不是一个输出功率是在身体器官所固有的结果。 At the same time the Scholastic doctrine, better than any other system, furnishes a conception of the union of soul and body which accounts for the extrinsic dependence of the spiritual operations of the mind on the organism; whilst maintaining the spiritual nature of the soul, it safeguards the union of soul and body in a single person.在同一时间,学术上的理论,比任何其他系统更好,furnishes的灵魂和身体这为对生物体的心灵的精神依赖外在经营帐目联盟的概念;同时保持灵魂的精神本质,它保障了灵魂和身体在一个人的联合。

Publication information Written by Michael Maher & Joseph Bolland.出版信息的书面迈克尔马希尔&约瑟夫博兰。Transcribed by Janet Grayson.转录由珍格雷森。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.天主教百科全书,体积十四。Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


Spiritism招魂

Catholic Information天主教新闻

Spiritism is the name properly given to the belief that the living can and do communicate with the spirits of the departed, and to the various practices by which such communication is attempted.招魂给予适当的生活,相信可以做与精神传达离开的名称,并通过这种沟通的尝试不同的做法。It should be carefully distinguished from Spiritualism, the philosophical doctrine which holds, in general, that there is a spiritual order of beings no less real than the material and, in particular, that the soul of man is a spiritual substance.应仔细区分唯心论,哲学学说认为,在一般情况下,有一个真正的人比不低于材料,尤其是精神秩序,认为人的灵魂是一种精神实质。 Spiritism, moreover, has taken on a religious character.招魂,而且,已对具有宗教性质。It claims to prove the preamble of all religions, ie, the existence of a spiritual world, and to establish a world-wide religion in which the adherents of the various traditional faiths, setting their dogmas aside, can unite.它声称,证明了所有的宗教,即世界上存在着一种精神的序言,并建立一个全球性的宗教在其中的各种传统宗教信徒,确定它们的教条外,能够团结起来。 If it has formulated no definite creed, and if its representatives differ in their attitudes toward the beliefs of Christianity, this is simply because Spiritism is expected to supply a new and fuller revelation which will either substantiate on a rational basis the essential Christian dogmas or show that they are utterly unfounded.如果它没有明确的纲领制定的,如果它的代表在对基督教的信仰他们的态度不同,这完全是因为招魂预计将提供一个新的和更全面的启示,这将不是一个理性的基础上充实的本质基督教教条或显示他们是完全没有根据的。 The knowledge thus acquired will naturally affect conduct, the more so because it is hoped that the discarnate spirits, in making known their condition, will also indicate the means of attaining to salvation or rather of progressing, by a continuous evolution in the other world, to a higher plane of existence and happiness.这样获得的知识,自然会影响行为,更是因为它是希望无形的精神,在使已知他们的情况,也表明了实现将得救的手段或者说进步,由一个在另一个世界不断演变,一个幸福的存在和更高的层面。

THE PHENOMENA的现象

These are classified as physical and psychical.这些被归类为身体和心理。The former include:前者包括:

production of raps and other sounds;生产的区域行动方案和其他声音;

movements of objects (tables, chairs) without contact or with contact insufficient to explain the movement:运动的物体(桌,椅),没有接触或接触不足以解释运动:

"apports" ie, apparitions of visible agency to convey them; “apports”,即有形机构向他们传达幻影;

moulds, ie, impressions made upon paraffin and similar substances;模具,即在石蜡和类似物质制成的印象;

luminous appearances, ie, vague glimmerings or light or faces more or less defines;夜光露面,即模糊glimmerings或轻或面临着或多或少的定义;

levitation, ie, raising of objects from the ground by supposed supernormal means;磁悬浮,即从以假定的超常手段地面物体的认识;

materialization or appearance of a spirit in visible human form;物化或在可视化人体形式与精神的外观;

spirit-photography, in which the feature or forms of deceased persons appear on the plate along with the likeness of a living photographed subject.精神,摄影,其中功能或已故者的形式出现在板块随着相似的生活照。

The psychical, or significative, phenomena are those which express ideas or contain messages.的心理,还是有意义的现象是那些表达想法或包含的信息。To this class belong:这一类属于:

table-rapping in answer to questions;表说唱在回答问题;

automatic writing; slate-writing;自动写作;板岩写作;

trance-speaking;恍惚发言;

clairvoyance;千里眼;

