Abbasids abbasids

General Information 一般資料

The Abbasids were the dynasty of caliphs who ruled the Islamic Empire from 750 until the Mongol conquest of the Middle East in 1258.該abbasids分別是王朝的caliphs統治伊斯蘭帝國從750人,直到蒙古人征服整個中東第1258 。 The dynasty takes its name from its ancestor al-Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad.王朝把它的名稱來自其祖先基地阿巴斯,叔叔的先知穆罕默德。 In 750 the Abbasids defeated the Umayyads and transferred the capital of the Caliphate from Damascus to Baghdād, thereby shifting the empire's center from Syria to Iraq.在750本abbasids打敗了倭馬亞王朝和轉移資金的哈里發從大馬士革到baghdād ,從而轉向帝國的中心,從敘利亞到伊拉克。

The regime reasserted the theocratic concept of the caliphate and continuity with orthodox Islam as the basis of unity and authority in the empire.該制度重申了神權的概念,哈里發和連續性與東正教伊斯蘭教為基礎的團結和權威,在帝國。 The Abbasid "revolution" also made Islam and the fruits of power accessible to non-Arabs.阿巴斯的"革命"也取得了伊斯蘭教和水果的權力獲得非阿拉伯人。 A strong Persian influence persisted in the government and culture of the Abbasid period, and Hellenistic ideas led to the rapid growth of intellectual life.一個強大的波斯的影響,堅持在政府和文化的阿巴斯時期,希臘化的思想,導致了快速增長的知識分子的生活。

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The Abbasid period may be divided into two parts.阿巴斯時期,可分為兩部分。 In the period from 750 to 945 the authority of the caliphs gradually declined, while the Turkish military leaders gained increasing influence.在這段期間,由750至945的權威及其caliphs逐漸下降,而土耳其軍方領導人獲得了日益廣泛的影響力。 The dynasty's power peaked in the reign (786-809) of Harun Al-Rashid.王朝的權力達到頂峰,在在位( 786-809 )的harun基地拉希德。 In the later period, from 945 to 1258, the caliphs generally held no more than nominal suzerainty; real power, even in Baghdād, passed to dynasties of secular sovereigns.在後來的時期,從945到1258 , caliphs一般不超過名義上的宗主權;實權,甚至在baghdād ,通過歷代的世俗統治者。

Michael W. Dols邁克爾小dols

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Ahsan, MM, Social Life under the Abbasids (1979); Goldschmidt, A., Jr., A Concise History of the Middle East, 3d rev.阿赫桑,毫米,社會生活中根據abbasids ( 1979年) ;戈爾德施密特,甲前些日子,簡明中東歷史,三維馮智活。 ed.教育署。 (1988); Hitti, Philip K., History of the Arabs, 10th ed. ( 1988年) ;希提,弘因茨歷史上的阿拉伯人,第十版。 (1970); Lassner, J., The Shaping of Abbasid Rule (1980); Mansfield, Peter, The Arab World: A Comprehensive History (1976); Shaban, MA, The Abbasid Revolution (1970; repr. 1979). ( 1970年) ;拉斯內,威廉斯,塑造阿巴斯統治( 1980年) ;曼斯菲爾德,陳可辛,阿拉伯世界:一個全面的歷史( 1976年) ; shaban ,馬,阿巴斯革命( 1970年; repr 。 1979 ) 。


Abbasids abbasids

General Information 一般資料

The Abbasids was a dynasty of caliphs who ruled the caliphate of Islam from 750 until 1258.該abbasids是一個王朝的caliphs統治哈里發伊斯蘭教,從750到1258 。 All of these caliphs were descended from Abbas, a member of the tribe of Quraysh of Mecca who was an uncle of the prophet Muhammad.所有這些caliphs人後裔阿巴斯,該部落的成員的quraysh的麥加朝聖的人是一個叔叔的先知穆罕默德。 The Abbasids seized the caliphate following the overthrow of the Umayyad dynasty of caliphs, and held it until the Mongols sacked Baghdād and killed the last caliph of the line.該abbasids繳獲哈里發被推翻之後的伍麥葉王朝的caliphs ,並舉行了它,直到蒙古人被解職baghdād並致死人命,去年哈里發的路線。 For most of this time their court was in Baghdād, a town founded at the command of the second Abbasid caliph, al-Mansur (754-775) in 762.對於大多數的這個時候,他們法院是在baghdād ,一個市鎮創建於指揮的第二阿巴斯哈里發,鋁-曼蘇爾( 754-775 ) ,在762個。

