Carmelites carmelites

Discalced (Barefoot) Carmelites discalced (赤腳) carmelites

Saint Teresa of 臀ila, Saint John of the Cross聖德肋撒的臀國際法協會,聖約翰的十字架

White Friars白方濟各會士

General Information 一般資料

Carmelites are members of a Roman Catholic religious order founded during the 12th century by a group of hermits on Mount Carmel (in present-day Israel). carmelites加入了一個羅馬天主教宗教命令創立,在12世紀由一群隱士山佳美(在現今以色列) 。 They were apparently inspired by the prophets Elijah and Elisha, who had lived there, but much of their early history is unknown.他們顯然是受到先知以利亞和以利沙,誰曾住在這裡,但是他們的大部分早期歷史是未知之數。 In the 13th century, the Carmelites migrated to Europe, where they became friars.在13世紀, carmelites遷移到歐洲,在那裡成了方濟各會士。 Because their habit was a brown tunic and scapular with an ample white cape and hood, they became known as "white friars."因為他們的習慣,是一個棕色中山裝和肩胛骨與充足的白角和引擎蓋,他們後來被稱為"白方濟各會士" 。

During the 16th century, the mystics St. Teresa of 臀ila and St. John of the Cross helped establish a reformed branch of the order known as the Discalced Carmelites.在16世紀,神秘主義者聖德肋撒的臀國際法協會和聖約翰的十字架幫助建立一個經過改革的分行,該命令被稱為該discalced carmelites 。 Today both branches engage in preaching, retreat work, and education.今日兩間分行從事傳道,撤退工作,並教育。 The Carmelite nuns live cloistered lives of prayer.該carmelite尼姑住cloistered的生命祈禱。 Other famous Carmelites include St. Therese and the Renaissance artist Fra Filippo Lippi.其他著名carmelites包括聖( Therese和文藝復興時期的藝術家FRA的菲利普里皮。

The popular Roman Catholic devotion of Our Lady of Mount Carmel is based on the revelations of Simon Stock, and English Carmelite said to have lived in the 13th century.熱門羅馬天主教奉獻聖母山佳美的基礎上,所揭露的西蒙股票,和英語carmelite說,以住在十三世紀。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
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Cyprian Davis, OSB塞浦路斯戴維斯,定向結構刨花板

Bibliography 參考書目
Rohrbach, Peter-Thomas, Journey to Carith: The Story of the Carmelite Order (1966). rohrbach ,彼得-托馬斯,西遊記carith :故事的carmelite令( 1966 ) 。


Carmelites carmelites

General Information 一般資料

Carmelites, popular name for members of the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, a Roman Catholic religious order founded as a community of hermits in Palestine during the 12th century by the French hermit St. Berthold. carmelites ,通俗名稱為成員的順序聖母山焦糖,一名羅馬天主教宗教秩序創立作為一個社會的隱士,在巴勒斯坦,在12世紀由法國隱士,聖berthold 。 The original rule, written for them in 1209 by the Latin patriarch of Jerusalem, Albert of Vercelli, was severe, prescribing poverty, abstinence from meat, and solitude.原來的規則,以書面為他們在1209年由拉丁語牧耶路撒冷,何俊仁的Vercelli的,是嚴重的,處方貧困,吃齋,和孤獨。 It was approved in 1226 by Pope Honorius III.它的批准,在1226年由羅馬教皇honorius三。

After the Crusades, the 13th-century Englishman St. Simon Stock reorganized the Carmelites as mendicant friars.經過十字軍東征, 13世紀,英國人聖西蒙存量重組carmelites作為乞討方濟各會士。 Under him, a change of rule was made to facilitate a more active apostolate.根據他的,改變的規則是,以促進一個更積極的使徒。 Offshoot communities quickly sprang up in Cyprus, Messina, Marseille, and parts of England, where they were known as White Friars.支流社區迅速興起,在塞浦路斯,墨西拿,馬賽,以及部分英格蘭,他們被稱為白方濟各會士。

During the 16th century two independent branches of the order were created: the Calced Carmelites, who were permitted to wear shoes and followed the mitigated rule of St. Simon Stock; and the Discalced Carmelites, who went without shoes as a sign of austerity and followed the reforms of the Spanish mystic St. John of the Cross.在16世紀的兩個獨立的分公司,該命令創建: calced carmelites ,誰允許穿鞋並遵循減輕了法治的聖西蒙股票及discalced carmelites ,也沒能無鞋,作為一種標誌的緊縮政策,並遵循改革的西班牙語神秘聖約翰的十字架。 This reform endeavored to restore the spirit of the original rule of Albert of Vercelli.這項改革的努力,以恢復原文的精神統治的阿爾伯特Vercelli的。 The main purpose of the order is contemplation, missionary work, and theology.主要目的的命令是沉思後,其傳教工作,和神學。

Among the several orders of Carmelite nuns, the best known is the Order of Discalced Carmelites, founded during the 16th century by the Spanish mystic St. Teresa of 臀ila. The life of a Carmelite nun is completely contemplative, consisting of prayer, penance, hard work, and silence. The nuns are strictly enclosed, or cloistered; they never eat meat, and from the feast of the Exaltation of the Cross (September 14) until Easter, no milk, cheese, or eggs are allowed on Fridays and during Lent, except for the sick.其中幾個命令carmelite尼姑,最出名的是秩序discalced carmelites ,創立在16世紀由西班牙人神秘聖德肋撒的臀國際法協會。 生命一個carmelite尼姑是完全contemplative ,構成的禱告,懺悔,辛勤工作,並保持沉默。修女們都是嚴格封閉的,或者cloistered ,他們從來沒有吃肉,從宴的提升兩岸(九月十四日)起至復活節了,沒有牛奶,乳酪,蛋或獲准於每星期五及期間封齋期,除為患病的。 The order has produced some of the greatest Roman Catholic mystics.該命令產生了一些最偉大的羅馬天主教神秘主義者。


Saint Teresa of Avila聖德肋撒的阿維拉

General Information 一般資料

{ah'-vee-lah} ( ah' V型- lah )

Saint Teresa of Avila, b.聖德肋撒的阿維拉,乙 Mar. 28, 1515, d. 1515年3月28日,四 Oct. 4, 1582, was a Spanish Carmelite and mystic who was declared a doctor of the church in 1970. 1582年10月4日,這是一個西班牙語carmelite和神秘人被宣布為是一位醫生,教會於1970年。 The daughter of a noble Spanish family, she was originally named Teresa de Cespeda y Ahumada.女兒的一個崇高的西班牙語的家庭,她原名德肋撒德cespeda y阿烏馬達。 In 1535 she entered the Carmelite monastery of the Incarnation at Avila, where the nuns observed the rules of the order in a relaxed ("mitigated") way.在1535年,她進入carmelite寺的化身,在阿維拉,那裡的修女遵守規則的命令,在一個輕鬆的( "緩解" )的方式。 After a serious illness and a prolonged period of spiritual apathy Teresa experienced (1555) a spiritual reawakening that convinced her of the need for strict observance of the austere Carmelite rule.經過重病,並在經歷了長時期的精神態度冷淡德肋撒經歷( 1555 )的精神喚醒表示深信,她的必須嚴格遵守的過緊carmelite統治。 Despite strong opposition, she succeeded (1562) in opening the Convent of Saint Joseph in Avila, the first of the reformed Carmelite houses.儘管強烈反對,但她成功( 1562 )在開放修道院的聖約瑟夫在阿維拉,首先改革後carmelite房子。 Until her death she led the way in reforming both the male and female branches of the Carmelite order.直到她去世,她率領的方式在改革無論男性和女性分行的carmelite秩序。 Along with Saint John of the Cross, she is considered the founder of the Discalced ("shoeless") Carmelites.隨著聖約翰的十字架上,她被認為是創始人之一discalced ( " shoeless " ) carmelites 。

Besides her activity in directing the reform of her order, which involved extensive travel and communication with nobility and church officials, Teresa wrote many works, among which are some of the greatest classics of mystical literature.除了她的活動,在指導改革的她命令,其中涉及了廣泛的旅行和通訊與貴族和教會官員,德肋撒,寫下了許多作品,其中包括一些最偉大的經典之文學。 A mystic of great stature who achieved the rare state of union referred to as mystical marriage, she wrote advice and direction for others, especially her nuns, with unusual beauty and equally unusual practical wisdom.一神秘的偉大地位,他們實現了難得的狀態,聯盟被稱為神秘婚姻中,她寫道意見和方向,為其他人,尤其是她的修女們,不尋常的美麗和同樣不同尋常的實踐智慧。 She is considered an authority on spirituality in the Western world, and her writings are read and studied today as much as ever.她被認為是權威和靈性,在西方世界,和她的著作,是閱讀和研究了今天之多前所未有。 Teresa's best-known works are The Way of Perfection (1583), The Interior Castle (1588), The Book of Foundations (1610), and her Life (1611).德肋撒最知名的作品是單程的完善( 1583 ) ,內部城堡( 1588 ) ,這本書的基礎( 1610 ) ,和她的生活( 1611 ) 。 Feast day: Oct. 15.盛宴的日子: 10月15日。

Joan A. Range鄧務滋女士答範圍

Bibliography 參考書目
Beevers, John, Storm of Glory (1977); Hatzfeld, HA, Santa Teresa di Avila (1969). beevers ,約翰,風暴的榮耀( 1977年) ; hatzfeld ,醫管局,聖特雷莎迪阿維拉( 1969 ) 。


Saint Teresa of Avila聖德肋撒的阿維拉

General Information 一般資料

Saint Teresa of 臀ila (1515-82) was a Spanish mystic, influential author, and founder of the religious order of Discalced, or Barefoot, Carmelites, also known as Teresa of Jesus.聖德肋撒的臀國際法協會( 1515年至1582年)是一個西班牙語神秘的,有影響力的作者,並創辦人的宗教秩序的discalced ,或赤腳, carmelites ,又稱為德肋撒的耶穌。

Teresa de Cepeda y Ahumada was born in 臀ila on March 28, 1515.德肋撒德塞佩達y阿烏馬達出生於臀國際法協會於1515年3月28日。 She was educated in an Augustinian convent and, about 1535, entered the local Carmelite Convent of the Incarnation.她曾就讀於一個augustinian修道院,以及約1535 ,進入當地carmelite修道院的化身。 In 1555, after many years marked by serious illness and increasingly rigorous religious exercises, she experienced a profound awakening, involving visions of Jesus Christ, hell, angels, and demons; at times she felt sharp pains that she claimed were caused by the tip of an angel's lance piercing her heart. Long troubled by the slack discipline into which the Carmelites had relapsed, she determined to devote herself to the reform of the order. Through papal intervention in her behalf, she overcame the bitter opposition of her immediate ecclesiastical superiors and in 1562 succeeded in founding at 臀ila the Convent of St. Joseph, the first community of reformed, or Discalced, Carmelite nuns. She enforced strict observance of the original, severe Carmelite rules at the convent. Her reforms won the approbation of the head of the order, and in 1567 she was authorized to establish similar religious houses for men.在1555 ,經過多年的標誌大病和日益嚴格的宗教演習中, 她經歷了一場深刻的覺醒,所涉及的願景耶穌基督,地獄,天使,天使與魔鬼;時候,她感到尖銳的痛苦,她聲稱因尖端一個天使的蘭斯刺耳,她的心。 長期以來困擾,由紀律鬆弛到其中carmelites復發了,她決心以自己全身心地撲在這項改革的議事程序,通過教皇干預,她的代表,她克服了痛苦的反對,她立刻教會上級和1562成功地創始於臀國際法協會修道院的聖若瑟,第一所社區的改革,或discalced , carmelite尼姑, 她被強迫嚴格遵循原著,嚴重carmelite規則,在修道院,她的改革,贏得了讚許的頭部該命令的,而在1567年,她被授權建立類似的宗教之家為男性。

Teresa organized the new branch of the old order, with the aid of St. John of the Cross, the Spanish mystic and Doctor of the Church.德肋撒舉辦了新的分支舊秩序,借助聖約翰的十字架,西班牙的神秘和醫生的教會。 Although she was harassed at every step by powerful and hostile church officials, she helped to establish 16 foundations for women and 14 for men.雖然她被騷擾的每一個步驟,是由強大的敵對和教會官員,她幫助建立了16個基礎,為婦女和14個男子。 Two years before her death the Discalced Carmelites received papal recognition as an independent monastic body.二年前,她的死因有關discalced carmelites得到教皇的承認,作為一個獨立的寺院機構。 Teresa died in Alba de Tormes on October 4, 1582.德肋撒死在阿爾巴德tormes於1582年10月4日。

Teresa was a gifted organizer endowed with common sense, tact, intelligence, courage, and humor, as well as a mystic of extraordinary spiritual depth.德肋撒是一個天才的組織者,賦予了普通常識,機智,智慧,勇氣和幽默,而且是一個神秘的不平凡精神引向深入。 She purified the religious life of Spain and, in a period when Protestantism gained ground elsewhere in Europe, strengthened the forces that reformed the Roman Catholic church from within.她淨化了宗教生活的西班牙,並在一個時期內,當新教抬頭,在歐洲其他地方,加強了力量,改革了羅馬天主教會從內部產生。

Teresa's writings, all published posthumously, are valued as unique contributions to mystical and devotional literature and as masterpieces of Spanish prose.德肋撒的寫作中,所有出版死後,價值是作為獨特貢獻,以神秘和靈修文學,作為大師的西班牙語散文。 Among her works are a spiritual autobiography; The Way of Perfection (after 1565), advice to her nuns; The Interior Castle (1577), an eloquent description of the contemplative life; and The Foundations (1573-82), an account of the origins of the Discalced Carmelites.其中她的作品是一種精神的自傳;方式的完善( 1565年後) ,向她的修女;內政城堡( 1577 ) ,雄辯地說明了contemplative生活和基礎( 1573年至1582年) ,戶口本起源的discalced carmelites 。 English translations of her complete works appeared in three volumes in 1946.英語翻譯,她完成工程出現三冊於1946年。

Teresa was canonized in 1622; she was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church, the first woman to be so named, in 1970.德肋撒被冊封的,在1622年,她被宣布為是一位醫生,教會,第一女被如此命名,於1970年。 Her feast day is October 15.她盛宴一天是10月15日。


Saint John of the Cross聖約翰的十字架

General Information 一般資料

Saint John of the Cross, b.聖約翰的十字架,乙 June 24, 1542, d. 1542年6月24日,四 Dec. 14, 1591, a Spanish mystic and poet, is considered by many the greatest Western authority on Mysticism and one of Spain's finest lyric poets. 1591年12月14日,一名西班牙的神秘和詩人,是被許多人最大的西方權威的神秘主義和一個西班牙最優秀的抒情詩人。 He entered a Carmelite monastery in 1563 and was ordained a priest in 1567.他進入了一個carmelite寺在1563年被祝聖司鐸在1567年。 Dissatisfied with the laxity of the order, he began to work for the reform of the Carmelites.不滿與懈怠的一聲令下,他開始工作,為改革的carmelites 。 With Saint Teresa of 臀ila, he founded the Discalced Carmelites.與聖德肋撒的臀國際法協會,他創立discalced carmelites 。 Friction with the hierarchy led to his imprisonment (1577) in the monastery of Toledo.摩擦與層次導致了他的監禁( 1577 )在修道院的托萊多。 He escaped in 1578 and later served as prior of Granada (1582-88) and of Segovia (1588-91).他逃出,在1578年,後來擔任過前的格拉納達( 1582年至1588年)和塞哥維亞( 1588至1591年) 。

Saint John combined the imagination and sensitivity of a poet with the precision and depth of a theologian and philosopher trained in the tradition of Saint Thomas Aquinas.聖約翰結合的想像力和敏感的詩人與精度和深度,神學家和哲學家訓練有素,在傳統的聖托馬斯阿奎那。 These two factors contributed toward making his writings powerfully descriptive and analytical of the mystical experience.這兩個因素的貢獻,使他的作品有力地描述和分析性的神秘經驗。 His most important writings are The Spiritual Canticle, written during his imprisonment in 1578; The Ascent of Mt. Carmel and Dark Night of the Soul, written shortly afterward; and The Living Flame of Love, completed by 1583.他最重要的著作,是精神的canticle ,寫在他被監禁在1578年;上升的攝影。焦糖和黑夜的靈魂,以書面緊接著,以及生活火焰的愛情,完成了1583年。 These poems deal with the purification of the soul--through detachment and suffering--in its mystical journey toward God and give a detailed description of the three stages of mystical union: purgation, illumination, and union.這些詩詞處理淨化靈魂-通過支隊和苦難-在其神秘的征途神,並給予詳細說明了三個階段的神秘聯盟:通便,照明,職工和工會。 Saint John was canonized in 1726 and declared a Doctor of the Church in 1926.聖約翰被冊封的,在1726年,並聲稱是一位醫生,教會於1926年。 Feast day: December 14.盛宴的日子: 12月14日。

Joan A. Range鄧務滋女士答範圍

Bibliography 參考書目
Brenan, Gerald, St. John of the Cross (1973); Collings, Ross, John of the Cross (1990). brenan ,杰拉德,聖約翰的十字架( 1973年) ; collings ,羅斯,約翰的十字架( 1990 ) 。


Saint Teresa of Avila (1515-1582)聖德肋撒的阿維拉( 1515至1582年)

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Saint Teresa was a Spanish mystic, born Teresa de Cepeda y Ahumada at Avila on March 28, 1515.聖德肋撒是西班牙的一個神秘的,出生德肋撒德塞佩達y阿烏馬達在阿維拉於1515年3月28日。 Her stepmother died when Teresa was thirteen years of age.她的繼母去世時,德肋撒是十三年歲。 Three years later, upon the marriage of her oldest sister, she was sent to the Augustinian convent in Avila, but illness forced her to leave.三年後的今天,當婚姻對她的姐姐,她被送往該augustinian修道院在阿維拉,但病情逼迫她離開。 After a prolonged spiritual struggle, accompanied by poor health, she entered the Carmelite Convent of the Incarnation at Avila on November 2, 1535.經過長時間的精神鬥爭中,伴隨著健康狀況不佳,她進入carmelite修道院的化身,在阿維拉於1535年11月2日。 Here she was treated with deference because of her personality and family status.在這裡,她是治療順從,因為她的性格和家庭地位。 However, in 1555, her spiritual pilgrimage took a more serious turn.然而,在1555 ,她的精神朝聖了較嚴重的好轉。 This second conversion, as it is sometimes called, was marked by "mental prayer" and estatic visions.這第二次轉換,因為它有時也被稱為,主要標誌是"精神祈禱" ,並estatic願景。 Some of her spiritual advisors thought her visions were diabolical, but others reassured her that they were, indeed, from the Lord.她的一些精神顧問認為她願景,被兇殘的,但其他人放心,她說,他們分別為,事實上,從上主。 She found support from the Jesuits, particularly her father confessor, Baltasar Alvarez.她發現,支持,從耶穌會士,特別是她的父親懺悔, baltasar阿爾瓦雷斯。

In 1559, Teresa reported a remarkable vision known as the "transverberation of her heart," in which an angel with a fire-tipped lance pierced her heart. 1559年,德肋撒報了不起的願景稱為" transverberation她的心" ,其中一位天使與火尖槍,戳穿了她的心。 Growing increasingly disillusioned with her own Carmelite order, Teresa felt compelled to launch a reform movement with Carmelite nuns who would follow an austere rule.越來越幻滅,她自己的carmelite秩序,德肋撒認為有必要推出一項改革運動與carmelite修女會跟隨過緊統治。 Her plans met with stiff resistance from a number of sources, including the city of Avila.她的計劃遭到激烈的抵抗,從若干來源,包括市阿維拉。 However, wealthy friends offered their support.然而,富裕的朋友們提供了他們的支持。 In spite of stout opposition, Teresa sought and found approval from Pope Paul IV.儘管粗壯反對,德肋撒尋求和發現批准,由教皇保羅四。 Her convent was to be small, numbering no more than thirteen, following the rule prepared by Fray Hugo in 1248.她的女修道院是小,不超過13個,以下規則編寫捲入旋渦雨果在1248年。 Thus on August 24, 1562, the resolute nun founded the convent of Discalced ("barefoot") Carmelite Nuns of the Primitive Rule of St. Joseph.因此,對1562年8月24日,堅決尼姑創立修道院的discalced ( "赤腳" ) carmelite尼姑原始法治的聖若瑟。 After a visit by the General of the Carmelites, she was encouraged in her work and given permission to form other houses of the Discalced Carmelites, not only for nuns, but for monks also.在查訪後,由一般的carmelites ,使她深受鼓舞,在她的工作,並獲准以其他形式房子的discalced carmelites ,不僅為尼姑,但對於僧侶也。 With the backing of Philip II, she managed to escape the Inquisition, and spent the remainder of her life establishing new convents all over Spain.與後盾弘第二,她設法逃脫了宗教裁判所,並度過了餘下的一生樹立新的修道院都超過西班牙。

Teresa was a remarkable person, combining mystic contemplation and a fervent activism with a literary career.德肋撒是一個了不起的人,結合神秘的沉思和熱切的積極性與文學生涯。 She wrote two autobiographical works, the Life and the Book of Foundations.她寫了兩本自傳式作品,生活與書本的基礎。 Two were written for her nuns: The Way of Perfection and The Interior Castle.兩個人寫給她的修女們:未來路的完善和內部城堡。 It was her conviction that contemplation should lead to action, not lethargy.這是她的信念,即沉思應該帶頭行動,而不是昏昏欲睡。 In spite of a frail body, beset by continuing bouts of illness, she became the personification of this conviction.儘管纖弱身體,困擾不斷出現的疾病,她成了人格化的這個信念。 Teresa was canonized by Gregory XV in 1622.德肋撒被冊封格雷戈里十五,在1622年。

WR Estep, Jr.西鐵estep前些日子
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
EA Peers, Handbook to the Life and Times of St. Teresa and St. John of the Cross; "Teresa of Jesus, Saint," Catholic Encyclopedia, XIV.環境同行,手冊,以生命和時代的聖德肋撒和聖約翰的十字架" ;德肋撒的耶穌,聖" ,天主教百科全書,十四。


Saint John of the Cross聖約翰的十字架

Advanced Information 先進的信息

(1542-1591) ( 1542年至1591年)

John of the Cross was one of the leading teachers of Christian contemplation or the mystical way, as well as a founder of the Discalced Carmelite order.約翰的十字架是一個起主導作用的教師,基督教沉思或神秘的方式,以及作為創始人之一discalced carmelite秩序。 Born Juan de Yepes y Alvarez in Old Castile, Spain, to a poor family of noble stock, he entered the Carmelite order in 1563 and, after a study of theology at Salamanca, was ordained in 1567.出生胡安yepes y阿爾瓦雷斯在舊卡斯蒂利亞,西班牙,向家境貧寒的高尚的股票,他進入carmelite為了在1563年,在經過研究神學,在薩拉曼卡,是受戒於1567年。 At that time the discipline of the Carmelite Order was relatively lax, and many of its leaders favored the mitigated observance.在那個時候,紀律的carmelite秩序相對寬鬆,它的許多領導人,主張減輕了紀念活動。 John, distressed by their laxity, came under the influence of Teresa of Avila and, following her advice, attempted to introduce reform into the order.約翰,痛心,他們的懈怠,來的影響下德肋撒的阿維拉和之後,她的意見,試圖在國內引進的改革納入議事程序。 While in and out of office and prison because of his combination of great ability and reforming zeal (which his superiors mistrusted and feared), he produced some of the greatest mystical theological literature in the history of the church.而在進出辦公室和監獄,因為他相結合的偉大能力和改革的熱情(他的上級mistrusted害怕) ,他製作了一些最偉大的神秘主義神學文獻,在教會的歷史。 The order itself eventually split into Calced and Discalced branches, as the stricter group withdrew in 1578 under the leadership of Teresa and John.該命令本身,最終分裂成calced和discalced分行,為更嚴格的集團撤回了在1578年的領導下,特里薩以及約翰。 His death was the result of privations suffered in these struggles.他的去世是因遭受privations在所有這些鬥爭。

While John of the Cross is best known for his Dark Night of the Soul, that work is but the second part of Ascent of Mount Carmel.而約翰的交叉是最出名的,他黑夜的靈魂,這項工作,不過是第二部分,登上摩佳美。 This latter work deals with the purgative way, while the former instructs in the illuminative and unitive ways.後者的工作待遇與瀉下的方式,而前者則指示,在照明和統一的途徑。 Through the progressive stages of purgation (the night of the senses) and spiritual growth (the night of the spirit) the soul is prepared for union with God, described in terms of marriage (The Living Flame of Love).通過逐步階段的下法(夜的感官)及心靈成長(夜的精神)的靈魂,是準備為聯盟與神,敘述的角度婚姻(居住火焰的愛) 。 While John was a strict monastic and a philosopher in the Thomistic tradition, and while he fed on Scripture, especially the hard sayings of Jesus and Paul, his poetic gentleness is evident in The Spiritual Canticle (begun while in prison), and his wisdom as a spiritual guide and counselor shines through his work, which is important to pastors in many traditions but is invaluable to people interested in more mystical spiritual experience of the nonimaged type.而約翰是一個嚴格的寺院和一位哲人在thomistic傳統,而他餵養的經文,特別是硬熟語的耶穌和保羅,他的詩歌溫柔,是明顯地體現在精神canticle (開始,而在監獄中) ,並且他的智慧一種精神,引導和輔導員斜照通過他的工作,這是很重要的牧者,在許多傳統而且是非常寶貴的人,有興趣的更神秘的屬靈經驗的nonimaged類型。

PH Davids pH值戴維斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
A. Cugno, St. John of the Cross; L. Christiani, St. John of the Cross; B. Frost, St. John of the Cross; EA Peers, Spirit of Flame and Handbook of the Life and Times of Saint Teresa and Saint John of the Cross.答: cugno ,聖約翰的十字架;屬christiani ,聖約翰的十字架;乙霜凍,聖約翰的十字架;環境同輩,是精神的火焰和手冊的生活和歷史的聖特里薩以及聖約翰的十字架。


The Carmelite Order該carmelite秩序

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

One of the mendicant orders.其中的乞討命令。

Origin原產地

The date of the foundation of the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel has been under discussion from the fourteenth century to the present day, the order claiming for its founders the prophets Elias and Eliseus, whereas modern historians, beginning with Baronius, deny its existence previous to the second half of the twelfth century.日期的立黨之本,為了我們的夫人迦密山一直在討論從14世紀到現在的一天,為了要求賠償,其創始人先知們Elias和eliseus ,而現代歷史學家,開始與巴若尼,否認它的存在以往到下半年的12世紀。 As early as the times of the Prophet Samuel there existed in the Holy Land a body of men called Sons of the Prophets, who in many respects resembled religious institutes of later times.早在時代的先知塞繆爾存在著在聖地的一個機構,對男人所謂先知的子民,他們在很多方面都類似於宗教研究所稍後的時間。 They led a kind of community life, and, though not belonging to the Tribe of Levi, dedicated themselves to the service of God; above all they owed obedience to certain superiors, the most famous of whom were Elias and his successor Eliseus, both connected with Carmel, the former by his encounter with the prophets of Baal, the latter by prolonged residence on the holy mountain.他們過著一種社會生活,而且,雖然不屬於該部落的利維,投身天主服務;上述所有欠款,他們以服從某些上級,最有名的人Elias和他的繼任者eliseus ,無論是連接與焦糖,前者是他遭遇的先知巴力,而後者是由長期居住於聖山。 With the downfall of the Kingdom of Israel the Sons of the Prophets disappear from history.與沒落的王國以色列先知的子民消失,從歷史中。 In the third or fourth century of the Christian Era Carmel was a place of pilgrimage, as is proved by numerous Greek inscriptions on the walls of the School of the Prophets: "Remember Julianus, remember Germanicus", etc. Several of the Fathers, notably John Chrystostom, Basil, Gregory Nazianzen, and Jerome, represent Elias and Eliseus as the models of religious perfection and the patrons of hermits and monks.在第三或第四世紀的基督教時代,佳美是一個地方的朝聖活動,為的是證明了無數希臘碑文上的牆壁,學校的先知們說: "記住,尤里安,記住軍曼尼古斯"等幾個的父親,尤其是約翰chrystostom ,羅勒,格雷戈里nazianzen ,杰羅姆,代表Elias和eliseus作為型號的宗教完善和食客的隱士和僧侶。 These undeniable facts have opened the way to certain conjectures.這些無可否認的事實已經開闢了道路,以一定的猜測。 As St. John the Baptist spent nearly the whole of his life in the desert, where he gathered around him a number of disciples, and as Christ said he was endowed with the spirit and virtue of Elias, some authors think that he revived the institute of the Sons of the Prophets.正如聖施洗約翰花了將近整他的生命在沙漠中,他在那裡聚集在他周圍的一批弟子,並作為基督說,他是得天獨厚的精神和美德,埃利亞斯,一些作者認為他復活研究所對先知的子民。

The glowing descriptions given by Pliny, Flavius Josephus, and Philo, of the manner of life of the Essenes and Therapeutes convinced others that these sects belonged to the same corporation; unfortunately their orthodoxy is open to serious doubts.發光說明給予普林尼, flavius約瑟夫,斐洛,在該地生活了essenes和therapeutes說服別人認為這些支派屬於同一公司,可惜他們的正統,是開放嚴重懷疑。 Tacitus mentions a sanctuary on Carmel, consisting "neither of a temple, nor an idol, but merely an altar for Divine worship"; whatever its origin may have been, it certainly was at the time of Vespasian in the hands of a pagan priest, Basilides.塔西佗提到一個避難所對焦糖,構成"既不是一個廟,也不是偶像,而僅僅是一個供奉神崇拜" ;不論其來源可能有,它肯定是當時的vespasian在政府手中一個異教徒祭司, basilides 。 Pythagoras (500 BC) is represented by Jamblichus (AD 300) as having spent some time in silent prayer in a similar sanctuary on Carmel, a testimony of greater force for the time of Jambilichus himself than for that of Pythagoras.畢達哥拉斯(公元前500年)是代表jamblichus (公元300 ) ,因為用了一段時間默禱在一個類似的庇護所對焦糖,也證明了更大的力量的時候, jambilichus自己比作是畢達哥拉斯。 Nicephorus Callistus (AD 1300) relates that the Empress Helena built a church in honour of St. Elias on the slopes of a certain mountain. nicephorus callistus (公元1300 )表示,慈禧赫勒拿島建造一所教堂的榮譽聖埃利亞斯對斜坡的某個山區。 This evidence is, however, inadmissible, inasmuch as Eusebius is witness to the fact that she built only two churches in the Holy Land, at Bethlehem and at Jerusalem, not twenty, as Nicephorus says; moreover the words of this author show clearly that he had in view the Greek monastery of Mar Elias, overhanging the Jordan valley, and not Carmel as some authors think; Mar Elias, however, belongs to the sixth century.這方面的證據,但不能允許的,因為尤西比烏斯是見證了一個事實,她只能建立在兩個教會在聖地,在伯利恆,並在耶路撒冷,而不是二十一,作為nicephorus說,而且的話,筆者則表明他有鑑於希臘的修道院三月埃利亞斯,懸垂約旦谷地,而不是佳美,因為有些作者認為;三月愛麗絲,但屬於第六世紀。 These and other misunderstood quotations have enfeebled rather than strengthened the tradition of the order, which holds that from the days of the great Prophets there has been, if not an uninterrupted, at least a moral succession of hermits on Carmel, first under the Old Dispensation, afterwards in the full light of Christianity, until at the time of the Crusades these hermits became organized after the fashion of the Western orders.這些和其他人誤解的報價已enfeebled而不是強化傳統的一聲令下,其中認為,從幾天的偉大先知已,如果不是一個不間斷的,至少在道義上繼承隱士對焦糖,首先根據舊省卻隨後,在充分肯定的是基督教,直到當時的十字軍東征這些隱士成為有組織後,時裝的西部命令。 This tradition is officially laid down in the constitutions of the order, is mentioned in many papal Bulls, as well as in the Liturgy of the Church, and is still held by many members of the order.這一傳統在正式寫在憲法中的一聲令下,是中提到的許多教皇公牛,以及在禮儀中的教會,仍然被許多委員的命令。

