Theism有神论

General Information一般资料

Theism is a philosophically or theologically reasoned understanding of reality that affirms that the source and continuing ground of all things is in God; that the meaning and fulfillment of all things lie in their relation to God; and that God intends to realize that meaning and fulfillment. Thus theism is distinguished from Agnosticism in claiming it to be possible to know of God, or of ultimate reality. 有神论是一种哲学或神学的理性现实的理解是肯定的来源和万物的上帝是继续在地面,这事的意义和履行的关系都在于对上帝的,上帝打算实现的意义和实现。因此,有神论,是区别于不可知论 ,声称它是可以知道上帝,或最终的现实。It is distinguished from Pantheism in affirming that God is in some sense "personal" and so transcends the world even as a totality and is distinct from the world and its parts.这是有别于泛神论在肯定神是在一定意义上的“个人”等超越一个整体的世界,即使是部分有别于世界及其。 Finally, it is distinguished from Deism, which denies God's active, present participation in the world's being and the world's history.最后,它是有别于自然神论,否认存在和世界的历史上帝的活跃,目前参与世界的。Historically, theism so understood represents a reasoned articulation of the understanding of God characteristic of the Jewish, Christian, and, to some extent, Islamic faiths.历史上,有神论这样理解代表了对上帝的犹太教,基督教,并在一定程度上,伊斯兰信仰特点的认识理性衔接。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息来源
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects

我们2300 宗教科目名单
E-mail电子邮件
Langdon Gilkey兰登吉尔基

Bibliography 参考书目
WW Fenn, Theism: The Implication of Experience (1969); J Hall, Knowledge, Belief, and Transcendence; Philosophical Problems in Religion (1975); LE Mascall, He Who Is: A Study in Traditional Theism (1966); CH Monson, ed., Great Issues Concerning Theism (1965).二战芬恩,有神论:蕴涵的经验(1969年); Ĵ厅,知识,信仰和超越,在宗教哲学问题(1975年);乐马斯科尔,谁是他的事:传统有神论(1966)研究;甲烷蒙森,教育署。,关于有神论(1965)大问题。


Theism有神论

Advanced Information先进的信息

Theism is, literally, belief in the existence of God. Though the concept seems to be as old as philosophy, the term itself appears to be of relatively recent origin.有神论是,从字面上来看,神信仰的存在。尽管这个概念似乎是像哲学旧如旧,这个词本身似乎是相对近期的起源。 Some have suggested that it appeared in the seventeenth century in England to take the place of such words as "deism" and "deistic" when referring to belief in God.一些人认为它在十七世纪出现在英国采取的是“自然神论”和“自然神论”时指的是在上帝的信仰等字样。"Theism" is often used as the opposite of "atheism," the term for denial of the existence of God, and distinguishes a theist from an atheist or agnostic without attempting any technical philosophical or theological connection. “有神论”是经常被用来作为“无神论”,为神的存在,否认长期对立,并试图区分没有任何技术哲学或神学的连接从一个无神论者或不可知论者有神论者。 The term is also used as a label for religious believers, though again, there is no attempt to imply a particular theological or philosophical position.这个词也被用来作为宗教徒的标签,但再有没有试图暗示特定神学或哲学立场。Finally, the term is used to denote certain philosophical or theological positions, regardless of whether this involves a religious relationship to the God of whom individuals speak.最后,这个术语是用来表示一定的哲学或神学的立场,不论是否涉及宗教的关系,以神人的个人发言。

God as Ultimate Reference Point上帝作为最终的参考点

In its broadest sense theism denotes a belief in some ultimate reference point that gives meaning and unity to everything.在其最广泛的意义上是指在某些有神论最终的参考点,让一切意义和团结的信念。However, the God postulated in this sense is totally depersonalized and thoroughly transcendent, almost an abstract concept.然而,上帝在这个意义上假设是完全人格化,彻底超越,几乎是抽象的概念。There are philosophical and theological positions that seem to use "God" and "theism" in this way.有哲学和神学的立场,似乎用这种方式“神”与“有神论”。