For the first century or so of their caliphate, the Abbasids acted as the leaders of Islam both religiously and politically, despite the fact that during this period their authority was rejected by some.對於第一個多世紀,所以他們的哈里發, abbasids擔任領導人的伊斯蘭教都受宗教信仰和政治上,儘管事實上,在此期間,他們的權力被否決一些。 The peak of their power probably occurred in the reign of Harun ar-Rashid, who relied heavily on the Barmakid family of administrators.在自己的巔峰狀態功率可能發生在腥風血雨的harun氬拉希德,他們主要依賴於barmakid家庭的管理者。 Following Harun's death there was a period of civil war between his two sons, al-Amin and al-Mamun.以下harun的死亡有一段時間的內戰,他的兩個兒子,鋁-阿明和基地mamun 。 Al-Mamun finally triumphed but the prestige of the family was damaged.基地mamun最後的勝利,但威信的家庭被破壞。

By the end of the 9th century the Abbasids were unable to exercise real religious or political authority.到去年底,第九屆世紀abbasids人不能行使真正的宗教或政治權威。 Their religious authority had been taken over by the religious scholars of Sunni Islam following the failure of the caliphs' attempt to impose their will over them in the trial of strength known as the Mihna (833-847).他們的宗教事務管理局已採取了由宗教學者的遜尼派伊斯蘭這次失敗的caliphs企圖把自己的意志強加於超過他們在審判中的力量稱之為米赫納( 833-847 ) 。 As a result of this episode the caliphs were restricted to a largely symbolic role as merely nominal leaders of Sunni Islam.由於這次事件caliphs被限制在很大程度上具有象徵意義的角色,作為有名無實的領袖的遜尼派伊斯蘭教。 Followers of Shiism rejected the Abbasids completely.追隨者的什葉派拒絕abbasids完全。

Politically the caliphs had become puppets in the hands of their Turkish soldiers, who were able to remove and install caliphs as they wished.在政治上caliphs已成為傀儡在政府手中,他們土耳其士兵,他們能夠消除並安裝caliphs ,因為他們所願。 In 908 one caliph held office for one day only.在908一哈里發舉行辦公室一天只。 The process culminated with the institution in 935 of the title Amir al-Umara (Commander of the Commanders), which was taken by the real political power, the chief of the Turkish soldiers.過程中,最終與該機構有935的標題阿米爾基地烏馬拉(指揮官指揮員) ,它是由一個真正的政治權力,行政的土耳其士兵。

At the same time, territories that the Abbasids controlled fell apart as independent states arose in regions previously under Abbasid rule.在同一時間內,領土表示abbasids控制的下跌,除了作為獨立國家出現的地區以前下阿巴斯統治。 Some of the rulers of these states recognized the suzerainty of the Abbasids, but this was merely a token.一些統治者的這些國家認識到宗主權的abbasids ,但是這只是一個象徵性的。 In 945 the Shiite Buwayhid family conquered Baghdād itself, and for the next century the Abbasid caliphate survived mainly because the Buwayhids found it useful in various ways.在945什葉派白益王朝家族征服baghdād本身,並為下個世紀的阿巴斯哈里發存活,主要是因為buwayhids發現它有益的各種方式。

Although the 9th and 10th centuries saw a decline in the power of the caliphs, the period was one of great religious and cultural importance.雖然第9和第10個世紀出現下降,在電力的caliphs ,這個期限是一個偉大的宗教和文化上的重要性。 The trial of strength between the caliphs and the Sunni religious scholars sealed the rise of the Sunni form of Islam.審判的實力對比, caliphs和遜尼派宗教學者密封的崛起,遜尼派形式的伊斯蘭教。 It prepared the way for the appearance of the great books of Sunni law and the collections of hadiths (reports about Muhammad).它編寫方式的出現,偉大的書籍的遜尼派法律和收藏hadiths (報導有關穆罕默德) 。 Only slightly later, the Shiite form of Islam achieved its definitive form when the line of the 12 Imams came to an end in 873, an event followed by the appearance of books of Shiite law and distinctive collections of hadiths.只有略後,什葉派的形式,取得了伊斯蘭教,其最終的形式,而當這條支線的12伊瑪目剛一結束,在873 ,一個事件後,出現了書籍的什葉派法和獨特的收藏品hadiths 。