The silence of Palestine pilgrims previous to AD 1150, of chroniclers, of early documents, in one word the negative evidence of history has induced modern historians to disregard the claims of the order, and to place its foundation in or about the year 1155 when it is first spoken of in documents of undoubted authenticity.沉默的巴勒斯坦朝聖者前至公元1150的編年史家,早期文件,在一個詞的負面證據的歷史,引起了現代歷史學家不顧索賠的一聲令下,並把其基礎或對, 1155年時,它首先發言的,在文件的真實性不容置疑的。 Even the evidence of the order itself was not always very explicit.即使是證據的命令本身並不總是很明確。 A notice written between 1247 and 1274 (Mon. Hist. Carmelit., 1, 20, 267) states in general terms that "from the days of Elias and Eliseus the holy fathers of the Old and the New Dispensation dwelt on Mount Carmel, and that their successors after the Incarnation built there a chapel in honour of Our Lady, for which reason they were called in papal Bulls "Friars of Blessed Mary of Mount Carmel". The General Chapter of 1287 (unedited) speaks of the order as of a plantation of recent growth (plantatio novella). More definite are some writings of about the same time. A letter "On the progress of his Order" ascribed to St. Cyril of Constantinople, but written by a Latin (probably French) author about the year 1230, and the book "On the Institution of the First Monks" connect the order with the Prophets of the Old Law. This latter work, mentioned for the first time in 1342, was published in 1370 and became known in England half a century later. It purports to be written by John, the forty-fourth (more accurately the forty-second) Bishop of Jerusalem (AD 400). However, as Gennadius and other ancient bibliographers do not mention it among the writings of John, and as the author was clearly a Latin, since his entire argument is based upon certain texts of the Vulgate differing widely from the corresponding passages of the Septuagint, and as he in many ways proves his entire ignorance of the Greek language, and, moreover, quotes or alludes to writers of the twelfth century, he cannot have lived earlier than the middle of the thirteenth. A third author is sometimes mentioned, Joseph, a Deacon of Antioch, whom Possevin assigns to about AD 130. His work is lost but its very title, "Speculum perfect疆 milit疆 primitiv疆 ecclesi疆", proves that he cannot have belonged to the Apostolic Fathers, as indeed he is entirely unknown to patristic literature. His name is not mentioned before the fourteenth century and in all probability he did not live much earlier.公告書面之間的1247,1410和1274 (週一歷史。 carmelit , 1 , 20 , 267 )國家一般條款" ,從天Elias和eliseus聖教父的新和舊省卻白景富對摩焦糖,並他們的接班人後,化身建有一個小教堂,在榮譽的聖母,因此它們被稱為在教皇公牛"的方濟各會士的祝福瑪麗的摩佳美" 。總務章1287 (未編輯)談到了經濟秩序作為一項人工林的近期增長( plantatio中篇小說) 。作出更明確的是一些著作的大約同一時間舉行。一封信"的進度,他命令"歸因於聖西里爾的君士坦丁堡,但寫的一個拉丁(可能是法語)作者有關一年1230 ,和一本名為"關於事業單位的第一和尚"的連接,以便與先知的舊法,這後者的工作,第一次提到了在1342發表在1370年,並成為眾所周知的,在英格蘭半世紀後來,它意圖藉此予以書面約翰,第四十四屆(更準確第四十二屆)主教在耶路撒冷(公元400 ) ,但由於gennadius和其他古代bibliographers不提它其中的著述約翰,並作為作者顯然是一個拉丁語,因為他的整個論點,是基於某些文本的不同vulgate廣泛,從相應通道的septuagint ,因為他在很多方面證明了他的整個的無知,希臘語,更行情或提到作家的12世紀,他也不能住了早中的第十三一個第三作者有時提到,約瑟夫,執事安提,其中possevin委派至約公元130 。他的工作失去了,但它很稱號" speculum完善疆milit疆primitiv疆ecclesi疆" ,證明他不可能有屬於教廷的父親,事實上,他是完全陌生的教父的著作,他的名字是不是以前所說的14世紀,並在所有的概率,他不生活要早得多。

The tradition of the order, while admitted by many of the medieval Schoolmen, was contested by not a few authors.傳統的一聲令下,同時也承認,許多中世紀schoolmen ,是有爭議的,沒有幾個作家。 Hence the Carmelite historians neglected almost completely the history of their own times, spending all their energy on controversial writings, as is evident in the works of John Baconthorpe, John of Chimeneto, John of Hildesheim, Bernard Olerius, and many others.因此carmelite歷史學家忽略幾乎完全史上自己的時候,這方面的開支全部精力具爭議性的著作,這一點在工程的約翰baconthorpe ,約翰的chimeneto ,約翰的希爾德斯海姆,伯納德olerius ,以及其他許多人。 In 1374 a disputation was held before the University of Cambridge between the Dominican John Stokes and the Carmelite John of Horneby; the latter, whose arguments were chiefly taken from canon law, not from history, was declared victorious and the members of the university were forbidden to question the antiquity of the Carmelite Order.在1374年1糾紛之前舉行了大學,劍橋大學之間的多米尼加約翰斯托克斯和carmelite約翰的horneby ;後者,其論據主要都是從教會法,而不是從歷史中,被宣布為戰勝國和成員,大學被禁止質疑古代的carmelite秩序。 Towards the end of the fifteenth century this was again ably defended by Trithemius (or whoever wrote under his name), Bostius, Palæonydorus, and many others who with a great display of learning strove to strengthen their thesis, filling in the gaps in the history of the order by claiming for it numerous ancient saints.在接近年底的15世紀,這是幹練又悍裡特米烏斯(或誰寫下他的名字) , bostius , palæonydorus ,和許多其他人一樣懷著極大的展示學習奮鬥,以加強他們的論文,填補空白的歷史該命令稱,因為眾多的古代聖人。 Sts. STS對。 Eliseus and Cyril of Alexandria (1399), Basil (1411), Hilarion (1490), and Elias (in some places c. 1480, in the whole order from 1551) had already been placed on the Carmelite calendar; the chapter of 1564 added many more, some of whom were dropped out twenty years later on the occasion of a revision of the Liturgy, but were reintroduced in 1609 when Cardinal Bellarmine acted as reviser of Carmelite legends. eliseus和西里爾亞歷山大( 1399 ) ,羅勒( 1411 ) ,希拉容( 1490 ) ,和愛麗絲(在一些地方,長1480 ,在整個秩序,從1551 )已被放置於carmelite日曆;本章的第1564補充說:許多人,其中有些人是退出了二十年後,在紀念修訂的禮儀中,但被重新提出,在1609年時,樞機bellarmine擔任審校的carmelite傳說。 He, too, approved with certain reservations the legend of the feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, 16 July, which had been instituted between 1376 and 1386 in commemoration of the approbation of the rule by Honorius III; it now (1609) became the "Scapular feast", was declared the principal feast of the order, and was extended to the whole Church in 1726.他也批准了若干保留的傳說,這個節日的聖母山焦糖, 7月16日,已被提起之間的第1376和第1386紀念認同的法治honorius三;現在( 1609年)成為"肩胛骨盛宴" ,被宣布為主要盛宴的命令,並擴展至整個教會在1726年。 The tendency of claiming for the order saints and other renowned persons of Christian and even classical antiquity came to a climax in the "Paradisus Carmelitici decoris" by MA Alegre de Casanate, published in 1639, condemned by the Sorbonne in 1642, and placed on the Roman Index in 1649.趨勢聲稱該命令聖人和其他著名人士的基督徒,甚至古典古代來到了高潮,在" paradisus carmelitici decoris " ,由馬alegre德casanate ,發表在1639譴責索邦大學,在1642年,並放置於羅馬指數在1649年。 Much that is uncritical may also be found in the annals of the order by J.-B.許多應該批判,可能也見諸於史冊的命令由j.-b. de Lezana (1645-56) and in "Decor Carmeli" by Philip of the Blessed Trinity (1665).德lezana ( 1645至1656年)和"裝飾卡爾梅利"弘的祝福三一( 1665 ) 。 On the publication, in 1668, of the third volume of March of the Bollandists, in which Daniel Papebroch asserted that the Carmelite Order was founded in 1155 by St. Berthold, there arose a literary war of thirty years' duration and almost unequaled violence.對違規出版, 1668年,第三卷三月的bollandists ,其中丹尼爾papebroch宣稱carmelite為了創立於11時55分由聖berthold ,因而產生了一位文學戰爭的三十年期幾乎無與倫比的暴力行為。 The Holy See, appealed to by both sides, declined to place the Bollandists on the Roman Index, although they had been put on the Spanish Index, but imposed silence on both parties (1698).羅馬教廷,呼籲雙方的共同努力下,拒絕把bollandists對羅馬指數中,他們雖然也提上了西班牙語指數,但所施加的沉默,對雙方( 1698 ) 。 On the other hand it permitted the erection of a statue of St. Elias in the Vatican Basilica among the founders of orders (1725), towards the cost of which (4064 scudi or $3942) each section of the order contributed one fourth part.在另一方面,它允許豎立一尊塑像,聖埃利亞斯在梵蒂岡大教堂之間的締造者令( 1725 ) ,對成本的,其中( 4064 scudi或3942美元)每一節的命令作出貢獻的四分之一部分。 At the present time the question of the antiquity of the Carmelite Order has hardly more than academical interest.在目前這個時間的問題,古物的carmelite秩序已難以以上學術興趣。

Foundations in Palestine基金會在巴勒斯坦

The Greek monk John Phocas who visited the Holy Land in 1185 relates that he met on Carmel a Calabrian (ie Western) monk who some time previously, on the strength of an apparition of the Prophet Elias, had gathered around him about ten hermits with whom he led a religious life in a small monastery near the grotto of the prophet.希臘的僧侶約翰phocas訪問聖地,在1185年表示,他會見了焦糖一calabrian (即西方)僧侶一段時間以前,對強度的一個apparition的先知埃利亞斯,聚集在他周圍的大約10名隱士與誰他率領一個宗教生活中的一小寺附近石窟的先知。 Rabbi Benjamin de Tudela had already in 1163 reported that the Christians had built there a chapel in honour of Elias.拉比本傑明德圖德拉已在1163年報告說,基督徒已建有一個小教堂,在榮譽的愛麗絲。 Jacques de Vitry and several other writers of the end of the twelfth and the beginning of the thirteenth centuries give similar accounts.雅克德vitry及其他幾個作家的結束第十二屆並開始第十三百年作出類似的賬戶。 The exact date of the foundation of the hermitage may be gathered from the life of Aymeric, Patriarch of Antioch, a relative of the "Calabrian" monk, Berthold; on the occasion of a journey to Jerusalem in 1154 or the following year he appears to have visited the latter and assisted him in the establishment of the small community; it is further reported that on his return to Antioch (c. 1160) he took with him some of the hermits, who founded a convent in that town and another on a neighbouring mountain; both were destroyed in 1268.確切日期的立黨之本,冬宮,可蒐集到的生活aymeric ,牧安提,相對的" calabrian "和尚, berthold ;值此之旅耶路撒冷第1154或次年他似乎已先後拜訪了後者,並協助他建立的小社區,它是進一步報告說,就他回到安提(約1,160個) ,他與他部分的隱士,他們創立了修道院,在城市和另一對鄰近山;都被摧毀,在二五五五一二六八。 Under Berthold's successor, Brocard, some doubts arose as to the proper form of life of the Carmelite hermits.根據berthold的繼任者, brocard ,有些懷疑是由於以適當的形式,生命的carmelite隱士。 The Patriarch of Jerusalem, Albert de Vercelli, then residing at Tyre, settled the difficulty by writing a short rule, part of which is literally taken from that of St. Augustine (c. 1210).宗主教在耶路撒冷,何俊仁德Vercelli的,那麼,居住在輪胎,解決了困難,以書面形式由短期統治,其中一部分是從字面上採取從聖奧古斯丁(丙第1210 ) 。 The hermits were to elect a prior to whom they should promise obedience; they were to live in cells apart from one another, where they had to recite the Divine Office according to the Rite of the church of the Holy Sepulchre, or, if unable to read, certain other prayers, and to spend their time in pious meditation varied by manual labour.該修士都選出之前,他們應承諾服從,他們被生活在細胞中,除了彼此,他們在那裡朗誦神聖辦公室根據該成年禮的聖墓教堂,或者,如果無法閱讀,還有其他一些祈禱,是為了消磨時間,在虔誠默禱多樣,由體力勞動。 Every morning they met in chapel for Mass, and on Sundays also for chapter.每天早上,他們會見了在教堂作彌撒,並於星期日,也為一章。 They were to have no personal property; their meals were to be served in their cells; but they were to abstain from flesh meat except in cases of great necessity, and they had to fast from the middle of September until Easter.他們有沒有個人財產;吃飯被曾任職於自己的牢房,但他們投棄權肉肉類除非發生很大的必要性,並已迅速從9月中旬,直到復活節。 Silence was not to be broken between Vespers and Terce of the following day, while from Terce till Vespers they were to guard against useless talk.沉默不是要被打破之間的晚禱和泰爾塞的翌日,而從泰爾塞直到晚禱他們,以防止無用之談。 the prior was to set a good example by humility, and the brothers were to honour him as the representative of Christ.事先是要樹立好榜樣,謙卑,和兄弟們履行他作為英國的代表基督。

Migration to Europe遷移到歐洲

As will be seen from this short abstract no provision was made for any further organization beyond the community on Carmel itself, whence it must be inferred that until 1210 no other foundation had been made except those at and near Antioch, which were probably subject to the patriarch of that city.作為中可以看出,從這次簡短摘要沒有為任何進一步的組織之外,社會上對焦糖本身,何時必須推斷,直到12時10分,沒有其他基金會已經取得了除那些與近安提,這很可能是受了牧該城。 After that date new communities sprang up at Saint Jean d'Acre, Tyre, Tripoli, Jerusalem, in the Quarantena, somewhere in Galilee (monasterium Valini), and in some other localities which are not known, making in all about fifteen.該日期後新社區興起,在聖讓-英畝,輪胎,的黎波里,耶路撒冷,在q uarantena,某處在加利利( m onasteriumv alini) ,並在其他一些地方,其中不為人所知,使各約1 5名。 Most of these were destroyed almost as soon as they were built, and at least in two of them some of the brothers were put to death by the Saracens.這些措施大部分已幾乎毀壞,盡快為他們修建的,至少在他們二人的一些兄弟被處死,由這部電影。 Several times the hermits were driven from Carmel, but they always found means to return; they even built a new monastery in 1263 (in conformity with the revised rule) and a comparatively large church, which was still visible towards the end of the fifteenth century.數倍隱士被逐出焦糖,但是他們總是發現手段,以回報,他們甚至建立了一個新的修道院,在1263 (符合修訂後的規則) ,以及在相對較大的教堂,仍看得見,在接近年底的15世紀。 However, the position of Christians had become so precarious as to render emigration necessary.然而,地位的基督徒已變得如此岌岌可危的,以使移民必要的。 Accordingly colonies of hermits were sent out to Cyprus, Sicily, Marseilles, and Valenciennes (c. 1238).因此殖民地的隱士發送到塞浦路斯,西西里島,馬賽,並瓦朗西(丙第1238 ) 。 Some brothers of English nationality accompanied the Barons de Vescy and Grey on their return journey from the expedition of Richard, Earl of Cornwall (1241), and made foundations at Hulne near Alnwick in Northumberland, Bradmer (Norfolk), Aylesford, and Newenden (Kent).一些兄弟的英語國籍陪同大亨德vescy和灰色他們回程時,由遠征的理查德,伯爵的歌( 1241 ) ,並作了基金會在hulne近阿尼克在諾森伯蘭, bradmer (諾福克) , aylesford , newenden (肯特) 。 St. Louis, King of France, visited Mount Carmel in 1254 and brought six French hermits to Charenton near Paris where he gave them a convent.聖路易斯,法國國王,參觀迦密山,在1254年,並帶來了6名法國隱士,以charenton在巴黎附近的地方,他給了他們修道院。 Mount Carmel was taken by the Saracens in 1291, the brothers, while singing the Salve Regina, were put to the sword, and the convent was burnt.摩焦糖是由這部電影在1291 ,兄弟,而唱撫慰里賈納,分別向寶劍,和修道院被燒毀。

Character and Name性格和姓名

With the migration of the Carmelites to Europe begins a new period in the history of the order.隨著移民的carmelites向歐洲開始了一個新的階段,在歷史上的秩序。 Little more than the bare names of the superiors of the first period has come down to us: St. Berthold, St. Brocard, St. Cyril, Berthold (or Bartholomew), and Alan (1155-1247).略多於裸姓名的上司,第一期已回落至美:聖berthold ,聖brocard ,聖西里爾, berthold (或巴爾多祿茂一世) ,以及梁家傑( 1155至1247年) 。 At the first chapter held at Aylesford, St. Simon Stock was elected general (1247-65).在第一章中舉行aylesford ,聖西蒙股票當選為秘書長( 1247年至1265年) 。 As the oldest biographical notice concerning him dates back only to 1430 and is not very reliable, we must judge the man from his works.作為最古老的傳記公告涉及他可以追溯到只有14時30分,是不是很可靠的,我們必須判斷該名男子從他的作品中。 He found himself in a difficult position.他發現自己處於一個困難的位置。 Although the rule had been granted about 1210 and had received papal approbation in 1226, many prelates refused to acknowledge the order, believing it to be founded in contravention of the Lateran Council (1215) which forbade the institution of new orders.雖然規則已獲得約12時10分,並收到了教皇的讚許,在1226年,不少主教拒絕承認該命令,認為這是建立在違反該lateran會( 1215年) ,其中禁止該機構的新訂單。 In fact the Carmelite Order as such was only approved by the Second Council of Lyons (1274), but St. Simon obtained from Innocent IV an interim approbation, as well as certain modifications of the rule (1247).事實上carmelite秩序作為這種只通過了第二屆理事會萊昂斯( 1274 ) ,但聖西蒙獲得無辜四,中期的讚許,以及對某些變通的法治( 1247名) 。 Henceforth foundations were no longer restricted to deserts but might be made in cities and the suburbs of towns; the solitary life was abandoned for community life; meals were to be taken in common; the abstinence, though not dispensed with, was rendered less stringent; the silence was restricted to the time between Compline and Prime of the following day; donkeys and mules might be kept for traveling and the transport of goods, and fowls for the needs of the kitchen.從此基金會已不再局限於沙漠,但可能提出的在城市和郊區的城鎮;孤獨的生活是被遺棄的社區生活;膳食,以採取共同的;禁慾,雖然沒有配,作出了較為寬鬆;沉默是限於之間的時間compline和總理的翌日凌晨驢和騾子可能是存放期為旅行和貨物運輸,以及家禽,為有需要的廚房。 Thus the order ceased to be eremitical and became one of the mendicant orders.因此,為了不再成為eremitical ,並成為其中的乞討命令。 Its first title, Fratres eremitæ de Monte Carmeli, and, after the building of a chapel on Carmel in honour of Our Lady (c. 1220), Eremitæ Sanctæ Mariæ de Monte Carmeli, was now changed into Fratres Ordinis Beatissimæ Virginis Mariæ de Monte Carmeli.它的第一個冠軍, fratres eremitæ德蒙特卡爾梅利,並在之後建立一個禮拜堂焦糖紀念聖母(丙1220 ) , eremitæ sanctæ mariæ德蒙特卡爾梅利,現在卻改為fratres ordinis beatissimæ virginis mariæ德蒙特卡爾梅利。 By an ordinance of the Apostolic Chancery of 1477 it was further amplified, Fratres Ordinis Beatissimæ Dei Genitricus semperque Virginis Mariæ de Monte Carmeli, which title was rendered obligatory by the General Chapter of 1680.由一個條例的使徒chancery的1477年又進一步放大, fratres ordinis beatissimæ dei genitricus semperque virginis mariæ德蒙特卡爾梅利,它的標題是,使強制由一般章1680 。 Having obtained the mitigation of the rule, St. Simon Stock, who was altogether in favour of the active life, opened houses at Cambridge (1249), Oxford (1253), London (about the same time), York (1255), Paris (1259), Bologna (1260), Naples (date uncertain), etc. He strove especially to implant the order at the universities, partly to secure for the religious the advantages of a higher education, partly to increase the number of vocations among the undergraduates.在獲得緩解的法治,聖西蒙股票,他們是完全贊成的,積極的生活,打開房子在劍橋( 1249 ) ,牛津大學( 1253 ) ,倫敦(大約同一時間) ,紐約( 1255名) ,巴黎( 1259 ) ,博洛尼亞( 1260 ) ,那不勒斯(日期不確定)等,他更是特別植入的命令,在各大學,這部分是要爭取到宗教的優勢,受過高等教育,這部分增加的數目職業之一本科生。 Although the zenith of the mendicant orders had already passed he was successful in both respects.雖然天頂的乞討訂單已經過去了,他的成功在這兩方面。 The rapid increase of convents and novices, however, proved dangerous; the rule being far stricter than those of St. Francis and St. Dominic, discouragement and discontent seized many of the brothers, while the bishops and the parochial clergy continued to offer resistance to the development of the order.急速增加的修道院與生手,但事實證明是危險的;法治遠遠低於那些聖弗朗西斯和聖星,挫折和不滿,並檢獲的許多兄弟,而主教和狹隘的神職人員繼續提供阻力開發該命令。 He died a centenarian before peace was fully restored.他死百歲之前,和平是完全恢復。 With the election of Nicholas Gallicus (1265-71) a reaction set in; the new general, being much opposed to the exercise of the sacred ministry, favoured exclusively the contemplative life.隨著選舉的尼古拉gallicus ( 1265至1271年)的反應定;新的一般,被很多反對行使神聖部,則主張完全contemplative生活。 To this end he wrote a lengthy letter entitled "Ignea sagitta" (unedited) in which he condemned in greatly exaggerated terms what he called the dangerous occupations of preaching and hearing confessions.為此,他寫了一長信,題為" ignea三趾跳鼠" (未編輯) ,他在譴責極為誇張的條款他所謂危險職業的說教和聽覺的供述。 His words remaining unheeded, he resigned his office, as did also his successor, Radulphus Alemannus (1271-74), who belonged to the same school of thought.他的話剩下的重視,他辭去了他的辦公室,因為當時也是他的繼任者, radulphus alemannus ( 1271至1274年) ,他們屬於同一所學校的思路。

Habit習慣

The approbation of the order by the Second Council of Lyons secured its permanent position among the mendicant orders, sanctioned the exercise of the active life, and removed every obstacle to its development, which thenceforth went on by leaps and bounds.認同該命令的,由第二屆理事會里昂擔保其永久職位之間的乞討命令,批准了演習的積極的生活,並取消一切障礙,它的發展,其中此後又突飛猛進。 Under Peter de Millaud (1274-94) a change was made in the habit.根據彼得德millaud ( 1274至1294年)的改變是在習慣。 Hitherto it had consisted of a tunic, girdle, scapular, and hood of either black, brown or grey colour (the colour became subject to numberless changes according to the different subdivisions and reforms of the order), and of a mantle composed of four white and three black vertical stripes or rays, whence the friars were popularly called Fratres barrati, or virgulati, or de pica (magpie).迄今它已構成一個中山裝,肩帶,肩胛骨,並遮光罩無論是黑色,棕色或灰色顏色(顏色成為受到無數的變化,根據不同的分支機構和改革的順序) ,以及一個地幔組成的4名白人和三個黑色垂直條紋或射線,何時方濟各會士被俗稱fratres barrati ,或virgulati ,或異食癖(喜鵲) 。 In 1287 this variegated mantle was exchanged for one of pure white wool which caused them to be called Whitefriars.在1287年這個雜色地幔被換到一個純白色的羊毛,導致他們被稱為了Whitefriars 。

The Thirteenth Century 13世紀

Besides the generals already mentioned, the thirteenth century saw two saints of the order, Angelus and Albert of Sicily.此外,將軍們已經說過, 13世紀看見兩名聖徒的一聲令下,三鐘經與何俊仁的西西里島。 Very little is known of the former, his biography, purporting to be written by his brother Enoch, Patriarch of Jerusalem, being a work of the fifteenth century; in those portions in which it can be controlled by contemporary evidence it is proved to be unreliable, eg when it establishes a whole Greek hierarchy at Jerusalem during the period of the Crusades; or when it gives the acts of an apocryphal Council of Alexandria together with the names of seventy bishops supposed to have taken part in it.很少人知道前者,他的簡歷,本意是寫他的弟弟伊諾克,牧耶路撒冷,作為一個工作了15世紀,在這些部分中,它是可以控制的,由當代證據,而且事實證明這是不可靠例如,當它確立了整個希臘等級在耶路撒冷期間,十字軍東征;或當它賦予行為的一種猜測會亞歷山大連同姓名,七十主教假定有參與。 These and some other particulars being altogether unhistorical, it is difficult to say how much credence it deserves in other matters for which there is no independent evidence.這些和其他一些細節正在共有文保,這是很難說有多大可信度,值得在其他事項不存在任何獨立的證據。 It is, however, worthy of notice that the Breviary lessons from 1458, when the feast of St. Angelus first appears, until 1579 represent him simply as a Sicilian by birth and say nothing of his Jewish descent, his birth and conversion at Jerusalem, etc. Nor is there any positive evidence as to the time when he lived or the year and cause of his martyrdom.但它是值得的通知指出, breviary教訓, 1458年,當盛宴聖鐘第一次出現,直到第1579代表他僅僅當作一種西西里出生無話可說,他的猶太血統,他出生和成果轉化,在耶路撒冷,等,也沒有任何正面的證據,以時間的時候,他住或後年,並導致他的心靈和思想。 According to some sources he was put to death by heretics (probably Manichæans), but, according to later authors, by a man whom he had publicly reproved for grave scandal.據一些消息來源說,他被處死異端(可能manichæans ) ,但據後來作家,由一個人,他曾公開譴責,嚴重的醜聞。 Again, the oldest legends of St. Francis and St. Dominic say nothing of a meeting of the three saints in Rome or their mutual prophecies concerning the stigmata, the rosary, and the martyrdom.再次,最古老的傳說中的聖弗朗西斯和聖星無話可說,一個會議的三位聖人在羅馬或其相互讖關於傷,念珠,以及殉難。 The life of St. Albert, too, was written a long time after his death by one who had no personal recollection of him and was more anxious to edify the reader by an account of numerous miracles (frequently in exaggerated terms), than to state sober facts.生命的聖何俊仁,也有人寫了很長時間後,他的死亡是由一個人,他沒有個人的記憶,他和更渴望陶冶讀者所交代的無數奇蹟(經常誇大計算) ,比國家清醒的事實。 All that can be said with certainty is that St. Albert was born in Sicily, entered the order very young, in consequence of a vow made by his parents, that for some time he occupied the position of provincial, and that he died in the odour of sanctity on 7 August, 1306.所有這可以說,可以確定的是,聖亞厘畢出生於西西里島,進入命令非常年輕,在後果,我壯志激情作出他的父母,那一段時間,他住的位置,省,並說,他死在氣味的神聖,對1306年8月7日。 Though he was never formally canonized, his feast was introduced in 1411.雖然他從來沒有正式冊封的,其宴是在1411 。

Foundations in the British Isles基金會在英倫三島

The English province, to which the Irish and Scottish houses belonged until 1305, made rapid progress until about the middle of the fourteenth century, after which date foundations became less numerous, while from time to time some of the smaller houses were given up.英文省,而愛爾蘭和蘇格蘭房子屬於直到1305年,取得了長足的進展,直到約中的14世紀,在此日期之後,基金會已成為數量更少,而從不時一些較小的房子都被放棄。 The Carmelites enjoyed the favour of the Crown, which contributed generously towards several foundations, particularly that of Oxford, where the royal residence was handed over to the order.該carmelites享有贊成皇冠,這有助於慷慨若干基金會,尤其是牛津大學,那裡的皇家住所被移交給該命令。 The site is now occupied by the Beaufort Hotel, but there may still be seen Friars' Walk, and the little church of St. Mary Magdalen which for a time was served by the Carmelites.該遺址現住在螺洲酒店,但還可以看到方濟各會士'走路,和小聖母馬利亞教堂magdalen其中,一時間送達,由carmelites 。 Other royal foundations were Hitchin, Marlborough, etc. John of Gaunt was a great benefactor of the order and chose his confessors from amongst its members; the House of Lancaster likewise almost always had Carmelites as royal confessors, a post which corresponded to some extent to that of royal almoner or minister of public worship.其他皇家基金會hitchin巨頭等約翰愛德華三世是一個偉大的恩人的命令,選擇了他的confessors ,由委員互;眾議院蘭卡斯特同樣幾乎總是有carmelites作為皇家師,一個職位它相當於在一定程度上,以這對皇家almoner或部長的公開崇拜。 These confessors were as a rule promoted to small bishoprics in Ireland or Wales.這些confessors被作為一項規則,以促進小bishoprics在愛爾蘭或威爾士。 The order became very popular among the people.該命令成為很受群眾歡迎的人。 The life was one of deep poverty, as is proved by various inventories of goods and other documents still extant.生命是一個嚴重的貧困,為的是證明了各種庫存的商品及其他文件仍然尚存。 During the Wycliffite troubles the order took the leadership of the Catholic party, the first opponent of Wyclif being the Provincial of the Carmelites, John Cunningham.在wycliffite麻煩命令了領導的天主教黨,首先對手的wyclif被省委的carmelites ,約翰坎寧安。 Thomas Walden was entrusted by Henry V with important missions abroad, and accompanied Henry VI to France.托馬斯華登委託亨利五世與重要的海外任務,並陪同亨利六世到法國。 During the wars with France several French convents were attached to the English province, so that the number of English Carmelites rose to fifteen hundred.戰爭期間,與法國一些法國修道院被附著在英語省份,使多少英語carmelites上升至1500 。 But ultimately there remained only the house at Calais, which was suppressed by Henry VIII.但最終仍然存在,只有眾議院的Calais ,其中被鎮壓,由亨利八世。 At the end of the fifteenth century the province had dwindled down to about six hundred religious.在去年底的15世紀,全省已縮減至約600宗教。