(1) Paul Tillich's concept of theism is that God is whatever becomes a matter of ultimate concern, something that determines our being or nonbeing. (1)保罗蒂利希的有神论的概念是,上帝是什么变成了终极关怀的问题,决定我们的东西正在或非存在。Consequently, God is identified by Tillich as the ground of all being, or being - itself.因此,上帝是确定蒂里希作为所有,或正在地面 - 本身。While being - itself is certainly objective and not a mere creation of the mind, Tillich's God is totally depersonalized and abstract.尽管存在 - 本身是肯定的目标,而不是单纯的心灵创造,蒂利希的上帝是完全人格化和抽象的。This is demonstrated by Tillich's claim that the only nonsymbolic statement one can make about God is that he is being - itself or the ground of being.这表现在蒂利希的说法,唯一的非符号表一可以对神的是,他正在 - 本身还是被地面。All words traditionally used to denote the attributes of God are entirely symbolic.所有词传统上被用来指神的属性是完全的象征。

(2) This broad sense of theism is also found in Hegel, who actually has several concepts of God, but at least one that fits this category. (2)本有神论的广义还发现,在黑格尔,究竟是谁拥有神的几个概念,但至少有一个适合这一类。In Hegel's thought, one concept is that God is equivalent to the infinite.在黑格尔的思想,一个概念是,上帝就等于无限。Philosophy, he says, rises to divinity or a divine viewpoint.哲学,他说,上升到神或神的观点。Here "God" seems to be equivalent to transcendent, all encompassing thought, but is not a personal God.这里的“上帝”,似乎等同于超然,所有包含的思想,但不是个人的神。

God as Immanent上帝内在

A narrower concept of theism sees God also as depersonalized and as the ultimate reference point, but gives God some kind of concrete manifestation.一个有神论的狭隘观念看到上帝也人格化,并作为最终的参考点,但上帝给了一些具体的一种表现形式。Nevertheless, the God of such theistic views is entirely immanent.然而,这种有神论的观点是完全内在的神。

One example is pantheism, the view that everything is God.一个例子是泛神论,认为一切都是神。The most famous philosophical form is that of Spinoza, who held there is only one substance in the universe, God.最有名的哲学形式是斯宾诺莎,谁在那里举行只有一个在宇宙中,神的物质。Consequently, everything is merely a mode of that one substance.因此,一切都只是一个模式的一种物质。Such a God is not abstract but immanent.这样的上帝不是抽象的而是内在的。

By contrast, the biblical concept speaks of God as infinite, meaning, among other things, that God has being to an infinite degree, but not to an infinite amount, a view that is qualitative but not quantitative being.相比之下,圣经中的概念讲的上帝是无限的,这意味着除其他事项外,上帝是一个无限的程度,但不能无限量,一种观点认为,是定性而不是定量的福祉。 Scripture further teaches that God is everywhere simultaneously (immensity) and is present at every spatial location in the totality of his being (omnipresence), ie, God is present at but not as every point in space.圣经还教导我们,神是无处不在同时(浩瀚),并在每一个在他正(无所不在)目前整体的空间位置,即上帝是存在的,但不是每一个空间点。

The broad difference between the pantheistic and biblical concepts on these matters is that the pantheist thinks God is present, not only at every point in space, but as every point.对这些问题之间的泛神论和圣经的概念广泛的不同的是,泛神论认为上帝是目前不仅在每一个空间中的一点,但因为每个点。 Furthermore, pantheism denies omnipresence, since the totality of God's being is present in no one place.此外,由于泛神论否认上帝的作为整体无所不在,是在任何一个地方存在。