Philosophy, medicine, mathematics, and other sciences flourished as the Islamic world appropriated and developed the knowledge and wisdom of earlier and surrounding cultures.哲學,醫學,數學和其他科學的蓬勃發展,作為伊斯蘭世界的核撥和發展了知識和智慧的較早和周圍的文化。 Particularly important was the science and philosophy of the Hellenistic Near East, and the 9th and 10th centuries saw the translation into Arabic of several works by (or attributed to) figures like Aristotle, Plato, Euclid, Galen, and others.尤其重要的是科學與哲學的希臘近東,以及第9和第10個世紀,看到翻譯成阿拉伯文的幾個作品(或歸功於)數字像亞里士多德,柏拉圖,歐幾里得,加蘭和等。 The work of translation was encouraged by the Abbasid al-Mamun who founded the so-called House of Wisdom (Dar al-Hikma) in Baghdād as a center for it.有關的翻譯工作,感到非常鼓舞,阿巴斯基地mamun創辦人,所以所謂的眾議院智慧(達累斯薩拉姆基地hikma )在baghdād作為一個中心。 Arabic-speaking Christians were especially active in the production of translations.講阿拉伯語的基督徒,尤其是活躍在生產中的翻譯。 The system of so-called Arabic numerals originated in India, but was adopted at this time by Islamic civilization, then later transmitted to the West.該系統的所謂阿拉伯數字起源於印度,但通過在這個時候,由伊斯蘭文明,後來轉交給西方。

The political fragmentation of the caliphate led to the emergence of many local courts and centers of power, which also encouraged the development of science and philosophy as well as poetry and prose, art, and architecture.政治支離破碎哈里發導致出現許多當地法院和權力中心,它也鼓勵發展的科學與哲學,以及詩歌和散文,藝術和建築。 Some of the local courts that emerged in the eastern regions of the caliphate are especially associated with the rise of an Islamic Persian literature and Iranian national sentiment.一些當地法院認為,出現在東部地區的哈里發尤其是與崛起的一個伊斯蘭波斯文學和伊朗的民族情感。

In 1055 the Seljuk Turks, who were Sunnis, captured Baghdād, but this made no significant difference to the position of the caliphs.在10時55分該seljuk土耳其人,他們分別為遜尼派,抓獲baghdād ,但是這並沒有顯著差異,以的立場與caliphs 。 Although once again honored as symbols of the unity of Sunni Islam, their freedom of action was severely limited.雖然再次榮獲象徵團結遜尼派伊斯蘭教,他們的行動自由受到嚴重限制。 Only in times of Seljuk weakness were individual caliphs occasionally able to exercise some power and influence.只有在時代的seljuk弱點個別caliphs偶爾能夠行使某些權力和影響力。 By the time the Mongol Empire ended the line of caliphs in 1258, Sunni Islam no longer needed even the symbolic role of the caliphate.經過一段時期以後,蒙古帝國結束了線的caliphs在1258年,遜尼派伊斯蘭不再需要連象徵性的作用,哈里發。 It is true that the Mameluke sultans of Egypt established a puppet caliphate in Cairo, installing various members of the Abbasid family who had escaped the fall of Baghdād.這是事實的馬穆魯克蘇丹,埃及成立了一個傀儡哈里發在開羅,安裝各成員阿巴斯家族的人逃離淪陷baghdād 。 Since the end of the Abbasid caliphate in Baghdād, however, no claimant to the office has achieved anything like general recognition among the Muslims.自去年底,阿巴斯哈里發在baghdād但是,沒有索賠人向辦事處取得了什麼一樣,普遍認識到穆斯林。