None of the various reforms seems to have been introduced into England, although Eugene IV and the general, John Soreth, took steps in this direction.上述各項改革,似乎已被介紹到英國,雖然尤金四和一般,約翰soreth ,採取步驟,在這個方向去做。 The peculiar constitutions in vigour in England, and the excellent organization of the province rendered the spread of abuses less to be feared than elsewhere.特有憲法魄力,在英國,並出色地組織了省內現貨蔓延虐待少了,恐怕比其他地方。 At the beginning of the Reformation a number of the junior religious, affected by the new learning, left the order; the remainder were compelled to sign the Act of Supremacy, which they apparently did without hesitation, a fact not much to be wondered at if it be borne in mind that Cardinal Wolsey had already obtained power from the Holy See to visit and reform the Carmelite convents, a measure which left no alternative but blind submission to the royal will or suppression.在剛開始改革的一些初級宗教,受新的學習,離開了秩序;其餘被強迫簽署該法案的凌駕地位,而他們顯然沒有猶豫,其實沒有太多可想知道,如果在它緊記的樞機wolsey已經獲得的權力來源是教廷訪問和改革carmelite修道院,這一措左別無選擇,但盲目提交給皇家遺囑或鎮壓。 Separated from the rest of the order, the Carmelites were for a time subjected to the rule of George Brown, general of all the mendicants, but gained a comparative independence under John Byrd, first provincial and then general of the English section of the order.脫離其餘的一聲令下, carmelites人,一時間受到法治的喬治布朗,一般的所有乞丐,但有了一個相對獨立,根據約翰伯德,第一個省級,然後一般的英語科的命令。 At the time of the final suppression there were thirty-nine houses, including that of Calais.在時間的最後的鎮壓,有39家,包括了加來。 The suppression papers are very far from complete, exhibiting the names of only about 140 religious, and containing the inventories of less than a dozen houses.鎮壓論文還相差很遠沒有完成,參展的名稱,大約只有140個宗教,並載有庫存不足十幾座房子。 These were in a state of abject poverty.這些都是在一個國家的赤貧。 At Oxford the friars had been obliged to sell the benches of the church and the trees in the road, and the commissioners stated that soon they would have to sell the tiles off the roof, to buy a few loaves of bread.在牛津的方濟各會士不得不出售長凳的教堂和樹木,在道路,和委員們表示,他們不久將有賣瓷磚離天台,購買數條麵包。 Yet one of the novices, Anthony Foxton, nothing daunted by this trying situation, fled to Northallerton to continue his novitiate, whence a few weeks later he was expelled for the second time.然而,其中的生手,安東尼福,沒有什麼沮喪這一企圖的情況,逃到northallerton繼續他的novitiate ,何時會有數星期後,他被驅逐出境,為第二次。 The property of the order was squandered with the same recklessness as other ecclesiastical goods.該財產的安全秩序是揮霍與上年罔顧其他宗教物品。 The library of the London house, considered one of the finest in England (this applies in all probability to the building, not to its contents, which bear no comparison with other monastic libraries of that period), came into the possession of Dr. Butt.該圖書館在倫敦的房子,考慮的是一個最好的,在英格蘭(這適用於所有的概率為建築,而不是它的內容,而承擔無法相比,與其他寺院的圖書館,這期間) ,進入藏博士對接。 The other buildings were sold in parcels.在其他建築物被賣給在包裹上。 Only two Carmelites are known to have suffered death, Lawrence Cook and Reginald Pecock; others seem to have recanted in prison.只有兩個carmelites已知有遭受死亡,勞倫斯和庫克( Reginald pecock ;別人似乎已經recanted在獄中。 But as practically nothing is known of the fate of a large number of convents, especially those of the North, it is more than probable that during the different risings some were burnt and their inmates hanged.但幾乎沒有人知道命運大批修道院,特別是那些北方,較有可能在不同risings一些燒焦,其犯人吊死。 Among the few remains of the English Carmelite convents must be mentioned the first two foundations, Hulne, now a ruin, and Aylesford, in a fairly good state of preservation, and also the beautiful cloister in what is now the workhouse for male paupers at Coventry.其中少數仍對英語carmelite修道院必須一提的頭兩個基金會, hulne ,現在是一家身敗名裂,並aylesford ,在一個相當良好的保存狀態,同時,也是美麗的迴廊在現在workhouse男性貧民在考文垂。 An attempt to revive the English province during the reign of Queen Mary was unsuccessful.力求重振英語省統治期間,瑪麗並沒有成功。

The history of the Irish and Scottish provinces has never been exhaustively studied, owing chiefly to the loss of many documents.歷史上,愛爾蘭和蘇格蘭省份從未徹底研究過,由於主要以喪失許多文件。 The total number of Irish convents is variously given as twenty-five or twenty-eight, but in all probability some of these had but a short-lived existence.總數愛爾蘭修道院有各種考慮2005年或2008年,但在所有的概率部分這些,但對一個短命的存在。 The fact that the general chapters repeatedly appointed Englishmen as provincials for Ireland seems to indicate that the province was frequently troubled by disunion and strife.事實是,一般章節反复任命英國人作為provincials為愛爾蘭似乎表明,全省經常困擾的分裂和內亂。 At an early epoch the Dublin house was designated a studium generale, but as it is never mentioned as such in the official lists it probably served only for the Irish students, foreign provinces not being required to send their contingent.在早期劃時代都柏林房子被指定為studium generale ,但因為這是從來沒有講過這樣,在正式名單中,它可能只是為愛爾蘭的學生,外國省份沒有被要求送他們的隊伍。 For the pursuit of higher studies special faculties were given to the Irish and Scottish in London and at the English universities.為追求更高的研究,特別院系分別向愛爾蘭和蘇格蘭,在倫敦和在英國的大學。 The Irish convents fell without exception under the iron hand of Henry VIII.愛爾蘭修道院下跌,沒有例外情況下,鐵腕的亨利八世。 The Scottish province numbered at the utmost twelve convents, of which that of South Queensferry at the foot of the Forth Bridge is still extant.蘇格蘭全省在12個最大的修道院,其中即南queensferry在腳下第四大橋仍尚存。 Here again we have to content ourselves with stray notices, from which, however, it is manifest that the order was in high favour with the Crown.在這裡我們再次向自己的內容與雜散告示,從這裡,不過,這是顯而易見的,該命令是在高贊成與皇冠。 Some Scottish Carmelites played an important part at the University of Paris, while others were among the chief promoters of the Reform of Albi.一些蘇格蘭carmelites起到了重要的一部分,在巴黎大學,而其他人則各行政推動者,改革的阿爾比。 At the suppression of the English convents many religious betook themselves to Scotland where convents were allowed to exist as best they could until 1564.在鎮壓的英語修道院許多宗教betook自己蘇格蘭修道院被允許存在,最好能到第1564 。

Constitutions憲法

The oldest constitutions that have come down to us are dated 1324, but there is evidence of a former collection begun about 1256 to supplement the rule, which lays down only certain leading principles.最古老的憲法,已回落到我們都是過時的1324 ,但有證據表明前開始收集約1256 ,以補充規則,其中規定了只有特定的領導的原則。 In 1324 the order was divided into fifteen provinces corresponding to the countries in which it was established.在第1324命令被分成15個省份相對應的國家,在它成立的。 At the head of the order was the general, elected in open scrutinium (ballot) by the general chapter; at each successive chapter he had to render an account of his administration and if no serious complaints were made he was confirmed in his office until he was removed by the nomination to a bishopric, or by death, or until he resigned of his own accord.在團長的命令一般,當選開放scrutinium (投票)由總章,在每章的連續他提供一個帳戶的他的政府,如果不出現嚴重的投訴了,他被證實在他的辦公室,直到他被拆除,由提名到一個bishopric ,或死亡,或直至他辭職,他自己的協議。 He chose his own residence which from 1472 was usually Rome.他選擇了自己的居住地,其中從第1472通常是羅馬。 He was given two companions (generally of his own choice) to accompany him on his journeys and to assist him with advice.他被兩位同伴(通常是他自己的選擇) ,陪同他對行程,並協助他的意見。 The whole order contributed annually a fixed amount towards the maintenance of the general and the costs of the administration.整個秩序作出貢獻,每年固定數額,對維修的一般和管理費用。 In theory, at least, the power of the general was almost unlimited but in practice he could not afford to disregard the wishes of the provinces and provincials.至少從理論上說,權力的一般幾乎是無限的,但在實踐中他不能漠視的意願,各省和provincials 。 The general chapter assembled fairly regularly every third year from 1247 to the end of the fourteenth century; but from that period onward the intervals became much longer, six, ten, even sixteen years.一般章組裝相當定期每第三個年頭,從1247名到去年底, 14世紀;但是,從這一時期開始的間隔時間變得更長,六年,十年,甚至16年。 The chapters had become a heavy burden, not only for the order but also for the towns which accorded them hospitality.章節已成為一個沉重的負擔,不僅是為了秩序,而且為城鎮戶口,他們的盛情款待。 Each province (their number was constantly increasing) was represented by the provincial and two companions.每個省(他們的人數正在不斷增加)的代表是省和兩個同伴。 In addition to these there was a gathering of masters in divinity and promising students who held theological disputations, while the definitors discussed the affairs of the order; as the Holy See usually granted indulgences on the occasion of chapters, the pulpits of the cathedral and parochial and conventional churches were occupied several times a day by eloquent preachers; traveling being performed on horseback, each province sent a number of lay brothers to care for the horses.除了這些有一個聚會的主人,在神性與前途的學生,他們舉行了神學disputations ,而definitors討論事務的議事程序;教廷通常授予indulgences在紀念章, pulpits的大教堂和教區與傳統教堂被佔用數倍每天雄辯佈道者;行正在騎馬,每個省派了一些奠定兄弟照顧馬匹。

Thus the general chapters were always attended by large numbers of friars, from five hundred to a thousand and more.因此,一般的章節都是出席了大批的方濟各會士,從500到1000名以上。 To defray the costs each provincial was bound to ask his sovereign for a subsidy, the English Crown as a rule contributing ten pounds, while board and lodging for the members of the chapter were found in other religious houses and among the townspeople.以支付費用每個省級勢必問他的宗主國的資助,英語皇冠作為一項規則貢獻十磅,而旅費和食宿成員對章被發現在其他宗教之家,其中鄉民。 In return the order used to grant the town letters of fraternity and to place its patron saints on the Carmelite calendar.在返回該命令用來補助金鎮信訪友愛並把其靠山聖人就carmelite日曆。 For the election of the general all the provincials and their companions assembled, but the remaining business was entrusted to the definitors, one for each province; these were chosen at the provincial chapter in such a way that no one could act in this capacity in two successive chapters.為選舉一般所有provincials和他們的同伴組裝,但其餘業務委託給definitors ,而每省,這些人選擇了在省章這樣一種方式,沒有人能夠在這方面的能力,在兩歷任章節。 The duty of the definitors was to receive reports on the administration of the provinces; to confirm provincials or to depose them, and elect the annual taxation; to nominate those who were to lecture on Scripture and the Sentences at the universities, especially Paris; to grant permission for the reception of academical honours at the expense of the whole order; to revise and interpret existing laws and add new ones; and finally, to grant privileges to deserving members, deal with those guilty of serious offenses by meting out adequate punishment, or, if cause were shown for leniency, by relaxing or condoning previous sentences.當值的definitors是接收報告,對政府當局的省份;證實provincials或廢黜他們,並推選年度稅收;提名人,以講座的經文和判刑,在各大學,特別是巴黎;批准為接收學術榮譽不惜犧牲整個秩序;修改和解釋現行法律,並增加新的;最後,給予特權,值得大家,對付那些犯有嚴重罪行,由罰沒足夠的處罰,或者,如果事業的人所表現出的寬容,放寬或縱容以前服刑。 This done, the whole chapter was again called together, he decisions of the definitors were published and handed in writing to each provincial.這做的,整章再次召集他的決定以及definitors被發表,並遞交了書面向每一個省。 Of the records of the earlier chapters only fragments are now to be found, but from 1318 the acts are complete and have partly been printed.該記錄的前幾章,只有片段的,現在被發現,但是,從1318年該行為是否齊全,並有部分已加印。

The provincial chapters were held as a rule once a year, but there were complaints that some provincials held only two in three years.省分會舉行了,作為一條規則,每年進行一次,但也有投訴,指有一些provincials只舉行兩次在三年內完成。 Each convent was represented by the prior or vicar and by one companion elected by the conventual chapter to take complaints against the prior.每一個修道院的代表是事前或副主教和一名同伴由民選產生conventual章採取投訴事先。 Out of the whole number of capitulars four definitors were chosen who together with the provincial performed much the same duties on behalf of the province as did the definitory of the general chapter on behalf of the whole order.出於整個人數capitulars四個definitors被選定人一起,與省委表現相同的職務,代表了以省為單位做definitory的一般章代表整個秩序。 Among other things they had full authority to depose priors and to elect new ones; they also selected students to be sent to the various studia generalia and particularia, and to the universities, and made adequate provision for their expenses.除其他事項外,他們有充分的權力,以廢除先驗,並選出新的,他們也挑選的學生將被送到各studia generalia和particularia ,以及各大學,並作出了適當的規定,他們的支出。 They decided--subject to the approval of the general and the Holy See--on the foundation of new convents.他們決定-批准的前提下,一般和羅馬教廷-關於基金會新的修道院。 They dealt with delinquents.他們處理工作。 Attempts were made from time to time to limit the duration of the office of provincials, but so long as the general legislation of the church tolerated an indefinite tenure of office these endeavours were practically unavailing.也曾試圖從時間,以時間來限制該辦公室的任務期限的provincials ,但只要一般的立法教會不能容忍無限期地使用權的辦公室,這些努力幾乎石沉大海。

The superior of a convent was the prior, or in his absence and during a vacancy the vicar.上級一個修道院是事先的,或在他缺席時,在空缺了副主教。 The prior was controlled in his administration by three guardians who held the keys of the common chest and countersigned bills and contracts.事前控制在他的政府是由三個監護人持有鑰匙的共同胸部及副署票據和合同。 Complaints against the prior were sent to the provincial or the provincial chapter.投訴事先已被送往省或省的篇章。 There was no limit to the tenure of office of the prior; he might be confirmed year after year for twenty or more years.有沒有限制任期的辦公室前,他可能會被證實,年復一年, 20年或以上。 In the case of convents in university towns, especially Paris and the Roman Curia (Avignon, afterwards Rome) the nomination belonged to the general or the general chapter; and there appears to have been an unwritten law that at Cambridge, Louvain, and other universities the priorship should be filled by the bachelor who in the course of the year was to take his degree as Master in Divinity.在案件修道院,在大學城,特別是巴黎和羅馬教廷(亞維儂,事後羅馬)提名屬於一般或一般章;似乎已成為不成文的規定,在劍橋大學,魯汶,以及其他大學該priorship應該缺,由學士,他們在這個過程中的一年,是要考慮他的學士碩士,在神的。 From about the middle of the fourteenth century it became customary to fill the offices of general, provincial, and prior (at least in the larger convents) exclusively with those who had taken degrees.來自約中的14世紀,它成了習慣,以填補辦事處一般,省級和事先(至少在較大的修道院)只與那些曾程度的影響。 Almost the only systematic exception to this rule is to be found in the province of Upper Germany.幾乎也是唯一有系統的例外,這個規則就是為了找到在省上德國。

Sources of Membership來源成員

When St. Simon Stock established convents in university towns he obviously counted upon the undergraduates as the future recruits of the order; nor was he deceived in his expectation.當聖西蒙股票既定修道院,在大學城很明顯,他清點後,大學生作為未來新兵的命令,也不是他欺騙,在他的意料。 True, the time had passed when in one day sixty or more students with their professors flocked to the Dominican convent at Paris to receive the habit from the hands of Blessed Jordan.不錯,時間已經過去了的時候,在一天六十或以上的學生,他們的教授前往多米尼加修道院,在巴黎接受的習慣,從手中有福了約旦。 But there were still many applicants, notwithstanding the severe by-laws of the universities regulating the reception of students in mendicant convents.但仍有許多申請人,儘管嚴重的,由法律所大學,規範接待學生乞討修道院。 It was perhaps chiefly the poor scholars who by joining one of these orders secured for themselves the necessaries of life as well as the means of education.這也許是主要窮人學者加入其中的訂單,為自己所必需的生活以及教育的方式。 Not only in the time of St. Simon but even much later a good deal of trouble was caused by these young men, who had recently exchanged the free and easy life of the scholar for the discipline of the cloister.不僅在時間的聖西蒙但即使晚得多一個很好的協議,麻煩的原因是這些年輕男子,因為他們最近曾交換了自由和安逸的學者,為學科的迴廊。 In many convents we find numerous instances of members of the families of the founders and chief benefactors becoming conventuals; in some cases the relationship of uncle and nephew may be traced through several centuries; just as the prebends of cathedrals and collegiate churches were often the gift of the founder and his family and were handed down from generation to generation, the more humble cells of a Carmelite convent remained frequently in the hands of one and the same family who considered it their duty as well as their right to be ever represented by at least one member.在許多修道院,我們找到無數的事例家庭成員的創始人兼恩人,成為conventuals ,在某些情況下的關係,叔叔和侄兒最早可追溯到經過幾百年;正如prebends的大教堂和合議教會往往是禮物的創始人和他的家人,並分別傳世一代一代傳下去,越謙虛細胞的一個carmelite修道院仍然經常在手中的是同一個家族,他們認為這是他們的職責以及他們的權利比以往派在至少有一名成員。 Again, it frequently happened that a father desirous of settling his son in life bought or endowed a cell for him in a convent.再次,它經常發生在一個父親渴望解決,他的兒子在生活中買或得天獨厚的一個細胞,他在一個修道院。 It was probably due to the ardent piety of former times and the careful preservation from dangerous society that such casual calls ripened into solid vocations.這可能是由於該殷切虔誠的前時代和小心保存,從危險的社會,這種隨意通話熟成堅實的職業。 In places where the Carmelites had public or semi-public schools they found little difficulty in choosing suitable boys.如在某些地方carmelites曾公開或半公立學校,他們發現了什麼困難,在選擇合適的男生。 But there remained a good many convents in small places, where the recruiting was evidently not so easy and where with a decreasing number of inmates a dangerous relaxation of religious observance went hand in hand.但仍然有相當多的修道院,在小地方,招募顯然不那麼容易,而以減少監獄的關押人數以一個危險的放寬宗教遵守齊頭並進。 For, throughout the Middle Ages a friar belonged to the convent in which he had taken the habit, although through force of circumstances he might be absent from it for the greater part of his life.為,在整個中東不同年齡弗萊爾屬於修道院中,他已採取的習慣,雖然通過武力的情況下,他可能會缺席,它為更大的一部分了他的命。 Hence, the general chapter repeatedly commanded the priors to receive every year one or two promising young men even if they brought no endowment, so as to gradually increase the number of religious.因此,一般章多次指揮先驗接受每年一兩個有前途的年輕男人,即使他們帶來任何養老等,以逐步增加一些宗教。 In other cases where provinces were numerous enough but lacked the means of subsistence the reception of novices might be stopped for several years.在其他情況下,省了許多不夠好,但缺乏維持生計的手段接收生手可能停止數年之久。

Probation and Formation of Members試用期和形成成員

The clothing of novices was preceded by certain inquiries into their antecedents and the respectability of their families.服裝的生手之前一定探究其前因和尊重他們的家屬。 The year of probation was spent in the convent which they entered, the "native convent" as it was called, and a father was commissioned to take personal care of a novice, teaching him the customs of the order and the ceremonies of the choir.一年的試用期是用在修道院他們進入, "本土化修道院" ,因為它是所謂的,和父親一樣,委託承擔個人照顧一個新手,教他的習俗,秩序和儀式的合唱團。 According to the oldest constitutions, each novice might have a special master, but in practice one master, assisted, if necessary, by a substitute, was appointed for all.據最古老的憲法,每一個新手可能有一個特殊的師父,但在實踐中的一個主人,協助,如果有需要,由一個替代品,被任命為所有。 The novices were not allowed to mingle with the rest of the community or with the boys of the convent school; no office that in any way could interfere with their chief duty, viz.生手均不得混入其他社會人士,或與男孩的修道院學校,沒有辦公室,在任何可能干擾其行政責任,即。 learning the Divine Office, was given them.學習神的辦公室,是給了他們。 On the other hand the prior was not to allow anyone to reprehend the novices or find fault with them, except the novice-master himself, whose business it was to teach, correct, guide, and encourage them.在另一方面,事先是不容許任何人以reprehend生手或找出他們的過失,除新手大師本人,其業務是教導的,是正確的,引導和鼓勵他們。 Towards the end of the novitiate the probationer was voted on; if he had given satisfaction he was allowed to make his profession, otherwise he was dismissed.在接近年底的novitiate感化投票,如果他給了他滿意的是讓自己的專業,否則他被駁回。 One of the conditions for profession was that the novice should be able to read fluently and write correctly.其中的一個條件,為專業的是,新手應該能夠流利的閱讀和書寫正確。 Those who might smile at such elementary requirements should remember that reading and writing implied a complete mastery of the Latin grammar and a practical knowledge of the system of abbreviations and contractions, a knowledge of palæography which is not now required either of schoolboys or advanced scholars.那些可能的笑容在這樣的基本要求應該緊記,閱讀和寫作隱含一個完整的掌握了拉丁語語法和實用知識的系統的縮寫和子宮收縮,知識的palæography這不是現在需要的任何一個男生或高級學者。

After profession the provincial decided what was to be done with the young religious.經過專業省委決定什麼是需要做同宗教界青年。 He might stand in need of further training in grammar and rhetoric, or he might begin at once the study of physics and logic.他的立場可能需要進一步的訓練,在語法和修辭,或他可能立即開始研究物理和邏輯。 If his own convent afforded no facility for these pursuits, which was probably seldom the case, he would be sent to another. Once a week or a fortnight the teacher would hold a repetition with his scholars in presence of the community so that it might become known who had studied and who had been negligent. Special convents were assigned for the study of philosophy and theology; in England the former was taught at Winchester, the latter at Coventry. The higher studies were, however, pursued at the studia generalia of which in 1324 there were eight: Paris, Toulouse, Bologna, Florence, Montpellier, Cologne, London, and Avignon. Their number was gradually increased until each province had its own, but in earlier times every province was bound to send a certain number of students to each of these studia, and to provide for their maintenance; they were even free to send a larger number than prescribed, but they had to pay for the full number even if they sent less. Their number was gradually increased until each province had its own, but in earlier times every province was bound to send a certain number of students to each of these studia, and to provide for their maintenance; they were even free to send a larger number than prescribed, but they had to pay for the full number even if they sent less. In addition to the students sent to the studia at the expence of their provinces, others might be sent at the expense of their parents and friends, provided the superiors had given their consent. Thus the number of students at the Carmelite convent at Paris averaged three hundred, in London over a hundred. The majority of students were sent to pro simplici formâ, that is just to complete their course, after which they returned to their provinces.

Only the most promising were allowed to study for degrees, because this involved a prolonged residence at the universities, ten, twelve or more years, and a corresponding outlay. (For the course of studies and the various steps leading to the degree of Master in Divinity see UNIVERSITIES.) The provincial and general chapters regulated the succession of lecturers on Scripture and the Sentences; particularly at Paris, the foremost university, provision was often made for ten years in advance, so as to ensure a steady supply of able readers and to distribute as far as possible the honours among all the provinces. (For the course of studies and the various steps leading to the degree of Master in Divinity see UNIVERSITIES.) The provincial and general chapters regulated the succession of lecturers on Scripture and the Sentences; particularly at Paris, the foremost university, provision was often made for ten years in advance, so as to ensure a steady supply of able readers and to distribute as far as possible the honours among all the provinces. For the universities would allow only one friar of each of the mendicant orders to take degrees in the course of a year, and each order was naturally anxious to put its most capable men in the foreground. It was therefore not an idle boast when it was said, as we read sometimes, of one or other of the Carmelites, that he was the best lecturer of his term at Paris. As Paris was the most celebrated university, so the doctors of Paris had precedence over those of the other universities. During the schism Paris took sides with the Clementist party whose most powerful support it was. The Urbanist party in the Carmelite Order transferred the prerogatives of the graduates of Paris to those of Bologna, a poor makeshift. There exists a fairly complete list of the Masters of Paris, but only fragmentary information concerning other universities. Unfortunately the register of the English province was destroyed during the Reformation, while the greater part of the archives of Oxford and Cambridge were lost during the Civil War, so that the priceless notices collected by John Bale are the chief sources for our knowledge of Carmelite activity at the English universities. Unfortunately the register of the English province was destroyed during the Reformation, while the greater part of the archives of Oxford and Cambridge were lost during the Civil War, so that the priceless notices collected by John Bale are the chief sources for our knowledge of Carmelite activity at the English universities. This is the more regrettable as the position of Carmelite friars was regulated by special statutes often alluded to, but nowhere preserved. On their return from the universities the religious were usually appointed to some readership, care being taken that in every convent there should be a daily lecture on Scripture and theology.

Penalties Established by Rule罰則確立法治

The constitutions deal very fully with the faults committed by religious and their punishment.憲法處理非常充分與故障是由宗教和他們的處罰。 A few words will not be out of place with regard to more serious breaches of discipline, especially the violation of the religious vows.幾句話,將不會失控的地方就更為嚴重違反紀律,特別是違反宗教誓言。 Faults against chastity were punished with six months', or, if notorious, with a year's imprisonment, and the loss of voice and place in chapter for from three to five years.故障對貞操被處以6個月的時間,或者,如果惡名昭彰,與前一年的監禁,程度和損失的聲音和位置的篇章,從4時57年。 If special circumstances required it the punishment was increased, and in the case of a grave scandal the culprit was sent to the galleys for hard labour for a number of years or even for the remainder of his life.如有特殊情況,需要它的處罰力度,在案件嚴重醜聞的罪魁禍首,被送往了伙食,為苦役了數年,或什至為餘下的一生。 If serious suspicion existed against anyone which it was impossible either to prove or to disprove, the accused was allowed the benefit of canonical purgation, ie having himself denied the charge on oath, he produced six other religious of good name and high standing to affirm on oath that they considered the charge unfounded and the accused innocent.如果嚴重懷疑存在對任何人,這是不可能的要么證明或反駁,被告獲准造福典型下法,即同時具有自己否認控罪宣誓,他製作了6個其他宗教的良好聲譽和崇高的地位,肯定對宣誓後,他們認為收費無根據和被告人無罪的。 If unable to find such witnesses, he was punished as though he had been convicted.如果無法找到這樣的證人,他被處罰,因為儘管他已被定罪。 Other faults that occur frequently were open disobedience and rebellion against the command of the superiors, the undue exercise of proprietorship, theft, apostasy (by which was understood any absence from the convent without proper permission, even if there was no intention of quitting the order permanently).其他故障頻頻發生被公開抗命和反抗的指揮上級,不當行使所有權,盜竊,叛教(其中被理解為任何沒有從修道院沒有適當的許可,即使是無意退出該命令永久) 。 Thus, if a religious, being sent from one place to another, tarried on the road without proper cause, or went out of his way without necessity, he was punished as an apostate; again, a lecturer at the universities leaving town before the end of the course was judged guilty of the same crime, his action being prejudicial to the honour of the order.因此,如果一個宗教,被送往從一個地方運送到另一個地方,守侯在道路上沒有適當的事業,或失控,他沒有必要,他被處罰,作為一個叛教者;一遍,講師,在離開大學城年底前該課程判定犯有同樣的罪,他的行動受到妨害名譽秩序。 In all these matters it must be borne in mind that the penal system of the Middle Ages was far less humane than the modern one, and that many faults were ascribed to perversity of will where we should make allowance for weakness of character or even mental derangement.在所有這些問題,必須緊記的刑法制度的中世紀是遠不及人道比現代的,而且許多故障歸因於變態的,將我們也應該體諒軟弱的性格,甚至精神錯亂。 The more serious faults were judged and punished by the provincial and general chapters, to whom was also reserved the absolution of the culprits and their reinstatement.更嚴重的故障判斷和處罰,由有關省和一般章節,其中也保留了赦免的罪犯和他們復職。 The general chapters frequently granted free pardon to all prisoners except those recently condemned and there were occasional complaints that some of the superiors showed undue leniency; but the material before us proves that on the whole discipline was well maintained.一般章節常常給予免費赦免所有政治犯除外近日譴責,並間中有投訴,指有一些上級表明,過分寬大,但該物質在我們面前證明對整個紀律是良好的維護。 With an average of twenty thousand friars or more during the fifteenth century, the "Chronique scandaleuse" is singularly unimportant, a fact that tells in favour of the order, all the more as a large percentage of this number consisted of students at the great universities exposed to many temptations.與平均20000方濟各會士或以上,在15世紀, " chronique scandaleuse " ,是奇不重要,這一事實告訴贊成的一聲令下,所有的更象是一個大的比例,這個數字包括學生在偉大的大學暴露了很多誘惑。

Constitutional Revisions憲法修正案

These constitutions underwent numerous changes.這些憲法經歷了無數的變化。 Almost every chapter made additions which were frequently canceled or qualified by subsequent chapters.幾乎每章作了增補,其中經常取消或合格的,由以後的章節。 John Balistarius (1358-74) published a revised edition in 1369 (unedited) and the mitigation of the rule by Eugene IV necessitated a further revision under John Soreth (1462, printed in 1499).約翰balistarius ( 1358至1374年)出版了一本修訂版在1369 (未編輯)和減輕人治尤金四,有必要作進一步修改,根據約翰soreth ( 1462 ,印數1499 ) 。 Nevertheless it must be admitted that the legislation of the order moved too slowly, and that many measures were out of date almost as soon as they were passed.但是必須承認的立法工作,以便提出過慢,而且許多措施已不合時宜,幾乎他們一旦獲得通過。 Moreover, laws that may have been excellent for Norway or England were hardly applicable in Sicily or at Seville.此外,法律上可能已非常適合挪威和英格蘭幾乎適用於西西里島或在塞維利亞。 These simple facts account for many complaints about relaxation or want of discipline.這些簡單的事實,占到不少投訴,放寬或想要有紀律的勞動者。

From the approbation of the order by the Council of Lyons until the outbreak of the great Western Schism (1274-1378) there was a steady increase in provinces and convents, interrupted only temporarily by the Black Death.從讚許,該命令的,由理事會里昂直到爆發西部大分裂( 1274年至1378年)是一個穩定上升的省份和修道院,中斷只是暫時的,由黑死病。 At the time of the schism it was not left to the provinces, much less to individuals, to choose their own party; they necessarily followed the politics of the country to which they belonged.在當時的分裂,它不是左到省,更遑論個人,選擇自己的黨,他們一定會遵循政治的國家,他們所屬的。 A census taken in 1390 shows the following provinces on the Urbanist side: Cyprus (number of convents not stated); Sicily, with 18 convents; England with 35; Rome with 5; Lower Germany with 12; Lombardy with 12 or 13; Tuscany with 7; Bologna with 8; and Gascony with 6.普查所採取的第1390呈現以下省份對urbanist方:塞浦路斯(人數修道院沒有說明) ;西西里島, 18修道院;英格蘭有35名;羅馬五日;較低的德國與12個;倫巴第12或13人;托斯卡納與7 ;博洛尼亞8個;加斯科尼語與6 。 The Clementist party with the Scottish, French, Spanish, and the greater number of the German houses, was rather more powerful.該clementist黨與蘇格蘭,法語,西班牙語,和更大數量的德語房子,而不是更強大。 The general, Bernard Olerius (1375-83) being a native of Calatonia, adhered to Clement VII, and was succeeded first by Raymond Vaquerius and next by John Grossi (1389-1430), one of the most active generals, who during the schism made numerous foundations and maintained excellent discipline among the religious belonging to his party, so that at the union in 1411 he was unanimously elected general of the whole order.一般伯納德olerius ( 1375至1383年)作為一個土生土長的calatonia ,堅持克萊門特第七,並首次成功地由雷蒙德vaquerius和明年約翰格羅西( 1389至1430年) ,其中最活躍的將領,他們在分裂提出了許多基金會和保持了良好的紀律,宗教屬於他的黨,這樣,在聯盟在1411年,他被一致推選為秘書長,整個秩序。 The Urbanists had been less fortunate.該urbanists已經那麼幸運。 Michael de Anguanis who succeeded Olerius (1379-86) having become suspect, was deposed after a long trial; the financial administration was far from satisfactory, and the loss of Paris proved a serious blow to that section of the order.邁克爾德anguanis接替olerius ( 1379至1386年)成為嫌疑人,被廢黜經過長期試驗;財務管理,是遠遠不能令人滿意,程度和損失的巴黎證明是一項嚴重打擊該路段的秩序。 Soon after the re-establishment of the union a radical change of the rule became necessary.不久後,重新建立該聯盟有一個根本性的轉變的法治成為必要的。 This, as has been seen, was originally composed for a handful of hermits living in a singularly mild climate.這一點,正如已經看到,最初由極少數的隱士生活在一個奇異溫和的氣候。 Notwithstanding the few changes made by Innocent IV, the rule had proved too severe for those who spent one half of their life in the intellectual turmoil of the university and the other half in the exercise of the sacred ministry at home.儘管數所作的改動無辜四,法治已證明是過於嚴厲對於那些花了1半,他們的生命在智力風暴中的大學與另一半在行使神聖財政部在家中。 Accordingly Eugenius IV granted in 1432 a mitigation allowing the use of flesh meat on three or four days a week, and dispensing with the law of silence and retirement.因此eugenius四批在第1432緩解允許使用的血肉肉三或四天一個星期,並配發符合法律規定的沉默和退休。 But even so the chief abuses that had crept in during the fourteenth century were by no means abolished.但即使如此,行政濫權行為已見好轉,在14世紀的人,絕不廢除。