descriptions of the spirit-world; and精神的世界描述;和

communications from the dead.通讯从死。

HISTORY历史

For an account of Spiritistic practices in antiquity see NECROMANCY.对于一个在古代spiritistic做法帐户中看到的巫术。The modern phase was ushered in by the exhibitions of mesmerism and clairvoyance.现代相迎来了由催眠和洞察力的展览。In its actual form, however, Spiritism dates from the year 1848 and from the experiences of the Fox family at Hydesville, and later at Rochester, in New York State.在实际的形式,但是,招魂的日期从1848年在Hydesville和福克斯的家庭经验,后来又在纽约州罗切斯特。Strange "knockings" were heard in the house, pieces of furniture were moved about as though by invisible hands, and the noises became so troublesome that sleep was impossible.奇怪的“knockings”是在家里听到的几件家具,仿佛被感动了关于看不见的手,和噪音变得如此麻烦,睡眠是不可能的。 At length the "rapper" began to answer questions, and a code of signals was arranged to facilitate communication.在长度的“说唱”开始回答问题,并安排了信号的代码,以方便沟通。It was also found that to receive messages special qualifications were needed; these were possessed by Catherine and Margaret Fox, who are therefore regarded as the first "mediums" of modern times.同时还发现,为了获得所需的信息特别资格的人,这些是由凯瑟琳和玛格丽特福克斯,谁因此为先“媒介”的现代倍视为拥有。

Similar disturbances occurred in other parts of the country, notably at Stratford, Connecticut, in the house of Rev. Dr. Phelps, a Presbyterian minister, where the manifestations (1850-51) were often violent and the spirit-answers blasphemous.类似的骚乱发生在该国其他地区,特别是在斯特拉特福,康涅狄格州,在菲尔普斯博士牧师,长老会牧师,那里的表现(1850年至1851年)的往往是暴力和精神,回答亵渎的房子。 In 1851 the Fox girls were visited in Buffalo by three physicians who were professors in the university of that city.1851年,福克斯在布法罗少女被访三个医生谁在该城大学教授。As a result of their examination the doctors declared that the "raps" were simply "crackings" of the knee-joints.由于他们的检查结果,医生宣布了“区域行动方案”就是“开裂”的膝盖关节。But this statement did not lessen either the popular enthusiasm or the interest of more serious persons.不过,这份声明并未减轻或者流行的热情或更严重的人的利益。

The subject was taken up by men like Horace Greeley, Wm.这个题目是采取行动格里利一样,西医的人。Lloyd Garrison, Robert Hare, professor of chemistry in the University of Pennsylvania, and John Worth Edmonds, a judge of the Supreme Court of New York State.劳埃德驻军,罗伯特黑尔,化学教授,在宾夕法尼亚大学,约翰值得埃德蒙兹,是纽约州最高法院法官。Conspicuous among the Spiritists was Andrew Jackson Davis, whose work, "The Principles of Nature" (1847), dictated by him in trance, contained a theory of the universe, closely resembling the Swedenborgian.鬼之间的炫耀是安德鲁杰克逊戴维斯,他们的工作,(1847)“自然原理”,由他口述恍惚,载有宇宙论,相似的Swedenborgian。 Spiritism also found earnest advocates among clergymen of various denominations, especially the Universalists; it appealed strongly to many people who had lost all religious belief in a future life; and it was welcomed by those who were then agitating the question of a new social organization--the pioneers of modern Socialism.招魂术中还发现,认真提倡各种教派的教士们,特别是Universalists,它强烈呼吁谁失去了在未来的生活一切宗教信念的许多人民,它是由那些谁,然后搅拌了一个新的社会组织的问题表示欢迎, ,现代社会主义的先驱。So widespread was the belief in Spiritism that in 1854 Congress was petitioned to appoint a scientific commission for the investigation of the phenomena.如此普遍的是信仰spiritism说,在1854年的国会请愿,任命一名对科学现象的调查委员会。The petition, which bore some 13,000 signatures, was laid on the table, and no action was taken.请愿书,上面有一些13000个签名,被放在桌上,并没有采取任何行动。