Another example of this concept is process theism, based on the process metaphysics of Alfred North Whitehead (Process and Reality), sometimes known as bipolar or dipolar theism. Some of the better known process theologians are Charles Hartshorne, Schubert Ogden, John Cobb, and David Griffin.另一个例子,这个概念是过程有神论的基础上与现实)的过程形而上学怀特海(过程,有时也被称为双极或偶极有神论。神学家的一些较著名的查尔斯哈特的过程中,舒伯特奥格登,约翰科布,和大卫格里芬。 According to this school, there are in God two poles: a primordial, eternal, potential pole, and a temporal, consequent, actual, pole.据这所学校,有在神两极:一个原始的,永恒的,潜在的杆,和一个时间,随之而来的,实际的,极。In addition, there are certain eternal objects that may ingress into the world to become actual entities.此外,还有一些永恒的对象,可分为入口,成为世界上实际的实体。Such eternal objects are pure potentials, and, as such, cannot order and relate themselves as actual entities can.这种永恒的对象是纯粹的潜力,并因此,不能为实际的秩序和有关实体可以自己。To order these eternal entities some nontemporal actual entity is needed, and this is God in his primordial nature.订购这些实体的一些nontemporal实际需要永恒的实体,这是神在他的本性。Here God is like a backstage director who lines up the forms, getting them ready to ingress onto the stage of the temporal world.在这里,神是谁像一个幕后导演了表格线,让走上世界舞台的时间他们准备进入。

However, God's primordial nature should not be seen as distinct from the order of eternal objects; which means the order is his primordial nature.然而,神的本性不应该被看作是从永恒对象的顺序不同,这意味着该命令是他的本性。Consequently, God is not a creator before creation, but with it in its concrescence at its very beginning.因此,上帝不是一个前创造的创造者,但在它的一开始就愈合了。In his primordial pole, God is the principle of concretion; and this entirely depersonalizes God and makes him finite.在他的原始极,上帝是具体化的原则,这完全depersonalizes神,使他有限的。

The same is true for God in his actual role.同样是真正的上帝在他的实际作用。According to bipolar theism, every actual entity (and God is perceived as such) needs a physical pole to complete the "vision" of its potential pole.据两极有神论,每一个实际的实体(上帝依然是这样感觉的)需要一个身体极完成“愿景”,其潜在的一极。The consequent nature of God, then, refers to all the entities in being in the temporal order.随之而来的上帝的本质,那么,是指所有的实体在时间顺序福祉。Given such a view, God can change and develop as his temporal pole does, and he is clearly finite.在这样的观点,上帝可以改变和发展作为他的颞极的,但他显然是有限的。Moreover, God in his actual pole can perish, since all actual things can perish.此外,上帝在他的实际极点灭亡,因为所有实际的东西可以灭亡。In such a concept God is not the creator of the world, but rather the director of a world process.在这样一个概念,上帝是不是世界的创造者,而是一个世界的过程董事。He is interdependent in the sense of being mutually dependent.他是在被相互依存依赖感。Moreover, he does not have all perfections eternally and concurrently, but attains them successively and endlessly.此外,他并没有永远兼所有完善,但达到他们先后不休。

A final example of this form of theism is found in Hegel's conception of God as Spirit.这方面的一个形式的有神论的最后一个例子是发现在黑格尔的上帝的概念作为精神。This notion of Spirit does not allow God to be a person in the Judeo Christian sense, but sees him as a force, or general consciousness, uniting all finite consciousnesses.这种精神的概念并没有让神在犹太教和基督教意义上的人,但他认为作为一种力量,或者他的普遍意识,团结一切有限的意识。 In other words, he is not just all finite consciousnesses taken together, but rather the force that underlies and unites all intersubjectivity.换句话说,他不只是所有的有限意识两者合计,而是背后的力量和团结所有主体间性。Such a God is clearly immanent and not personal.这样的上帝是内在的,不明确个人。

God as Personal上帝作为个人

A third sense of theism is that God is not an abstract concept nor even a concrete manifestation of some depersonalized idea.一个有神论的第三个感觉是,上帝不是一个抽象的概念,甚至也不是一些非人性化理念的具体体现。In this sense, the concept of God does take on personhood, though this is not to suggest that in all forms of this view God has interactions with persons.在这个意义上说,神的概念并采取做人,尽管这并不意味着,在此神与人交往的所有形式。Despite the fact that such a God is an individual object (rather than a compilation of objects), he is not the equivalent of the Judeo Christian concept.尽管这样的上帝是一个单独的对象(而不是对象的汇编),他是不是犹太教和基督教的概念相同。Normally, such a concept of God sees him in some way as finite.通常情况下,这种神的观念认为,在某些有限的方式为他。Two examples will illustrate this sense of theism.两个例子说明这个有神论的感觉。