After their first century or so the Abbasids cannot be said to have had much control over events.之後,他們的第一個世紀或因此abbasids並不能說是實在有太多的控制權。 They nevertheless provided a focus of loyalty for Sunni Islam during an often turbulent period, and their caliphate may be seen in retrospect as the golden age of Islamic civilization.但他們提供了一個集中的忠誠度為伊斯蘭教遜尼派,在一個經常動盪的時期,他們的哈里發,可視為回想起來,作為黃金時代的伊斯蘭文明。


Abbasids abbasids

General Information 一般資料

The Abbasids was the name of a dynasty of Muslim caliphs.該abbasids是名稱的一個王朝的穆斯林caliphs 。 The Umayyads were overthrown by a combination of Shiite, Arab and non-Arab Muslims dissatisfied with the Umayyad regime.在倭馬亞王朝被推翻,由一個組合的什葉派,阿拉伯和非阿拉伯穆斯林的不滿與伍麥葉政權。 The rebels were led by the Abbasid family, descendants of the Prophet's uncle Abbas.叛軍分別由阿巴斯家族,其後裔先知的叔叔阿巴斯港。 From about 718 the Abbasids had plotted to take the caliphate, sending agents into various parts of the Muslim empire to spread propaganda against the Umayyads.來自約718個有關abbasids曾策劃將採取哈里發,派遣特工到各部分的穆斯林帝國傳播宣傳反對倭馬亞王朝。 By 747 they had secured enough support to organize a rebellion in northern Iran that led to the defeat of the Umayyad caliphate three years later.由747個,他們已確保獲得足夠的支持,以舉辦一次叛亂,在伊朗北部導致了失敗的伍麥葉哈里發3年後。 The Abbasids executed most of the Umayyad family, moved the capital of the empire to Baghdad, and assimilated much of the pomp and ceremony of the former Persian monarchy into their own courts.該abbasids處決大部分的伍麥葉家族,提出資本帝國前往巴格達,並吸收了很大一部分輕車簡從典禮前波斯君主轉移到自己的法庭。

Beginning in 750 with Abu al-Abbas, the Abbasid caliphate lasted five centuries; it is the most durable and most famous Islamic dynasty.一開始,在750個與阿布阿巴斯,阿巴斯哈里發歷時5個世紀,它是最持久和最有名的伊斯蘭王朝。 The Abbasids became patrons of learning and encouraged religious observance.該abbasids成了食客的學習,並鼓勵宗教慶祝活動。 They were the first Muslim rulers to become leaders of an Islamic civilization and protectors of the religion rather than merely an Arab aristocracy imposing an Arab civilization on conquered lands.它們分別是第一穆斯林統治者成為領袖的一個伊斯蘭文明和保護者的宗教,而非僅僅是一個阿拉伯貴族強加給阿拉伯文明,就被征服的土地上。 Under their caliphate Baghdad replaced Medina as the center of theological activity, industry and commerce developed greatly, and the Islamic empire reached a peak of material and intellectual achievement.根據他們的哈里發巴格達取代麥迪為中心的神學思想建設活動中,工商行政管理機關制定了極大的提高,以及伊斯蘭帝國達到高峰,物力和智力成果。

The 8th- and 9th-century caliphs Harun ar-Rashid and his son Abdullah al-Mamun are especially renowned for their encouragement of intellectual pursuits and for the splendor of their courts.第八屆和第九屆世紀caliphs harun氬拉西德和他的兒子阿卜杜拉mamun尤為聞名,他們的鼓勵知識分子追求和為輝煌的法院。 During their reigns scholars were invited to the court to debate various topics, and translations were made from Greek, Persian, and Syriac works.在其統治學者應邀向法庭辯論各種課題,翻譯等發了言,從希臘,波斯,敘利亞文作品。 Embassies also were exchanged with Charlemagne, emperor of the West.駐外使領館也交換了與查理曼,皇帝的西方國家。

