Transcendentalism, Transcendence超验

General Information一般资料

The general philosophical concept of transcendence, or belief in a higher reality not validated by sense experience or pure reason, was developed in ancient times by Parmenides and Plato.一般的纯粹理性的哲学观念的超越, 或者由意义的经验验证的信念,没有一个更高的现实,是发展和古代的柏拉图巴门尼德。Plato referred to a realm of ideal Forms that was unknowable through the senses, and theologians since have spoken of God in the same way.柏拉图提到了理想的形式,是通过感官的不可知,和神学家的境界,因为有上帝在相同的方式。 The term transcendentalism is sometimes used to describe Immanuel Kant's philosophy and the philosophies of later German Idealists influenced by Kant.超验主义这个术语有时被用来形容康德的哲学和康德影响了后来的德国唯心论的哲学。

New England Transcendentalism was a religious, literary, and philosophical movement that flourished especially between 1836, when Ralph Waldo Emerson's essay Nature was published, and 1844, when the semiofficial journal of the movement, the Dial, ceased publication.新英格兰超验主义是一个宗教,文学和哲学运动,特别是1836年之间,当爱默生的文章自然是出版,1844年,当运动半官方刊物,拨号,停止出版蓬勃发展。 Influenced by Unitarianism, Transcendentalists denied the existence of miracles, preferring a Christianity that rested on the teachings of Christ rather than on his supposed deeds. Many Transcendentalists, in fact, were Harvard - educated Unitarian ministers who were dissatisfied with their conservative Unitarian leaders as well as with the general conservative tenor of the time.单一制影响下, 超验否认存在的奇迹,喜欢休息基督教教义的事迹对基督,而不是他的假定 - 许多超验,事实上,被哈佛大学教育部长以及寻道保守谁是不满意自己的寻道领导人作为与一般的时间保守男高音。

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With a membership that included Bronson Alcott, Margaret Fuller, Theodore Parker, George Ripley, and Henry David Thoreau, Transcendentalists experimented with communitarian living and supported educational innovation, the abolitionist and feminist movements, and a reform of church and society generally.其会员包括布朗森奥尔科特,玛格丽特富勒,西奥多帕克,乔治里普利和亨利大卫梭罗,先验论试行社区化的生活和支持教育创新,废除死刑和女权运动,以及教会的改革和社会普遍。 They were committed to intuition as a way of knowing, to individualism, and to belief in the divinity of both man and nature.他们承诺以直觉作为一个知法,个人主义方式,以及在信仰中,英两种人与自然的神性。

Although philosophically based on Kant, the Boston - centered movement was more influenced by the romantic literary movement than by the systematic methodologies of philosophical Idealism.虽然康德哲学论,波士顿 - 基于中心的运动更浪漫的影响比唯心主义哲学文学运动系统的方法。That is, Transcendentalism owed more to Goethe, Coleridge, and Carlyle than to Hegel and Schelling.也就是说,超验拖欠了超过黑格尔和谢林到歌德,柯勒律治和卡莱尔。The mysticism of Emanuel Swedenborg also fed into the ideology of the movement.神秘主义的伊曼纽尔斯韦登伯格也反馈到了运动的意识形态。

Bibliography 参考书目
L Buell, Literary Transcendentalism (1973); OB Frothingham, Transcendentalism in New England(1876); WR Hutchison, The Transcendentalist Ministers (1959); P Miller, ed., American Transcendentalists (1957); RA Smyth, Forms of Intuition: An Historical Introduction to the Transcendental Aesthetic (1978). L比尔,文学超验(1973);转播弗罗厄姆,在新英格兰超验(1876年);西铁和记黄埔,超验部长会议(1959年); P米勒,教育署,美国超验(1957年);类风湿性关节炎史密斯,直觉形式的:。历史介绍先验美学(1978年)。