In Europe the way had been prepared for Spiritism by the Swedenborgian movement and by an epidemic of table-turning which spread from the Continent to England and invaded all classes of society.在欧洲的方式已经由准备通灵的Swedenborgian运动,由一个表转折从欧洲大陆蔓延到英国流行和侵入社会各阶层。 It was still a fashionable diversion when, in 1852, two mediums, Mrs. Hayden and Mrs. Roberts, came from America to London, and held séances which attracted the attention of scientists as well as popular interest.这仍是一个时髦的分流时,在1852年,两种介质中,罗伯茨夫人海登和夫人,从美国来到伦敦,并引起了科学家的广泛关注以及流行的权益持有的降神会。 Faraday, indeed, in 1853 showed that the table movements were due to muscular action, and Dr. Carpenter gave the same explanation; but many thoughtful persons, notably among the clergy, held to the Spiritistic interpretation.法拉第,事实上,表明在1853年,该表是由于肌肉运动的行动,卡彭特博士作出了同样的解释,但许多周到的人,尤其是其中的神职人员,举行了向Spiritistic解释。 This was accepted also by Robert Owen, the socialist, while Professor De Morgan, the mathematician, in his account of a sitting with Mrs. Hayden, was satisfied that "somebody or some spirit was reading his thoughts".这是被接受由欧文,社会主义,而教授德摩根,数学家,也是在他与夫人海登坐着,感到满意的是“某人或某种精神,是读他的思想”帐户。 The later development in England was furthered by mediums who came from America: Daniel Dunglas Home (Hume) in 1855, the Davenport Brothers in 1864, and Henry Slade in 1876.在英国后来的发展是进一步推动媒介谁从美国传来:丹尼尔Dunglas首页(休谟)于1855年,达文波特的兄弟在1864年,亨利在1876年斯莱德。 Among the native mediums, Rev. William Stainton Moses became prominent in 1872, Miss Florence Cook in the same year, and William Eglinton in 1886.在本地媒体,牧师威廉斯坦顿于1872年成为著名的摩西,在同年小姐佛罗伦萨库克在1886年和威廉林顿说。Spiritism was advocated by various periodical publications, and defended in numerous works some of which were said to have been dictated by the spirits themselves, eg, the "Spirit Teachings" of Stainton Moses, which purport to give an account of conditions in the other world and form a sort of Spiritistic theology.招魂有人主张通过各种定期刊物,并在其中一些据说出于自己的灵魂,如众多作品辩护,“精神教”的斯坦顿摩西,这让意图在世界的其他帐户的条件并形成一种Spiritistic神学排序。 During this period also, scientific opinion on the subject was divided.在此期间也,关于这个问题的科学的意见有分歧。While Professors Huxley and Tyndall sharply denounced Spiritism in practice and theory, Mr. (later Sir Wm.) Crookes and Dr. Alfred Russell Wallace regarded the phenomena as worthy of serious investigation.虽然教授赫胥黎和廷德尔地反对在实践和理论通灵先生(后来爵士西医。)克鲁克斯和艾尔弗雷德拉塞尔华莱士博士认为是值得认真调查的现象。 The same view was expressed in the report which the Dialectical Society published in 1871 after an inquiry extending over eighteen months, and at the Glasgow meeting of the British Association in 1876 Professor Barrett, FRS, concluded his account of the phenomena he had observed by urging the appointment of a committee of scientific men for the systematic investigation of such phenomena.同样有人在该协会于1871年出版的辩证后,超过一八个月延伸调查报告,并在英国格拉斯哥协会巴雷特教授于1876年,FRS的,会议结束他所观察到的现象,敦促他的账户一对这种现象进行系统的调查研究科学的人委员会任命。

The growth of Spiritism on the Continent was marked by similar transitions from popular curiosity to serious inquiry.在欧洲大陆上的spiritism增长的特点是从流行的好奇心,认真的询问类似的转换。As far back as 1787, the Exegetic and Philanthropic Society of Stockholm, adhering to the Swedenborgian view, had interpreted the utterances of "magnetized" subjects as messages from the spirit world.早在1787年,Exegetic和慈善协会斯德哥尔摩,秉承的Swedenborgian认为,其解释的“磁化”从灵界的消息主体的话语。 This interpretation gradually won favour in France and Germany; but it was not until 1848 that Cahagnet published at Paris the first volume of his "Arcanes de la vie future dévoilées", containing what purported to be communications from the dead.这种解释,逐渐赢得了在法国和德国的青睐,但它是不是Cahagnet直到1848年巴黎出版了他的“Arcanes德拉争夺未来dévoilées”第一卷,载有什么自称是从死通信。 The excitement aroused in Paris by table-turning and rapping led to an investigation by Count Agénor de Gasparin, whose conclusion ("Des Tables tournantes", (Paris, 1854) was that the phenomena originated in some physical force of the human body. Professor Thury of Geneva ("Les Tables tournantes", 1855) concurred in this explanation. Baron de Guldenstubbe ("La Réalité des Esprits" Paris, 1857), on the contrary, declared his belief in the reality of spirit intervention, and M. Rivail, known later as Allan Kardec, published the "spiritualistic philosophy" in "Le Livre des Esprits" (Paris, 1853), which became a guide-book to the whole subject.在巴黎引起了表转折和说唱这导致了伯爵阿革诺耳德Gasparin,其结论(“德表tournantes”,(巴黎,1854年)调查的兴奋的现象是,在一些对人体体力起源。教授蒂里日内瓦(“莱斯表tournantes”,1855年)同意这个解释。相反男爵Guldenstubbe(“香格里拉Réalité德Esprits”巴黎,1857年),宣布他的干预现实的精神信仰,和M. Rivail ,后来被称为艾伦Kardec,公布了“spiritualistic哲学”中的“乐利夫雷德Esprits”(巴黎,1853年),从而成为指导图书到整个课题。