In the late 9th century, the Abbasid caliphs increasingly began to delegate administrative responsibility to ministers of state and other government officials and to lose control over their Baghdad guards.在晚9世紀時,阿巴斯caliphs越來越開始下放的行政責任,以國務部長和其他政府官員,並失去控制其巴格達警衛。 As they gradually gave up personal political power, the caliphs placed more and more emphasis on their role as protectors of the faith.因為他們逐漸放棄了個人政治權力, caliphs放置更多的注重發揮他們的保護者的信念。 One result of this change in emphasis was the increased persecution of heretics and non-Muslims.成果之一,這一重點的變化是增加了迫害異端和非穆斯林。 About the same time, several successful revolts in the eastern provinces led to the establishment of independent principalities, and independent caliphates were subsequently established in North Africa and in Spain.幾乎在同一時間,幾次成功的起義,在東部省份,導致建立獨立的principalities ,以及獨立caliphates隨後成立於北非和西班牙。 Eventually, the power of the Abbasids barely extended outside Baghdad, and by the middle of the 10th century, the Abbasid caliphs had virtually no power, serving merely as figureheads at the mercy of the military commanders.最終,電力的abbasids勉強延長巴格達外,由中間的10世紀,阿巴斯caliphs幾乎已經沒有權力,服務只是作為人物,在慈悲的軍事指揮官。 The final defeat of the Abbasid dynasty came from outside the Muslim world, when al-Mustasim was put to death by the invading Mongols at the order of Hulagu, the grandson of Genghis Khan.最後失敗的阿巴斯王朝又是來自境外穆斯林世界的時候,基地穆斯塔西姆被置於死亡的,由蒙古人入侵時的順序hulagu ,孫子的成吉思汗。


The Abbasid Dynasty阿巴斯王朝

General Information 一般資料

Islamic culture started to evolve under the Umayyads, but it grew to maturity in the first century of the Abbasid dynasty.伊斯蘭文化開始演變下,倭馬亞王朝,但它亦增加至到期日,在第一世紀的阿巴斯王朝。 The Abbasids came to power in AD 750 when armies originating from Khorāsān, in eastern Iran, finally defeated the Umayyad armies.該abbasids上台後,在公元750當兩軍源自khorāsān ,在伊朗東部,終於打敗了伍麥葉軍隊。 The Islamic capital shifted to Iraq under the Abbasids.伊斯蘭資本轉移到了伊拉克根據abbasids 。 After trying several other cities, the Abbasid rulers chose a site on the Tigris River on which the City of Peace, Baghdād, was built in 762.在試用了其他幾個城市,阿巴斯統治者選擇了網站上的底格里斯河上的和平之城, baghdād ,建於762 。 Baghdād remained the political and cultural capital of the Islamic world from that time until the Mongol invasion in 1258, and for a good part of this time it was the center of one of the great flowerings of human knowledge. baghdād仍然是政治和文化資本的伊斯蘭世界自那時起直到蒙古人入侵,在1258年,並有一個良好的一部分,這個時候,它是該中心的一大flowerings人類知識。 The Abbasids were Arabs descended from the Prophet's uncle, but the movement they led involved Arabs and non-Arabs, including many Persians, who had converted to Islam and who demanded the equality to which they were entitled in Islam.該abbasids是阿拉伯人的後裔,從先知的叔叔,但他們的運動,導致所涉及的阿拉伯人和非阿拉伯人,其中包括許多波斯人,他們已經改信伊斯蘭教的人要求以平等的,他們都有權在伊斯蘭教。

The Abbasids distributed power more evenly among the different ethnicities and regions than the Umayyads had, and they demonstrated the universal inclusiveness of Islamic civilization. They achieved this by incorporating the fruits of other civilizations into Islamic political and intellectual culture and by marking these external influences with a distinctly Islamic imprint. 該abbasids分佈式電源更平均分配在不同種族和地區,比倭馬亞王朝了,他們表現出的普遍包容性的伊斯蘭文明,他們做到這一點,把果實其他文明到伊斯蘭的政治和思想文化和標記這些外來的影響,同它與眾不同的伊斯蘭印記。