Transcendentalism超验

Advanced Information先进的信息

Transcendentalism is an idealistic philosophy that in general emphasizes the spiritual over the material.超验主义是一种理想主义的哲学,在一般强调对材料的精神。By its very nature, the movement is hard to describe and its body of beliefs hard to define.就其性质而言,运动是很难描述和信仰的身体很难界定。Its most important practitioner and spokesman in the New England manifestation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, called it "the Saturnalia or excess of Faith."其最重要的实践者和发言人在新英格兰的表现,爱默生,称其为“农神或过多的信念。”That which is "popularly called Transcendentalism among us," he wrote, "is Idealism; Idealism as it appears in 1842."这就是“超验主义在我们中间,俗称,”他写道,“是唯心主义,唯心主义,因为它在1842年出现。”That description mentions two of the very elements, an emphasis upon heightened spiritual awareness and an interest in various types of philosophical idealism, that make transcendentalism so difficult to describe.这说明中提到的两个要素非常,一经提高的精神意识为重点,并在不同类型的哲学唯心主义,使超验所以很难描述的兴趣。

In actuality, we cannot speak of a well organized and clearly delineated transcendentalist movement as such.实际上,我们不能说这样一个组织良好的和清楚界定先验论运动。Instead, we find a loosely knit group of authors, preachers, and lecturers bound together by a mutual loathing of Unitarian orthodoxy, a mutual desire to see American cultural and spiritual life freed from bondage to the past, and a mutual faith in the unbounded potential of American democratic life.相反,我们发现一个作家,牧师松散群体,受正统的寻道相互厌恶,双方共同希望看到美国的文化和精神生活的束缚中解放出来,从过去,彼此的信心,在一个共同的无限潜力讲师美国的民主生活。 Located in the Concord, Massachusetts, area in the years between 1835 and 1860, the transcendentalists formed not a tight group but, rather, a loose federation.在1835年和1860年之间的年康科德,马萨诸塞州,开发区,形成了超验不紧集团,而是一个松散的联邦。

Though a movement such as transcendentalism cannot be said to have had one distinct leader, Emerson (1803 - 82) was clearly its central figure.虽然如先验论不能说已经有一个明显的领导者,艾默生运动(1803 - 82),显然它的核心人物。The publication of his Nature in 1836 is generally considered to mark the beginning of an identifiable movement.他在1836年出版的本质被普遍认为是标志着一个可识别运动的开始。The next two decades were to see numerous new works from Emerson and poems, essays, and books from other transcendentalist figures, such as Henry David Thoreau (1817 - 62), Orestes Brownson (1803 - 76), Amos Bronson Alcott (1799 - 1888), Margaret Fuller (1810 - 50), George Ripley (1802 - 80), and Theodore Parker (1810 - 60).接下来的20年,看看其他先验论人物,例如亨利大卫梭罗(1817 - 62),艾默生许多新作品和诗歌,散文,书籍,奥雷斯特斯布朗森(1803 - 76),阿莫斯布朗森科特(1799年至1888年),玛格丽特富勒(1810 - 50),乔治里普利(1802 - 80),和西奥多帕克(1810 - 60)。Never forming an official affiliation, these figures and others associated with them banded together for the formation of an informal discussion group called the Transcendental Club; the publication of the transcendentalist literary and philosophical journal, The Dial; and the establishment of an experiment in utopian communal living, Brook Farm.从来没有形成一个正式的联系,这些数字和与他们有关的其他带状对于形成一个非正式的讨论小组统称为先验俱乐部;的文学和哲学的超验主义杂志,拨号出版和实验建立的乌托邦式的社区生活,布鲁克农场。

One thing almost all those associated with the movement did share, however, was a common heritage of Unitarianism.有一件事几乎所有与运动相关的份额也不过是一个单一制的共同遗产。Perhaps more than anything else, this fact helps to explain the development of transcendentalism and its later and larger significance for American culture.也许比别的,这个事实有助于解释超验的发展及其后来的美国文化和更大的意义。The transcendentalists broke with Unitarianism for two reasons.先验论打破单一制的原因有两个。First, they objected to the Unitarian desire to cling to certain particulars of Christian history and dogma.首先,他们反对是统一的愿望坚持基督教的历史和教条的某些细节。Emerson called this clinging a "noxious" exaggeration of "the personal, the positive, the ritual," and he asked instead for a direct access to God, unmediated by any elements of Scripture and tradition.爱默生称这种执着的一个“有毒”夸张“的个人,积极的,礼”,他要求直接访问的经文和传统的元素神,中间人代替。 And second, the transcendentalists lamented the sterility of belief and practice they found in the Unitarian faith.第二,超验信仰和感叹他们在实践中育寻道找到信心。