Abuses, Irregularities濫用的情況,不合規定

It is indispensable to have a clear idea of these abuses in order to understand the reforms called into life to counteract them.它是不可缺少的有一個清晰的概念,這些弊端,以了解所謂的改革,到生活中,以抵消它們。

The permanency of superiors.永久性質的上司。 Even an excellent superior is liable to lose his first energy after a number of years while an indifferent superior seldom improves.即使是一個很好的上司,即屬違法喪失了他的第一能源,經過數年,而不聞不問的上司很少好轉。 This is one of the most difficult problems in the history of monasticism, but the experience of fifteen hundred years has turned the scales in favour of a limited tenure of office.這是一個最困難的問題,在歷史上的修道生活,但經驗一千五百年把秤贊成有限度的表揚。

The right of private property.正確的私有財產。 Notwithstanding the vow of poverty many religious were allowed the use of certain revenues from hereditary property, or the disposal of moneys acquired by their work, teaching, preaching, the copying of books, etc. All this was fully regulated by the constitutions and required special permission from the superiors.儘管發誓貧窮的許多宗教被允許使用某些收入由世襲財產,或者處置的款項收購他們的工作,教學,傳道,複製圖書等,這一切,又是完全受憲法和特殊需要允許來自上司。 It was, therefore, quite reconcilable with a good conscience, but it necessarily caused inequality between rich and poor friars.因此,有人十分調和的一個良好的良知,但它必然造成不平等,富國和窮國之間的方濟各會士。

The acceptance of posts of honour outside the order.接受職位的榮譽外秩序。 From the middle of the fourteenth century the popes became more and more lavish in granting the privileges of papal chaplaincies, etc., to those who paid a small fee to the Apostolic chancery.來自中東的14世紀教宗變得越來越大方給予特權的羅馬教皇chaplaincies等,對那些支付一小筆費用,以使徒chancery 。 These privileges practically withdrew religious from the rule of their superiors.這些特權,幾乎退席,由宗教統治他們的上司。 Again, after the Black Death (1348) thousands of benefices fell vacant, which were too small to provide a living for an incumbent; these were eagerly sought after by religious, among others by Carmelites, who, for an insignificant service, such as the occasional celebration of Mass in a chantry, obtained a small but acceptable income.再次,經過黑死病( 1348 )千benefices下跌空置,其中太小,以提供一個生活,為現任議員,這些人迫切地尋求後,由宗教團體,其中包括由carmelites ,衛生組織,為一個微不足道的服務,如以偶爾慶祝群眾在了Chantry ,得到了一個規模雖小但可接受的收入。 The papal dispensation ab compatibilibus and the necessary permission of the superiors were easily obtained.教皇省卻抗體compatibilibus和必要的許可,上級很容易獲得。 Others again were empowered to serve high ecclesiastics or lay people "in all things becoming a religious" or to act as chaplains on board ship, or to fill the post of organist in parish churches.別人又被授予服務高ecclesiastics或停工的人, "在一切事上成為一個宗教" ,或擔任牧師在船上,或出任該職位的管風琴在教區教堂。 All such exceptions, of which many instances could be quoted, tended to loosen the bonds of religious observance; they filled with pride those who had obtained them and with envy those who were less fortunate.所有這些例外,其中有許多事例可以援引,傾向於放寬債券的宗教紀念活動,他們豪情滿懷那些已取得他們羨慕那些不太幸運。

A further source of disorder was found in the small convents with only a few religious, who, naturally, could not be expected to keep up the full observance and sometimes appear to have kept hardly any.進一步混亂的根源被發現在小修道院只有少數宗教,人,自然也不能指望保持了充分尊重和有時似乎一直難。

Reforms改革

These and other abuses were by no means peculiar to the Carmelites; they occurred, to say the least, in an equal degree in all the mendicant orders, and awakened everywhere loud cries for reform.這些和其他虐待行為的人決不止該carmelites ;它們發生,至少可以說,在一個平等的程度,在所有乞討命令,並喚醒了,到處呼聲甚高的改革。 In point of fact, long before the end of the Western Schism nearly every order had inaugurated that long series of partial and local reforms which constitutes one of the most refreshing elements in the history of the fifteenth century; but though it seems to have remained unknown to the strenuous reformers, no lasting improvement was possible so long as the root of the evil was not removed.這一點,事實上,只要在年底前,西部裂幾乎每個命令啟動了這麼久的一系列局部和地方的改革,構成了一個最清新的元素,在歷史上的15世紀,但儘管它似乎仍未知到艱苦的改革者,就沒有持久的改善是可能的,只要把這個罪惡之根,是不能完全取消。 This was not in the power of individual reformers, even of saints, but required the concerted action of the whole Church.這是不是在權力的個別的改革者,甚至聖人,但需要採取協調一致的行動的整個教會。 It required a Council of Trent to raise the whole conception of religious life to a higher level.它需要一個議會的遄達,以提高整體的概念,宗教生活向更高層次發展。 The first step towards reform in the Carmelite Order dates from 1413, when three convents, Le Selve near Florence, Gerona, and Mantua, agreed to adopt certain principles, among which were the limitation of the tenure of office to two years, with an enforced vacation of four years between each two terms of office, the abolition of all private property, and the resignation of all posts necessitating the residence of religious outside their convents.第一步改革中carmelite秩序的日期從1413年,當3個修道院,樂selve附近的佛羅倫斯,赫羅納,曼圖瓦,同意採取某些原則,其中包括限制的職位任期為兩年,強迫休假的4年間,每兩個任期,全部取消私有財產,並辭去所有職位,必然促使居住的宗教以外的修道院。 After considerable difficulty, the congregation of Mantua, as it was called, obtained in 1442 quasi-autonomy under a vicar-general.經過相當大的困難,會眾的曼圖瓦,因為它是所謂的,得到了在1442年半自治下副主教幹事。 It gradually brought under its authority several other houses in Italy, but it was only after the death of the general, John Soreth, himself an ardent reformer but an enemy of all separatist tendencies, that it began to spread with rapidity.它逐步在其權力下其他幾個房子,在意大利,但它是唯一死亡後,一般,約翰soreth ,自己是一個熱血改革者,但敵人的一切分裂傾向,它開始蔓延與快捷。 In 1602 it counted fifty-two houses. 1602年,它算52房子。 The most celebrated member of this reform was Blessed Baptista Mantuanus (Spagnoli) (qv) who filled the office of vicar-general six times and became general of the whole order.最有名的成員,這一改革是有福蒂斯塔mantuanus ( spagnoli ) (請參閱)的人,填補了辦公室的代理秘書長的6倍,並成為一般的整個秩序。 The statutes of this congregation were printed in 1540 and again in 1602.章程本會眾被印在第1540號決議,並再次1602年。 After the French Revolution it was amalgamated with the remains of the old stock of the order in Italy.經過法國大革命,它是與合併的遺骸舊股票的命令,在意大利。

Blessed John Soreth (1451-71) throughout his long generalship carried out a similar reform, but on the basis of the constitutions.祝福約翰soreth ( 1451至1471年) ,他長期generalship進行了一項類似的改革,但在此基礎上的憲法。 His own life and work are a proof that under certain circumstances a protracted tenure of office can be most profitable.他自己的生活和工作是一個證明,在某些情況下一個長期職位任期可以得到最有利可圖的。 While offically visiting numerous provinces he established in each of them several reformed houses whither the most fervent religious flocked.而正式訪問的許多省份建立了他,在他們每個人的幾個改革向何處去房子最熱切宗教蜂擁而至。 For these he obtained many privileges; no superior could refuse permission to one desirous of joining such a convent; the very fact of entering a reformed house dispensed a religious from penalties previously incurred, which, however, would revive should he return to a non-reformed convent.對於這些,他獲得了許多特權,沒有優勢可以拒絕允許一個渴望加入這樣一個修道院;非常的事實,進入了一個改革家配藥的是一個宗教,從先前的懲罰招致的,卻會恢復他應該返回一個非改革修道院。 No superior could withdraw a member of a reformed community except for the purpose of reforming other houses through his instrumentality.沒有優越的,可以撤回成員經過改革社區除為目的的改革其他房子通過他的工具性。 If Soreth was, on the whole, successful in his enterprise he also encountered a certain amount of systematic opposition on the part of graduates who were loth to give up their privileges of not attending choir, of taking their meals privately, and of having lay brothers and "fags" [younger brothers required to perform certain menial tasks] for their personal attendance, and who preferred to withdraw to distant convents rather than submit to the rules of the general.如果soreth是,就整體而言,成功的在他的企業,他也遇到了一定數額的系統性反對黨對部分畢業生被loth放棄他們的特權,沒有參加合唱團,走有自己的私人餐,並有裁員兄弟" fags " [弟弟需要擔當一定的粗活任務]供其個人出勤率,並推薦撤回到遙遠的修道院,而不是向規則的一般。 The latter obtained leave from the Holy See to fill up the gaps by bestowing the title of doctor on those who were not qualified by a proper course at the universities, a most dangerous proceeding, which before long led to fresh and serious abuses.後者獲得了休假,由羅馬教廷填補空白所賜予的標題醫生對那些不符合資格,由一個適當的課程,在大學,最危險的程序,曾幾何時,導致食水和嚴重的人權迫害。 It has often been asserted that Soreth died of poison, but there is no foundation for such a calumny.人們經常斷言soreth死於中毒,但沒有任何的基礎,這樣的誹謗。 Even after his death the movement so happily inaugurated did not lose all vigour, but neither of his two immediate successors understood the art of appealing to the higher nature of his subjects, whereby Soreth had gained his marvellous influence.甚至在他死後的運動,所以快樂揭幕並沒有喪失全部的活力,但也對他的兩個直接後繼理解的藝術吸引力,以較高的性質,他的科目,即soreth獲得了他的奇妙的影響力。 Christopher Martignon (1472-81) was considered an intruder, his election being ascribed to the pressure exercised by Sixtus IV, his personal friend, and Pontius Raynaud (1482-1502) had the reputation of being a martinet.克里斯托弗馬爾蒂尼翁( 1472年至1481年)被認為是一個入侵者,他的當選被歸因於壓力行使Sixtus的第四節,他的私人朋友,和祂的雷諾( 1482年至1502年)的聲譽,作為一個martinet 。 Peter Terasse (1503-13) visited most of the provinces and has left in his register (unedited) a vivid picture of the condition of the order immediately before the Reformation.彼得terasse ( 1503至1513年)訪問最多的省份,並已遺留在其註冊(未編輯) ,生動地描述了條件,該命令立即前改造。 Many convents, he is able to state, were thoroughly reformed, while others were far from perfect.許多修道院,他能夠狀態,被徹底改革,而其他人則遠遠不夠完善。 He himself, however, was too generous in granting licenses and privileges, and, though strict in punishing, he contributed not a little to the very abuses he intended to abolish.他自己,但是,過於慷慨的給予許可和特權,並,但從嚴懲治,他的貢獻不小,以十分虐待,他打算取消。 His successor, Blessed Baptista Mantuanus (1513-16), was too old and worn out to exercise any lasting influence.他的繼任者,有福蒂斯塔mantuanus ( 1513至1516年) ,太舊和破舊行使任何持久的影響力。 He obtained, however, the recognition and approbation of the congregation of Albi.他得到了,但是,承認和讚許的會眾的阿爾比。

This congregation had been established in 1499 by Bishop Louis d'Amboise, who, there being no reformed convent in the province of France, obtained from Mantuanus tow religious, one of whom died on the road; the survivor found in the Collège Montaigu in Paris some twenty students willing to embrace the religious life.這會眾已成立於1499年,由主教路易斯-a mboise,世衛組織,如果沒有改革,修道院,在該省的法國,索取m antuanus絲束宗教,其中一人死於道路;倖存者發現,在該學院m ontaigu在巴黎約20個學生願意去擁抱的宗教生活。 They were placed in the convent of Albi, while the legitimate inmates were dispersed.他們被安置在修道院的阿爾比,而合法的犯人被驅散。 Soon other convents, Meaux, Rouen, Toulouse, joined the movement, at the head of which was Louis de Lyra.很快其他修道院,莫城高等法院,盧昂,圖盧茲,加入不結盟運動,在總的是路易德lyra 。 It is related, though hardly credible, that the general died of grief when he heard of this new rift in the unity of the order.這是相關連的,雖然很難有公信力,即一般死亡的悲傷,當他聽到這個新的裂痕,在統一的秩序。 The General Chapter of 1503 excommunicated Louis de Lyra on the ground that the right of reforming belonged to the general and not to self-constituted reformers.一般章1503年驅逐路易德lyra所持理由是正確的改革屬於一般不要自我構成改革者。 But the congregation was already strong enough to offer resistance and had even found an entrance into the most important convent of the order, that of Paris.但眾已經足以抗拒,並甚至發現一個入口進入,最重要的修道院,一聲令下,即巴黎。 The next year Terasse spent five months there trying to win back the dissidents.次年terasse花了5個月來試圖贏回持不同政見者。 At last, by a strange error of judgment, he ordered the lecturers to leave Paris at the conclusion of the term and the students to return to their native convents within three days.最後,由一個奇怪的判斷上的錯誤,他已下令講師離開巴黎在總結該提法與學生回到自己的本土修道院內3天。 The natural result was that many of them formally joined the congregation of Albi which now obtained complete control at Paris.自然的結果是,他們中的許多人已正式加入眾的阿爾比現在得到了完全控制,並於巴黎。 A compromise was then reached whereby the vacancies were alternately filled by the order and by the congregation of Albi.一個折衷當時達成的,而有關職位空缺,其中交替缺,由秩序和所聚集的阿爾比。 Baptista Mantuanus obtained for the latter papal approbation and an extension of the privileges of his own congregation.蒂斯塔mantuanus獲得了後者教皇的讚許,並延長特權他自己的會眾。 Notwithstanding this victory the new congregation became prey to disunion and was unable to make much headway.儘管這一勝利,新的會眾成為獵物,以分裂和未能取得多大進展。 The evils brought about by the Reformation and the civil and religious wars weighed heavily upon it until, in 1584, it was dissolved by the Holy See.該邪惡所帶來的改革與民間和宗教戰爭,沉重地壓在它之前,在1584 ,它被解散,由羅馬教廷。

A further reform of somewhat different nature was that of the convent of Mount Olivet near Genoa, 1514; it consisted in a return to the purely contemplative life and the ancient austerity of the order.進一步改革有所不同性質的,是的修道院裡,科特附近的熱那亞, 1514號決議;它是一個回歸到單純的contemplative生活和古代緊縮的命令。 The general, Giovanni Battista Rubeo, has left a record that during his visit there in 1568, which lasted only three days, he abstained from flesh meat.一般,吉奧瓦尼-巴蒂斯塔r ubeo,留下了記錄,他在訪問中,有在1 568年,歷時僅3天,他投棄權票,從肉的肉。 This reform continued well into the seventeenth century.這項改革持續到17世紀。 A later reform modelled upon that of St. Teresa was inaugurated at Rennes in 1604 by Philip Thibault (1572-1638) and nine companions.稍後的改革為藍本,講述我的聖德肋撒上台雷恩於1604由弘thibault ( 1572至1638年)和9個同伴。 With the assistance of the Discalced Carmelites he was able to give it a solid basis, so that before long it embraced the whole province of Touraine.隨著援助的discalced carmelites他能夠給它一個堅實的基礎,使前長時間擁抱,是全省的touraine 。 Unlike the other reforms it remained in organic union with the bulk of the order, and enjoyed the favour of the French Court.不像其他方面的改革,它仍然是在有機聯盟範圍內大部分的秩序,並享有贊成法國法庭。 Among its greatest ornaments were Leo of St. John, one of the first superiors, and the blind lay brother, John of St. Sampson, author of various works on the contemplative life.其中最大的首飾被利奧的聖約翰,第一個上級,並盲人奠定兄弟,約翰聖桑普森,作者的各種工程對contemplative生活。

Affiliations, Carmelite Sisters無黨派人士座談會, carmelite姐妹

About the middle of the fifteenth century several communities of Beguines at Gueldre, Dinant, etc., approached John Soreth with the request that they be affiliated to the order (1452).約中的15世紀幾個社區的beguines在gueldre , dinant等,走近約翰soreth並要求它們必須附屬於該命令( 1452 ) 。 He gave them the rule and constitutions of the friars, to which he added some special regulations which unfortunately do not appear to be preserved.他給他們的法治和憲法的方濟各會士,為他增加了一些特殊規定,其中不幸的是似乎沒有保存下來。 The prestige of the Carmelite Sisters grew rapidly when the Duchess of Brittany, Blessed Frances d'Amboise (1427-85), joined one of the convents, which she herself had founded.威望的carmelite姐妹迅速成長,當公爵夫人的布列塔尼,聖弗朗西斯-a mboise( 1 427至1 485年) ,加入其中的修道院,她自己成立了。 Before the end of the century there were convents in France, Italy (Blessed Jane Scopelli, 1491), and Spain.之前,到本世紀末,有修道院,在法國,意大利(有福詹氏scopelli , 1491 ) ,和西班牙。 Especially in the latter country the manner of life of the nuns was greatly admired, and several convents became so crowded that the slender means available hardly sufficed for their maintenance.尤其是在後者的國家的方式生活的修女們感到十分欽佩,和幾個修道院,成為太擁擠認為苗條方法的情況下,難以滿足他們的維修工程。

St. Teresa and St. John of the Cross聖德肋撒和聖約翰的十字架

The convent of the Incarnation at Avila was destined to fashion the brightest ornament of the Carmelite Order, St. Teresa of Jesus.修道院的化身,在阿維拉是注定要時尚最亮的飾品的carmelite秩序,聖德肋撒的耶穌。 Born in 1515 she entered the convent in 1535 and made her profession in the following year.出生, 1515她進入修道院,在1535年,並提出她的專業可以在下一年度。 Shortly afterwards she fell ill and, unable to fulfill the usual duties of a religious, gave herself to the practice of mental prayer.不久之後,她身體不適,無法履行正常職務的是一個宗教,給自己到實踐中的精神祈禱。 Frightened by her directors, who believed her trances to be diabolical illusions, she passed through a period of interior trials which awakened in her the desire for a more perfect life.害怕她的董事,他們認為她的trances被兇殘的幻想,她通過一段時間的內部測試驚醒,在她渴望有更完美的生活。 Learning that the primitive rule aimed at the contemplative life and prescribed several austerities which had since been dispensed with, she resolved upon the foundation of a convent for thirteen nuns in her native town, which after many difficulties was established on 24 August, 1562.當了解到這個原始的統治,著眼於contemplative生命和明幾austerities ,自那時以來,獲配,她解決的基礎之上一個修道院,為13名修女,在她的城市,經過許多困難,是建立在1562年8月24日。 The general, Rubeo (1564-78), who at that time visited Spain, approved of what St. Teresa had done and encouraged her to make further foundations.一般, rubeo ( 1564至1578年) ,他在這個時候訪問西班牙,核准什麼聖德肋撒做了,並鼓勵她作出進一步的基礎。 In a letter written from Barcelona (unedited) he enlarged on the blessings of the contemplative life and granted permission for the establishment of two convents for reformed friars within the province of Castile.在一封書信,從巴塞羅那(未編輯) ,他擴大會議上祝福的contemplative生活和批准,為建立兩個修道院,為改革的方濟各會士與省卡斯蒂利亞。 But warned by what had happened in the case of the congregation of Albi he made some very stringent regulations so as to suppress from the outset any separatist tendencies.但他警告,由發生了什麼事,在案件聚集的阿爾比,他提出了一些非常嚴格的規定,以便為鎮壓從一開始就任何分離主義傾向。 In the course of fifteen years St. Teresa founded sixteen more convents of nuns, often in the teeth of the most obstinate oppression.在這個過程中的十五年聖德肋撒成立了16多修道院的修女,而且往往是在牙齒的最頑固的壓迫。

Among the friars she found two willing helpmates, the prior Anton de Heredia who had already filled important posts in the order, eg that of auditor of civil causes at the General Chapter of 1564, and St. John of the Cross, who had just completed his studies.當中方濟各會士,她發現有兩名願意helpmates ,事前安東德赫雷迪亞他們已經填補了重要的職位,在一聲令下,例如說,核數師的民事原因,在一般的篇章1564 ,和聖約翰的十字架,他們剛剛完成他的研究工作。 They entered with supernatural courage upon a life of untold hardships and were joined not only by a number of postulants, but also by many of their former brethren in religion.他們進入與超自然的勇氣後的生活,千辛萬苦,並加入不僅是由多個postulants ,而且他們的許多前兄弟在宗教。 The province of Castile being numerically weak, it stands to reason that the provincial resented the departure of so many of his subjects, among whom were the most reliable and promising.省卡斯蒂利亞正在數值比較弱,但是它是合乎道理的,省反感的離任,所以他的很多科目,其中有最可靠和最有前途的。 The papal nuncio, Hormaneto, was favourably disposed towards the reform.教宗聖座大使, hormaneto ,留下了良好的處置,對改革。 As Apostolic visitor of the religious orders he wielded papal powers and considered himself entitled to overrule the restrictions of the general.正如使徒遊客的宗教命令他揮起教皇的權力,並認為自己有權推翻的限制一般。 He granted leave for the foundation of other convents of friars, besides the two stipulated by the general, and for the extension of the reform to the province of Andalusia.他已批准該基金會的其他修道院的方濟各會士,除了兩所規定的一般,時間和延長改革向省安達盧西亞。 By an almost incomprehensible error of judgment he appointed visitor of the Calced Carmelites of this last named province Jerome of the Mother of God (Jerome Gratian, 1545-1615) who had just made his profession among the Reformed or Discalced Carmelites, and who, however zealous and prudent, could lay no claim to much experience of the religious life.由一個幾乎難以理解的判斷上的錯誤,他任命了遊客的calced carmelites這一最後命名為省杰羅姆的天主之母(杰羅姆gratian , 1545年至1615年) ,他們剛剛取得了他的職業之間的改革或discalced carmelites ,是誰,但熱心和審慎的,可以不擬提出了很多的經驗的宗教生活。 The Calced Carmelites appealed to Rome, and the result was that the general took a great dislike to the new reform.該calced carmelites呼籲羅馬,其結果是一般了很大的反感,以新的改革。 He himself was a reformer, and had favoured the foundation of a convent of reformed nuns at Alcalá de Henares by Mary of Jesus (1563), and of a reformed convent of friars at Onde in Aragon under James Montanes (1565), and in his visitations he frequently resorted to drastic measures to bring about improvements; moreover he was a strict disciplinarian, punishing faults with a severity which to us seems inconceivable.他本人是一個改革者,並贊成基金會一個修道院的修女改革後,在德的Alcalá henares瑪麗的耶穌( 1563 ) ,以及由一種改良的修道院的方濟各會士在購買方法,在阿拉貢根據詹姆斯Montanes ) ( 1565 ) ,並在他的visitations他經常訴諸斷然措施,以改善;何況他是一個嚴格的規律,懲治故障與嚴重性,而我們似乎是不可想像的。 When he found that the danger he had striven to avert, viz.當他發現的危險,他一直努力避免,即。 a repetition of the disorders caused by the congregation of Albi, had actually occurred, he resolved to root out the new reform.重複該疾病所造成的會眾的阿爾比,實際上已發生了,他下定決心從根本上對新的改革。 The General Chapter of 1575 decided to abolish the Discalced Carmelites, threatened to send Mariano del Terdo, formerly a hermit, and Baldassare Nieto, an ex-Minim, to their former abodes, ordered the three Andalusian convents of Grenada, Seville, and Peñuela, to be closed, and the friars to return to their proper convents within three days.一般章1575年決定取消discalced carmelites ,揚言要派( Mariano刪除terdo ,以前是隱士,並baldassare涅托,當然微量,其昔日abodes ,命令3安達盧西亞修道院的格林納達,塞維利亞和peñuela ,要關閉和方濟各會士,以返回他們的正當修道院內3天。 The acts of the chapter (unedited) are silent as to the nuns, but it is known from the correspondence of St. Teresa that she received orders to choose one of her convents their to remain, and to abstain from further foundations.行為一章(未編輯) ,是無聲的,以修女,但據了解,從函授的聖德肋撒說,她接到命令,以選擇一個修道院,她自己留下來,以投棄權進一步基金會。

The Discalced friars, however, relying upon the powers they had received from the nuncio, resisted these commands and went so far as to hold a provincial chapter at Almodóvar (1576).該discalced方濟各會士,但是,依靠權力,他們已收到了來自聖座大使,抵制這些命令和竟然以持有省章在almodóvar (第1576 ) 。 The general sent a visitor with ample powers, Girolamo Tostado, who for some years had been his official companion and was fully acquainted with his intentions.一般發送旅客充分權力, girolamo托斯達多,一些年來,一直是他的官方伴侶,並充分了解他的意圖。 At this juncture the nuncio died and was succeeded by Sega, who at first remained impartial but soon began to proceed vigorously against the reform.在這個時候,聖座死亡,並成功地由Sega ,誰在第一仍然是公正的,但不久即開始著手大力反對改革。 A second chapter having been held at the same place (1578), the nuncio excommunicated all the capitulars; St. John of the Cross was seized in the convent of the Incarnation at Avila where he was confessor and hurried to Toledo, where he was thrown into a dungeon and cruelly treated; others were imprisoned elsewhere.第二章後,被關押在同一個地方( 1578 ) ,聖座大使驅逐所有capitulars ;聖約翰的十字架被繳獲,在修道院的化身,在阿維拉如他是懺悔,並急忙向托萊多,在那裡,他拋出成為一個地牢,並殘酷地對待,其他人被監禁在其他地方。 The persecution lasted for nearly a year until at length Philip II intervened.這場迫害持續了將近一年,直到在長弘二干預。 The reform having thus proved too strong, it was resolved to give it legal standing by establishing a special province for the Discalced friars and nuns, but under obedience to the general (1580).改革後,從而證明是過於強大,能獲得解決,給它的法律地位,建立一個特別省,為discalced方濟各會士和修女,但根據以服從一般( 1580 ) 。 The first provincial was Jerome Gratian who throughout had been the chief support of St. Teresa.首先是省委杰羅姆gratian整個人已被行政支持聖德肋撒。 To her it was given to see the triumph of her work, but dying on 4 October, 1582, she was spared the pain which the disunion among the friars of her own reform must have caused her.她當時看到的勝利,她的工作,但死亡1582年10月4日,她被免於疼痛,其中的分裂之中方濟各會士,她自身的改革必須有對她造成的。 When founding her first convent she had a definite object in view.建國時,她的第一個女修道院,她有一個有的放矢的看法。 Not only was she anxious to reintroduce the contemplative life, but knowing how many souls were daily being lost through heresy and unbelief she wished the nuns to pray and offer up their mortifications for the conversion of infidels and heretics, while the friars were also to engage in active work.這不僅是她渴望重新contemplative生活,但不知有多少人的心靈,每天正在失去通過異端,不信者,她希望修女禱告,並提供了其mortifications為轉換的異教徒和異端,而方濟各會士,也從事在活躍的工作。 She was delighted when St. John of the Cross and his brethren went from village to village instructing the ignorant in Christian doctrine, and her joy knew no bounds when, in 1582, missioners of the order were sent out to the Congo.她很高興的時候,聖約翰的十字架和他的弟兄來到村串鄉,指示昧於基督教教義,和她的喜悅,知道沒有疆界的時候,在1582 ,傳教士的命令發送到剛果。 This first missionary expedition, as well as a second, came to an abrupt end through misadventures at sea, but a third was successful, at least so long as it received support from home.這首傳教探險隊,以及第二次來到突然終止通過misadventures在海上,但第三個是成功的,至少這麼久,因為它得到了家。