As time passed, the central control of the Abbasids was reduced and independent local leaders and groups took over in the remote provinces.隨著時間的流逝,中央控制的abbasids減少和獨立的地方領袖和團體接管,在偏遠的省份。 Eventually the rival Shia Fatimid caliphate was established in Egypt, and the Baghdād caliphate came under the control of expanding provincial dynasties.最終贏得了什葉派的法蒂瑪哈里發成立於埃及,並baghdād哈里發來控制之下,擴大省際。 The office of the caliph was nonetheless maintained as a symbol of the unity of Islam, and several later Abbasid caliphs tried to revive the power of the office.辦公室的哈里發仍保持了作為一個象徵團結,伊斯蘭教,其中幾位後來阿巴斯caliphs試圖重振權力的辦公室。

In 1258, however, a grandson of Mongol ruler Genghis Khan named Hulagu, encouraged by the kings of Europe, led his armies across the Zagros Mountains of Iran and destroyed Baghdād.在1258年,但是,孫子的蒙古族統治者成吉思汗命名hulagu ,鼓舞了國王隊的歐洲,帶領他的軍隊整個扎格羅斯山脈的伊朗並摧毀baghdād 。 According to some estimates, about 1 million Muslims were murdered in this massacre.根據一些估計,約有100萬穆斯林被殺害,在這次大屠殺中。 In 1259 and 1260 Hulagu's forces marched into Syria, but they were finally defeated by the Mamluks of Egypt, who had taken over the Nile Valley.在1259年和1260 hulagu的勢力進入敘利亞,但他們終於戰勝了由mamluks的埃及,他們接管了尼羅河谷。 For the next two centuries, centers of Islamic power shifted to Egypt and Syria and to a number of local dynasties.對於未來兩百年來,中心的伊斯蘭政權轉移到埃及和敘利亞,以及若干地方朝代。 Iraq became an impoverished, depopulated province where the people took up a transitory nomadic lifestyle.伊拉克成為一個貧窮,疏省,那裡的人們採取了一個臨時性的游牧生活方式。 Iraq did not finally experience a major cultural and political revival until the 20th century.伊拉克沒有最後經驗的一個重要的文化和政治復興,直到20世紀。

Ahmad S. Dallal艾哈邁德第dallal


Abbasids abbasids

General Information 一般資料

Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great dynasties of the Muslim empire.阿巴斯是朝代的名字,一般考慮到caliphs巴格達,第二的兩個偉大朝代的回教帝國。 The Abbasid caliphs officially based their claim to the throne on their descent from Abbas (AD 566-652), the eldest uncle of Muhammad, in virtue of which descent they regarded themselves as the rightful heirs of the Prophet as opposed to the Umayyads, the descendants of Umar.阿巴斯caliphs正式基於其債權向寶座就其後裔從阿巴斯(公元566-652 ) ,最年長的叔叔穆罕默德,在據此後裔,他們把自己作為合法繼承者的先知,作為反對以倭馬亞王朝,華夏子孫,烏馬爾。

Throughout the second period of the Umayyads, representatives of this family were among their most dangerous opponents, partly by the skill with which they undermined the reputation of the reigning princes by accusations against their orthodoxy, their moral character and their administration in general, and partly by their cunning manipulation of internecine jealousies among the Arabic and non-Arabic subjects of the empire.整個第二期的倭馬亞王朝,代表這家人當中,他們最危險的對手,這部分是由技巧與它們破壞了聲譽執政王子指責違背自己的正統,他們的品德和他們的政府在一般的,而部分其狡詐操縱自相殘殺忌妒其中阿拉伯語和非阿拉伯語科目的帝國。

In the reign of Marwan II this opposition culminated in the rebellion of Ibrahim the Imam, the fourth in descent from Abbas, who, supported by the province of Khorasan, achieved considerable successes, but was captured (AD 747) and died in prison (as some hold, assassinated).在腥風血雨的馬爾萬二,這個在野黨的結果是在叛亂的易卜拉欣伊瑪目,第四次在後裔,從阿巴斯的人,支持全省的呼羅珊,取得了相當好的成績,但被抓獲(公元747 ) ,並在監獄中死亡(截至有些人,暗殺) 。 The quarrel was taken up by his brother Abdallah, known by the name of Abu al-'Abbas as-Saffah, who after a decisive victory on the Greater Zab river (750) finally crushed the Umayyads and was proclaimed caliph.該吵架被帶到了他的弟弟阿卜杜拉時,由已知的名義阿布'abbas -薩法赫,他們經過了決定性的勝利就越大zab河( 750 ) ,終於粉碎了倭馬亞王朝,並宣布了哈里發。