In Germany also Spiritism was an outgrowth from "animal magnetism".在德国也招魂是由“动物磁性”的产物。JH Jung in his "Theorie der Geisterkunde" declared that in the state of trance the soul is freed from the body, but he regarded the trance itself as a diseased condition. Jh的在他的“理论之Geisterkunde”郑宣布,在恍惚状态中,灵魂从身体中解脱出来,但他认为这是一个有病的恍惚本身。Among the earliest German clairvoyants was Frau Frederica Hauffe, the "Seeress of Prevorst", whose experiences were related by Justinus Kerner in "Die Seherin von Prevorst" (Stuttgart, 1829).其中最早的是德国千里眼弗劳弗雷德里卡Hauffe的,其被Justinus肯纳有关的“死Seherin冯Prevorst”经验(斯图加特,1829)“的Prevorst女先知”。 In its later development Spiritism was represented in scientific and philosophical circles by men of prominence, eg, Ulrici, Fichte, Züllner, Fechner, and Wm.在其以后的发展招魂的代表参加的科学和哲学界​​的突出的男人,例如,乌尔里奇,费希特,Züllner,费希纳,与Wm。 Weber.韦伯。The last-named three conducted (1877-8) a series of experiments with the American medium Slade at Leipzig.过去命名的三个进行(1877-8)的实验与美国媒体在莱比锡斯莱德系列。The results were published in Züllner's "Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen" (cf. Massey, "Transcendental Physics", London, 1880, in which the portions relating to spiritism are translated).结果于Züllner的“Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen”出版(见梅西,“先验物理学”,伦敦,1880年,其中部分有关招魂换算)。Though considered important at the time, this investigation, owing to lack of caution and accuracy, cannot be regarded as a satisfactory test.虽然在当时认为重要的,本次调查,由于缺乏谨慎性和准确性,不能算是一个令人满意的试验。(Cf. "Report of the Seybert Commission", Philadelphia, 1887-, which also contains an account of an investigation conducted at the University of Pennsylvania with Slade and other mediums.)(参见“报告塞博尔特委员会”,费城,1887年 - ,其中还包含了在与其他媒介斯莱德和宾夕法尼亚大学进行了调查帐户。)

The foregoing outline shows that modern Spiritism within a generation had passed beyond the limits of a merely popular movement and had challenged the attention of the scientific world.上述纲要显示,在一代现代招魂已经过去了超越只是一个民间运动的极限,并挑战了科学界的关注。 It had, moreover, brought about serious divisions among men of science.有,而且,大约在男科学带来了严重分歧。For those who denied the existence of a soul distinct from the organism it was a foregone conclusion that there could be no such communications as the Spiritists claimed.对于那些谁否认灵魂的有机体,它是一个定局,不可能有这样的鬼声称通信独特的存在。This negative view, of course, is still taken by all who accept the fundamental ideas of Materialism.这种负面的看法,当然,是仍然采取一切谁接受辩证唯物主义和历史唯物主义的基本思想。But apart from any such a priori considerations, the opponents of Spiritism justified their position by pointing to innumerable cases of fraud which were brought to light either through closer examination of the methods employed or through the admissions of the mediums themselves.但是,除了从任何这种先验的考虑,对手的spiritism正当他们所指向的欺诈无数,其中被带到光线通过更密切地考察的方法,或通过任何媒介本身的招生情况下的位置。

In spite, however, of repeated exposure, there occurred phenomena which apparently could not be ascribed to trickery of any sort.在尽管如此,反复暴露,有发生,这显然不能归因于任何形式的弄虚作假现象。The inexplicable character of these the sceptics attributed to faulty observation.这些持怀疑态度令人费解的性格归咎于错误的观察。 The Spiritistic practices were simply set down as a new chapter in the long history of occultism, magic, and popular superstition.该spiritistic做法是简单地定下了一个神秘,神奇,悠久的历史和流行的迷信新的篇章。On the other hand, a certain number of thinkers felt obliged to confess that, after making due allowances for the element of fraud, there remained some facts which called for a more systematic investigation.另一方面,一定数量的思想家认为必须承认,经过了适当调整的欺诈因素,但仍有一些事实,这对于一个更加系统的调查。 In 1869 the London Dialectical Society appointed a committee of thirty-three members "to investigate the phenomena alleged to be spiritual manifestations, and to report thereon". 1869年,伦敦会委任一个辩证的三十三名成员委员会“,调查据称是精神表现的现象,并就此提出报告。”The committee's report (1871) declares that "motion may be produced in solid bodies without material contact, by some hitherto unrecognized force operating within an undefined distance from the human organism, an beyond the range of muscular action"; and that "this force is frequently directed by intelligence".该委员会的报告(1871)宣布,“议案可能产生在没有物质接触坚实的机构,一些迄今为止无法识别的力量经营在一个不确定的距离人的机体,一个超越了肌肉的行动范围”,并认为“这股力量是经常导演情报“。 In 1882 there was organized in London the "Society for Psychical Research" for the scientific examination of what its prospectus terms "debatable phenomena". 1882年在伦敦举办有“为心理研究会”为什么其招股说明书条款“值得商榷现象”的科学检验。A motive for investigation was supplied by the history of hypnotism, which had been repeatedly ascribed to quackery and deception.进行调查的动机是提供由催眠历史,曾多次归因于骗术和欺骗。Nevertheless, patient research conducted by rigorous methods had shown that beneath the error and imposture there lay a real influence which was to be accounted for, and which finally was explained on the theory of suggestion.然而,病人的研究方法进行了严格的证明,下方有错误,并冒用奠定了真正的影响力,是进行核算,并最终于理论解释的建议。 The progress of Spiritism, it was thought, might likewise yield a residuum of fact deserving scientific explanation.对进度spiritism,有人以为,可能同样产​​渣油的事实值得科学解释。