Jerome Gratian, the provincial, was heart and soul in these undertakings.杰羅姆gratian ,省,是心臟和靈魂,在這些事業的發展。 When his tenure of office expired he was replaced by a man of a very different stamp, Nocoló Doria, known in religion as Nicholas of Jesus (1539-94), a Genoese who had come to Spain as the representative of a large banking house, in which capacity he was able to render important services to the king.當他的任期屆滿接替他的是一名男子的一個非常不同的郵票, nocoló的Doria ,眾所周知,在宗教作為尼古拉斯的耶穌( 1539至1594年) ,熱那亞人,他們已經到了西班牙為代表的大銀行之家在其中的能力,他能夠提供重要的服務向國王。 Aspiring after a higher life, he distributed his immense fortune among the poor, took Holy orders and joined the reformed friars at Seville (1577).有志後,高一生中,他發給他的巨大財富中的窮人了神聖的命令,並加入了改革的方濟各會士在塞維利亞( 1577 ) 。 He rapidly rose from dignity to dignity, and while engaged in the foundation of a convent in his native town, was elected provincial of the Discalced Carmelites.他迅速上升,從尊嚴,以尊嚴,而從事基礎一個修道院,在家鄉,當選為省委的discalced carmelites 。 Endowed with an iron will and indomitable energy, he at once began to fashion his subjects after his own ideas.賦有這樣一個鐵的意志和不屈不撓的能量,他立刻開始他的時裝科目後,他自己的想法。 Having known only the old stock of the order during the troublous times preceding the separation of his province, he was not attached to the order as such.因眾所周知的,只有老股票的程序問題在troublous時代前面的分離他省,他並不隸屬該命令等。 He widened rather than lessened the breach by laying aside, on a mere pretext and against the wishes of the friars, the venerable Carmelite Liturgy in favour of the new Roman Office books, and by soliciting useless privileges from Rome; he withdrew the missioners from the Congo, renounced once for all every idea of spreading the order beyond the frontiers of Spain, restricted the active work to a minimum, increased the austerities, and without consulting the chapter introduced a new form a government which, it was said at the time, was more fit for the policing of an unruly Italian republic than for the direction of a religious order.他擴大了而不是減少了這種違規擱置,就只是藉口,對意願的方濟各會士,歷代carmelite禮儀中,贊成新羅馬辦公室的書籍,並徵求無用的特權,從羅馬;撤回傳教士從剛果,一旦放棄所有一切的理念傳播秩序超越國界的西班牙,也制約了積極的工作,到了最低程度,增加austerities ,並沒有徵詢章介紹了一種新形式的政府,有人說,在那個時候,更適合於警務工作的一個犯規,意大利共和國總統比為方向,是一個宗教秩序。 He relegated St. John of the Cross to an out-of-the-way convent and on the flimsiest pretext expelled Jerome Gratian.他降級聖約翰的十字架上是一個地地道道的-雙向修道院,並就站不住腳的藉口開除杰羅姆g ratian。 Finally at the General Chapter of 1593 he proposed "for the sake of peace and tranquillity and for many other reasons", the total separation of the Discalced Carmelites from the rest of the order, which was granted by a Bull of 20 December, of the same year.最後,在一般的篇章第1593他建議, "為了和平與安寧,並為許多其他原因" ,共分離形成discalced carmelites從其餘的秩序,這是理所當然的是由牛市12月20日,該同一年。 Doria now became the first general of the Discalced Carmelites.現在的Doria成為第一個一般的discalced carmelites 。 He died a few months later.他死去數月後完成。 It would be unjust to belittle his merits and talents, but it must be acknowledged that in many respects his spirit was diametrically opposed to the lofty conceptions of St. Teresa and the generous dispositions of St. John of the Cross, while the unwarranted expulsion of Jerome Gratian is a blot on his reputation.這將是不公平的貶低自己的優點和人才,但我們必須承認,在許多方面,他的精神是根本對立的,以共產主義的遠大構想聖德肋撒和慷慨處分權的聖約翰的十字架,而無理驅逐杰羅姆gratian是一個污點,他的聲譽受損。 It was, he said on his death-bed, the only thing that troubled him.據他說,對他的逝世床,唯一的一件事困擾他。 The Spanish Carmelites having practically renounced all exterior work and interest, the further history of that branch reduces itself to notices on the foundations of convents, and the truly edifying life of numerous friars and nuns.西班牙carmelites過,幾乎放棄了所有的外部工作和利益,進一步歷史上的該分公司降低本身的通告,對基金會的修道院,和真正有啟發性生活的許多方濟各會士和修女。 At the end of the eighteenth century Spain possessed eight provinces with about 130 convents of friars and 93 of nuns.在十八世紀末西班牙擁有8個省約130個修道院的方濟各會士和93位修女。 The greater number of these convents were suppressed in 1836, but many have been restored since 1875, when the old Spanish congregation was united with the Italian congregation.更大數目的這些修道院受到打壓,在1836年,但許多人已經恢復自1875年,當老西班牙語聚集,是美國與意大利眾。 They now constitute the Order of the Discalced Carmelites, without subdivision.他們現在構成有序的discalced carmelites ,沒有細分。 The Portuguese province was separated from the Spanish congregation in 1773 for political reasons; it possessed twenty-one convents of friars and nine of nuns, nearly all of which were secularized in 1834.葡萄牙省脫離西班牙眾,在1773年因政治原因,它擁有21修道院的方濟各會士和9個修女,幾乎所有的被世俗化,在1834年。

Missionary Work傳教工作

As has been said, the first two missionary undertakings came to a premature end, one on account of shipwreck, the members of the other being captured by privateers.正如人們所說的,頭兩名傳教事業來提前結束,一對帳戶的海難事故中,委員們對其他被抓獲privateers 。 When set free the missioners, instead of resuming their journey to the west coast of Africa, proceeded to Mexico, where they laid the foundation of a province which in the course of time embraced twenty convents of friars and ten of nuns, but was finally suppressed by the Government.當一套免費的傳教士,而不是恢復行程,非洲西海岸,接著墨西哥,在那裡奠定了基礎的一個省,這在執行過程中的時間擁抱二十一修道院的方濟各會士和十修女,但最後被壓制由政府決定。 As early as 1563 Rubeo had granted leave to the Calced friar, Francisco Ruiz, to make foundations in Peru, Florida, and elsewhere, nominating him at the same time vicar-general.早在1563 rubeo已批准向calced弗萊爾,弗朗西斯科魯伊斯,使基金會在秘魯,佛羅里達州和其他地方,對他的提名在同一時間內副主教幹事。 By 1573 there were convents at Santa Fè (New Mexico), New Grenada, and other places, and provision was made for further increase.由一千五百七十三有修道院在聖fè (墨西哥) ,新的格林納達,與其他地方相比,並編列了進一步增加。 The Chapter of 1666 took the matter seriously in hand and after certain reforms had been carried out the provinces of Bahia, Pernambuco, and Rio de Janeiro were erected in 1720.本章的1666宗了認真處理此事,在手,並經過一定的改革已經進行了各省的巴伊亞,伯南布哥州和里約熱內盧分別豎立在1641 。 There were also convents in Guadeloupe and San Domingo, and there is evidence that foundations were contemplated, if not actually made, in the Philippine Islands as far back as 1705.也有修道院,在瓜德羅普島和聖多明戈,而且有證據表明,地基爭議,如果不是,其實,在菲律賓群島的作為,早在1705 。 The Discalced Carmelite nuns of the Spanish congregation found their way to the states of South America as early as the beginning of the seventeenth century; several of their convents are still in existence, and others have lately been erected in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, and Peru.該discalced carmelite尼姑西班牙眾發現自己的方式向南美洲各國早在年初的17世紀;它們的若干修道院仍然存在,和其他人最近還豎立在阿根廷,玻利維亞,巴西,智利,哥倫比亞,厄瓜多爾和秘魯。

The congregation of St. Elias of Discalced Carmelites, otherwise called the Italian congregation was erected at the instigation of Clement VIII.眾聖埃利亞斯的discalced carmelites ,否則所謂的意大利眾架設在其唆使克萊門特八。 By a strange irony of fate Nicolò Doria, who afterwards resisted the spreading of the order beyond the Peninsula and the Spanish colonies, had been commissioned in 1584 to establish a convent at Genoa.由一個奇怪諷刺的命運。 Nicolò的Doria ,他們事後抵制散佈該命令超越半島和西班牙的殖民地,已委託在1584年建立一個修道院,在熱那亞。 This was followed by one in Rome, Santa Maria della Scala, destined to become the nursery of a new congregation and the living example of perfect observance, and another at Naples.在此之後,由一個在羅馬,聖瑪麗亞della Scala的,注定要成為幼兒園的一個新的聚集和活生生的例子完美的紀念,另一個位於那不勒斯。 Several of the most prominent members of the Spanish congregation had been sent to these foundations, among them Ven.幾個最突出的成員對西班牙語眾已送往這些基礎上,其中有ven 。 Peter of the Mother of God (1565-1608), and Ferdinand of St. Mary (1538-1631), who became the first superiors; Ven.彼得的天主之母( 1565年至1608年) ,和費迪南德的聖瑪麗( 1538至1631年) ,他成為第一個上級; ven 。 John of Jesus Mary (1564-1615), whose instructions for novices have become authoritative, and whose incorrupt body is still preserved in the convent of St. Sylvester near Monte Compatri; Ven.約翰耶穌馬利亞( 1564年至1615年) ,而他的指示,為沙彌,已成為權威的,而且其廉身體仍保存在修道院的聖西爾維斯特附近的Monte compatri ; ven 。 Dominic of Jesus Mary (1559-1630), the great wonder-worker of his time, and Thomas of Jesus (1568-1627) to whose genius for organization not only the order but the Catholic Church is deeply indebted.星耶穌馬利亞( 1559年至1630年) ,大,難怪工人他的時候,托馬斯的耶穌( 1568至1627年) ,以他們的天才,為組織,不僅秩序,但天主教會對此深表感謝。 With men such as these at its head the congregation spread rapidly, not alone in Italy but through the length and breadth of Europe, and attracted men of high social position.與男性等,這些在其頭部會眾迅速蔓延,而不是僅在意大利,而是通過從深度和廣度上的歐洲,並吸引男性高的社會地位。 The Archduke Albert of Austria and his consort, the Infanta Isabel Clara Eugenia of Spain having applied in Rome for a colony of Discalced Carmelites, the pope nominated Thomas of Jesus founder of the Belgian province.該archduke何俊仁的奧地利和他的CONSORT , infanta伊莎貝爾克拉拉歐亨尼婭的西班牙已經申請在羅馬的一個殖民地discalced carmelites ,教宗提名托馬斯的創始人耶穌的比利時省。 So successful was he that in the course of twelve years he erected ten convents of friars and six of nuns.如此成功,他說,在這個過程中的十二年,他豎立10修道院的方濟各會士和6名修女。 The establishment in France was more difficult; systematic opposition from various quarters rendered each foundation a hard task, yet from 1611 till the end of the century almost every year saw the foundation of one or two new convents.設立在法國是更加困難;系統性各方的反對意見,使每個基金會艱難的任務,但是從1611年到本世紀結束時幾乎每年都看到了基金會的一個或兩個新的修道院。 Germany, Austria, Poland, even distant Lithuania, were opened to the disciples of St. Teresa.德國,奧地利,波蘭,甚至遙遠的立陶宛,均開放給弟子的聖德肋撒。 The spread of the congregation may perhaps best be illustrated by statistics.蔓延的會眾,也許最好的說明統計數據。 In 1632 the reform counted 763 priests, 471 clerics and novices, and 289 lay brothers, total 1523. 1632年改革計數763牧師,共有471名神職人員和修女,和289奠定兄弟,共計1523 。 In 1674 there were 1814 priests, 593 clerics and 747 lay brothers, total 3154.在1674年,有1814年司鐸, 593名和747奠定兄弟,共計3154 。 In 1731 the total had risen to 4193 members. 1731總數已經上升到4193年的成員。 No later statistics are available, but it may be taken that the increase continued for another twenty years until the spirit of Voltaire began to make itself felt.沒有後來的統計數據,但可以採取增加,繼續為另一個二十年,直到精神伏爾泰開始,使自己感覺。 Comparatively little has been published about the foundations, the annals of the order reaching only as far as 1612, and much manuscript material having been lost, but a great deal is still waiting for the hand of the chronicler.比較小,已出版有關基金會,載入史冊的命令到達只有據第1612 ,並取得不少手稿材料已經失傳,但很多方面仍然在等待交接的chronicler 。

Although the exercise of the contemplative life was given prominence even by the Italian congregation, the active life received far wider scope than in the Spanish fraction of the order. Almost from the beginning it was decided on principle and in full harmony with the known intentions of St. Teresa, that missionary undertakings were quite reconcilable with the spirit of the congregation. The pope himself suggested Persia as the first field of labour for Carmelite missioners. Such was the zeal of the fathers assembled in chapter that each of them declared himself ready to lay down his office and go forth for the conversion of unbelievers as soon as his superiors should give him permission to do so. This promise is made to the present day by every member of the order. It was not until 1604 that the first expedition led by Paul Simon of Jesus Mary was actually sent out to Persia. Three fathers, a lay brother, and a tertiary, proceeded through Germany, Poland, and Russia, following the course of the Volga, sailing across the Caspian Sea, until after more than three years of great hardship they reached Ispahan on 2 December, 1607. Three fathers, a lay brother, and a tertiary, proceeded through Germany, Poland, and Russia, following the course of the Volga, sailing across the Caspian Sea, until after more than three years of great hardship they reached Ispahan on 2 December, 1607 。 They met with surprising success, and being speedily reinforced were soon able to extend their activity to Bagdad, Bassora, and other towns, penetrating into India where they founded flourishing missions at Bombay, Goa, Quilon, Verapoly, and elsewhere, even at Peking. Some of these missions are still in the hands of the order, although the political events of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries proved fatal to others. Another field of labour was the Near Orient, Constantinople and Turkey, Armenia and Syria. To these was added in 1720 "a new mission in America in the district called Mississippi or Lusitania, which was offered by Captain Poyer in the name of the French company, but under certain conditions". If indeed this mission was accepted, it does not seem to have been long prosperous.

One of the happy results of the establishment of missions in the Levant was the recovery of Mount Carmel, which had been lost to the order in 1291. Prosper of the Holy Ghost on his journeys to and from India had repeatedly visited the holy mountain and convinced himself that with prudence and tact it might be recovered. For a time the superiors were by no means favourably disposed towards the project, but at last they furnished him with the necessary powers, and a contract to the said effect was signed at Caiffa, 29 November, 1631. Onuphrius of St. James, a Belgian, and two companions were commissioned to re-establish religious life on the spot where the Carmelite order had had its origin. They reached Alexandrette on 5 November, 1633, and at the beginning of the following year took possession of Mount Carmel. For cells, oratory, refectory, and kitchen they used caverns cut in the living rock, and their life in point of austerity and solitude was worthy of the prophets who had dwelt on Carmel. At length it became necessary to construct a proper convent, in which they were installed 14 December, 1720, only to be plundered a few days later by the Turks, who bound the fathers hand and foot. This convent served as a hospital during Napoleon's campaign; the religious were driven out, and on their return, 1821, it was blown up by the Turks. An Italian lay brother, John Baptist of the Blessed Sacrament (1777-1849), having received orders to rebuild it, and having collected alms in France, Italy, and other countries, laid the foundation stone of the new fabric in 1827. But as it became necessary to do the work on a larger scale than formerly, it was completed only by his successor, Brother Charles, in 1853. It forms a large square block, strong enough to afford protection against hostile attempts; the church is in the centre with no direct entrance from outside; it is erected over a crypt sacred to the Prophet Elias, and has been elevated by the pope to the rank of minor basilica. It forms a large square block, strong enough to afford protection against hostile attempts; the church is in the centre with no direct entrance from outside; it is erected over a crypt sacred to the Prophet Elias, and has been elevated by the pope to the rank of minor basilica. There are few travellers of any creed who in the course of their journeys in the Holy Land do not seek hospitality on Mount Carmel.

It must not be supposed that the Carmelites were spared the perils to which the missionary life is exposed.絕不能以為carmelites人倖免於危險而宣教士的生活是暴露無遺。 John of Christ Crucified, one of the first band of missioners sent out to Persia met with a hostile reception in the neighbourhood of Moscow, and was thrown into a dungeon where he remained for three years.約翰耶穌被釘十字架,第一個波段的傳教士發送給波斯遭到敵對酒會在附近的莫斯科,被投進地牢那裡,他仍然為三年。 At last he was released and, nothing daunted, continued his journey to Ispahan.最後他被釋放,並沒有沮喪,繼續他的旅程,以伊斯法罕兩村。 Another lay brother Charisius a Sanctâ Mariâ, suffered martyrdom in 1621 on the Island of Ormuz; he was tied to a tree and cut open alive.另一奠定弟弟查瑞休斯一sanctâ mariâ ,遭受了殉難在1621年就在島上的ormuz ,他被綁在樹上,並剖開活著。 Blessed Dionysius of the Nativity (Pierre Bertholet), and Redemptus a Cruce, a Portuguese lay brother, suffered for the Faith in Sumatra on 28 November, 1638.有福狄奧尼修斯的nativity (皮埃爾貝爾托萊) ,並redemptus一cruce ,葡萄牙奠定兄弟,受苦受難的信念,在蘇門答臘關於1638年11月28日。 The former had been pilot and cartographer to the Portuguese viceroy, but gave up his position and became a Carmelite novice at Goa.前者已試點和製圖員的葡萄牙總督,但放棄了自己的立場,成為carmelite新手在果阿。 Soon after his profession the viceroy once more demanded his services for an expedition to Sumatra; Dionysius was ordained priest so that he might at the same time act as chaplain and pilot, and Redemptus was given him as companion.不久,他的職業總督再一次要求他的服務,為遠征蘇門答臘;狄奧尼修斯被祝聖司鐸,使他有可能在同一時間內擔任牧師和試點,並redemptus給他的同伴。 No sooner had the ship cast anchor at Achin than the ambassador with his suite was treacherously apprehended, and Dionysius, Redemptus, and a number of others were put to death with exquisite cruelty.當該船鑄錨在阿欽比大使與他的套房是背信棄義的逮捕,並狄奧尼修斯, redemptus ,和另一些人被處死,與精緻的殘忍性。 The two Carmelites were beatified in 1900.兩個carmelites宣福分別於1900年。 Other members of the order suffered martyrdom at Patras in Achaia in 1716.其他成員對秩序遭受殉難在薩洛尼卡在achaia在1637 。

In order to ensure the steady supply of missioners the order established some missionary colleges.為了確保穩定的供應的傳教士的命令建立了一些宣教士學院。 The original idea had been to found a special congregation under the title of St. Paul, which should entirely devote itself to missionary work.原來的想法一直是發現一個特別聚集的名稱下聖保祿,這應當完全致力於傳教工作。 The Holy See granted permission and placed the church of St. Paul in Rome (now Santa Maria della Vittoria) at the disposition of the congregation; but on second thought the project was allowed to drop, and the missionary career was opened to all members of the Italian congregation.教廷批准,並置於教會的聖保羅在羅馬(現稱聖瑪麗亞della vittoria )在處置眾,但退一步講該項目被允許下降,其傳教事業是開放給所有成員意大利眾。 Those who manifested a talent in this direction, after having completed their ordinary studies were sent to the college of S. Pancrazio in Rome (1662) or to that of St. Albert at Louvain (1621) to study controversy, practical theology, languages, and natural sciences.那些表現出人才,這個方向走,之後完成了普通的研究,被送往該學院的第潘克拉齊奧在羅馬( 1662 ) ,或可說是聖何俊仁在魯汶( 1621 )研究的爭議,實用神學,語言,與自然科學。 After a year they were allowed to take the missionary oath, and after a second year they returned to their provinces until a vacancy in one of the missions necessitated the appointment of a new labourer; by these means the order was prepared to send out efficient subjects at very short notice.一年後,他們被允許以傳教的誓言後,第二年,他們返回自己的省份,直到出現空缺的使命之一,有必要任命一名新的勞動者,通過這些手段,該命令已準備送出去,有效地科目在極短時間內,恕不另行通知。 The seminary of the Missions ètrangérs in Paris was founded by a Carmelite, Bernard of St. Joseph, Bishop of Babylon (1597-1663).神學院的使命ètrangérs在巴黎成立,由一個carmelite ,伯納德的聖若瑟教區主教巴比倫( 1597至1663年) 。

An attempt in this direction had been made soon after the Council of Trent, but was not followed up.企圖在這個方向已經取得了不久,安理會的遄達,但沒有採取後續行動。 The pope, struck with the missionary zeal of the Carmelites, consulted Thomas of Jesus as to the best means of bringing about the conversion of infidels.教宗,擊中與傳教熱情的carmelites ,徵詢托馬斯的耶穌,以最好的方式實現轉換的異教徒。 This religious, in his works "Stimulus missionum" (Rome, 1610) and especially "De procurandâ salute omnium gentium" (Antwerp, 1613), laid down the disciples upon which the Holy See actually instituted and organized the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda; other fathers, particularly Ven.這個宗教,在他的著作"刺激missionum " (羅馬, 1610年) ,尤其是"德procurandâ敬禮omnium gentium " (安特衛普, 1613 ) ,放下弟子後,即教廷其實提起和有組織的神聖眾的宣傳;其它父親,尤其ven 。 Dominic of Jesus Mary, contributed towards its success by collecting funds; the Bull of institution by Gregory XV pays just a tribute to the zeal of the Carmelites.星耶穌的聖母瑪利亞,有助於它的成功所募集資金;牛市的機構,由格雷戈里十五自付只是一個致敬向熱情的carmelites 。 In establishing missions the order had in view not only the conversion of infidels but also that of Protestants.在確定工作任務,以便在期不僅轉化異教徒,而且對新教徒。 St. Teresa herself had been deeply afflicted by the spread of Lutheranism; hence the foundation of the Dutch, English, and Irish missions.聖德肋撒自己已深深困擾的蔓延路德教,因此立黨之本,荷蘭語,英語,和愛爾蘭的使命。 The history of the first of these is only partly known; of the three it was the least beset with difficulties, and although obstacles were never wanting, it did not pass through the dangers which were a matter of almost daily occurrence in England and Ireland.歷史上的第一次,這些只是部分已知;的3個,這是最低限度困難重重,儘管障礙從來沒有無用的,它沒有經過危險,其中的一個問題,幾乎每天都發生在英格蘭和愛爾蘭。 The most prominent members were Peter of the Mother of God (Bertius, died 1683) and his brother Cæsar of St. Bonaventure (died 1662), the sons of Peter Bertius, rector of the University of Leyden, a famous convert to the Catholic Faith.最突出的委員彼得的天主之母( bertius ,死於1683年)和他的弟弟cæsar的聖文德(死於1662 ) ,兒子彼得bertius大學校長萊登一位著名的皈依天主教信仰。

Missions in the British Isles代表團成員在英倫三島

The establishment of a mission in England dates back to the year 1615.建立一個團在英格蘭可追溯至1615年。 Thomas Doughty of Plombley, Lincolnshire (1574-1652), probably himself a convert, entered the Carmelite novitiate of La Scala in 1610 after having spent some years at the English College where he had taken Holy orders.托馬斯奧爾布賴特在強悍的plombley ,林肯郡( 1574至1652年) ,大概自己是一個轉換,進入carmelite novitiate的La Scala公司在1610年之後,花了一些年,在英文書院,他採取了神聖的命令。 After a few months he was obliged by ill-health to return to England, but remained in correspondence with the order and sent some postulants to Belgium.幾個月後,他不得不由健康欠佳返回英國,而是留在函授與秩序,並派出一些postulants比利時。 Finally he resumed the religious life and after profession proceeded to London, where he had charge of important negotiations.最後,他恢復了宗教生活,並經過專業接著前往倫敦,在那裡,他負責的重要談判。 Having become acquainted with the Spanish ambassador and having secured a chaplaincy for himself and his successors, he was introduced at Court and gained the confidence of Queen Anne of Denmark.有熟悉與西班牙駐華大使,並獲取了chaplaincy為他自己和他的繼任者,他被介紹到法庭,並獲得信心女王安妮丹麥。 Nevertheless he was never secure from priest-hunters and had many hairbreadth escapes.儘管如此,他從未爭取由牧師獵人,而且擁有許多在千鈞一發之越獄。 Other missioners having joined him, he withdrew to a country place near Canterbury where he died after a long illness.其他傳教士參加過他,他撤回到一個國家發生了近坎特伯雷他去世後,長期患病。 He was the author of several controversial and spiritual books much appreciated in his time.他是作者的幾個有爭議的和精神的書大加讚賞,在他的時代了。 For years he loudly advocated the establishment of an English novitiate on the Continent, for which he collected the necessary funds, but unfortunately the superiors did not see their way to take up the idea and when at last it was carried out it came too late to be of much practical use.多年來,他大聲疾呼主張設立一個英語novitiate對大陸,在這方面,他收集到必要的資金,但是很遺憾,上級並沒有看到自己的方式採取行動的想法時,在最後進行的,它來得太遲,以具有多大的實際用途。

The next missioner, Eliseus of St. Michael (William Pendryck, 1583-1650), a Scotsman and a convert, who had received his religious training at Paris and Genoa, arrived in London with letters patent constituting him vicar-provincial and superior of the mission.下一個傳教士, eliseus聖邁克爾(威廉pendryck , 1583年至1650年) ,一個蘇格蘭人和皈依,他們收到了他的宗教訓練,在巴黎和熱那亞,抵達倫敦與英皇制誥構成了他的代理,省際和優越的使命。 He led for the most part a very retiring life but did not escape persecution; towards the end of his activity he became involved in one of the innumerable disputes as to the extent of the pope's powers; compelled to justify his attitude before the nuncio in Belgium, he returned to England crushed with disappointment.他帶領在大多數情況非常退休的生活,但並沒有逃避迫害;接近年底時他的活動,他參與了其中的無數糾紛,以致於教皇的權力;迫不得已的理由,他的態度之前,聖座駐比利時他回到英格蘭粉碎與失望之情。 Among the prominent missioners must be mentioned Bede of the Blessed Sacrament (John Hiccocks, 1588-1647), a converted Puritan, who had been the first superior of the missionary college at Louvain.其中突出的傳教士必須一提的貝代的聖體(約翰hiccocks , 1588年至1647年) ,一輛經過改裝的清教徒,他們已首次優越的宣教士學院在魯汶。 Soon after his arrival in London he was offered a mission on the estates of Lord Baltimore in Newfoundland, which he appears to have been inclined to accept, but when the faculties from Rome arrived, he was in prison, having been surprised by the priest-hunters while writing to his superiors.他在抵達不久便在倫敦,他提供了一個團就遺產巴爾的摩勳爵在紐芬蘭,他似乎已傾向於接受,但到了院系從羅馬來的時候,他是在監獄中,被驚訝神父-獵人,而以書面形式向他的上司。 For several months his fate as well as that of a brother religious and fellow-prisoner was uncertain, but being at last set free through the intervention of the French ambassador he returned to Belgium.數個月,他的命運以及就像是一個哥哥宗教和老鄉囚犯是不確定的,但作為在最後一組,通過自由的干預,法國大使,他返回比利時。 He underwent imprisonment for a second time in Holland, but after a long interval came back to London where he resumed his missionary work.他經歷過入獄,第二次在荷蘭,但經過很長一段間隔時間又重新回到了倫敦,他恢復了他的傳教工作。 Francis of the Saints (Christopher Leigh, 1600-41) died of the plague contracted in prison.弗朗西斯的聖徒(克里斯托弗李, 1600年至1641年) ,死於鼠疫承包有期徒刑。 John Baptist of Mount Carmel (John Rudgeley, 1587-1669) spent a considerable portion of his life in prison.約翰浸信會的摩佳美(約翰rudgeley , 1587年至1669年) ,花了相當大的部分,他終身監禁。 Joseph of St. Mary (Nicholas Rider, 1600-82), after many years of fruitful activity, devoted his old age to the training of aspirants to the order; these were sent abroad for their novitiate and studies and on their return were appointed to one or other of the missionary stations belonging to the order.約瑟夫的聖瑪麗(尼古拉萊德, 1600年至1682年) ,經過多年的富有成效的活動,致力於自己的晚年生活,以培養有志成為該命令;這些被送往國外,為他們novitiate和研究,他們在回港後獲委任進入一個或其他的傳教站屬於該命令。

The most remarkable men in a long series of missioners were Bede of St. Simon Stock (Walter Joseph Travers, 1619-96) and his half brother, Lucian of St. Teresa (George Travers, 1642-91).最引人注目的男子,在一個相當長時期的一系列傳教士被貝代的聖西蒙股票(沃爾特約瑟夫Travers的, 1619年至1696年)和他的同父異母兄弟,喬治的聖德肋撒(喬治Travers的, 1642年至1691年) 。 The son of a Devonshire clergyman, Walter Travers was articled to a London solicitor.兒子一devonshire牧師,沃爾特Travers的是articled到倫敦的律師。 An elder brother having become a Catholic and a Jesuit, Walter, desirous of guarding himself against a like fate, began to study controversial works with the result that he became convinced of the truth of the Catholic Church which he went to Rome to join.一個哥哥已變成一個天主教及耶穌,沃爾特,切望護衛自己對喜歡的命運,就開始研究具爭議性工程,其結果是他成為堅信真理的天主教教會,其中他到羅馬參加。 He became a student the English College and afterwards entered the Carmelite Order in which he filled various offices.他成了學生的英文書院,後來就進入carmelite秩序中,他擔任過中各種辦事處。 He was active in London during the whole period of the Restoration and has left a record of his manifold experience.他是活躍於倫敦,在整個時期的恢復,並留下一個紀錄,他的多方面的經驗。 At the outbreak of the Oates' Plot he was obliged to return to Italy, but after some years resumed his work in London, until old age and grief over his brother's death compelled him to retire to Paris where he died in the odour of sanctity.在爆發衝突的oates的陰謀,他不得不回到意大利,但若干年後,他恢復工作,在倫敦,直到年老和悲痛,他哥哥的死迫使他退休時,以巴黎,他死在氣味的神聖性。 He had the consolation of solemnly inaugurating a chapel in Bucklersbury in London, as well as those at Heresford and Worcester, but the Orange Revolution undid the work begun by him.他有安慰的隆重的開幕式教堂在bucklersbury在倫敦,以及那些在heresford和伍斯特,但橙色革命,前功盡棄已經開始的工作,由他來決定。 George Travers, after a dissolute life, accidentally met his brother in London, was rescued by him, instructed, and received into the Church.喬治Travers的,經過dissolute生活中,意外地會見了他的兄弟在倫敦,被救出後由他指示,並獲得進入教堂。 He made his studies under Joseph of St. Mary, and entered the novitiate at Namur.在他的研究下,約瑟夫的聖瑪利亞,並進入novitiate在那慕爾。 At the outbreak of the plot he was sent to London, where he passed through many thrilling adventures.在爆發衝突的陰謀,他被送往倫敦,他在那裡通過了許多驚險的冒險活動。 Some time after the Orange Revolution he was betrayed by a false friend, and thrown into prison, whither his accuser, on a different charge, followed him.一段時間後,橙色革命的,他背叛了虛假的朋友,並扔進監獄,著他的指控,對一個不同的電荷,其次是他。 This man was suffering from a contagious disease which Lucian, while nursing him, contracted, and of which he died, 26 June, 1691.這名男子患有一種傳染性疾病,其中喬治,而護理他,承包,其中他真的死了, 1691年6月26日。

Much less is known of the missioners of the eighteenth century than of those of the seventeenth.少得多,是眾所周知的傳教士的十八世紀的比那些第十七。 Their lives, though still exposed to dangers, were as a rule quiet; moreover, the art of memoir writing seems to have been lost under the House of Orange.他們的生命,但仍暴露在危險的,被作為一項規則安靜;此外,藝術回憶錄寫作似乎已失去眾議院橙。 One of the more prominent missioners of this period was Francis Blyth.其中一個比較突出的傳教士的這個時代是弗朗西斯blyth 。 In 1773 the English mission acquired the college of the Society of Jesus, recently suppressed, at Tongres, where a number of missioners were prepared for their work before the French Revolution swept over Belgium.在1773年的英語團後天學院社會的耶穌,最近打壓,在tongres ,一些傳教士準備進行他們的工作之前,法國大革命呼嘯而比利時。 The disappearance of this short-lived establishment dealt the death-blow to the Carmelite mission in England.失踪的這短命建立處理死亡的衝擊,使carmelite團在英國。 A few missioners remained stationed in various places, but they received no fresh help and little encouragement; the property of the mission as well as its library and archives were lost through the iniquitous laws which rendered the last will of a Catholic illegal.一些傳教士仍然駐守在各個地方,但他們並沒有接獲新鮮的幫助和鼓勵,少;財產的安全任務,以及圖書館和檔案館遺失經過極不公正的法律,以致最後將一個天主教非法的。 On the occasion of the Catholic Emancipation, Francis Willoughby Brewster was obliged to fill up a parliamentary paper with the laconic remark: "No superior, no inferior, being the last man".在紀念天主教解放,弗朗西斯威洛比布魯斯特不得不填補了議會的文件與簡練句話說: "不優越,沒有任何劣勢,是最後的人" 。 He died at Market Rasen in Lincolnshire 11 January, 1849.他死在市場rasen在林肯郡1849年1月11日。 Cardinal Wiseman, anxious to introduce the Discalced Carmelites into his archdiocese, obtained in 1862 an order authorizing him to select some suitable subjects.紅衣主教懷斯曼,急欲引進discalced carmelites到他的教區,獲得了1862年一項命令,授權他選擇一些合適的科目。 His choice fell upon Hermann Cohen (Augustine Mary of the Blessed Sacrament, 1820-71), a converted Jew of Hamburg, originally a brilliant musician, whose conversion and entrance into a strict order had caused considerable stir in France.他的選擇下跌後,赫爾曼科恩(奧古斯丁瑪利亞的聖體, 1820年至1871年) ,一輛經過改裝的猶太人的漢堡,本來是一個光輝的音樂家,他們的轉化率和進入嚴格的秩序造成了相當的轟動,在法國。 He opened a small chapel in Kensington Square, London, 6 August, 1862, where the new community struggled against many difficulties, not the least of which was their deep poverty.他開辦了一個小禮拜堂在肯辛頓廣場,倫敦, 1862年8月6日,當新的社會鬥爭,有許多困難,並不是最不重要的是,他們深為貧困。 Before long a convenient site was found for a spacious church, designed by Pugin and inaugurated by Cardinal Manning in 1866, and a convent, completed in 1888.不久之前一個方便的網站,發現一個寬敞的教堂,設計皮然開創了由紅衣主教曼寧在1866年,一個女修道院,完成於1888年。 A second house having been founded in a remote country district in Somerset, the English semi-province was canonically established in 1885.第二個府已成立一個邊遠地區的國家在薩默塞特,英語半省canonically成立於1885年。 Father Hermann did not see the completion of his work; having been called to Spandau to minister to the French prisoners of war, he died of smallpox and was buried in Berlin.父親赫爾曼認為沒有完成他的工作;被稱為在Spandau向部長向法國戰俘,他死於天花,被掩埋在柏林。

