Calendar日曆

General Information 一般資料

Many different societies have used their own special calendar during recorded history.許多不同的社團有他們用自己特殊的日曆,在有記載的歷史。 Most have been based on the apparent motion in the sky of the Sun or Moon.大部分都立足於視運動在天空的太陽或月亮。 Early in the Roman Empire, around what we would now call 400 BC, a calendar with a year of 365 days was instituted.早在羅馬帝國時期,圍繞什麼,我們現在會說公元前400年,一個日曆,與前一年的365天被提起。 Over time, the calendar got out of step with the seasons, and the Emperor Julius Caesar declared every fourth year to be a 'leap year' (with an extra day) and, to solve the past problems, the year we would call 46 BC was made 445 days long!隨著時間的推移,日曆失控步隨季節,皇帝凱撒宣布每第四個年頭,是一個'飛躍' (還有一個額外的一天) ,要解決過去的問題,今年,我們將要求在公元前46有人445天長!

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This Julian calendar greatly improved the situation, but there was still a small error, where the calendar would get about 3 days off for each 400 years.朱利安日曆 ,大大改善了這種情況,但仍然存在著一個小的錯誤,如日曆,將得到約三天小康為每400年。 As a result, the actual occurrence of the equinoxes and solstices slowly drifted away from their assigned calendar dates.因此,實際發生的equinoxes和solstices慢慢疏遠其指定的日曆日期。 As the date of the spring equinox determines that of Easter, the church was concerned, and Pope Gregory XIII, with the help of an astronomer, Christopher Clavius (1537-1612), introduced what is now called the Gregorian calendar. Wednesday, Oct. 4, 1582 (Julian), which was followed by Thursday, Oct. 15, 1582 (Gregorian); leap years occur in years exactly divisible by four, except that years ending in 00 must be divisible by 400 to be leap years.隨著這個日期的春分認定的復活節,教會關注,並作出羅馬教皇格雷戈里十三,借助一個天文學家克里斯托弗clavius ( 1537至1612年) ,介紹了什麼是現在稱為公曆。週三, 10月4 , 1582 (朱利安) ,其次是週四, 1582年10月15日(陽曆) ;飛躍年發生在幾年正是可分四個,除表示年內結束,在00必須可分由400至被跨越。 Thus, 1600, 1984, and 2000 are leap years, but 1800 and 1900 are not.因此, 1600 , 1984年和2000年的飛躍年,但1800和1900是沒有意義的。

The Gregorian civil calendar is a solar calendar, calculated without reference to the Moon.陽曆民間日曆是一個陽曆計算,如果沒有提及月球。 However, the Gregorian calendar also includes rules for determining the date of Easter and other religious holidays, which are based on both the Sun and the Moon.不過,公曆還包括一些規則用以確定日期的復活節和其他宗教節日,它是基於雙方的太陽和月亮。 The Gregorian calendar was quickly adopted by Roman Catholic countries.公曆很快就通過了由羅馬天主教國家。 Other countries adopted it later, sometimes choosing only the civil part.其他國家採用了後來,有時候只選擇公務員的一部分。 It was not adopted by the Soviet Union until 1918; Turkey did not adopt it until 1927.它不是通過蘇聯直到1918年,土耳其並沒有採納,直到1927年。

Year Beginning今年年初

The year used to begin at different times in different localities. The Roman year originally began in March; December, whose name is derived from the Latin word for "ten," was the tenth month of the year.今年用於開始在不同時間,不同地區。 羅馬原定今年3月開始; 12月,他的名字是取自拉丁語意為"十" ,是第10個月的一年。 (Similarly, September was the seventh month, October, the eighth, and November, the ninth.) In 153 BC, Roman consuls began taking office on January 1, which became the beginning of the year. (同樣地, 9月是第7個月, 10月,第八次, 11月,第九屆) ,在公元前153 ,羅馬領事開始上任一月一日起,成為今年年初。 This practice was retained in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, although other starting dates continued to be used; England and its colonies, for example, used March 25 and the Julian reckoning until 1752. Thus, George Washington was officially born on Feb. 11, 1731, Old Style (OS); this is Feb. 22, 1732, Gregorian, or New Style (NS).這種做法是保留在朱利安和格列高利曆法,雖然其他的出發日期繼續使用; 英格蘭及其殖民地,例如,用3月25日和朱利安歷計算,直至1752名,因此,喬治華盛頓正式出生於2月11日, 1731年,老作風( OS )的,這是1732年2月22日,陽曆,或引入新的風格( NS )的。

Week一周

The Babylonians used a nonastronomical, 7-day interval, the week, which was adopted by the Jews.巴比倫人用nonastronomical , 7天的間隔,本週內,該宣言是猶太人。 The seventh day, the Sabbath, was given a religious significance.第七天,安息日,是一個宗教意義。 Independently, the Romans associated a cycle of 7 days with the Sun, the Moon, and the five known planets.獨立的,入鄉隨俗相關的一個週期為7天,與太陽,月亮,與這五個已知行星。 Their names became attached to the days of the week: Sunday (dies solis, "Sun's day"), Monday (dies lunae, "Moon's day"), and Saturday (dies Saturni, "Saturn's day") retain their names derived directly from the Roman culture, and Tuesday ("Tiw's day"), Wednesday ("Woden's day"), Thursday ("Thor's day"), and Friday ("Frigg's day") are derived from the Germanic equivalents of Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, and Venus, respectively.他們的名字已成為附一周的天數:週日(模具Solis表示, "太陽節" ) ,週一(模具lunae , "月亮節" ) ,以及週六(模具saturni , "土星上的一天" )保留自己的名字直接源自羅馬的文化,以及週二( " tiw的一天" ) ,週三( " woden的一天" ) ,週四( "爾的節" ) ,以及週五( "弗麗嘉的一天" ) ,都源自於日耳曼等值的火星,水星,木星,和金星。