(1) Polytheism, of which the best known is perhaps the Greco Roman pantheon of gods.(1) 多神教,其中最有名的可能是希腊罗马万神殿的众神。Here there is a multiplicity of gods, each representing and personifying some aspect of life that of the created universe.这里有一个神人格化每个代表和一些生活的各个方面,多是宇宙的创造。In spite of the fact that each god may represent only one quality of life (love, war etc.), each is perceived as a person.尽管事实上在每个神只能代表一个生活质量(爱,战争等),每个都是作为一个人察觉。As such, the gods are perceived as separate from, but participating in, the world and interacting with men and with one another.因此,神被视为独立于,但参与,面向世界,与男子和彼此互动。In fact, the gods were perceived as having many of the foibles and failings of human beings.事实上,被视为有神灵的弱点和人类的许多弱点。Such polytheistic perceptions of God view him as personal, but definitely finite.这种多神教的神视个人的看法,但他肯定有限。 Such concepts are not equivalent to the Judeo Christian notion of God.这样的概念并不等同于犹太教和基督教的上帝的观念。

(2) There is also deism. According to this view, God is an individual being (personal in that sense), but one who does not interact with the world. (2)也有自然神论。根据这种观点,上帝是一个个体的存在(在这个意义上的个人),但一个谁不互动的世界。He initially created the world, but since then has withdrawn himself from it (impersonal in that sense).他首先创造了世界,但自那时以来已退出它自己(在这个意义上客观)。He does not act in the world or sustain it, but remains thoroughly transdencent from it.他的行为没有世界或维持,但仍然从它transdencent彻底。There is a sense in which such a view renders God's existence inconsequential and certainly not equivalent to the Judeo Christian conception.有一种感觉,在这样一个观点呈现上帝的存在无关紧要的,当然不等同于犹太教和基督教的概念。

God as Personal Creator and Sustainer上帝为个人创造和维持者

A final perception is of God as creator and sustainer of the universe.最后的看法是宇宙的创造者和自持的神。He is infinite in attributes, and he is the only God.他是在属性无限的,他是唯一的神。This monotheistic concept of God is held within the Judeo Christian tradition, and there are three ways in particular that have appeared.这个概念是上帝一神教内举行犹太教和基督教的传统,有三个特别是已经出现的方法。

(1) Theonomy. According to this view, God is the law in the universe, and in particular, his will is law. (1)Theonomy。根据这种观点,上帝是宇宙规律的,特别是,他的意志就是法律。Whatever rules of ethics, epistemology, etc., there are result from what God wills and could be otherwise if he so chose.道德规矩,认识论等,有来自上帝的意志的结果,否则的话,他可能会这样选择。No action in the universe is intrinsically good or evil or better or worse, but has its value in regard to the value God places upon it.世界上没有行动在本质上是善或恶,或好或坏,但也有其价值方面的价值上帝赋予它的地方。The necessary rules are known through divine revelation rather than reason.必要的规则是已知的通过神的启示,而不是原因。

(2) Rationalism. This school is thought is represented by the work of Leibniz.(2) 理性主义。莱布尼茨学校,这被认为是代表的工作由。According to his system, all the laws of logic, ethics, and the like are necessary laws in the universe and are so in virtue of the principle of sufficient reason in accord with which everything must happen.据他的系统,所有的逻辑学,伦理学,法律之类在宇宙中必要的法律,并包括在在符合一定会发生这一切的原则,凭借充足的理由等。 In such a system God must create a world, and he must create the best of all possible worlds (for Leibniz, the best world is intelligible).在这样的系统上帝要创造一个世界,他必须创造一切可能的世界最好的(对莱布尼茨,最好的世界是可以理解的)。 The circumstances in such a universe are discernible by the light of pure reason unaided by revelation.在这样的宇宙的情况是由纯粹理性之光的启示外援明显。If in theonomy the concept of God is prior to logic, in rationalism logic is prior to theology.如果theonomy上帝的概念是前逻辑,在理性主义的逻辑是前神学。