Soon after the English mission a similar undertaking was begun in Ireland by Edward of the Kings (Sherlock, 1579-1629) and Paul of St. Ubaldus, both of whom had made their novitiate in Belgium and had in all probability studied at the missionary college at Louvain.不久後,英語的使命類似的承諾,開始在愛爾蘭,由愛德華國王(黃鼎, 1579年至1629年)和保羅聖ubaldus ,兩人都作出了自己的novitiate在比利時,並在所有的概率研究,在宣教士書院在魯汶。 Although the persecution in Ireland was, if possible, more brutal than that in England, Catholic missioners had the support of the poorer classes, who clung tenaciously to their Faith, and from among who they were recruited.雖然受到迫害,在愛爾蘭是,如果可能的話,更殘酷的,比在英國,天主教傳教士也表示了支持貧困的階層,他們醉心於固守自己的信念,並從其中的人,他們招聘的。 Besides a convent at Dublin they founded residences in the ruins of several former Carmelite abbeys (as they were called), viz.除了修道院於都柏林,他們創辦的住所在廢墟中的幾名前carmelite修道院(因為它們被稱為) ,即。 at Athboy, Drogheda, Ardee, Kilkenny, Loughrea, Youghal, and other places.在阿斯博伊, Drogheda的, ardee , Kilkenny的, loughrea , ( Youghal ,和其他地方。 Many of these were but of ephemeral existence.許多這些人,但短命的存在。 About the same time the Calced Carmelites returned to Ireland, and there arose a dispute as to the ownership of these convents.大約同一時間, calced carmelites回到愛爾蘭,並因而產生的糾紛,以擁有這些修道院。 At the separation of the orders it had been stipulated that the Discalced Carmelites were not to take away any of the convents of their Calced brethren.在分離的命令,它已規定特區discalced carmelites沒有採取過任何的修道院其calced謠言。 The Holy See decided in 1640 that the former should retain possession of the four ancient convents they then inhabited, as there still remained twenty-eight houses for the Calced Carmelites to revive.教廷決定,在16時40分,這位前應保留藏四大古修道院然後,他們居住的,因為仍有28房子為calced carmelites復甦。 No sooner had this decision reached Ireland than the Cromwell persecution put a stop to any further increase and necessitated the dissolution of the communities that had been erected.隨著這一決定達成愛爾蘭比克倫威爾迫害予以制止任何進一步的增加,並且必須解散該社區已顆粒無收。 Several friars earned the crown of martyrdom, viz.幾方濟各會士,贏得了官方的殉難,即。 Thomas Aquinas of St. Teresa, who was put to death at Ardee in 1642; Angelus of St. Joseph, cleric (George Halley), an Englishman who was shot 15 August, 1642; and Peter of the Mother of God, lay brother, who was hanged at Dublin, 25 March, 1643.多瑪斯的聖德肋撒,他把死刑ardee 1642年;鐘經的聖若瑟,教士(喬治哈雷彗星) ,一個英國人,他們被擊中1642年8月15日;彼得的天主之母,奠定兄弟,人被絞死在都柏林, 1643年3月25日。 There is reason to believe that others met with a similar fate, but no particulars have been preserved; many, however, suffered imprisonment.我們有理由相信,別人遇到了同樣的命運,但沒有細節已保存;不少,但遭到監禁。 Such events told on the life of the province.此類事件告訴對生活在全省的開展。 Canonically erected in 1638, it was dissolved in 1653 but re-established during the comparatively quiet time of the Restoration. canonically豎立在1638年,它被解散,在1653年,但重新確立了在相對安靜的時間恢復。 In 1785 a chapel and convent were built near the ruins of the Abbey of Loughrea, founded in 1300, and from 1640 in the hands of the Teresian friars, who, nevertheless, were several times obliged to abandon it.在1785年教堂和修道院建附近的廢墟修道院loughrea ,成立於1300 ,並從16時40分在政府手中特蕾莎方濟各會士,他們雖然如此,並多次不得不放棄它。 Further building operations were carried out in 1829 and again towards the end of the century.進一步建設行動進行了1829年再次實現到本世紀末。 The year 1793 witnessed the laying of the foundation stone of St. Teresa's church, Clarendon Street, Dublin.今年1793目擊鋪設的基石,聖德肋撒天主堂, clarendon街,都柏林。 This church, which also underwent frequent alterations and enlargements, served as a meeting room during Daniel O'Connell's campaign, which ended in the Catholic Emancipation Act.這個教堂,其中還經歷了頻繁的改建和放大,充當一個會議室,在丹尼爾710075的運動,從而結束了在天主教的解放行為。 It was felt that in this case the interests of the Church were identical with those of the country.有人認為,在這種情況下,教會的利益完全一致,與該國。 A third convent was built at Donnybrook near Dublin in 1884.第三修道院建於donnybrook都柏林附近,在1884年。

The Calced Carmelites appear to have attempted a mission in England at the beginning of the seventeenth century when George Rainer was put to death (c. 1613).該calced carmelites似乎都試圖團在英格蘭開始的17世紀時,喬治資料Rainer被置於死亡(丙1613 ) 。 No particulars are known about his life and the missionary projects seems to have died with him.任何細節都了解他的生活和傳教項目似乎已經死亡,他的說法。 In Ireland, however, they carried on a flourishing mission from the early part of the same century, and they have at present six convents and a college which is well attended.在愛爾蘭,不過,他們進行了一個蓬勃的使命從早期的一部分,同時世紀,而他們目前六個修道院和大學,是深受歡迎。 Their church in Whitefriars Street, Dublin, is well known to Catholics and is an architectural curiosity.他們教會了Whitefriars街,都柏林,是眾所周知的天主教徒,是一個建築好奇。 Steps were taken about 1635 to make a foundation in America, and a petition was presented to the pope for approbation of the mission founded there, but for some reason or other it does not seem to have had a lasting result.採取了一些步驟,對1635年作出了基礎,在美國,一份請願書被提交給教宗的讚許,該觀察團的成立,但由於某些原因或其他IT似乎並不產生了持久的效果。 The Dutch province, however, founded houses at Leavenworth (1864) and Scipio, Anderson Co., Kansas (1865); Englewood, Bergen Co., New Jersey (1869); New Baltimore, Somerset Co., Pennsylvania (1870); Pittsburg, Pennsylvania (1870); Niagara Falls, Canada (1875); and St. Cyril's College, Illinois (1899); while the Irish Calced Carmelites settled in 1888 in New York City and at Tarrytown, New York, and the Bavarian Discalced Carmelites at Holy Hill and Fond du Lac, Wisconsin (1906).荷蘭省,但房子建在leavenworth ( 1864 )及scipio ,安德森有限公司,堪薩斯州( 1865年) ; Englewood的卑爾根有限公司,新澤西( 1869年) ;新的巴爾的摩,薩默塞特有限公司,賓夕法尼亞州( 1870年) ;匹茲堡賓夕法尼亞州( 1870年) ;尼亞加拉瀑布,加拿大( 1875 ) ,和聖西里爾的大學,伊利諾伊州( 1899年) ,而愛爾蘭的calced carmelites定居於1888年在紐約市和塔里敦,紐約和巴伐利亞discalced carmelites在聖希爾和愛玩杜紫膠,威斯康星州( 1906年) 。

Daily Life日常生活

The life of a Carmelite is somewhat different according to the branch of the order to which he belongs, and the house in which he lives.生命一carmelite有所不同,根據該分支機構的,以他所屬的,並在眾議院獲得他的生命。 The life in a novitiate, for instance, is different even for those who have taken their vows, from that in a college, or in a convent intended for the care of souls.生活在一個novitiate ,舉例來說,是不同的,甚至對於那些已經考慮了他們的誓言,表示將協調在大專以上,或在一個修道院打算為照顧靈魂。 It is also stricter among the Discalced Carmelites, who keep perpetual abstinence (except in the case of weakness or illness) and who rise in the night for the recitation of the Divine Office, than among the Calced Carmelites, who have adapted their rule to the needs of the times.它也更嚴格當中discalced carmelites ,保持永恆的禁慾(除在案件虛弱或患病者)以及崛起在晚間為背誦的神明廳,超過之間calced carmelites ,他已經適應了自己的統治向適應時代的需要。 Formerly the whole Office was sung every day, but when in the sixteenth century the exercise of mental prayer became more and more universal, particularly through the influence of St. Teresa and St. John of the Cross, the singing was abandoned for a recitation in monotone except on certain feasts.前身為整個辦公室的宋每一天,但是,當在16世紀行使精神祈禱變得越來越普遍,尤其是通過影響力的聖德肋撒和聖約翰的十字架上,歌唱被遺棄的一個朗讀單調,除了對某些盛宴。 The Calced Carmelites still adhere to the liturgy of the church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, a Gallo-Roman Rite, practically identical with that of Paris in the middle of the twelfth century.該calced carmelites仍堅持禮儀中的聖墓教堂,在耶路撒冷,一名Gallo是羅馬成年禮的,幾乎一致認為,巴黎在中東的12世紀。 It underwent certain changes during the Middle Ages and was completely and satisfactorily revised in 1584.它經歷了一定的變化,在中世紀,是完全圓滿的調整是在1584年。 The Discalced Carmelites, for reasons already stated, adopted the new Roman Liturgy in 1586.該discalced carmelites ,理由已經闡明的那樣,通過了新的古羅馬禮儀中,在1586年。 In all convents a certain time is given to mental prayer, both in the morning and the afternoon.在所有修道院一定時間內給予心理祈禱,都在上午和下午舉行。 It is generally made in common, in the choir or oratory, and is intended to impress the soul with the presence of God and the everlasting truths.人們普遍取得了共同的,在合唱團或禮拜堂,並打算打動靈魂與在場的上帝和永恆的真理。 Other religious exercises and private devotions supplement those already mentioned.其他宗教演習和私人奉獻補充那些已經提到的。 The rule of fasting, somewhat less severe among the Calced Carmelites, is preserved everywhere, although the church has in many respects mitigated her legislation in this matter.法治禁食,少一些嚴厲當中calced carmelites ,是保存到處,雖然教會在許多方面減輕了她的法例,在這件事。 The Discalced Carmelites (Teresians) are generally barefooted; otherwise the only distinction in the habit of the two branches consists in the fashioning of the various garments.該discalced carmelites ( teresians )一般都赤足,否則,區別的只是在習慣的兩個分支構成,在形成的各種服裝。 The habit of the lay brothers is like that of the choir religious, except that among the Discalced Carmelites they wear a brown mantle and no hood; but in the Spanish congregation they use the hood, and, since 1744, a white mantle.習慣了審訊兄弟就是這樣的合唱團,宗教,除其中discalced carmelites他們穿咖啡色幔,沒有遮光罩,但在西班牙眾,他們使用遮光罩,並自1744年,白幔。 The correct colour of the habit has often been made the subject of somewhat animated discussions among the different branches of the order.正確的顏色的習慣,經常被人所作的主題有點動畫討論各分支部門之間的秩序。

Desert Convents沙漠修道院

A peculiar institution is that of "deserts".一個奇特的機構是"沙漠" 。 The recollection of Mount Carmel and the purely contemplative life, as well as the wording of the rule, which prescribes that the brothers should dwell in their cells or near them, meditating day and night on the Law of the Lord, except when other necessary occupation call them away, had awakened in many a desire for an exclusively spiritual life.回收的摩焦糖而且純屬contemplative生活,以及措辭的規則,明兩兄弟應該住在自己的牢房或接近他們,靜坐,日夜奮戰於法主,除非採取其他必要的佔領請他們出去,喚起了許多渴望專屬精神生活。 It has been noticed that some of the first generals resigned their offices in order to dedicate the remainder of their life to contemplation, and in the constitutions and other documents exceptions are sometimes made in favour of convents "situated in forests", far away from human habitations.它已注意到某些第一將領辭職,他們的辦事處,以奉獻的精神,其餘的自己的生命沉思,並在憲法和其他文件例外的是,有時贊成修道院" ,坐落在森林" ,遠離人類居住地。 Among such convents were, to mention only two, Hulne in England and Liedekerke in the Netherlands.在這些修道院人,我只提兩個, hulne在英格蘭和liedekerke在荷蘭。 One of the first Discalced Carmelites in Spain, Thomas of Jesus, who has already been mentioned in connection with the missions, conceived the idea of founding a "desert" where the religious should find the opportunity for devoting their whole time and energy to the cultivation of a spirit of contemplation.第一個discalced carmelites在西班牙,托馬斯的耶穌,已經提到他涉嫌與使命,就構想成立一個"沙漠" ,而宗教應該找機會把自己的全部時間和精力用在培養一個精神的沉思。 With the exception of four or five who were to remain there permanently, each friar was to spend but a year in the "desert", and afterwards return to the convent whence he had come, so that, the whole community being composed of strong and healthy members, no relaxation however slight should become necessary.除與四,五人仍然有永久,每個弗萊爾是把錢花掉,但今年在"沙漠" ,並隨後返回到修道院何時,他已到,因此,整個社會組成的強大和健康委員,並沒有放鬆,但輕微的,應該成為必要的。 After some hesitation the superiors took up the idea, and a suitable site having been found, the first "desert" was inaugurated 28 June, 1592, at Bolarque, on the banks of the Tagus in New Castile.經過一番猶豫上級拿起了主意,和一個合適的地點被發現,第一次"沙漠"開幕1592年6月28日,在bolarque ,對銀行的tagus在新的卡斯蒂利亞。 The result was so encouraging that it was decided to found such a house in every province, so that there have been altogether twenty-two "deserts", many of which, however, have been swept away during periods of political agitation.其結果是使令人鼓舞的是,當時決定要成立這樣一個房子,在每一個省,所以出現了總共22 "沙漠" ,其中有不少,不過,已經一掃而空期間的政治鼓勁的大會。 They were constructed after the manner of a charterhouse, but on a smaller scale.他們興建後,地一charterhouse ,但規模較小。 A number of cells, each forming a little house of four rooms with a garden attached, were built in the shape of a quadrangle, one wing of which contained the chapel, sacristy, library, etc. In the older "deserts" the chapel was placed in the centre of the quadrangle.一些細胞中,每形成一個小房子的4個房間與花園的重視,建於形成一個四合院,一翼,其中載有禮拜堂, sacristy ,圖書館等,在較舊的"沙漠"教堂擺在中心的四合院。 The refectory, kitchen, robbery and other dependencies were connected with the principal cloister; all the buildings were plain, imposing on account of their austerity than their ornamental character.該餐廳,廚房,搶劫和其它相依涉嫌與主要迴廊;所有建築物都是平原,強加給到他們的緊縮政策比其觀賞性。 The manner of life, too, resembles that of the Carthusians, (NOTE: LINK WORD CARTHUSIANS TO PROPER ARTICLE "CARTHUSIAN ORDER, THE" :) but is far more severe.該地的生活,也極為相似的carthusians , (注:連接字carthusians適當的文章" carthusian一聲令下, " : ) ,但遠未更加嚴峻。 The chant of the Divine Order is more solemn than in other convents; more time is devoted to mental prayer; the fast is extremely strict, the silence all but uninterrupted; only once a fortnight the hermits after the manner of the ancient anchorites, assemble for a conference on some spiritual subject; many volumes of such conferences are still preserved and some have been printed.呼喊聲的神聖秩序,是更為嚴肅的,比其他修道院;更多的時間用於精神祈禱;快,是極為嚴格的,所有的沉默,但不間斷的,只有一次,雙週的隱士後地的古代anchorites ,組裝為會議就一些精神上的問題;不少卷這樣的會議仍然保留,並與其中一些人已被加印。 An hour's social intercourse follows the conference.一個小時的社會交往如下會議。 The time not devoted to prayer and reading is spent in manual labour, the religious finding occupation in the cultivation of their gardens.時間不是專門用於祈禱和讀是用在手工勞動,宗教尋找職業,在培養他們的花園。 Study, strictly speaking, is not allowed, lest the strain upon the mind become too severe.研究中,嚴格來說,是不容許,以免應變後,頭腦變得過於嚴厲。

Each "desert" possessed extensive grounds which were laid out as forests with numerous rivulets and ponds.每一個"沙漠" ,擁有廣泛的理由,其中被放置在像森林與眾多這一帶的水道和池塘。 At equal distances from the convent and from each other there were small hermitages consisting of a cell and chapel, whither the friars retired at certain periods of the year, as Advent and Lent, in order to live in a solitude still more profound than that of the convent.在同等距離修道院,並從對方有小修砌構成的一個細胞和小教堂,該向何處去退休的方濟各會士,在某些時期的一年,作為基督降臨節和封齋期,為了生活在一個孤獨更為深刻,比對修道院。 There they followed all the exercises of the community, reciting their Offices at the same time and with the same solemnity as the brothers in choir, and ringing their bell in response to the church bells.因此,他們按照所有的練習題社區,朗誦他們的辦公室在同一時間,並以同樣的嚴肅性,因為兄弟合唱團,並鳴響鐘聲,他們響應向教堂的鐘聲。 Early in the morning two neighbouring hermits served each other's Mass. On Sundays and feasts they went to the convent for Mass, chapter, and Vespers, and returned in the evening to their hermitages, with provisions for the ensuing week.一大早兩個鄰國隱士送達對方的馬薩諸塞州,星期日和節日,他們卻去了修道院,為集體,章,並晚禱後,返回在晚間把自己的修砌,規定隨後的一周。 While in the hermitage they fared on bread, fruit, herbs, and water, but when in the convent their meals were less frugal, although even then the fast almost equalled that of the early monks.而在冬宮,他們的表現對麵包,水果,中藥材,以及水,但何時在修道院吃飯少儉樸,但即使是這樣快就幾乎相當於是早期僧侶。 Notwithstanding this rigorous observance the "deserts" were never used as places of punishment for those guilty of any fault, but on the contrary as a refuge for those aspiring after a higher life.儘管有這樣嚴格遵守"沙漠"從來不會用來作為地方的懲罰那些犯有任何過錯,但與此相反,作為避難所,為那些有志後較高的生活。 No one was sent to the "desert" except upon his own urgent request and even then only if his superiors judged that the applicant had the physical strength and ardent zeal to bear and to profit by the austerity of the hermit life.沒有人被送往"沙漠"後,除了他自己的迫切要求,即使如此,只有當他的上級判斷是申請人有體力和殷切的熱情承擔,並以豐厚的利潤緊縮的隱士的生活。 Among the more celebrated "deserts" should be mentioned those of San Juan Bautista, founded in 1606 at Santa Fé, New Mexico; Bussaco (1628), near Coimbra, Portugal, now a horticultural establishment and recreation ground; Massa (1682), near Sorrento, Italy, well known to visitors to Naples on account of the marvellous view of the gulfs of Naples and Salerno to be obtained from the terrace of the convent; and Tarasteix (1859), near Lourdes, France, founded by Father Hermann Cohen.其中較著名的"沙漠" ,應該提到的那些聖胡安包蒂斯塔,成立於1606年,在聖菲,新墨西哥; bussaco ( 1628 ) ,近Coimbra ,葡萄牙,現在是一家園藝建立和遊樂場;馬薩( 1682 ) ,近Sorrento ,意大利,眾所周知,以遊客那不勒斯就交代了絕妙的觀海灣,那不勒斯和薩勒諾,以獲得從陽台的修道院; tarasteix ( 1859 ) ,近Lourdes ,法國,成立由父親赫爾曼科恩。

The Calced Carmelites tried to introduce a similar institute but were less successful.該calced carmelites曾嘗試引入類似的研究所,但不太成功。 André Blanchard obtained in 1641 the papal approbation for the foundation of a convent at La Graville near Bernos, in France, where the original rule of St. Albert, without the mitigations of Innocent IV should be kept, and the life led by the hermits on Mount Carmel copied; all went well until the arrival, in 1649, of a pseudo-mystic, Jean Labadie, formerly a Jesuit, who in an incredibly short time succeeded in so influencing the majority of the religious, that at length the bishop had to interfere and dissolve the community.安德烈布蘭查德獲得在1641年教皇的讚許,為基金會一個修道院,在La格拉維爾近bernos ,在法國,如果原來的規則聖何俊仁,但無減輕無辜四,要保持和生命所主導對隱士摩焦糖複製;一切順利抵達之前,在1649年,一個偽神秘,讓labadie ,以前是耶穌會,他們在一個令人難以置信短的時間內成功的影響,所以,大多數的宗教,即在長度主教已到干預和化解社會。 Another "desert" was founded by the Calced Carmelites in 1741 at Neti near Syracuse in honour of the Madonna della Scala.另一種為"沙漠"成立,由calced carmelites在1741年在neti近雪城紀念聖母della Scala的。 A suggestion made in the course of the seventeenth century to the Discalced Carmelites of the Italian congregation to introduce perpetual mental prayer after the manner in which in some convents the perpetual chant of the Divine Office, or Perpetual Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament is practiced, namely by relays of religious, was decided against by the chapter as being altogether unsuitable.提出的一項建議,在這個過程中的17世紀向discalced carmelites的意大利眾介紹永恆的精神祈禱後,以何種方式在有些修道院一直高唱的神明廳,或永久的朝拜聖體,是練,即由繼電器的宗教,決定對由章被完全不合適的。

Exterior Occupations外部職業

Apart from the purely contemplative life led in the "deserts", and the specific religious exercises practiced in all convents (though in different measure), the chief occupation of the order consists now in the care of souls and missionary work.除了純粹的contemplative率領生活在"沙漠" ,和特定的宗教演習,實行所有修道院(雖然在不同的措施) ,行政佔領該訂單中,現在在照顧靈魂和傳教工作。 So long as the Carmelites occupied a well-defined position at the universities and took part in the academic work, a large number cultivated almost exclusively the higher studies.只要把carmelites佔領一個清楚界定的位置上大學和參加了學術工作,有大量耕地幾乎完全較高的研究。 During the Middle Ages the subjects of Carmelite writings were almost invariable, including the explanation of a certain number of Biblical writings, lectures on the various books of Aristotle, the Sentences, and canon law, and sermons De tempore and De sanctis.在中世紀的主題carmelite著作的人幾乎不變的,包括解釋一定數量的聖經著作,講學,對各種書籍的亞里士多德,判刑,並教會法,布道德和臨時德sanctis 。 In the long list of Carmelite writings preserved by Trithemius, Bale, and others, these subjects occur over and over again.在長長的名單carmelite著作保存裡特米烏斯,草捆等,這些科目的發生,並再次改革。 Several friars are known to have cultivated the study of astronomy, as John Belini (1370) and Nicholas de Linne (1386); others concerned themselves with the occult sciences, eg William Sedacinensis, whose great work on alchemy enjoyed considerable vogue during the Middle Ages; Oliver Golos was expelled the order on account of his too great knowledge of astrology (1500).幾方濟各會士,是已知有栽培研究天文學,約翰belini ( 1370 )和尼古拉德linne ( 1386 ) ;他人的關心與隱匿性科學,如威廉sedacinensis ,其偉大的工作煉金術享有相當盛行,在中世紀;奧利弗golos被開除了,為了考慮到他太大的知識占星術( 1500 ) 。 There were poets too, within the order, but while many were justly praised for purity and elegance of style, as Lawrence Burelli (c. 1480), only one secured lasting renown, Blessed Baptista Mantuanus.有詩人太,內部秩序,但同時,許多人還理直氣壯地稱讚為純潔和優雅的風格,正如勞倫斯burelli (約1480 )中,只有一個擔保持久的名聲,有福蒂斯塔mantuanus 。 The other fine arts were also represented, painting chiefly by Philippo Lippi of Florence, whose life, unfortunately, caused him to be dismissed with dishonour.其他美術也派代表參加了,繪畫主要由菲利普里皮的佛羅倫薩,他們的生活很不幸,使他被革職與拒付。 Although many friars cultivated music, no really prominent name can be mentioned.雖然許多方濟各會士,培養音樂,沒有真正突出的名字可以提。 In the fifteenth or sixteenth centuries allusion is frequently made to Carmelite organists serving various churches outside the order while one obtained leave from the general to repair organs wherever his services might be required.在第十五或十六世紀以來的典故是經常作出carmelite organists在職各教堂外的秩序,並同時獲得了一個假期,從總體修復器官而他的服務可能需要的。

In the University在大學

When the Carmelites first appeared at the universities, the two great schools of the Dominicans and Franciscans were already formed, and there remained no room for a third.當carmelites最早是出現在大學,這兩個偉大的學校,多米尼加和方濟會已經形成,但仍然沒有任何的餘地了三分之一。 Some attempts to elevate the teaching of John Baconthorpe to the rank of a theological school came to naught.一些嘗試,以提升教學的約翰baconthorpe以職級的神學校來化為烏有。 The majority of lecturers and writers belonged to the Thomistic school, especially after the great controversies on grace had compelled various orders to choose sides.大部分講師和作家屬於這個thomistic學校後,特別是大的爭議,對寬限期迫使各種命令,以選擇自己的立場。 This tendency became so intense that the Carmelite Salmanticenses made it their duty to follow the teaching of the Angelical Doctor even in the minutest details.這種傾向變得如此激烈,認為carmelite salmanticenses使得他們有責任遵循教學的angelical醫生甚至在minutest細節。 Controversy was inaugurated by Guy de Perpignan, general from 1318-20, author of "Summa de hæresibus"; the subject was taken up anew at the time of the Wycliffite troubles and ultimately led to the important works of Thomas Netter de Walden, the "Doctrinale" and "De Sacramentis et Sacramentalibus", which proved a gold mine for controversialists for several centuries.爭議開幕傢伙德佩皮尼昂,一般從1318年至1320年"的作者總結德hæresibus " ;此事採取行動重新在時間的wycliffite麻煩,並最終導致了重要的作品,托馬斯網友德瓦爾登, " doctrinale "和"去sacramentis等sacramentalibus " ,這證明了一個金礦,為controversialists幾百年了。 No epoch-making work was done at the time of the Reformation, and the order lost all its northern and the greater part of its German provinces.沒有具有劃時代的工作,這是在時間的改革,並命令所有失去其北部和大部份的德語省份。 Although few Carmelite controversialists are to be found on the Catholic side (the best known being Evrard Billick), there were hardly any prominent members among those who lost their faith.儘管很少carmelite controversialists是要找到對天主教方(最知名的正evrard billick ) ,有幾乎沒有任何突出的成員在那些失去了信心。

Mystical Theology神秘神學

Although Scholastic philosophy and theology, as well as moral theology, have found some of their chief exponents among the Carmelites (eg the Salmanticenses), other branches of science being less generously cultivated, the field on which absolutely fresh ground was opened by them is mystical theology.雖然士林哲學和神學,以及道德神學已經找到了他們的一些行政指數當中carmelites (如salmanticenses ) ,其他學科的科學那麼慷慨地栽培,外地就絕對新鮮地面開幕,他們是神秘神學。 During the Middle Ages this subject had been treated only in so far as the ordinary course of studies required, and those of the friars who wrote on it were few and far between, nor do they seem to have exercised much influence.在中世紀這個課題已接受治療,只有在已有的正常過程的研究需要,及屬於該方濟各會士誰寫上它並不多見,也不做,他們似乎已經行使多少影響。 All this was changed with the establishment of the Teresain Reform.這一切都被改變了與建立該teresain改革。 As has already been said, St. Teresa was led, unknown to herself, to the highest planes of the mystical life.正如已經表示,聖德肋撒是主導,不知道自己,才能達到最高的飛機神秘的生活。 With her marvellous gift of introspection and analysis, and her constant fear of swerving, be it ever so little, from the teaching of the Church, she subjected her own personal experiences to severe scrutiny, and ever sought the advice and direction of learned priests, chiefly of the Dominican Order.她的絕妙禮物的反思和分析,以及她不斷擔心飛入,無論是任何時候都那麼少,教學的教會,她受她自己的切身經驗,以嚴厲的監管,任何時候都徵求了意見和方向,據悉,牧師,主要由多米尼加秩序。 When St. John of the Cross joined the reform, he, fresh from the lecture-rooms at Salamanca and trained in the philosophy and theology of St. Thomas, was able to give her light on the phenomena of psychology and Divine grace.當聖約翰的十字架加入了改革,他當時剛剛從演講室,在薩拉曼卡和訓練有素的,在哲學和神學的聖托馬斯,是無法讓她光對現象的心理學和神的恩典。 Both of these saints have left writings on mystical theology, Teresa recording and explaining in simple but telling words her own experiences, John taking up the matter more in the abstract sense; still some of his writings, particularly the "Ascent of Mount Carmel", might almost be considered a commentary on the life and the "Interior Castle" of St. Teresa.上述兩個聖人留下的著作對神秘主義神學,德肋撒記錄和解釋簡單,但講的話,她自己的親身經歷,約翰考慮跟進此事,更抽象的意義上仍是他的一些著作,特別是"上台的摩佳美" ,幾乎可以被視為評論,對生命和"內部城堡"的聖德肋撒。 There is no evidence that he had derived his knowledge from study; he was unacquainted with the works of St. Bernard, Hugh of St. Victor, Gerson, and the Low German mystics, and knew nothing of the mystical school of the German Dominicans; he appears to have known St. Augustine and the other fathers only in so far as the Breviary and theological textbooks contained extracts from their writings.目前並沒有證據顯示他曾得出他的知識,從學習中,他被unacquainted與工程的聖伯納德,休聖維克多, gerson ,及低收入德國神秘主義者和一無所知的神秘學校的德語多米尼加;他似乎已經知道聖奧古斯丁和其他父親只至於所謂breviary和神學教科書中所載的提取物及其著作。 He was therefore in no way influenced by the views of earlier mystics, and had no difficulty in keeping aloof from the beaten track, but he evolved his system from his own and St. Teresa's personal experience as seen in the light of Scholastic theology, and with constant reference to the words of Holy Scripture.因此,他在沒有辦法的影響的意見,先前神秘主義者,並沒有任何困難,保持超然,從因循守舊,但他的演變,他的制度,由他自己和聖德肋撒的個人經驗看,在輕學術神學,並恆參考的話,神聖的經文。 For the analogies and allegories of previous mystics he had no taste, and nothing was farther from him than the wish to penetrate the secrets of Heaven and gaze behind Divine revelation.為比喻和寓言以往的神秘主義者,他沒有味道,並沒有遠離他比想滲透的秘密天堂與凝視背後的神的啟示。

An order which gives such prominence to the contemplative life could not but take up the subject and study it under all aspects.一項命令,讓這種突出該contemplative生活不能,而是採取了課題研究,它的各方面的問題。 The experimental part, which of course does not depend on the will of the individual, but which, nevertheless, is assisted by a certain predisposition and preparation, found at all times a home not only in the "deserts" and the convents of Carmelite nuns, but in other houses as well; the annals of the order are full of biographies of profound mystics.實驗部分,其中當然不依賴於個人意願,但,雖然如此,是由某一個誘因和準備,在任何時候,一個家,不僅在"沙漠"和修道院的修女carmelite ,但在其他房子以及;載入史冊的秩序,是全面的傳記,具有深刻的神秘主義者。 Considering the danger of self-deception and diabolical illusion which necessarily besets the path of the mystic, it is surprising how free the Carmelite Order has remained from such blots.考慮到危險的自我欺騙和邪惡的幻想,這一定是困擾道路上的神秘的面紗,這是令人驚訝的是如何擺脫carmelite秩序一直保持這種污點。 Rare instances are on record of friars or nuns who left the safe ground for the crooked ways of a false mysticism. Much of this indemnity from error must be ascribed to the training directors of souls receive, which enables them to discern almost from the outset what is safe from what is dangerous. The symptoms of the influence of good and evil spirits have been explained so clearly by St. Teresa and St. John of the Cross, and a prudent reserve in all that does not tend directly to the advancement of virtue has been so urgently counselled, that error can creep in only where there is a want of openness and simplicity on the part of the subject. The symptoms of the influence of good and evil spirits have been explained so clearly by St. Teresa and St. John of the Cross, and a prudent reserve in all that does not tend directly to the advancement of virtue has been so urgently counselled, that error can creep in only where there is a want of openness and simplicity on the part of the subject. Hence, among the great number of mystics there have been but a very few whose mysticism is open to question. Several great theologians endeavoured to reduce mystical theology to a science. Among these must be reckoned Jerome Gratian, the confessor and faithful companion of St. Teresa; Thomas of Jesus, who represented both sides of the Carmelite life, the active part as organizer of the missions of the Universal Church as well as of his order, and the contemplative part as founder of the "deserts". Among these must be reckoned Jerome Gratian, the confessor and faithful companion of St. Teresa; Thomas of Jesus, who represented both sides of the Carmelite life, the active part as organizer of the missions of the Universal Church as well as of his order, and the contemplative part as founder of the "deserts". His great works on mystical theology were collected and printed at the bidding of Urban VIII; Philip of the Blessed Trinity (1603-71), whose "Summa theologiæ mysticæ" may be taken as the authoritative utterance of the order on this subject; Anthony of the Holy Ghost, Bishop of Angula (died 1677), author of a handbook for the use of directors of souls, entitled "Directorium mysticum"; Anthony of the Annunciation (died 1714), and, finally, Joseph of the Holy Ghost (died 1739), who wrote a large work on mystical theology in three folio volumes; all these and many more strictly adhered to the principles of St. Teresa and St. John of the Cross and to the teaching of St. Thomas Aquinas. His great works on mystical theology were collected and printed at the bidding of Urban VIII; Philip of the Blessed Trinity (1603-71), whose "Summa theologiæ mysticæ" may be taken as the authoritative utterance of the order on this subject; Anthony of the Holy Ghost, Bishop of Angula (died 1677), author of a handbook for the use of directors of souls, entitled "Directorium mysticum"; Anthony of the Annunciation (died 1714), and, finally, Joseph of the Holy Ghost (died 1739), who wrote a large work on mystical theology in three folio volumes; all these and many more strictly adhered to the principles of St. Teresa and St. John of the Cross and to the teaching of St. Thomas Aquinas. The ascetic part was not less cultivated. For elevation of principles and lucidity of exposition it would be difficult to surpass Ven. John of Jesus-Mary. The difficult art of obeying and the more difficult one of commanding have been dealt with in a masterly manner by Modestus a S. Amabili (died 1684). The Calced Carmelites, too, have furnished excellent works on different branches of mystical theology.