The Society for Psychical Research soon counted among its members distinguished representatives of science and philosophy in England and America; numerous associations with similar aims and methods were organized in various countries.对于心理研究会很快计算其成员之间的杰出的科学和哲学在英国和美国的代表;具有类似目标和方法,许多社团在不同国家举办。 The "Proceedings" of the Society contain detailed reports of investigations in Spiritism and allied subjects, and a voluminous literature, expository and critical, has been created.在“诉讼”的社会包含在调查的详细报告和招魂相关学科,以及大量的文献,说明性和批判,已创建。Among the most notable works are: "Phantasms of the Living" by Gurney, Myers, and Podmore (London, 1886); FWH Myers, "Human Personality and Its Survival of Bodily Death" (London, 1903); and Sir Oliver Lodge, FRS, "The Survival of Man" (New York, 1909).其中最显着的作品有:“幻觉的生活”的格尼,迈尔斯和波德莫尔(伦敦,1886年);快闪记忆体迈尔斯,“人的个性和其生存的身体死亡”(伦敦,1903年)和奥利弗洛奇先生, FRS的,“人类的生存”(纽约,1909年)。In recent publications prominence is given to experiments with the mediums Mrs. Piper of Boston and Eusapia Palladino of Italy; and important contributions to the literature have been made by Professor Wm.在最近的出版物中是突出了与媒介夫人派波士顿和Eusapia帕拉迪诺意大利实验;和重要贡献的文献都已经由教授西医结合制成。 James of Harvard, Dr. Richard Hodgson of Boston, Professor Charles Richet (University of Paris), Professor Henry Sidgwick (Cambridge University), Professor Th.詹姆斯哈佛大学博士理查德霍奇森波士顿,教授查尔斯Richet(巴黎大学),教授亨利西奇威克(剑桥大学),教授钍。Flournoy (University of Geneva), Professor Morselli (University of Genoa), Professor Cesare Lombroso (University of Turin), Professor James H. Hyslop (Columbia University), Professor Wm.弗卢努瓦(日内瓦大学),教授Morselli(热那亚大学),教授切萨雷Lombroso(都灵大学),教授詹姆斯H希斯洛普(哥伦比亚大学),教授西医。 R. Newbold (University of Pennsylvania).河纽博尔德(宾夕法尼亚大学)。While some of these writers maintain a critical attitude, others are outspoken in favour of Spiritism, and a few (Myers, James), lately deceased, arranged before death to establish communication with their surviving associates.尽管这些作家的一些保持一种批判的态度,另一些则直言不讳的招魂的青睐,和一些(迈尔斯,詹姆斯),近来死者生前安排与他们建立联系沟通幸存。

HYPOTHESES假说

To explain the phenomena which after careful investigation and exclusion of fraud are regarded as authentic, three hypotheses have been proposed.为了解释这经过仔细调查和欺诈排除被视为正宗,三个假设已经提出的现象。The telepathic hypothesis takes as its starting-point the so-called subliminal consciousness.心电感应的假说作为其出发点所谓的潜意识意识。This, it is claimed, is subject to disintegration in such wise that segments of it may impress another mind (the percipient) even at a distance.这一点,就声称,是受在这种明智的解体它的部分可能留下深刻的印象,即使在距离一个完整的心灵(即知觉)。The personality is liberated, so to speak, from the organism and invades the soul of another.在个性解放,可以这么说,从生物体和侵入他人的灵魂。A medium, on this hypothesis, would obtain information by thought-transference either from the minds of persons present at the séance or from other minds concerning whom the sitters know nothing.一个媒介,对这一假说,将获得由思维移情信息无论是从人在悼念会从目前的思想或保姆知道关于他们的任何其他想法。 This view, it is held, would accord with the recognized facts of hypnosis and with the results of experimental telepathy; and it would explain what appear to be cases of possession.这种观点认为,它的举行,将符合催眠和心灵感应实验的结果确认的事实;并会解释似乎是占有情况。Similar to this is the hypothesis of psychical radiations which distinguishes in man the material body, the soul, and an intermediate principle, the "perispirit".相似的,这是假设的心理辐射,它区别于在人的物质身体,灵魂,和中间的原则,“perispirit”。 This is a subtle fluid, or astral body, which in certain persons (mediums) can escape from the material organism and thus form a "double".这是一种微妙液,星体的身体,这在某些人(媒体)可以脱离物质的有机体,从而形成一个“双”。 It also accompanied the soul after death and it is the means by which communication is established with the peri-spirit of the mediums.它也伴随着死后的灵魂,它是其中的​​沟通与周围介质的精神建立的手段。 The Spiritistic hypothesis maintains that the communications are received from disembodied spirits.该Spiritistic假说认为,通讯是从游魂收到。Its advocates declare that telepathy is insufficient to account for all the facts, that its sphere of influence would have to be enlarged so as to include all the mental states and memories of living persons, and that even with such extension it would not explain the selective character of the phenomena by which facts relevant for establishing the personal identity of the departed are discriminated from those that are irrelevant.它主张宣布心灵感应是不够的,占全部的事实,即它的势力范围,都必须扩大,以便包括所有的精神状态和生活的人的回忆,而且即使是这样的延伸,将不能解释的选择性性格的现象,其中事实为建立个人身份离开是从那些无关歧视有关。 Telepathy at most may be the means by which discarnate spirits act upon the minds of living persons.感应,在最可能的手段,使无形的精神行事后,生者的心灵。

