Traducianism灵魂遗传论

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One of four theories of the origin of the individual soul, ie, that the soul, as well as the body, comes from the parents. Alternatives are: (1) preexistence of all souls, held by, eg, Origen and Mormons; (2) reincarnation; (3) creationism, whereby God creates a fresh soul for each body.四个理论,即原产地的个别灵魂, 灵魂,以及身体,来。来自父母一方办法包括:(1)摩门教前世,奥利和如所 ​​有的灵魂,持有;( 2)转世;(3)神创论,即上帝创造了一个新的灵魂,每一个机构。

Direct biblical evidence is nonexistent, and conclusions must be based on deductions.直接证据是不存在的圣经,和结论的基础上必须扣除。In favor of traducianism:在traducianism赞成:

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Traducianism was held by Tertullian and many Westerns; since the Reformation by Lutherans; also by the Eastern church.Traducianism举办了良和许多西方人,因为路德宗教改革的;也由东方教会。Roman Catholics and most Reformed theologians are creationists, though Shedd and Strong favor traducianism.罗马天主教徒和最归正神学家都创,虽然谢德和强青睐traducianism。Modern studies in heredity and psychosomatic unity are indecisive, but can easily be interpreted on the traducianist side.心身统一的遗传和现代研究举棋不定,但可以很容易地在traducianist表述。

JS Wright js的赖特
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
AH Strong, Systematic Theology阿强,系统神学


TraducianismTraducianism

Catholic Information天主教新闻

Traducianism (tradux, a shoot or sprout, and more specifically a vine branch made to take root so as to propagate the vine), in general the doctrine that, in the process of generation, the human spiritual soul is transmitted to the offspring by the parents. Traducianism(tradux,一芽或芽,更具体的藤蔓科向扎根,以宣传藤)一般原则,即在发电过程中,人类精神的灵魂,是转交到后代父母。 When a distinction is made between the terms Traducianism and Generationism, the former denotes the materialistic doctrine of the transmission of the soul by the organic process of generation, while the latter applies to the doctrine according to which the soul of the offspring originates from the parental soul in some mysterious way analogous to that in which the organism originates from the parent's organism.当一个术语之间的区别是Traducianism和Generationism作出的,前者指的是由灵魂传输过程中产生的有机物质主义,而后者则适用于根据该学说对后代的灵魂来源于父母灵魂在某种神秘的方式类似于在该生物体从父的有机体起源。 Traducianism is opposed to Creationism or the doctrine that every soul is created by God. Traducianism是反对神创论或每一个灵魂是上帝创造的学说。Both, however, against Emanationism and Evolutionism (qv) admit that the first human soul originated by creation.两者,然而,对Emanationism与进化论(请参阅),第一个承认人的灵魂通过创造起源。They differ only as to the mode of origin of subsequent souls.它们的不同只是到了后来的灵魂起源方式。

In the early centuries of the Christian Church, the Fathers who touch upon this question defend the immediate creation of the soul.在早期的基督教教堂世纪,父亲触及这个问题谁保卫立即设立的灵魂。Tertullian, Apollinaris, and a few other heretics advocate Traducianism, but the testimony of Saint Jerome (Epist. cxxvi, 1) that "the majority of Oriental writers think that, as the body is born of the body, so the soul is born of the soul" seems exaggerated, as no other writer of prominence is found to advocate Generationism as certain.良,亚坡理纳,和其他几个异端主张Traducianism,但圣杰罗姆(Epist. cxxvi,1)表示,“东方作家的大多数认为,因为身体是身体的诞生,使灵魂的诞生是因为证词灵魂“,似乎言过其实,因为没有突出的其他作家,发现提倡如某些Generationism。 Saint Gregory of Nyssa, Macarius, Rufinus, Nemesius, although their views on this point are not always clear, seem to prefer Generationism.圣果树,米加利阿斯,Rufinus,Nemesius,格雷戈里虽然在这一点上他们的意见并不总是清晰的,似乎更喜欢Generationism。 After the rise of Pelagianism, some Fathers hesitate between Generationism and Creationism, thinking that the former offers a better, if not the only, explanation of the transmission of original sin.后佩拉的兴起,一些父亲犹豫之间Generationism和神创论,认为前者提供了一个更好的,如果不是唯一的原罪传输,解释。 Among them Saint Augustine is the most important.其中圣奥古斯丁是最重要的。Creationism is held as certain by the Scholastics, with the exception of Hugh of Saint Victor and Alexander of Hales, who propose it merely as more probable.神创论是由持有一定的scholastics,随着圣维克多和亚历山大黑尔斯休,异常谁提出它只是随着越来越多的可能。 In recent times Generationism has been rejected by all Catholic theologians.近来Generationism已经拒绝了所有天主教神学家。