Foundations of Women

The Carmelite nuns established by St. Teresa spread with marvellous rapidity. Such was the veneration in which the foundress was held in Spain during her life-time that she received more requests for foundations than she could satisfy. Although very careful in the selection of superiors for new convents she had not always the most capable persons at her disposal and complained in several instances of the lack of prudence or the overruling spirit of some prioresses; she even found that some went so far as to tamper with the constitutions. Although very careful in the selection of superiors for new convents she had not always the most capable persons at her disposal and complained in several instances of the lack of prudence or the overruling spirit of some prioresses; she even found that some went so far as to tamper with the constitutions. Such incidents may be unavoidable during the first stage of a new order, but Teresa strove to counteract them by detailed instructions on the canonical visitation of her convents. She desired one of her favourite subjects, Ven. Anne of Jesus (Lobera, born 1545; died 4 March 1621), prioress of Granada to succeed her in the position of "foundress" of the order. Hence, when Nicolò Doria changed the manner of government of the Discalced Carmelites, Anne of Jesus submitted the Constitutions of St. Teresa (already revised by the General Chapter of 1581) to the Holy See for approbation. Certain modifications having been introduced by successive popes, Doria refused to have anything to do with the nuns. His successors, however, reinstated them, but maintained the prohibition in vigour for the friars against making foundations outside Spain and the Spanish colonies. A convent, however, had already been inaugurated at Genoa and another was in contemplation in Rome, where some ladies, struck with the writings of St. Teresa, formed a community on the Pincian Hill under the direction of the Oratorians, one of the members being a niece of Cardinal Baronius. A convent, however, had already been inaugurated at Genoa and another was in contemplation in Rome, where some ladies, struck with the writings of St. Teresa, formed a community on the Pincian Hill under the direction of the Oratorians, one of the members being a niece of Cardinal Baronius. On the arrival of the Discalced friars in the Holy City it was found that the nuns had much to learn and more to unlearn. Other convents followed in rapid succession in various parts of Italy, the beatification and canonization of St. Teresa (1614 and 1622) acting as a stimulus. Not all convents were under the government of the order, many having been from the first subject to the jurisdiction of the local bishop; since the French Revolution this arrangement has become the prevailing one. In 1662 the number of nuns under the government of the Fathers of the Italian Congregation was 840; in 1665 it had risen to 906, but these figures, the only ones available, embrace only a very small fraction of the order.

About the beginning of the seventeenth century Mme Acarie (Blessed Marie of the Incarnation, 1565-1618) was admonished in an apparition by St. Teresa to introduce her order into France.大約年初十七世紀夫人acarie (有福了瑪麗的化身, 1565年至1618年)被告誡在apparition由聖德肋撒介紹,她為了到法國。 Several attempts were made to obtain some nuns trained by the holy foundress herself, but the Spanish superiors declared themselves unable to send subjects beyond the Pyrenees.幾次嘗試作了獲得一些修女培訓出來的神聖foundress自己,但西班牙語上級宣布自己無法派科目超越比利牛斯山。 M. (afterwards Cardinal) de Bérulle, acting on behalf of Mme Acarie and her friends, received a Brief from Rome empowering him to proceed with the foundation; but as it contained some clauses distasteful to him, eg that the new foundations should be under the government of the friars as soon as these should be established in France, and as it did not contain some others he had counted upon, he obtained through the French ambassador an order from the king commanding the general to send certain nuns to Paris.米(事後紅衣主教)德bérulle ,代理代表夫人acarie和她的朋友們,收到了簡短從羅馬授權他進行了地基,但因為它包含了一些條款distasteful他說,例如在新的基礎上,應根據政府的方濟各會士,因為一旦這些應該建立在與法國,因為它並不包含其他一些他清點後,他得到了通過法國駐華大使發出命令,由國王指揮一般送某尼姑巴黎。 Among these were Anne of Jesus, and Ven.其中,被安妮的耶穌,並ven 。 Anne of St. Bartholomew (1549 to 7 June, 1626), then a lay sister, who had been St. Teresa's attendant during the latter years of her life.安妮的聖巴爾多祿茂一世( 1549至1626年6月7日) ,然後打下妹妹曾擔任過多年聖德肋撒的服務員在後幾年,她的生活。 Altogether seven sisters left Spain for Paris, where they arrived in July, 1604, being received by Princesse de Longueville and other ladies of the Court.共有7姐妹離開西班牙前往巴黎,在那裡來到今年7月, 1604年,正在收到princesse德longueville和其他女裝的法院。 As it soon became manifest that M. de Bérulle had his own ideas about the government of the order, which he was anxious to associate with the French Oratory founded by him, pending the establishment of an "Order of Jesus and Mary" he had in contemplation, six of the foundresses left France within a few years, while the seventh remained only under protest.因為它很快就成了體現米德bérulle了他自己的想法,對政府的命令,那是他急欲協理與法國創辦小禮拜堂由他,以待成立一個"命令的耶穌和瑪麗" ,他曾在沉思,有六所foundresses離開法國內部的幾年間,而第七迄今仍僅是抗議的情況下。

The French Carmelite nuns were placed (with few exceptions) under the government of the Oratorians, the Jesuits, and secular priests, without any official connection either with the Spanish or the Italian congregation of Discalced Carmelites, forming a congregation apart from the rest of the order.法國carmelite尼姑被放在(除了少數例外) ,而根據政府的oratorians ,耶穌會士,和世俗教士,沒有任何官方的聯繫要么與西班牙語或意大利語聚集discalced carmelites ,形成一個聚集,除了其餘的秩序。 They spread very rapidly, being held in high esteem by the episcopate, the Court, and the people.它們傳播的速度非常快,被關押在崇高的敬意,由主教,法院,對人民負責。 Unfortunately the mother-house in Paris (Couvent de l'Incarnation, Rue d'Enfer) became for some years one of the centres of the Jansenists, but otherwise the French Carmelites have reflected glory on the Church.不幸的婆婆家,在巴黎( couvent德l'化身, rue -e nfer)成了一些年來,一間中心的詹森教徒,但除此之外,法國c armelites反映了榮耀也對教會。 Among the most celebrated French Carmelite nuns may be mentioned Louise de la Miséricorde (1644-1710), who as Duchesse de la Vallière had taken an unfortunate part in the court scandals under Louis XIV, which she expiated by many years of humble penance; Ven.其中最有名的法語carmelite尼姑,可提到路易斯德香格里拉miséricorde ( 1644至1710年) ,他作為duchesse德香格里拉vallière採取了一個不幸的部分,在法庭的醜聞下,路易十四,她expiated通過多年的謙卑懺悔; ven 。 Térèse de Saint Augustin (Mme Louis de France, 1737-87) daughter of Louis XV, notwithstanding her exalted birth, chose for herself one of the poorest convents, Saint-Denis near Paris, where she distinguished herself by the exercise of heroic virtue. térèse德聖奧古斯丁(夫人路易德法國, 1737年至1787年)的女兒,路易十五,儘管她的崇高出生時,選擇了自己的最差的國家之一修道院,聖但尼在巴黎附近,在那裡她尊敬自己所行使的英雄美德。 During the Revolution all the communities were dissolved; one of them, that of Compiègne, endeavoured to keep up, as far as circumstances allowed, the observances prescribed by the rule, until the sixteen nuns were all apprehended, cast into prison, dragged to Paris, tried, condemned to death, and consigned to the guillotine, 17 July, 1794; they were beatified in 1906.革命期間所有社區都被解散;其中一人,也就是compiègne ,努力跟上,據情況允許,紀念活動所統治,直到十六個尼姑都被逮捕,投入獄中,被拉巴黎,審判,譴責死刑,並委託給日本的斷頭台, 1794年7月17日,他們被宣福是在1906年。 Another Carmelite nun, Mother Camille de l'Enfant Jésus (Mme de Soyecourt) underwent with her community long imprisonment, but being at last liberated she became instrumental in re-establishing not only her own but many other convents.另一carmelite尼姑,母親卡米爾德兒童jésus (夫人德soyecourt )經歷了與她的社會長期監禁,但被最後解放,她在重新確立不僅是她自己,但其他許多修道院。 When at the beginning of the twentieth century the law on religious associations was passed, there were over a hundred Carmelite convents in France with several offshoots in distant parts of the world, even Australia and Cochin China.當在20世紀初依法對宗教協會通過後,有超過一百名carmelite修道院,在法國與一些想出名,在遙遠的世界一部分,甚至是澳大利亞和科欽中國。 In consequence of the French legislation many communities took refuge in other countries, but some are still in their old convents.在後果的法國立法許多社區避難,在其他國家,但有些仍處於舊修道院。

Quitting Paris for Brussels, Ven.離開巴黎,布魯塞爾ven 。 Anne of Jesus became the foundress of the Belgian Carmel.安妮耶穌成為foundress的比利時佳美。 At her instigation the Infanta Isabel Clara Eugenia called the friars from Rome, with the result that foundations increased rapidly.在她的指使下了infanta伊莎貝爾克拉拉歐亨尼婭稱為方濟各會士,從羅馬,其結果是,基金會迅速增加。 One of these, at Antwerp, was due to Ven.其中之一,在安特衛普,是由於ven 。 Anne of St. Bartholomew, who, while in France, had been promoted from lay sister to prioress, having learned to write by a miracle; she was instrumental in delivering Antwerp from a siege.安妮的聖巴爾多祿茂一世,人,而在法國,已被提拔奠定妹妹prioress ,學會寫字是一個奇蹟,她是在交付安特衛普從圍困。 The Belgian Carmel sent out colonies to other countries, Germany and Poland, where Mother Teresa of Jesus (Marchocka, 1603-52) became celebrated.比利時焦糖派出殖民地到其他國家,德國和波蘭,那裡德雷莎修女的耶穌( marchocka , 1603年至1652年) ,成為慶祝。 Another convent was founded at Antwerp for English ladies (1619), who were reinforced by Dutch sisters; in 1623 it was detached from the order and placed under the bishop, and in its turn made foundations at Lierre in 1648, and Hoogstraeten in 1678, all of which became the abode of many noble English ladies during the times of penal laws.另一個修道院創建於安特衛普為英語女裝( 1619 ) ,他們加強了荷蘭語姐妹1623 ,它是脫離了秩序和劃歸主教,並在其又分基金會在利埃爾於1648年,並霍赫斯特拉滕在1678年,所有這些都成了居留權的許多崇高的英語女士們,在時代的刑法。 At the outbreak of the French Revolution the nuns had to flee the country.在爆發的法國大革命修女們不得不逃離該國。 After a short stay in the neighbourhood of London the community of Antwerp divided into two sections, one proceeding to America, the other settling ultimately at Lanherne in Cornwall, whence they sent out an offshoot which finally settled at Wells in Somerset (1870); the community of Lierre found a home at Darlington, Co. Durham (1830), and that of Hoogstraeten, after much wandering, settled at last at Chichester, Co. Sussex, in 1870.經過了短暫的停留在附近的倫敦社會的安特衛普分為兩個部分,一個程序中,以美國,其他的解決,最終在lanherne康沃爾,何時,他們派出的一個分支,最終收於井薩默塞特( 1870年) ;社區利埃爾找到了家在達靈頓,公司達勒姆( 1830 ) ,並認為霍赫斯特拉滕,經過多次徘徊,收於去年在奇切斯特,蘇塞克斯有限公司,在1870年。 Not counting the French refugees, there are at present seven convents of Carmelite nuns in England.並沒有把法語難民,目前有七個修道院的修女carmelite在英格蘭。 An earlier project for a convent in London, with Mary Frances of the Holy Ghost (Princess Elénore d'Este, 1643-1722, aunt of the Queen of James II) as prioress, came to naught owing to the Orange Revolution, but it appears that about the same time a community was established at Loughrea in Ireland.較早的項目為修道院,在倫敦,瑪麗弗朗西斯的聖靈(公主elénore埃斯特, 1643年至1722年,姑姑的女王的詹姆斯二世) prioress ,來到化為烏有由於橙色革命,但它似乎大約同一時間,社區成立了loughrea在愛爾蘭。 At times the nuns found it difficult to comply with all the requirements of the rule; thus they were often compelled to lay aside the habit and assume secular dress.有的時候,修女們發現很難遵守的各項規定,該規則的,因此,他們往往被迫擱置的習慣,並承擔世俗禮服。 Several convents were established in Ireland in the eighteenth century, but in some cases it became necessary for the nuns to accommodate themselves so far to circumstances as to open schools for poor children.幾個修道院成立於愛爾蘭,在十八世紀,但在某些情況下,它已成為必要為尼姑,以容納自己迄今的情況下,以開放學校,為貧困兒童。 There are at present twelve convents in Ireland, mostly under episcopal jurisdiction.目前有12個修道院在愛爾蘭,大部分主教管轄。

The second section of the English community at Antwerp, consisting of Mother Bernardine Matthews as prioress and three sisters, arrived at New York, 2 July, 1790, accompanied by their confessor, Rev. Charles Neale, and Rev. Robert Plunkett.第二部分的英語社區,在安特衛普,由母親bernardine馬修斯作為prioress和三姐妹抵達紐約, 1790年7月2日,伴隨著他們的懺悔,牧師查爾斯處於同一水平,並牧師羅伯特plunkett 。 On the feast of St. Teresa, 15 October of the same year, the first convent, dedicated to the Sacred Heart, was inaugurated on the property of Mr. Baker Brooke, about four miles from Port Tobacco, Charles Co., Maryland.對節日聖德肋撒, 15同年10月,第一個女修道院,奉獻給聖心,上台後對房地產的貝克先生布魯克,大約4英里的港口煙草,查爾斯有限公司,馬里蘭州。 Want of support compelled the sisters to seek a more convenient site, and on 29 September, 1830, the foundation-stone was laid for a convent in Aisquith Street, Baltimore, whither the community migrated the following year, Mother Angela of St. Teresa (Mary Mudd) being then prioress.想要的支持,迫使姐妹,以尋求一個更方便的網站,並於1830年9月29日,該基金會-石材奠定了一個修道院,在aisquith街,巴爾的摩,向何處去社區遷移次年,母親安吉拉的聖德肋撒(瑪麗mudd ) ,然後prioress 。 In 1872, during the priorship of Mother Ignatius (Amelia Brandy), the present (1908) convent, corner of Caroline and Briddle Streets was inaugurated. 1872年,在priorship的母親伊格(阿米莉亞白蘭地) ,目前( 1908年)修道院,角落卡洛琳和briddle街道正式成立。 This community made a foundation at St. Louis, 2 October, 1863, first established at Calvary Farm, and since 1878 within the city.這個社會作出了基金會在聖路易斯, 1863年10月2日,剛成立時calvary農場,而自1878年在該城市。 The foundation at New Orleans dates back to 1877, when Mother Teresa of Jesus (Rowan) and three nuns took a house in Ursuline Street, pending the construction of a convent in Barrack Street, which was completed on 24 November, 1878.該基金會在新奧爾良可以追溯到1877年,當時德雷莎修女的耶穌(灶) ,以及三個尼姑了一所房子,在外語街,以待建造一座修道院,在營房街,它完成於1878年11月24日。 The convent at Boston was founded 28 August, 1890, and in its turn established that of Philadelphia, 26 July, 1902, Mother Gertrude of the Sacred Heart being the first prioress.修道院在波士頓成立, 1890年8月28日,並在其之交確定的76人, 1902年7月26日,母親gertrude的聖心作為第一prioress 。 In May, 1875, some nuns from Reims arrived at Quebec and found a convenient place at Hochelaga near Montreal, where they established, the convent of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart.今年5月, 1875年,一些修女從蘭斯抵達魁北克省發現一個方便的地方,在hochelaga近蒙特利爾,在那裡建立起來,修道院,聖母聖心。 Another Canadian foundation attempted from Baltimore in the same year was unsuccessful, and had to be given up after a few years.另外,加拿大基金會試圖從巴爾的摩,在同一年,是不成功的,並已被放棄,經過幾年的。

Life of the Nuns生活中的修女

The life of a Carmelite nun is somewhat different from that of a friar, as there is an essential difference between the vocation of a priest and that of a lay person.生命一carmelite尼姑是有所不同的從一個弗萊爾,是有本質區別的天職一名神父,和一位非法律界人士。 Active work, such as nursing the sick and teaching, are out of the question in a cloistered convent.積極的工作,如護理病人和教學,都談不上在cloistered修道院。 The Carmelite sister leads a contemplative life, a considerable portion of her time being devoted to Divine service, meditation and other pious exercises, the rest occupied with household work and other occupations.該carmelite姐姐帶領的一個科研contemplative生活中,有相當一部分的時候,她正致力於神服務,打坐和其他虔誠的演習,其餘忙於家務勞動及其他職業。 The life is necessarily strict, the fasting severe, and there are many opportunities for exercising virtue.人生是一定嚴格,空腹嚴重,並有許多機會可以行使的美德。

Various Carmelite Institutions各carmelite機構

Several religious institutions have gathered round Carmel.幾個宗教機構都圍攏佳美。 In the Middle Ages we find attached to many convents and churches anchorages, that is, hermitages for recluses who at their own request were walled up by the bishop and who exercised a great influence over the populace by reason of their example, their austerities, and their exhortations.在中世紀,我們找到的重視,許多修道院和教堂碇泊區,即是修砌為隱士,他們在各自的要求,分別寨由主教和行使者影響甚大,超過了民眾的理由,以他們為榜樣,他們的austerities ,他們的囑託。 Among the more celebrated Carmelite recluses may be mentioned Thomas Scrope of Bradley, at Norwich, afterwards titular Bishop of Dromore in Ireland and Apostolic legate in Rhodes; and Blessed Jane of Toulouse (beginning of the fifteenth century) whose cultus was approved by Leo XIII.其中較著名carmelite隱士,可提到托馬斯斯克羅普的布萊德雷,在諾里奇,事後名譽主教dromore在愛爾蘭和使徒legate在Rhodes ;有福了阿珍的圖盧茲(初的15世紀) ,其cultus批准利奧十三世。

Probably ever since the coming of the friars to Europe, founders of convents and benefactors were admitted to the order under the title of Confratres, which gave them a right to participation in the prayers and good works of a section or of the entire order, and to suffrages after their death.大概自從未來的方濟各會士向歐洲,開國元勳修道院和恩人,被錄取到該命令的名稱下confratres ,這給了他們參與的權利,在祈禱和優秀作品的一節或整秩序,以suffrages後,其死因。 Neither such Confratres, nor even the text of confraternity letters, contain any mention of obligations incumbent on them.既不這種confratres ,甚至也不文本幫會信件,含有任何一提的義務,有責任對他們的影響。 The letters were at first granted only after mature consideration, but from the end of the fifteenth century it was less difficult to obtain them; in many cases the general handed numerous blank forms to provincials and priors to be distributed by them at their own discretion.這些信件是在第一次後才能獲得成熟的考慮,但是從去年底的15世紀,它是那麼困難,以取得他們的,在許多情況下,一般交了許多空白表格,以provincials和先驗將分發給他們,在他們自己的決定權。 Out of this confraternity, which stood in no organic connection with the order, arose in the sixteenth century, according to all probability, the Confraternity of the Scapular.出於這種幫會,其中站在沒有有機結合一聲令下,屹立於16世紀,根據所有的概率,幫會的肩胛骨。

Another confraternity was a guild established in 1280 at Bologna, and perhaps elsewhere, which held its meetings in the Carmelite church and from time to time made an offering at a certain altar, but otherwise was entirely independent of the order.另一個幫會是一個人協會成立於1280年,在博洛尼亞,也許在其他地方,而舉行會議,在carmelite教會和不時作出了提供在某一個溫柔的態度,但在其他方面是完全獨立的命令。 As has been seen, some communities of Beguines in the Netherlands asked, in 1452, for affiliation to the order, and thus gave rise to the first convents of Carmelite nuns.正如已經看到,一些社區的beguines在荷蘭問,在1452年,為無黨派人士,向新秩序,從而產生了第一個修道院的carmelite尼姑。 At a later period Herman of St. Norbert (died 1686), preaching in 1663 at Termonde, determine five Beguines, among them Anne Puttemans (died 1674), to sell their property and found the congregation of Maricoles or Maroles, which was aggregated to the order 26 March, 1672; they occupy themselves with the education of poor girls and with the care of the sick in their own homes, and have still many convents in the Dioceses of Mechlin, Ghent, and especially Bruges.在後一時期赫爾曼聖諾伯特(死於1686年) ,鼓吹在1663年在特爾蒙德,確定五個beguines ,其中安妮皮特芒斯(死於1674 ) ,出售自己的財產,並發現聚集maricoles或maroles ,這是匯總該命令1672年3月26日,他們佔領本身與教育的貧困女童,並與照顧有病在自己的家中,並已仍有許多修道院在教區的梅克林,根特,特別是布魯日。 A community of thirty-seven hermits living in various hermitages in Bavaria and the Tyrol having asked for aggregation, the General Chapter of the Discalced Carmelites of 1689 granted their wish under certain conditions, among others that not more than four or five should live in each hermitage, but the decree was rescinded in 1692, for what reason is not known, and all connection between these hermits and the order was severed.一個社區的37隱士生活在各種修砌在巴伐利亞和蒂羅爾經詢問,為聚集,一般章節的discalced carmelites的1689批,他們希望在一定的條件下,除其他外表示,不超過4個或5個應該活在每個冬宮,但該法令被廢除,在1692年,原因是什麼,不知道,而所有連接這些隱士和命令切斷。

Carmelite Tertiaries carmelite tertiaries

Tertiaries or members of the Third or Secular Order may be divided into two classes, those living in their own homes and those living in community. tertiaries或委員,第三還是世俗秩序的,可分為兩類,那些生活在自己家中和那些生活在社區。 The former class is first met with in the middle of the fifteenth century, when the Holy See granted permission to the Carmelites to institute a Third Order of secular persons, after the model of similar institutions attached to other mendicant orders.前者工人階級是第一次見面,與在中東的15世紀時,羅馬教廷獲准向carmelites建立一個三階世俗的人,經過的模式類似機構隸屬其他乞討命令。 The oldest printed Missals and Breviaries contain the rite of admission of such persons; these were then known by the term of bizzoche, which has since acquired a somewhat unpleasant meaning.最古老的印刷missals和breviaries遏制成年禮入學等人,這些人,然後由已知的任期bizzoche ,先後收購了一些不愉快的含義。 They were found to recite certain prayers (in the Teresian Reform also to practice meditation), to keep certain fasts and abstinences, refrain from worldly amusements, and to live under obedience to the superiors of the order; they might wear a distinctive habit resembling that of the friars or nuns.發現他們背誦某些祈禱(特蕾莎改革,還實行打坐) ,以保持一定的齋戒和abstinences ,不要世俗娛樂,和生活在服從上級的命令,他們可能會磨損一個顯著的習慣,類似於的方濟各會士或修女。 Tertiaries living in community observe a rule similar to, but less austere than, that of the friars; there are two communities of Tertiary brothers in Ireland, one at Clondalkin, where they have a boarding-school established previous to 1813, and another, in charge of an asylum for the blind, at Drumcondra near Dublin. tertiaries生活在社會遵守一項規則相似,但較少過緊比,是由方濟各會士,有兩個社區的大專兄弟,在愛爾蘭,一個在clondalkin ,在那裡有一所寄宿學校成立了以往以1813 ,和另一個在主管庇護為盲人,在drumcondra近都柏林。 There are also Tertiary fathers (natives) in the Archdiocese of Verapoly in India, established 1855, who serve a number of missions.也有大專父親(土人) ,在總主教區的verapoly在印度, 1855年成立的,擔任了一些訪問活動。

Tertiary sisters have a convent in Rome founded by Livia Vipereschi for the education of girls; they were approved by Clement IX in 1668.大專姐妹有一個修道院,在羅馬成立,由livia vipereschi對女孩的教育,他們被核准的克萊門特九, 1668年。 The Austrian congregation has had, since 1863, ten houses partly for educational purposes, partly for the care of servants.奧地利聚集了,因為1863年, 10個房子,部分是為教育目的,這部分是為照顧公務員。 In India, too, there are native Tertiary sisters in Verapoly and Quilon with thirteen houses, boarding schools, and orphanages.在印度,也有本土大專姐妹verapoly和quilon與13家寄宿制學校,孤兒院等。 A Tertiary convent was founded in Luxemburg in 1886.大專女修道院始建於盧森堡在1886年。 Finally, mention must be made of the Carmelite Tertiaries of the Sacred Heart lately established in Berlin, with orphanages and kindergartens in various parts of Germany, Holland, England, Bohemia, and Italy.最後,還必須提到了該carmelite tertiaries的聖心最近成立於柏林,與孤兒院和幼兒園,在各部分包括德國,荷蘭,英格蘭,波西米亞,和意大利。

Statistics統計

At the present time (1908) there are about 80 convents of Calced Carmelite friars, with about 800 members and 20 convents of nuns; 130 convents of Discalced Carmelite friars, with about 1900 members; the number of convents of nuns, including the French previous to the passing of the Association law, was 360.在目前這個時間( 1908年) ,有大約80修道院的calced carmelite方濟各會士,約800名議員及20修道院的修女; 130修道院的discalced carmelite方濟各會士,約1900名成員;人數修道院的修女們,包括法國前要通過這個協會法,是360 。

Publication information Written by Benedict Zimmerman.出版信息寫本篤齊默爾曼。 Dedicated to St. Teresa of Jesus The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III.致力於聖德肋撒的耶穌,天主教百科全書,第三卷。 Published 1908. 1908年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, November 1, 1908. nihil obstat , 1908年11月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

A considerable portion of this article being based on unpublished material, the following notices are necessarily incomplete, and to a large extent antiquated.相當一部分這篇文章是基於對未公佈的材料,以下告示牌必然是不完整的,並在相當大程度上的陳舊。