For those who admit that the manifestations proceed from intelligences other than that of the medium, the next question in order is whether these intelligences are the spirits of the departed or beings that have never been embodied in human forms.对于那些谁承认,从智能的表现比中,其他继续,为了下一个问题是,这些智能是灵的离去或从未有过的形式体现在人的生命。 The reply had often been found difficult even by avowed believers in Spiritism, and some of these have been forced to admit the action of extraneous or non-human intelligences.答复往往难以被发现,甚至公开宣称在通灵术信徒,其中有的已被迫承认外来或非人类智力的行动。This conclusion is based on several sorts of evidence:这一结论是根据对证据的若干种:

the difficulty of establishing spirit-identity, ie, of ascertaining whether the communicator is actually the personality he or it purports to be; the love of personation on the part of the spirits which leads them to introduce themselves as celebrities who once lived on earth, although on closer questioning they show themselves quite ignorant of those whom they personate;建立查明的精神认同,即困难是否传播者,实际上是他的个性或者它意图;了冒充对部分的烈酒,导致他们引进名人曾经生活在地球上谁自己的爱,虽然仔细盘问,他们表现自己很无知的人,他们拟人化;

the trivial character of the communications, so radically opposed to what would be expected from those who have passed into the other world and who naturally should be concerned to impart information on the most serious subjects;的,以便从根本上反对一叶障目字的通讯会是什么那些谁也传递到另一个世界,谁自然应该关心的是传授的最严重问题的资料预期;

the contradictory statements which the spirits make regarding their own condition, the relations of God and man, the fundamental precepts of morality;本的精神,使他们对于自己的条件自相矛盾的说法,神和人的关系,道德的基本戒律;

finally the low moral tone which often pervades these messages from spirits who pretend to enlighten mankind.最后,低道德的语气往往贯穿于从精神谁假装来启发人类的这些消息。

These deceptions and inconsistencies have been attributed by some authors to the subliminal consciousness (Flournoy), by others to spirits of a lower order, ie, below the plane of humanity (Stainton Moses), while a third explanation refers them quite frankly to demonic intervention (Raupert, "Modern Spiritism", St. Louis, 1904; cf. Grasset, "The Marvels beyond Science," tr. Tubeuf, New York, 1910).这些骗案和不一致已归入有些作者向潜意识意识(弗卢努瓦)通过对一低,即低于人类(斯坦顿摩西),平面,烈酒等,而第三种解释是指,他们很坦率地向恶魔般的干预(Raupert,“现代招魂”,圣路易斯,1904年。比照格拉塞说:“超越科学奇迹,”风帆Tubeuf,纽约,1910年。)。 For the Christian believer this third view acquired special significance from the fact that the alleged communications antagonize the essential truths of religion, such as the Divinity of Christ, atonement and redemption, judgment and future retribution, while they encourage agnosticism, pantheism, and a belief in reincarnation.对于基督徒信奉这第三种观点获得了一个事实,即所称通信对抗的基本真理的宗教,如基督的赎罪和赎回,判断和未来的报应,特殊的意义,而他们鼓励不可知论,泛神论,和一种信念轮回。