Exceptions are Froschammer who defends Generationism and gives to the generation of the soul from the parents the name of secondary creation; Klee and Ubaghs who leave the question undecided; Hermes who favours Generationism; Gravina who advocates it -- and Rosmini who asserts that the sensitive soul is generated by the parents, and becomes spiritual when God illuminates it and manifests to it the idea of being which is the foundation of the whole intellectual life.例外的是Froschammer谁捍卫Generationism并给人以心灵的父母从二次creation名生成;克里和Ubaghs谁给的问题悬而未决;爱马仕谁主张Generationism;格拉维纳谁主张它 - 罗斯米尼谁声称,敏感灵魂是由父母,并成为当上帝照亮精神,并给它体现了正在构想,是整个智力生活的基础。From the philosophical point of view, the reasons alleged in favour of Generationism have little or no value.从哲学角度看,原因据称赞成在Generationism很少或没有价值。The parents are really generators of their offspring even if the soul comes from God, for the generative process is the condition of the union of body and soul which constitutes the human being.父母是真的,即使他们的后代发电机灵魂来自上帝的生成过程,是工会的身体和心灵,构成了人类的条件。A murderer really kills a man, although he does not destroy his soul.一个真正凶手杀死一人,虽然他不破坏他的灵魂。Nor is man inferior to animals because they generate complete living organisms, since the difference between man and animals comes from the superiority of the human soul and from its spiritual nature which requires that it should be created by God.也不是人不如动物,因为它们生成完整的生物体,因为人与动物的区别从人类灵魂的优越性和其精神的本质要求,它应该由上帝创造来。 On the other hand the reasons against Generationism are cogent.另一方面的原因是对Generationism说服力。The organic process of generation cannot give rise to a spiritual substance, and to.论代有机过程中不能产生一种精神实质,并。say that the soul is transmitted in the corporeal semen is to make it intrinsically dependent on matter.说,灵魂是肉体精液传染它本质上是要依赖于物质。The process of spiritual generation is impossible.生成过程的精神是不可能的。since the soul is immaterial and indivisible, no spiritual germ can be detached from the Parental soul (cf. St. Thomas, "Contra gent." II, c 86; "Sum. theol." I:90:2, I:98:2, etc.).因为灵魂是无关紧要的和不可分割的,没有精神细菌可以脱离父母的灵魂(参见圣托马斯,“魂斗罗绅士。”二,ç 86,“萨姆theol。。”我:90:2,我:98 :2,等等)。As to the power of creation, it is the prerogative of God alone (see CREATION, VI).至于创作力,这是神的特权单(见创作,六)。

Theologically, corporeal Traducianism is heretical because it goes directly against the spirituality of the soul.神学,是有形的Traducianism邪教,因为它会直接对灵魂的灵性。As to Generationism, it is certainly opposed to the general attitude of the Church.至于Generationism,那肯定是反对教会的普遍态度。Froschammer's book, "Ueber den Ursprung der menschlichen Seelen", was condemned in 1857, and Ubaghs's opinion expressed in his "Anthropologiae philosophicae elementa" was reproved in a letter of Cardinal Patrizi written by authority of Pius IX to the Archbishop of Mechlin (2 March, 1866).Froschammer的书,“Ueber书斋Ursprung明镜menschlichen Seelen”,是谴责1857年,和Ubaghs的意见表示,在他的“Anthropologiae philosophicae elementa”是在一个枢机柏德由比约九正式授权,但梅克林大主教(3月2日写的信谴责,1866)。Moreover, Anastasius II in a letter to the bishops of Gaul (498) condemns Generationism (Thiel, "Epistolae Romanorum Pontificum", 634 sqq.).此外,斯达西在A至高卢的主教(498)信二谴责Generationism(泰尔,“Epistolae Romanorum Pontificum”,634 sqq。)。In the Symbol to be subscribed to by Bishop Peter of Antioch (1053), Leo IX declares the soul to be "not a part of God, but created from nothing" (Denzinger, 348).在将要签署的安提阿主教彼得(1053)为符号,利奥九宣布,灵魂,以“不是上帝的一部分,但是从没有创造”(登青格,348)。 Among the errors which the Armenians must reject, Benedict XII mentions the doctrine that the soul originates from the soul of the father (Denzinger, 533).其中亚美尼亚人的错误而必须拒绝,笃十二提到理论的灵魂从父亲(登青格,533)灵魂起源。Hence, although there are no strict definitions condemning Generationism as heretical, it is certainly opposed to the doctrine of the Church, and could not be held without temerity.因此,尽管没有谴责为异端邪说Generationism严格定义,那肯定是反对教会的教条,也不能没有鲁莽举行。

Publication information Written by CA Dubray.出版信息的书面由CA Dubray。Transcribed by Tomas Hancil and Joseph P.Thomas.转录的托马斯汉奇尔和约瑟夫托马斯。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV.天主教百科全书,卷十五。Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,12年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


Also, see:此外,见:
Soul 灵魂
Origin of the Soul原产地的灵魂

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