According to Thoreau, it is not man's sin but his boredom and weariness that are "as old as Adam."据梭罗,这是不是人为的罪恶,他的无聊和厌倦的是“像亚当一样古老。”The American Adam needs to exchange his bondage to tradition for a freedom to experiment: "old deeds for old people, and new deeds for new."美国亚当需要换一个试验他的束缚的自由传统:“。老人老的事迹,并为新新行”

In some ways transcendentalism attempted to recapture for the American spirit the fervor of the original Puritan enterprise.超验主义在某些方面企图为美国精神夺回了原清教徒企业热情。That zeal, with its attendant bliss and agony, had been suppressed or exiled to the wilderness of the American religious experience by the end of the eighteenth century.这与随之而来的幸福和痛苦的热情,进行了有抑制或流放到美国由十八世纪末的宗教体验荒野。Transcendentalism was one of the first and most dramatic protests against civil religion in America.超验主义是对美国公民宗教的第一和最引人注目的抗议活动之一。Though it did not live up to the expectations of its adherents, many of them expected nothing less than a total regeneration of social and spiritual life through the application of the principles of idealism in America, transcendentalism has had a lasting impact.虽然它没有辜负其信徒的期望,他们中许多人预计通过在美国的理想主义原则的应用只不过是社会生活和精神生活的总再生少,超验主义产生了深远的影响。 In the years immediately preceding the Civil War, several of the transcendentalists were important participants in the abolitionist movement, and in the decades to follow, widely divergent individuals and movements would find inspiration in the transcendental protest against society.在紧接内战,几个人的超验主义的重要参与者,在废除死刑的运动,并在数十年来遵循,大相径庭的个人和动作是对社会中找到灵感超越抗议。

For example, Henry Ford, who once said "history is bunk" and declared Emerson's essays to be his favorite reading, dwelt upon the transcendentalists' disdain for convention and their exaltation of self reliant power, while both Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King drew deeply upon the resources of Thoreau's famous essay, "Civil Disobedience."例如,亨利福特,谁曾经说过:“历史是废话”,并宣布爱默生的散文是他最喜欢阅读,经先验论'蔑视公约及其自力更生功率提高住,而这两个圣雄甘地和马丁路德金画深深在梭罗的著名文章,资源“公民不服从。”

Perhaps even more significantly, transcendentalism marked the first substantial attempt in American history to retain the spiritual experience and potential of the Christian faith without any of the substance of its belief.也许更重要的是,超验,标志着在美国历史上首次重大尝试保留精神的经验,未经任何实质内容,其信仰的基督教信仰的潜力。 By claiming an essential innocence for man, by substituting a direct intuition of God or truth for any form of revelation, and by foreseeing a future of ill defined but certain glory for humankind, transcendentalism paved the way for the many romantic notions about human nature and destiny that have become such a central part of the American experience in the last hundred years.一个人声称必要的清白,来取代任何形式的启示是上帝或真理直接的直觉,并预见了某些不明确的,但人类的辉煌未来,超验主义铺平了许多浪漫的人性观念的方式,命运,这已经成为过去百年这样的美国经验的核心部分。

R Lundin ř伦丁
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
P Miller, "From Edwards to Emerson," NEQ 13:587 - 617, and (ed.) The Transcendentalists: An Anthology; OB Frothingham, Transcendentalism in New England: A History; FO Matthiessen, American Renaissance: Art and Expression in the Age of Emerson and Whitman; L Buell, Literary Transcendentalism: Style and Vision in the American Renaissance; J Myerson, The New England Transcendentalists and The Dial. P米勒,“从爱德华兹艾默生,”品净量13:587 - 617,和(编)的超验:选集;转播弗罗厄姆,在新英格兰超验主义:一种历史;的Matthiessen,美国文艺复兴:艺术和表达的爱默生和惠特曼时代的L比尔,文学超验主义:美国风格和文艺复兴时期的视觉; Ĵ迈尔森,新英格兰超验主义和拨号。