Spiritism indeed claims that it alone furnishes an incontestable proof of immortality, a scientific demonstration of the future life that far surpasses any philosophical deduction of Spiritualism, while it gives the death-blow to Materialism.招魂确实声称,它仅furnishes不朽的,是对未来的生活,远远超过任何唯心论哲学演绎科学论证无可争议的证明,而它给人的死亡打击唯物主义。 This claim, however, rests upon the validity of the hypothesis that the communications come from disembodied spirits; it gets no support from the telepathic hypothesis or from that of demonic intervention.这种说法,但是,休息后的假说,从游魂来通信的有效性,有时没有心电感应的假说从恶魔般的干预或支持。 If either of the latter should be verified the phenomena would be explained without solving or even raising the problem of human immortality.如果后者也不应该被验证的现象将得到解释没有解决,甚至提高人类的不朽的问题。 If, again, it were shown that the argument based on the data of normal consciousness and the nature of the soul cannot stand the test of criticism, the same test would certainly be fatal to a theory drawn from the mediumistic utterances which are not only the outcome of abnormal conditions, but are also open to widely different interpretations.如果再次,它被证明,这种对正常的意识和性质的灵魂的数据为基础的论点经不起批评的测试,同样的测试肯定是致命的是,不仅mediumistic言论引起了理论结果异常情况,而且还开放,广泛不同的解释。 Even where all suspicion of fraud or collusion is removed--and this is seldom the case--a critical investigator will cling to the idea that phenomena which now seem inexplicable may eventually, like so many other marvels, be accounted for without having recourse to the Spiritistic hypothesis.即使所有的欺诈或串通嫌疑被删除 - 这是很少的情况 - 而不必诉诸关键调查员会坚持这一观点,即现在似乎令人费解的现象,最终可能会像许多其他的奇迹,被占在Spiritistic假说。Those who are convinced, on philosophical grounds, of the soul's immortality may say that communications from the spirit world, if any such there be, go to strengthen their conviction; but to abandon their philosophy and stake all on Spiritism would be more than hazardous; it would, indirectly at least, afford a pretext for a more complete rejection of soul and immortality.这些谁相信,在哲学底蕴与灵魂的不朽,可以说,如果有任何这样的事,从精神的世界,通信出去,增强他们的信念,但放弃自己的哲学和招魂全部股份将超过危险以上;这将间接至少负担一不朽的灵魂和更完整的拒绝的借口。 In other words, if Spiritism were the sole argument for a future life, Materialism, instead of being crushed, would triumph anew as the only possible theory for science and common sense.换句话说,如果通灵人的未来生活,唯物主义唯一的参数,而不是被压死,将凯旋脱胎换骨,唯一的科学可行的理论和常识。

DANGERS危险

To this risk of philosophical error must be added the dangers, mental and moral, which Spiritistic practices involve.对于这种哲学的错误的风险必须补充的危险,精神和道德的,其中涉及spiritistic做法。

Whatever the explanations offered for the medium's "powers", their exercise sooner or later brings about a state of passivity which cannot but injure the mind.无论对于中的“权力”,他们的活动提供了迟早的解释带来的被动状态,这不能不损害头脑。This is readily intelligible in the hypothesis of an invasion by extraneous spirits, since such a possession must weaken and tend to efface the normal personality.这很容易在一个假设的外来入侵的精神理解的,因为这种占有必须削弱,而且往往抹去正常的人格。But similar results may be expected if, as the alternate hypothesis maintains, a disintegration of the one personality takes place.但类似的结果,可预期的,如果作为替代假说认为,一个人的人格解体的发生。In either case, it is not surprising that the mental balance should be disturbed, and self-control impaired or destroyed.在两种情况下,这是不足为奇的心理平衡应该受到打扰,自我控制受损或被毁。Recourse to Spiritism frequently produces hallucinations and other aberrations, especially in subjects who are predisposed to insanity; and even those who are otherwise normal expose themselves to severe physical and mental strain (cf. Viollet, "Le spiritisme dans ses rapports avec la folie", Paris, 1908).求助于spiritism经常产生幻觉,尤其是在谁是倾向于精神失常主题的其他畸变;甚至那些谁在其他方面正常的自己暴露在严重的身体和心理应变(参见Viollet,“乐spiritisme丹斯经济局局长rapports avec香格里拉疯狂”巴黎,1908年)。