The history of the new dynasty is marked by perpetual strife and the development of luxury and the liberal arts, in place of what their opponents identified as old-fashioned austerity of thought and manners.歷史上的新王朝標誌是永恆的爭鬥和豪宅發展和文科,在發生什麼樣的對手確定為老式的緊縮政策的思路和方式。 Mansur, the second of the house, who transferred the seat of government to the new city of Baghdad, fought successfully against the peoples of Asia Minor, and the reigns of Harun al-Rashid (786--809) and al-Ma'mun (813-833) were periods of extraordinary splendour.滿,第二次的房子,誰移交政府所在地至新的巴格達市,成功地打了對亞洲國家和人民的未成年人,以及普遍存在的harun基地拉希德( 786 -8 09)和A l-馬穆科學院( 813-833 )時期,有著非同尋常的榮光。

Independent monarchs established themselves in Africa and Khorasan (an Umayyad prince had set up independent rule in Spain), and in the north-west the Byzantines successfully encroached.獨立的君主也建立了自己在非洲和呼羅珊(伍麥葉王子已經設立了獨立的統治西班牙) ,並在西北方的byzantines成功侵害等。

The ruin of the dynasty came, however, from those Turkish slaves who were constituted as a royal bodyguard by al-Mu'tasim (833-842).廢墟中的王朝來了,不過,從這些土耳其的奴隸,他們構成了一個皇家侍衛基地mu'tasim ( 833-842 ) 。 Their power steadily grew until al-Radi (934-941) was constrained to hand over most of the royal functions to Mahommed b.他們的權力仍然保持穩定增長,直至鋁-拉迪( 934-941 )的約束,以交出大部分的皇家職能名阿赫麥德乙 Raik. raik 。 Province after province renounced the authority of the caliphs, who became figureheads, and finally Hulagu Khan, the Mongol general, sacked Baghdad (February 28, 1258) with great loss of life.省後,省,放棄權力的caliphs ,誰成為領袖,並最終hulagu汗,蒙古人一般,被解職巴格達( 1258年2月28日)與巨大的生命損失。

The Abbasids still maintained a feeble show of authority, confined to religious matters, in Egypt under the Mamelukes, but the dynasty finally disappeared with Motawakkil III, who was carried away as a prisoner to Constantinople by Selim I.該abbasids仍然保持了體衰,顯示權力的,只限於宗教事務,在埃及下mamelukes ,但王朝最後消失motawakkil第三,他們進行了去充當一名囚犯,以君士坦丁堡由塞利姆一。

(from 1911 encyclopedia) (從1911年的百科全書)

Abbasid Caliphs of Baghdad阿巴斯caliphs巴格達

(descendants of the Prophet's uncle Abbas) (後裔先知的叔叔阿巴斯)

Abbasid Caliphs in Cairo阿巴斯caliphs在開羅舉行

The Abbasids had the Mihna in effect during their reign (beginning in 827 AD).該abbasids有米赫納在實施,在其統治(從827專案) 。 This was a movement of extreme intolerance, and it is sometimes referred to as the Muslim Inquisition.這是一個運動的極端不寬容,它有時被稱為穆斯林宗教裁判所。


Also, see:此外,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 可蘭經,可蘭經
Pillars of Faith 支柱的信仰
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-h adiths從第一冊的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-h adiths從第二冊的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-h adiths從第三冊的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-h adiths從書展1 0個基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短祈禱(在taqseer ) -h adiths從書展2 0鋁布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 朝聖(朝覲) -h adiths從書展2 6鋁布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 爭取事業的阿拉(傑哈德) -h adiths圖書5 2鋁布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari 同一性,獨特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths圖書9 3鋁布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義。
Early Islamic History Outline 早在伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 天房,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派,什葉派
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥迪
Sahih, al-Bukhari sahih ,鋁-布哈里
Sufism 蘇非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 阿布巴克爾
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭馬亞王朝
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) 法蒂瑪王朝(什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀教派(什葉派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆


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