Year一年

In ancient calendars, years were generally numbered according to the year of a ruler's reign.在古代曆法,多年來均普遍編號按一年一個統治者的統治地位。 About AD 525, a monk named Dionysius Exiguus suggested that years be counted from the birth of Christ, which was designated AD (anno Domini, "the year of the Lord") 1.大約公元525 ,一名僧人命名狄奧尼修斯exiguus建議來算,從耶穌的誕生,它被指定專案(標註多米尼, "今年的主" ) 1 。 This proposal came to be adopted throughout Christendom during the next 500 years.這項建議後來被採納整個基督教的,在未來500年之久。

The year before AD 1 is designated 1 BC (before Christ).一年前專案1是指定一公元前(基督之前) 。 (There was no "year zero!") Dionysius had referred the year of Christ's birth to other eras. (當年沒有"一年零! " )狄奧尼修斯提到了今年的基督的誕生給其他宣傳片等。 Modern chronology, however, suggests that Dionysius had been off in his calculations that now firmly places the event of Jesus' Birth at about 4 BC.現代年表,不過,暗示狄奧尼修斯曾在他的計算方法,現已牢固的地方,一旦耶穌出生於約公元前四。

The 1st century of the Christian Era began in AD 1, the 2d in AD 101; the 21st began in 2001. 1世紀的基督教時代開始於公元1時,在二維專案101個; 21開始於2001年。

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The Hebrew Calendar希伯來日曆

The Hebrew calendar in use today begins at the Creation, which is calculated to have occurred 3,760 years before the Christian era.希伯萊曆法利用今天開始在創作,其中的計算方式發生了3760年前基督教時代。

The week consists of 7 days, beginning with Saturday, the Sabbath.在每週7天,從週六,安息日。

The year consists of 12 lunar months -- Tishri, Heshvan, Kislav, Tebet, Shebat, Adar, Nisan, Iyar, Sivan, Tammuz, Ab, and Elul -- which are alternately 29 and 30 days long.今年組成的12個農曆月-提斯利, h eshvan, k islav, t ebet, s hebat,亞達,尼散月1 4日, i yar,西彎月, t ammuz, A B公司和e lul-這是交替29和3 0天,長的。 Because a year is some 11 days longer than 12 lunar months, a 13th month ve-Adar, is added seven times during every 19-year cycle.因為今年是一些11天時間超過12個農曆月,第13個月的復活節亞達,還貢獻了7次,在每19年的週期。

Therefore, the Hebrew calendar stays fairly synchronized with the seasons.因此,在希伯來日曆停留相當同步隨季節。

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The Islamic Calendar伊斯蘭日曆

Muslims begin their calendar at the day and year (July 16, 622, by the Gregorian calendar) when Muhammad fled from Mecca to Medina. (The Hegira actually occurred around two months after their beginning of that official lunar year.) There are 12 lunar months of alternate 30 and 29 days, making the year 354 days long. Because of the shortness of the year, the months move backward through all the seasons, completing a cycle every 32 1/2 years. 穆斯林開始在日曆一天和一年( 7月16日, 622 ,由公曆)的時候,穆罕默德信徒從麥加到麥地( hegira實際發生在大約兩個月後,他們開始時,官方農曆年)有12個春節幾個月候補委員30和29天,使今年354天長期以來, 由於工期一年中,幾個月就後退通過所有季節,完成一個週期,每32 1 / 2年。

The months are Muharram, Safar, Rabi I, Rabi II, Jumada I, Jumada II, Rajab, Shaban, Ramadan, Shawwal, Zulkadah, and Zulhijjah.幾個月都是由於電源插座,薩法,拉比,拉比二, jumada我jumada二, rajab , shaban ,拉馬丹, shawwal , zulkadah , zulhijjah 。

(The result of all this is that the Holy month of Ramadan occurs in different seasons in different years.) (結果,所有這一切,是神聖的齋月發生在不同的季節,不同年份) 。

Wm.西醫。 Markowitz在Markowitz

Bibliography 參考書目
Archer, Peter, The Christian Calendar and the Gregorian Reform (1941); Asimov, Isaac, The Clock We Live On (1963); Keane, Jerryl, Book of Calendars (1981); Michels, AK, The Calendar of the Roman Republic (1967; repr. 1978); Monaco, James, The French Revolutionary Perpetual Calendar (1982); Philips, Alexander, The Calendar: Its History, Structure, and Improvement (1921); Schocken, WA, The Calendar of the Mayas (1986); Watkins, Harold, Time Counts: The Story of the Calendar (1954).阿徹,彼得,基督教日曆和陽曆改革( 1941 ) ;阿西莫夫,艾薩克, 24小時我們生活在( 1963年) ;基恩, jerryl ,帳簿日曆( 1981年) ;米歇爾斯,支AK ,日曆上的羅馬共和國( 1967年; repr 。 1978年) ;摩納哥,詹姆斯,法國革命萬年曆( 1982年) ;飛利浦,亞歷山大,日曆:它的歷史,結構,並改善( 1921年) ; schocken ,佤族,日曆上的瑪雅人( 1986 ) ;沃特金斯,哈羅德,時間計數:故事的日曆( 1954 ) 。


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