More serious still is the danger of moral perversion.更为严重的仍然是道德的歪曲的危险。If to practise or encourage deception of any sort is reprehensible, the evil is certainly greater when fraud is resorted to in the inquiry concerning the future life.如果实行或鼓励任何形式的欺骗行为应受到谴责,当然是更大的罪恶时采取欺诈,是在有关的调查,以未来的生活。But apart from any intention to deceive, the methods employed would undermine the foundations of morality, either by producing a disintegration of personality or by inviting the invasion of an extraneous intelligence.但是,除了从任何意图欺骗,就业会破坏道德的基础,通过生产的个性解体或邀请一个外来入侵或者情报的方法。 It may be that the medium "yields, perhaps, innocently at first to the promptings of an impulse which may come to him as from a higher power, or that he is moved by an instinctive compulsion to aid in the development of his automatic romance--in any case, if he continues to abet and encourage this automatic prompting, it is not likely that he can long retain both honesty and sanity unimpaired. The man who looks on at his hand doing a thing, but acquits himself of responsibility for the thing done, can hardly claim to be considered as a moral agent; and the step is short to instigating and repeating a like action in the future, without the excuse of an overmastering impulse . . . To attend the séances of a professional medium is perhaps at worst to countenance a swindle; to watch the gradual development of innocent automatism into physical mediumship may be to assist at a process of moral degeneration" (Podmore, "Modern Spiritualism", II, 326 sqq.).也许可以说是中等“的产量,也许,天真地在第一至一冲动之情,可能来找他从一个更高的力量,或者说,他是一种本能的强迫之下,以帮助其自动恋情发展在任何情况下,如果他继续助长和鼓励这种自动提示,也不太可能,他可以长期保留党风廉政建设和思维受到损害。谁该名男子上看起来他的手做的事,但acquits为自己的责任事情做,就很难称得上是作为道德代理人审议;。。。和步骤是重复短,煽动和今后一个喜欢动作没有一个overmastering冲动辩解,参加一个专业媒体的降神会,或许在最坏的情况,就面容一诈骗;在观看了无辜自动逐步发展成物理mediumship可协助在过程中的道德堕落“(波德莫尔,”现代唯心论“,第二章,326 sqq。)。

ACTION OF THE CHURCH行动的教会

As Spiritism has been closely allied with the practices of "animal magnetism" and hypnotism, these several classes of phenomena have also been treated under the same general head in the discussions of theologians and in the decisions of ecclesiastical authority.正如通灵一直密切与“动物磁性”和催眠术的做法结盟,这几个班的现象也下得到治疗,同时在讨论的神学家一般头部和教会机构的决定。 The Congregation of the Inquisition, 25 June, 1840, decreed:众的宗教裁判所,1840年6月25日,下令:

Where all error, sorcery, and invocation of the demon, implicit or explicit, is excluded, the mere use of physical means which are otherwise lawful, is not morally forbidden, provided it does not aim at unlawful or evil results.那里所有的错误,巫术和恶魔,含蓄或明确的调用,被排除在外,有形的手段,是合法的,否则,仅仅是道德上没有禁止使用,只要它的目的不是非法或邪恶的结果。 But the application of purely physical principles and means to things or effects that are really supernatural, in order to explain these on physical grounds, is nothing else than unlawful and heretical deception.但是,单纯的物理原理的应用程序和手段,以东西或效果,真的是超自然的,是为了解释这些对身体的理由,无非是非法和异端邪说欺骗。

This decision was reiterated on 28 July, 1847, and a further decree was issued on 30 July, 1856, which, after mentioning discourses about religion, evocation of departed spirits and "other superstitious practices" of Spiritism, exhorts the bishops to put forth every effort for the suppression of these abuses "in order that the flock of the Lord may be protected against the enemy, the deposit of faith safeguarded, and the faithful preserved from moral corruption".这一决定重申了7月28日,1847年,并进一步法令于1856年7月30日,其中,后一提的关于宗教的论述,对亡灵的召唤和“其他迷信活动”的spiritism,敦促主教提出的每一个发行努力为这些侵权行为“为了使主的羊群,可打击敌人,保障存款的信心,并从道德腐败的忠实保留保护”的镇压。 The Second Plenary Council of Baltimore (1866), while making due allowance for fraudulent practice in Spiritism, declares that some at least of the manifestations are to be ascribed to Satanic intervention, and warns the faithful against lending any support to Spiritism or even, out of curiosity, attending séances (Decreta, nn. 33-41).第二次全体会议,会议的巴尔的摩(1866年),同时使欺诈行为在招魂适当的津贴,宣布一些在的表现形式至少是要归功于撒旦的干预,并警告,对贷款的任何支持,甚至招魂,指出了忠诚出于好奇,参加降神会(Decreta,神经网络。33-41)。 The council points out, in particular, the anti-Christian character of Spiritistic teachings concerning religion, and characterizes them as an attempt to revive paganism and magic.该委员会指出,在特别是关于宗教的教义Spiritistic反基督教的性格,特点是企图恢复他们的异教和魔术。A decree of the Holy Office, 30 March, 1898, condemns Spiritistic practices, even though intercourse with the demon be excluded and communication sought with good spirits only.一个法令的神圣办公室3月30日,1898年,谴责spiritistic做法,即使性交与恶魔被排除和沟通,只有良好的精神要求。 In all these documents the distinction is clearly drawn between legitimate scientific investigation and superstitious abuses.在所有这些文件之间的区别是明确划定了合法的科学调查和迷信的滥用。What the Church condemns in Spiritism is superstition with its evil consequences for religion and morality.什么是教会在招魂谴责与宗教和道德的迷信及其恶果。

Publication information Written by Edward A. Pace.出版信息撰稿爱德华步伐。Transcribed by Janet Grayson.转录由珍格雷森。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.天主教百科全书,体积十四。Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


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