(3) Modified Rationalism. There is a mediating position which, like theononmy, does not claim that everything is discernible by reason alone, nor that what is discernible is an expression of some necessary law.(3) 改良的理性主义。有一个调解的立场,像theononmy,并不声称这一切都是因为单靠明显,也不是什么明显的是一些必要的法律表达。 Modified rationalism does not demand that God create a world, but asserts that creating a world is something fitting for God to do.改性理性不要求上帝创造世界,但声称,创造一个世界是什么恰当的神的事情。For a modified rationalist, there is no best possible world, only good and evil worlds.对于修改后的理性主义者,没有最好的可能世界,只有善良与邪恶的世界。Modified rationalism differs from theonomy in that it claims that certain things are intrinsically good and intrinsically evil, apart from what God says about them.改性理性不同之处在于它宣称,某些东西是好的,本质上是邪恶本质,除了上帝对他们说,从theonomy。In such a universe, and in many cases they are according to reason, and in many cases one can discern why something is the case and what the case is by means of reason, though some things can be known only by revelation, a view historically typical of Judeo Christian theologies.在这样的宇宙,而且在许多情况下,他们按照理性,在很多情况下人们可以看出为什么有些东西是这样,什么情况下用理性的手段是,尽管有些事情可以被称为只有通过启示,历史上一个视图典型的犹太教和基督教神学。

Conclusion结论

More needs to be said about theism as a philosophy, especially about certain questions traditionally attached to the philosophy of theism.更需要说的是一种哲学有神论有关,特别是有关传统上对有神论哲学的若干问题。For example, in speculating on theism, one of the questions that arises is about the relation of human language to God, ie, How is human language (with its reference to finite beings) predicable of an infinite being?例如,在对有神论猜测,出现的问题,一个关于人类语言的关系上帝,即是,如何是人的语言(其参照有限的生命)的无限福祉预见的? Another question deals with whether it is possible to demonstrate rationally, or at least to justify rationally, belief in God's existence.与是否有可能涉及到另一个问题表现出理性的,或者至少是合理的理由,在神的存在的信仰。Philosophers of religion also ask whether a particular mode of experience is specifically religious.宗教哲学家也询问是否能模式的经验,特别是专门的宗教。Likewise, they ask about the relation of the providence and soverignty of God to the freedom and responsibility of man.同样,他们询问有关的普罗维登斯和神soverignty的自由和人的责任关系。Finally, there is the question about the internal consistency of theological systems that hold to the existence of an all powerful, all loving God along with the presence of evil in the world.最后,还有一个对持有的所有强大存在的神学系统内部的一致性问题,所有热爱上帝随着邪恶的世界的存在。

Though many philosophers and theologians in our century (Barthians, existentialists, logical emphiricists, eg), and at other times, have argued that it is impossible to give a rational justification of theism, nonetheless, many are ready to answer to the contrary.尽管许多哲学家和神学家在我们这个世纪(Barthians,存在主义,逻辑emphiricists,如),并在其他时间,都认为这是不可能给一个合理的理由,有神论,但是,很多人都愿意回答与此相反。

JS Feinbergjs的范伯格
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
AM Farrar, Finite and Infinite; E Gilson, God and Philosophy; J Maritain, The Range of Reason; EL Mascall, Existence and Analog; S Ogden, The Reality of God and Other Essays; W Reese and E Freeman, Process and Divinity; B Spinoza, Ethics; P Tillich, Systematic Theology.上午法拉,有限与无限,电子商务吉尔松,上帝与哲学; J旦,理性的范围;发光马斯科尔,存在和类比中,S奥格登,上帝和其他散文现实; W里斯和E弗里曼,过程和神性;乙斯宾诺莎,伦理学; P蒂利希,系统神学。


Also, see:此外,见:
Pantheism 泛神论
Process Theology过程神学
Rationalism 理性主义
Agnosticism 不可知论
Panentheism panentheism
Polytheism 多神教

This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



Send an e-mail question or comment to us:发送电子邮件的问题或意见给我们:E-mail电子邮件

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at:的, 主要相信网页(和索引科目),是在:
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
http://mb-soft.com/believe/beliecha.html