Transcendentalism超验

Catholic Information天主教新闻

The terms transcendent and transcendental are used in various senses, all of which, as a rule, have antithetical reference in some way to experience or the empirical order.超越性和超越性的条款中使用了各种感官,所有这些,作为一项规则,有一些经验或经验有条理对立的参考。

(1) For the Scholastics, the categories are the highest classes of "things that are and are spoken of".(1)的scholastics,类别是“事情是,是口语的”最高的类。The transcendentals are notions, such as unity, truth, goodness, being, which are wider than the categories, and, going beyond them, are said to transcend them.该transcendentals是概念,如团结,真,善,存在,这比更广泛的类别,并超越他们去,据说是超越他们。In a metaphysical sense transcendent is opposed by the Scholastics and others to immanent; thus, the doctrine of Divine Transcendence is opposed to the doctrine of Divine Immanence in the Pantheistic sense., Here, however, there is no reference to experience.在形而上的意义超越是内在的scholastics和其他人反对,因此,超越性的神圣教义是反对内在的神圣感在pantheistic学说,在这里,不过,有没有经验借鉴。。 (See IMMANENCE.)(见临在。)

(2) In the loosest sense of the word any philosophy or theology which lays stress on the intuitive, the mystical, the ultra-empirical, is aid to be transcendentalism. (2)在Word中的任何哲学或神学,其中侧重于直观的压力最宽松的感觉,神秘的,超经验的,是超验的援助。Thus, it is common to refer to the New England School of Transcendentalism, of which mention is made further on.因此,它通常以新英格兰超验学校,其中提到了进一步研究。

(3) In a stricter sense transcendentalism refers to a celebrated distinction made by Kant. (3)在严格意义上指的是一个著名的超验由康德区分。Though he is not consistent in the use of the terms transcendent and transcendental, Kant understands by transcendent what lies beyond the limits of experience, and by transcendental he understands the non-empirical or a priori elements in our knowledge, which do not come from experience but are nevertheless, legitimately applied to the data or contents of knowledge furnished by experience.虽然他没有在该条款超越和超越使用一致的,由超越康德明白什么经验的范围之外的谎言,并超越他能理解非经验或在我们的先验知识的元素,这不是来自经验但尽管如此,合法地应用到数据或出具的经验知识内容。 The distinction is somewhat subtle, Yet, it may be made clear by an example.有些细微的区别,但是,它可能是由一个例子清楚。 Within the limits of experience we learn the uniform sequence of acorn and oak, heat and expansion, cold and contraction, etc., and we give the antecedent as the cause of the consequent.经验的范围内,我们学到了橡子,橡树,热膨胀,冷收缩,等统一序列,并给出了作为结果的原因前提。If, now, we go beyond the total of our experience and give God as the cause of all things, we are using the category "cause in a transcendent sense, and that use is not legitimate. If, however, to the data of sequence furnished by experience we apply the a priori form causation, we are introducing a transcendental element which elevates our knowledge to the rank of universal and necessary truth: "Every effect has its cause." Kant, as has been said, does not always adhere to this distinction. We may, then, understand transcendent and transcendental to refer to those elements or factors in our knowledge which do not come from experience, but are known a priori. Empirical philosophy is, therefore, a philosophy based on experience alone and adhering to the realm of experience in obedience to Hume's maxim, "'Tis impossible to go beyond experience." Transcendental philosophy, on the contrary, goes beyond experience, and considers that philosophical speculation is concerned chiefly, if not solely, with those things which lie beyond experience.如果,现在,我们超越了我们体验到,并给予所有的东西,神,我们是用一个超越意义上的类别“的原因,并使用是不合法的。然而,如果对序列数据出具的经验,我们运用先验形式的因果关系,我们引入了一个超越的元素,提升了我们的知识普及和必要的真理排名:。“每个效果都有其原因”康德,正如人们所说的,并不总是坚持这种区别。我们可以,那么,理解超越性和超越性是指这些要素或因素,在我们的知识不是来自经验,但已知先验。实证哲学,因此,单靠经验的基础上,坚持理念在服从休谟的格言经验范围,“这是不可能超越的经验。”先验哲学,与此相反,超越经验去,并认为,哲学的投机而言主要是,如果不单独与这些东西在于超越,经验。

(4) Kant himself was convinced that, for the theoretical reason, the transcendental reality, the thing-in-itself, is unknown and unknowable. (4)康德本人深信,为理论原因,超越现实,本体,是未知和不可知。Therefore, he defined the task of philosophy to consist in the examination of knowledge for the purpose of determining the a priori elements, in the systematic enumeration of those elements, for forms, and the determination of the rules for their legitimate application to the data of experience.因此,他明确了哲学的任务,在知识考试包括为确定在为形式的元素,有系统的统计先验的元素,目的和规则的决心为他们的合法应用的数据经验。 Ultra-empirical reality, he taught, is to be known only by the practical reason.超现实的经验,他教,是由被称为唯一的实践理性。 Thus, his philosophy is critical transcendentalism.因此,他的哲学是至关重要的超验主义。Thus, too he left to his successors the task of bridging over the chasm between the theoretical and the practical reason.因此,他也留给他的继任者之间多的理论和实践理性的鸿沟弥合任务。This task they accomplished in various ways, eliminating, transforming, or adapting the transcendent reality outside us.完成这项任务,他们以各种方式,消除,转化,或改编超越于我们之外的现实。the thing-in-itself, and establishing in this way different transcendentalisms in place of the critical transcendentalism of Kant.物自体,并以这种方式建立在对康德的先验论地方不同transcendentalisms关键。

(5) Fiche introduced Egoistic Transcendentalism.(5)菲切介绍利己主义验。The subject, he taught, or the Ego, has a practical as well as a theoretical side.这个题目,他教,或自我,有一个实际和理论的一面。 to develop its practical side along the line of duty, obligation, and right, it is obliged to posit the non-Ego.开发沿职责,义务行其实际的一面,和权利,也有义务断定非自我。In this way, the thing-in-itself as opposed to the subject, is eliminated, because it is a creation of the Ego, and, therefore all transcendental reality is contained in self.这样一来,事情在自在,而不是主体,是消除,因为它是一个自我的创作,并因此超越所有的现实是自我控制。I am I, the original identity of self with itself, is the expression of the highest metaphysical truth.我是我,与原来的身份本身的自我,是形而上学的最高真理的表达。

(6) Schelling, addressing himself to the same task, developed Transcendental Absolutism. (6)谢林,解决自己相同的任务,制定先验绝对性。He brought to the problems of philosophy a highly spiritual imaginativeness and a scientific insight into nature which were lacking in Kant, the critic of knowledge, and Fiche, the exponent of romantic personalize.他带来了对于哲学问题的一个高度的精神想象和洞察到其中的科学性在康德,知识的评论家,并菲切,个性化的浪漫指数缺乏。 He taught that the transcendental reality is neither subject or object, but an Absolute which is so indeterminate that it may be said to be neither nature nor spirit.他告诉我们,超越现实既不是主语或宾语,而是一种绝对的,它是如此的不确定,可以说是既不自然也不精神。Yet the Absolute is, in a sense, potentially both the one and the other.然而,绝对是,在一定意义上,可能都一和其他。 For, from it, by gravity, light and organization, is derived spirit, which slumbers in nature, but reaches consciousness of self in the highest natural organization, man.因为,从它,重力,光线和组织,是源于精神,安然入睡性质,但在自我意识达到最高的自然组织,伙计。There is here a hint of development which was brought out explicitly by Hegel.这里有一个发展的启示是带出黑格尔明确。

(7) Hegel introduced Idealistic Transcendentalism.(7)黑格尔介绍理想主义的超验主义。He taught that reality is not an unknowable thing in itself, nor the subject merely, nor an absolute of indifference, but an absolute Idea, Spirit, or Concept (Begriff), whose essence is development (das Werden), and which becomes in succession object and subject, nature and spirit, being and essence, the soul, law, the state, art, science, religion, and philosophy.他告诉我们,现实本身并不是一个不可知的事情,也不是仅仅主体,也不是绝对的冷漠,而是一种绝对理念,精神或概念(Begriff),其实质是发展(DAS的韦登),并相继成为对象与主体,性质和精神,存在与本质,灵魂,法律,国家,艺术,科学,宗教和哲学。

In all these various meanings there is preserved a generic resemblance to the original signification of the term transcendentalism.在所有这些不同的含义有一个通用的相似保留了原来的任期验意义。The transcendentalists one and all, dwell in the regions beyond experience, and, if they do not condemn experience as untrustworthy, at least they value experience only in so far as it is elevated, sublimated, and transformed by the application to it of transcendental principles.所有的超验主义者之一,在经验之外的地区居住,而且,如果他们不谴责不可信赖的经验,只有在就因为它是提高,升华,至少他们的经验值,和应用程序转化为它的先验原则。 The fundamental epistemological error of Kant, that whatever is universal and necessary cannot come from experience, runs all through the transcendentalist philosophy, and it is on epistemological grounds that the transcendentalists are to be met.认识论的基本误差康德,无论是普遍的和必要的不能从经验,超验理念贯穿一切,它的超验主义认识论是要满足的理由的。This was the stand taken in Catholic circles, and there, with few exceptions, the doctrines of the transcendentalists met with a hostile reception.这是在天主教界所采取的立场,而且,除了少数例外,在超验的教义与敌意会晤。 The exceptions were Franz Baader (1765-1841), Johann Frohschammer (1821-1893), and Anton Günther (1785-1863), who in their attempt to "reconcile" Catholic dogma with modern philosophical opinion, were influenced by the transcendentalists and overstepped the boundaries of orthodoxy.巴德尔的例外是弗朗茨(1765年至1841年),约翰Frohschammer(1821年至1893年),和安东半滑舌鳎(1785年至1863年),谁在他们的企图“调和”与现代哲学认为天主教教义,是影响和超越的超验正统的界限。 It may without unfairness be laid to the charge of the German transcendentalists that their disregard for experience and common sense is largely accountable for the discredit into which metaphysics has fallen in recent years.它可以在不铺设不公平的德国超验主义,他们无视经验和常识的收费主要是负责对形而上学的声誉到其中在最近几年下降。

New England transcendentalism, sometimes called the Concord School of Philosophy, looks to William Ellery Channing (1780-1842) as its founder.新英格兰超验主义,有时也被称为协和学院的哲学,看起来威廉埃勒里钱宁(1780年至1842年)作为它的创办人。 Its principal representatives are Amos Bronson Alcott (1799-1888), Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882), Theodore Parker (1810-1860), Frederick Henry Hedge (1805-890), George Ripley (1802-1880), and Margaret Fuller (1810-1850).其主要代表是阿莫斯布朗森科特(1799年至1888年),爱默生(1803至1882年),西奥多帕克(1810至60年),冯检亨利对冲(1805-890),乔治里普利(1802至1880年),和玛格丽特富勒(1810年至1850年)。 It had its inception in the foundation of the Transcendental Club in 1836.它在基础的先验俱乐部在1836年成立以来。The chief influences discernible in its literary output are German philosophy, French sociology, and the reaction against the formalism of Its sociological and economic theories were tested in the famous Brook Farm (1841), with which the names just mentioned and those of several other distinguished Americans were associated.在其影响的主要文学作品明显是德国哲学,法国社会学,以及针对其社会和经济理论形式主义反应发生在著名的布鲁克农场测试(1841年),与该名刚才所说的那些其他几个杰出美国人有关。

Publication information Written by William Turner.出版信息的书面威廉特纳。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV.天主教百科全书,卷十五。Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,12年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

For the history of German transcendentalism see Ueberweg, Hist.对于德国先验论历史看Ueberweg,组织胺。of Philosophy, tr.哲学,文。 Morris (New York, 1892); Falckenberg, Hist.莫里斯(纽约,1892年); Falckenberg,组织胺。of Modern Philosophy, tr.现代哲学,文。Armstrong (New York, 1893); Turner, Hist.阿姆斯特朗(纽约,1893年);特纳,组织胺。of Philosophy (Boston, 1903); Stöckl, Gesch.哲学(波士顿,1903年);克尔,Gesch。der Phil.明镜菲尔。(Mainz, 1888). (美因茨,1888)。For New England transcendentalism see Frothingham, Transcendentalism in New England (New York, 1876); Codman, Brook Farm (Boston, 1894).新英格兰超验看到弗罗厄姆在新英格兰超验主义(纽约,1876年);科德曼,布鲁克农场(波士顿,1894年)。


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