GENERAL SOURCES: MIGNE, Dict.一般資料來源:米涅,字典。 des ordres religieux, I, 635 sqq.; Bullarium Carmelitanum, vols.萬ordres religieux ,我, 635 sqq 。 ; bullarium carmelitanum ,第一卷。 I and II, ed.一和二,對外債務。 MONSIGNANUS (Rome, 1715, 1718), vols. monsignanus (羅馬, 1715 , 1718 ) ,第一卷。 III and IV (Rome, 1768), ed.第三和第四節(羅馬, 1768年) ,教育署。 XIMENES (Rome, 1768); RIBOTI, Speculum Carmelitarium, ed. Ximenes的(羅馬, 1768年) ; riboti , speculum carmelitarium ,教育署。 CATHANEIS (Venice, 1507), ed. cathaneis (威尼斯, 1507年) ,教育署。 DANIEL A VIRGINE MARIA (2 vols. in fol., Antwerp, 1680), containing the Corpus of medieval Carmelite historians together with numerous dissertations and polemical writings, and practically superseding such authors as: FALCONE, Chronicon Carmelitarium (Placenza, 1545); BRUSSELA, Compendio historico Carmelitano (Florence, 1595); BOLARQUEZ, Chronicas dell' Orden del Monte Carmelo melitano (Palermo, 1600); AUBERTUS MIRæUS, Carmelit.丹尼爾一virgine瑪麗亞( 2卷,在接下來,安特衛普, 1680 ) ,其中載有胼中世紀carmelite歷史學家連同無數論文和論辯文章,幾乎取代,如作者為:法爾科內, chronicon carmelitarium ( placenza , 15時45分) ; brussela , compendio historico卡爾梅利塔諾(佛羅倫薩, 1595年) ; bolarquez , chronicas戴爾'勳章Del Monte的卡梅隆melitano (巴勒莫, 1600 ) ; aubertus miræus , carmelit 。 Ordinis origo (Antwerp, 1610); J. DE CARTHAGENA, De antiquitate Ordin. ordinis origo (安特衛普, 1610年)的J.德carthagena ,德antiquitate ordin 。 BMV de Monte Carm.墨西哥證券交易所德蒙特carm 。 (Antwerp, 1620). (安特衛普, 1620年) 。 DOMINICUS A JESU, Spicilegium episcoporum, Ordin. dominicus一jesu , spicilegium episcoporum , ordin 。 Carmel.佳美。 (Paris, 1638); DANIEL A VIRG. (巴黎, 1638 ) ;丹尼爾一virg 。 MARIA, Vinea Carmeli (Antwerp, 1662), with a synchronological table embracing the events during the lifetime of St. Simon Stock (1165-1265) by SEGHERUS PAULI, which the student will do well to handle critically.瑪麗亞, vinea卡爾梅利(安特衛普, 1662 ) ,與synchronological表擁抱活動,在一生中的聖西蒙公司股票( 1165年至1265年)由segherus泡利,而學生將做好處理情況危急。 The first three vols.首3卷。 of LEZANA, Annales sacri prophetici et Eliani Ord.對lezana ,年鑑sacri prophetici等eliani霍德。 (4 vols., Rome, 1645, 1650, 1653, and 1656), contain the life of the Prophet Elias, the history of the order during the Old Law, at the coming of Christ, and during the Middle Ages as far as 1140; the fourth vol., which might have permanent value as it embraces the period from 1140 till 1515, is in many respects unsatisfactory and superficial. ( 4卷,羅馬, 1645 , 1650個, 1653和1656年) ,載有生命的先知埃利亞斯,歷史的順序,在舊法,在即將舉行的基督,並在中世紀據一千一百四十;第四卷,其中可能有永久的價值,因為它包含了從1140到1515 ,在許多方面是不能令人滿意和做表面文章。 PHILIPPUS A SS. philippus一晚上。 TRINITATE, Compendium historiæ Carmelitarum (Lyons, 1656); IDEM, Theologia Carmelitana (Rome, 1665); IDEM, Decor Carmeli (Lyons, 1665); HAITZE D' ACHE wrote against this work Les moines empruntés, to which JEAN DE VAUX replied by Réponse pour les Religiuex Carmes au livre intitulé: Les moines empr. trinitate ,彙編historiæ carmelitarum (里昂, 1656年) ;同上, theologia carmelitana (羅馬, 1665年) ;同上,裝飾卡爾梅利(里昂, 1665年) ; haitze d '咽痛,寫信對這項工作,就業輔導組得梅因empruntés ,這讓德vaux回答réponse傾訴就業輔導組religiuex carmes凹livre intitulé :就業輔導組得梅因empr 。 (Cologne, 1697). (科隆, 1697年) 。 LOUIS DE STE THÉRÉSE, La succession du S. prophète Elie (Paris, 1662); JOHANNES-NEPOMUCENUS A S. FAMILIA, vere PETRUS RENERUS, Histoire de l'Ordre de ND du Mont Carmel sous ses neuf premiers généraux (Maastricht, 1798), published anonymously; this author frankly adopts the thesis of the Bollandists.路易德您thérése ,香格里拉繼承杜第prophète埃利(巴黎, 1662 ) ;約翰內斯- nepomucenus一美國家庭,真的很Petrus餐廳renerus ,歷史和榮譽勳章釹杜蒙特塞拉特焦糖sous以為它經濟局局長總理généraux (馬斯特里赫特, 1798 )刊登庫存;筆者坦言,通過論文的bollandists 。 ALEXIS-LOUIS DE S. JOSEPH, Histoire sommaire de l'Odre de ND du Mont Carmel (Carcassonne, 1855); FERDINAND DE STE THÉRÉSE, Ménologe du Carmel (3 vols., Lille, 1879), not always reliable; CAILLAUD, Origine de l'Ordre du Carmel (Limoges, 1894); ZIMMERMAN, Monumenta historica Carmelitana (Lérins, 1907), so far only one vol., containing the oldest constitutions, acts of general chapters, biographical and critical notes on the first generals, lists of the Masters of Paris, and various collections of letters.亞歷克西-路易德第約瑟夫,歷史sommaire德l' odre德釹杜蒙特塞拉特佳美( carcassonne , 1855年) ;費迪南德您thérése , ménologe杜佳美( 3卷,里爾, 1879年) ,但並非總是可靠; caillaud ,原產地勳章杜佳美(利摩日, 1894年) ;齊默爾曼,古蹟遺址historica carmelitana ( lérins , 1907年) ,迄今只有一個卷,其中載有最古老的憲法,法律,行為的總章,簡歷和關鍵債券在第一將軍,名單的主人,巴黎,以及各種收藏品的信。 No critical history, however compendious, has as yet been attempted, although there is no lack of material in public archives as well as in those of the various branches of the order沒有批判的歷史,但compendious ,尚未嘗試,雖然目前還沒有缺少的材料在公共檔案以及在那些各科的命令

ORIGINS: The bibliography of the controversy about the antiquity of the order is extremely lengthy, but of no general interest; the principal works are: (1) in favour of the traditional view: DANIEL A VIRGINE MARIA, op.起源:書目的爭議,古物的命令是極為冗長,但不普遍利益;主體工程是: ( 1 )有利於傳統觀點:丹尼爾一virgine瑪麗亞,作品。 cit.; SEBASTIANUS A S. PAULO, Exhibitio errorum (Cologne, 1693); (2) against the tradition: Acta SS., April, I, 764-99, May, II, Commentar.引文; sebastianus一聖保羅, exhibitio errorum (科隆, 1693 ) ; ( 2 )對傳統:學報五, 4月,我, 764-99 , 5月,二, commentar 。 apologet., 709-846; PAPEBROCH, Responsio ad Exhib. apologet , 709-846 ; papebroch , responsio專案exhib 。 error.誤差。 (3 vols., Antwerp, 1696); IDEM, Elucidtio.; REUSCH, Der Index der verbotenen Bücher (Bonn, 1885), II, 267 sqq. ( 3卷,安特衛普, 1696年) ;同上, elucidtio ; reusch ,明鏡指數明鏡verbotenen bücher (波恩, 1885年) ,第二章, 267 sqq 。

GENERAL HISTORY OF THE ORDER: GULIELMUS DE SANVICO (1291), TRITHEMIUS, De ortu et progressu; de viris illustribus; PALæONYDORUS, Fasciculus trimerestus (Mainz, 1497; Venice, 1570), reprinted in DANIEL A VIRGINE MARIA, op.一般的歷史順序為: gulielmus德sanvico ( 1291 ) ,裡特米烏斯,德ortu等progressu ;德viris illustribus ; palæonydorus ,束trimerestus (美因茨,第1497 ;威尼斯, 1570年) ,轉載於丹尼爾一virgine瑪麗亞,作品。 cit.; LUCIUS, Bibliotheca Carmel.引文; lucius ,書目佳美。 (Florence, 1593); COSME DE VILLIERS DE S. ETIENNE, Bibliotheca Carmelitana (2 vols., Orléans, 1752), which whould be compared with the MSS. (佛羅倫薩, 1593年) ;科姆德漢塞爾德第艾蒂安,書目carmelitana ( 2卷,奧爾良, 1752名) ,其中whould可與重建置業。 corrections and additions of NORBERTUS A S. JULIANA in the Royal Library at Brussels.更正和補充的norbertus 1第juliana在皇家圖書館在布魯塞爾舉行。 DE SMEDT, Introductio general.德smedt , introductio一般。 ad histor.專案histor 。 eccles.埃克勒斯( Eccles 。 (Ghent, 1876); HURTER, Nomenclator (Innsbruck, 1893); CHEVALIER, Rép. (根特, 1876年) ; hurter , nomenclator (因斯布魯克, 1893年) ;士, rép 。 topo-bibliogr., sv; KOCH, Die Karmelitenklöster der niederdeutschen Provinz (Freiburg im Br., 1889); ZIMMERMAN, Die heil.拓撲- bibliogr , sv ;科赫,模具karmelitenklöster明鏡niederdeutschen provinz (弗賴堡的IM溴, 1889年) ;齊默爾曼,模具heil 。 Einsiedeleien im Karmeliten-Orden, in Stimmen v. Berge Karmel (Graz, 1898-1900); IDEM, Die englischen Karmelitenklöster (Graz, 1901-1903). einsiedeleien的IM karmeliten -勳章,在stimmen訴貝格karmel (格拉茨, 1898年至1900年) ;同上,模具englischen karmelitenklöster (格拉茨, 1901年至1903年) 。

REFORMS: Reform of Mantua: PENSA, Teatro degli uomini illustri della famiglia di Mantova (Mantua, 1618); FELLINI, Sacrum musæum s.改革:改革的曼圖瓦: pensa ,歌劇院degli uomini illustri della famiglia迪mantova (曼圖亞, 1618年) ;費里尼,骶骨musæum第 Congreg. congreg 。 Mantuanæ (Bologna, 1691); VAGHI, Commentarium fratrum et sororum Ordin. mantuanæ (博洛尼亞, 1691年) ; vaghi , commentarium fratrum等sororum ordin 。 BVM de Monte Carm. bvm德蒙特carm 。 Congreg. congreg 。 Mantuan. mantuan 。 (Parma, 1725). (帕爾馬, 17時25分) 。 On the reform of Touraine (Rennes), LEO A S. JOHANNE, L'esprit de la réforme des Carmes en France (Bordeaux, 1666); SERNIN-MARIE DE S. ANDRÉ, Vie du Ven.關於改革touraine (雷恩) ,古巨基一第johanne法國團隊精神香格里拉réforme萬carmes恩法國(波爾多, 1666 ) ; sernin -瑪麗德第安德烈,爭杜ven 。 Fr.神父。 Jean de S. Samson (Paris, 1881).讓下環黃山(巴黎, 1881年) 。 Reform of St. Teresa, (1) Spain: Besides her own writings, FRANCISCUS A S. MARIA and others: Reforma de los Descalços (6 vols., Madrid, 1644); part of this work, which is partisan, in favour of Doria and against St. John of the Cross and Jerome Gratian, has been translated into Italian (Genoa, 1654) and French (Paris, 1665; Lérins, 1896); GRÉGOIRE DE S. JOSEPH, Le Pére Gratien et ses juges (Rome, 1904), also tr.改革的聖德肋撒, ( 1 )西班牙:除了她自己的著作,方濟一第瑪麗亞和其他: reforma德洛杉磯descalços ( 6卷,馬德里, 1644年) ,是這項工作的一部分,這是黨派之,在贊成的Doria和對聖約翰的十字架杰羅姆gratian ,已被翻譯成意大利文(熱那亞, 1654 )和法國(巴黎, 1665年; lérins , 1896年) ; grégoire德第約瑟夫,樂pére gratien等經濟局局長法官(羅馬, 1904年) ,也的TR 。 It.它。 and Sp.; IDEM., Peregrinación de Anastasio (Burgos, 1905), published anonymously.和SP 。 ;同上, peregrinación德純(布爾戈斯, 1905年) ,發表了類似的。 (2) Portugal: MELCHIOR A S. ANNA and others, Chronica de Carmelitas Descalços (3 vols., Lisbon, 1657). ( 2 )葡萄牙:梅爾希奧1第安娜等人,慢性德carmelitas descalços ( 3卷,里斯本, 1657年) 。 (3) Italy and other countries: ISIDOR A S. JOSEPH. ( 3 )意大利和其他國家: isidor一美國約瑟夫。 and PETRUS A S. ANDREA, Historia generalis fratrum discalceator. Petrus餐廳和一第安德列,歷史是一般fratrum discalceator 。 (2 vols., Rome, 1668, 1671); EUSEBIUS AB OMNIBUS SANCTIS, Enchiridion chronologicum Carmel. ( 2卷,羅馬, 1668年, 1671年) ;尤西比烏斯抗體綜合sanctis , enchiridion chronologicum佳美。 Discalceat. discalceat 。 (Rome, 1737); LOUIS DE STE THÉRÉSE, Annales des Carmes déchaussés de France (Paris, 1666; Laval, 1891); HENRICUS-MARIA A SS. (羅馬, 1737年) ;路易德您thérése ,年鑑萬carmes déchaussés的法國(巴黎, 1666宗;拉瓦爾, 1891年) ; henricus -瑪麗亞一晚上。 SACRAMENTO, Collectio scriptorum Ord.沙加緬度, collectio scriptorum霍德。 Carmel.佳美。 Excalceat. excalceat 。 (2 vols., Savona, 1884), superficial. ( 2卷,薩沃納, 1884 ) ,做表面文章。 On the missions: JOH.關於任務: joh 。 A JESU-MARIA, Liber seu historia missionum (1730); PAULINUS A S. BARTHOLOMæO, Opera (Rome, 1790); BERTHOLDE-IGNACE DE S. ANNE, Hist. 1 jesu -瑪麗亞, liber請輸入您的歷史missionum ( 1730 ) ; paulinus 1第bartholomæo ,歌劇(羅馬, 1790 , ) ; bertholde -伊尼亞斯德第安妮歷史。 de l'éstablissement de la mission de Perse (Brussels, 1886); ALBERT-MARIE DU S. SAUVEUR, Le sanctuaire du Mont Carmel (Tournai, 1897), the original edition published without acknowledgment, by JULIEN DE STE THÉRÉSE (Marseilles, 1876); HENRICUS A S. FAMILIA, Leven der gelukzaligen Dionysius en Redemptus (Ypres, 1900); RUSHE, Carmel in Ireland (Dublin, 1897; supplement, 1903); ZIMMERMAN, Carmel in England (London, 1899).德l' éstablissement德香格里拉使命德perse (布魯塞爾, 1886年) ;何俊仁-瑪麗杜第sauveur ,樂sanctuaire杜蒙特塞拉特佳美( tournai , 1897年) ,原有的一版發表未經確認,由Julien德您thérése (馬賽, 1876年) ; henricus一美國家庭, leven明鏡gelukzaligen狄奧尼修斯恩redemptus (伊普爾, 1900 ) ; rushe ,佳美在愛爾蘭(都柏林, 1897年;補充, 1903年) ;齊默爾曼,佳美在英國(倫敦, 1899年) 。

CARMELITE NUNS: HOUSSAYE, M. de Bérulle et les Carmélites de France (Paris, 1872); GRAMIDON, Notices historiques sur les origines (Paris, 1873); HOUSSAYE, Les Carmélites de France et les constitutions (Brussels, 1873); ALBERT-MARIE DU S. SAUVEUR, Les Carmes déchaussés de France (3 vols., Paris, 1886) with a supplement on the Jansenist troubles in the convent of the Incarnation at Paris; Mémoire sur la fondation, le gouvernement et l'observance des Carmélites déchaussées (2 vols., Reims, 1894), anonymous, by the Carmelite nuns of the Rue d'Enfer, Paris, with a valuable bibliography; Chroniques de l'ordre des Carmélites (9 vols., partly at Troyes, 1846; partly at Poitiers, 1887); BERTHOLD-IGNACE DE STE ANNE, Vie de la Mère Anne de Jésus (2 vols., Mechlin, 1876, 1882); La vie et les instructions de la Vén. carmelite尼姑: houssaye ,米德bérulle等就業輔導組carmélites的法國(巴黎, 1872年) ; gramidon ,告示historiques sur就業輔導組origines (巴黎, 1873年) ; houssaye ,就業輔導組carmélites法國等就業輔導組章程(布魯塞爾, 1873年) ;何俊仁-瑪麗杜第sauveur ,就業輔導組carmes déchaussés法國( 3卷,巴黎, 1886年) ,以補充對簡森派麻煩,在修道院的化身,在巴黎備忘錄sur香格里拉基金會,樂gouvernement等l'遵守萬carmélites déchaussées ( 2卷,蘭斯, 1894年) ,無名氏,由carmelite尼姑在Rue -e nfer,巴黎,一個寶貴的書目; c hroniques勳章萬c armélites( 9卷,這部分是在特魯瓦, 1 846年;部分在普瓦捷, 1887年) ; berthold -伊尼亞斯德您安妮,爭德香格里拉法語安妮德jésus ( 2卷,梅克林, 1876年, 1882年) ;生命與就業輔導組的指示,德香格里拉vén 。 anne de S. Barthélémy (anonymous, by a solitary of the "Desert" of Marlaigne), (new ed., Paris, 1895); SYLVAIN, View du P. Hermann (Paris, 1881), tr.安妮德第巴泰(無名氏,由一個孤立的"沙漠"的marlaigne ) , (新的版,巴黎, 1895年) ;的Sylvain ,鑑於杜頁赫爾曼(巴黎, 1881年)的TR 。 Germ.胚芽。 and It.; Carmel in India (anonymous) (London, 1895); IGNACE DE S. JEAN L'VANGÉLISTE, Vie et vertus héroiques de la Mère Thérèse de Jésus (Marchocka) (Lillie, 1906); Vie de la R. Mère Camille de l'Enfant Jésus née de Soyecourt (anonymous), ed. IT等行業。 ;佳美在印度(匿名) (倫敦, 1895年) ;伊尼亞斯下環讓l' vangéliste ,對生命與vertus héroiques德香格里拉法語瑪麗德jésus ( marchocka ) ( lillie , 1906年) ;競相德香格里拉傳譯法語卡米爾德兒童jésus née德soyecourt (無名氏) ,教育署。 D'HULST (Paris, 1898); BEDINGFIELD, Life of Margaret Mostyn (London, 1884); HUNTER, An English Carmelite: Life of Catherine Burton (London, 1876); CURRIER, Carmel in America (Baltimore, 1890). -監修等等(巴黎, 1 898年) ; b edingfield,生活吳m ostyn(倫敦, 1 884年) ;獵人,一個英語c armelite:生命的凱瑟琳伯頓(倫敦, 1 876年) ; c urrier,佳美在美國(巴爾的摩, 1 890年) 。


St. Teresa of Avila聖德肋撒的阿維拉

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

Teresa Sanchez Cepeda Davila y Ahumada德肋撒桑切斯塞佩達達維拉y阿烏馬達

Born at Avila, Old Castile, 28 March, 1515; died at Alba de Tormes, 4 Oct., 1582.出生在阿維拉,舊卡斯蒂利亞, 1515年3月28日;死在阿爾巴德tormes , 1582年10月4日。

The third child of Don Alonso Sanchez de Cepeda by his second wife, Doña Beatriz Davila y Ahumada, who died when the saint was in her fourteenth year, Teresa was brought up by her saintly father, a lover of serious books, and a tender and pious mother.第三個孩子的唐阿隆索桑切斯德塞佩達由他的第二任妻子, doña beatriz達維拉y阿烏馬達,死於當聖人,是在她的第14年,德肋撒完全是靠她的聖潔之父,一個情人的嚴重書籍,並參加投標和虔誠的母親。 After her death and the marriage of her eldest sister, Teresa was sent for her education to the Augustinian nuns at Avila, but owing to illness she left at the end of eighteen months, and for some years remained with her father and occasionally with other relatives, notably an uncle who made her acquainted with the Letters of St. Jerome, which determined her to adopt the religious life, not so much through any attraction towards it, as through a desire of choosing the safest course.之後,她的死亡和結婚,她大姐,德肋撒被送往她的教育向augustinian尼姑在阿維拉,但由於生病,她離開在去年底18個月,和一些年來,依然是她的父親,偶爾與其他親屬尤其是一位叔叔的人,使她結識了信訪聖杰羅姆,這取決於她通過宗教生活,沒有這麼多經過任何吸引力,對這個問題,因為通過一個願望,選擇最安全的課程。 Unable to obtain her father's consent she left his house unknown to him on Nov., 1535, to enter the Carmelite Convent of the Incarnation at Avila, which then counted 140 nuns.未能獲得有關她父親的同意,她離開他的房子不知道他在11月, 1535 ,進入carmelite修道院的化身,在阿維拉,然後計數140位修女。 The wrench from her family caused her a pain which she ever afterwards compared to that of death.該扳手由她的家人為她帶來痛苦,她事後以往相比,認為死因。

However, her father at once yielded and Teresa took the habit.然而,她的父親在一次屈服,特里薩了習慣。

After her profession in the following year she became very seriously ill, and underwent a prolonged cure and such unskillful medical treatment that she was reduced to a most pitiful state, and even after partial recovery through the intercession of St. Joseph, her health remained permanently impaired.之後,她的專業在次年她成為非常身患重病,並經歷了長時間的治療和這種不熟練治病,她被減少到最可憐的狀態,即使在部分恢復,通過干涉的聖若瑟,她的健康依然永久受損。 During these years of suffering she began the practice of mental prayer, but fearing that her conversations with some world-minded relatives, frequent visitors at the convent, rendered her unworthy of the graces God bestowed on her in prayer, discontinued it, until she came under the influence, first of the Dominicans, and afterwards of the Jesuits.在這些年的痛苦,她又開始了實踐的精神祈禱,但怕她的談話與一些世界志同道合的親戚,經常訪港,在修道院,使她辜負恩寵上帝賜予的,她在祈禱,中止它,直到她來到的影響下,首先在多米尼加人,和事後的耶穌會士。 Meanwhile God had begun to visit her with "intellectual visions and locutions", that is manifestations in which the exterior senses were in no way affected, the things seen and the words heard being directly impressed upon her mind, and giving her wonderful strength in trials, reprimanding her for unfaithfulness, and consoling her in trouble.與此同時上帝已開始探望她與"智慧遠見和含有" ,即是表現在外部感官的人,絕不受影響,東西看到和聽到的話直接被留下深刻印象後,她的心,並讓她有美好的實力在審判工作,斥責她不信,並安慰她麻煩了。 Unable to reconcile such graces with her shortcomings, which her delicate conscience represented as grievous faults, she had recourse not only to the most spiritual confessors she could find, but also to some saintly laymen, who, never suspecting that the account she gave them of her sins was greatly exaggerated, believed these manifestations to be the work of the evil spirit.無法調和這樣的青睞與她的缺點,她的微妙的良心派他人故障時,她曾求助於不僅以最精神文明confessors她能找到,而且也有利於一些德雷克是外行,他從來沒有懷疑該帳戶的,她給了他們的她的罪孽被大大誇大了,大家認為,這些表現成為工作的惡靈。 The more she endeavoured to resist them the more powerfully did God work in her soul.越是她竭力反抗,他們更有力地做上帝的工作,在她的靈魂。 The whole city of Avila was troubled by the reports of the visions of this nun.整座城市阿維拉是困擾該報告的願景,這尼姑。 It was reserved to St. Francis Borgia and St. Peter of Alcantara, and afterwards to a number of Dominicans (particularly Pedro Ibañez and Domingo Bañez), Jesuits, and other religious and secular priests, to discern the work of God and to guide her on a safe road.這是保留給聖方濟各博爾吉亞和聖彼得的阿爾坎塔拉,然後向一些多米尼加人(尤其是佩德羅ibañez和多明戈bañez ) ,耶穌會士,以及其他宗教與世俗之間的神父,去發現天主的工程,並指導她對一個安全的道路。

The account of her spiritual life contained in the "Life written by herself" (completed in 1565, an earlier version being lost), in the "Relations", and in the "Interior Castle", forms one of the most remarkable spiritual biographies with which only the "Confessions of St. Augustine" can bear comparison.該帳戶的,她的精神生活,載於"生命寫自己" (完成於1565年,在更早的版本被遺失) ,在"關係" ,並在"內部城堡" ,表格的一個最顯著的精神與傳記其中僅"自白書聖奧古斯丁" ,可以承受比較。 To this period belong also such extraordinary manifestations as the piercing or transverberation of her heart, the spiritual espousals, and the mystical marriage.這段時期,也屬於這類不平凡的表現刺耳或transverberation她的心臟,精神espousals ,和神秘的婚姻。 A vision of the place destined for her in hell in case she should have been unfaithful to grace, determined her to seek a more perfect life.一個夢想的地方,注定她在地獄裡的情況下,她應該已經不忠,以恩典,有決心,她要尋找一個更完美的生活。 After many troubles and much opposition St. Teresa founded the convent of Discalced Carmelite Nuns of the Primitive Rule of St. Joseph at Avila (24 Aug., 1562), and after six months obtained permission to take up her residence there.經過了許多麻煩,許多反對派聖德肋撒創辦修道院discalced carmelite尼姑原始法治的聖若瑟在阿維拉( 1562年8月24日) ,並在6個月後,未得許可採取了她的住所。 Four years later she received the visit of the General of the Carmelites, John-Baptist Rubeo (Rossi), who not only approved of what she had done but granted leave for the foundation of other convents of friars as well as nuns.四年後,她接受了這次訪問的一般的carmelites ,約翰-浸會rubeo (羅西) ,他們不僅同意了,她做了,但已批准該基金會的其他修道院的方濟各會士,以及修女。 In rapid succession she established her nuns at Medina del Campo (1567), Malagon and Valladolid (1568), Toledo and Pastrana (1569), Salamanca (1570), Alba de Tormes (1571), Segovia (1574), Veas and Seville (1575), and Caravaca (1576).在迅速繼承她成立了她的修女們在麥迪恢復坎普( 1567 ) , malagon和巴利亞多利德(第1568 ) ,托萊多和帕斯特拉納( 1569 ) ,薩拉曼卡( 1570 ) ,德阿爾巴tormes ( 1571 ) ,塞哥維亞( 1574年) ,鄉村擴展區和塞維利亞( 1575 ) ,並caravaca (第1576 ) 。 In the "Book of Foundations" she tells the story of these convents, nearly all of which were established in spite of violent opposition but with manifest assistance from above.在"圖書基金會" ,她的故事講述這些修道院,幾乎所有這些都是既定的,儘管暴力反對,但與艙單援助從以上。 Everywhere she found souls generous enough to embrace the austerities of the primitive rule of Carmel.無處不在,她找到心靈慷慨,去擁抱austerities的原始規則焦糖色素。 Having made the acquaintance of Antonio de Heredia, prior of Medina, and St. John of the Cross, she established her reform among the friars (28 Nov., 1568), the first convents being those of Duruelo (1568), Pastrana (1569), Mancera, and Alcalá de Henares (1570).有了結識了安東尼奧德赫雷迪亞,事先的麥迪,和聖約翰的十字架上,她成立了自己的改革當中,方濟各會士( 1568年11月28日) ,第一次修道院被那些duruelo (第1568 ) ,帕斯特拉納( 1569 ) , Mancera在和德的Alcalá henares ( 1570 ) 。

A new epoch began with the entrance into religion of Jerome Gratian, inasmuch as this remarkable man was almost immediately entrusted by the nuncio with the authority of visitor Apostolic of the Carmelite friars and nuns of the old observance in Andalusia, and as such considered himself entitled to overrule the various restrictions insisted upon by the general and the general chapter.一個新的時代開始了進入宗教的杰羅姆gratian ,因為這個傑出的男子幾乎立即委託,由聖座駐經他授權的訪客使徒的carmelite方濟各會士和修女們的舊遵守在安達盧西亞的,正因為如此認為自己有權推翻了種種限制,堅持由一般和一般的篇章。 On the death of the nuncio and the arrival of his successor a fearful storm burst over St. Teresa and her work, lasting four years and threatening to annihilate the nascent reform.對死亡的和即將發布的到來,為他的繼任者害怕風暴爆裂超過聖德肋撒和她的工作,歷時四年,並威脅要殲滅新生的改革。 The incidents of this persecution are best described in her letters.事件中的迫害,這是最好的形容,在她的信。 The storm at length passed, and the province of Discalced Carmelites, with the support of Philip II, was approved and canonically established on 22 June, 1580.這場長度過去了,在全省的discalced carmelites ,支持下,與菲利普二世,他批准並canonically成立於1580年6月22日。 St. Teresa, old and broken in health, made further foundations at Villnuava de la Jara and Palencia (1580), Soria (1581), Granada (through her assiatant the Venerable Anne of Jesus), and at Burgos (1582).聖德肋撒,舊和碎在衛生,作出了進一步的基礎上villnuava德香格里拉亞拉和palencia ( 1580 ) , soria ( 1581 ) ,格拉納達(通過她assiatant歷代安妮耶穌) ,並在布爾戈斯( 1582 ) 。 She left this latter place at the end of July, and, stopping at Palencia, Valldolid, and Medina del Campo, reached Alba de Torres in September, suffering intensely.她離開了這個地方,後者在七月底,並停在palencia , valldolid ,麥迪恢復坎普,達成阿爾巴德托雷斯今年9月,患有嚴重。 Soon she took to her bed and passed away on 4 Oct., 1582, the following day, owing to the reform of the calendar, being reckoned as 15 October.不久,她走到她的床邊,並逝世於1582年10月4日,翌日,由於改革的日曆,被忽視的,因為10月15日。 After some years her body was transferred to Avila, but later on reconveyed to Alba, where it is still preserved incorrupt.若干年後,她的屍體被移交給阿維拉,但後來reconveyed到阿爾巴,在那裡仍保存廉。 Her heart, too, showing the marks of the Transverberation, is exposed there to the veneration of the faithful.她的心,也顯示該商標的transverberation ,是揭露有向敬仰的信徒。 She was beatified in 1614, and canonized in 1622 by Gregory XV, the feast being fixed on 15 October.她宣福1614 ,並冊封的,在1622年由格雷戈里十五,宴定於10月15日。

St. Teresa's position among writers on mystical theology is unique.聖德肋撒的地位,作家對神秘神學是獨一無二的。 In all her writings on this subject she deals with her personal experiences, which a deep insight and analytical gifts enabled her to explain clearly.在她所有的作品就這個問題,她與她的親身經歷,其中的深刻洞察和分析禮物,使她能夠解釋清楚。 The Thomistic substratum may be traced to the influence of her confessors and directors, many of whom belonged to the Dominican Order.該thomistic基質可追溯到影響她confessors及董事,其中不少屬於多米尼加秩序。 She herself had no pretension to found a school in the accepted sense of the term, and there is no vestige in her writings of any influence of the Areopagite, the Patristic, or the Scholastic Mystical schools, as represented among others, by the German Dominican Mystics.她卻沒有預緊力,以發現,一所學校裡公認的意義上來說,並沒有痕跡,在她的著作的任何影響力的areopagite ,教父,或在學術上的神秘學校,作為代表等,由德國多米尼加神秘主義者。 She is intensely personal, her system going exactly as far as her experiences, but not a step further.她是私人的,她的制度盡如人意,據她的經驗,但還不是領先一步。

A word must be added on the orthography of her name.總之,必須加上對拼法她的名字。 It has of late become the fashion to write her name Teresa or Teresia, without "h", not only in Spanish and Italian, where the "h" could have no place, but also in French, German, and Latin, which ought to preserve the etymological spelling.它的後期成為時尚寫她的名字德肋撒或泰雷西亞,而不為" H " ,不僅是在意大利和西班牙,那裡的" H " ,都不能到位,而且在法語,德語和拉丁語,理應保存詞源拼寫。 As it is derived from a Greek name, Tharasia, the saintly wife of St. Paulinus of Nola, it should be written Theresia in German and Latin, and Thérèse in French.因為它是來自於希臘語名字, tharasia ,德雷克的妻子聖paulinus的nola ,應當書面theresia德語和拉丁語,和瑪麗在法國。

Publication information Written by Benedict Zimmerman.出版信息寫本篤齊默爾曼。 Transcribed by Marie Jutras.轉錄瑪麗jutras 。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. nihil obstat , 1912年7月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約


St. John of the Cross聖約翰的十字架

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

Founder (with St. Teresa) of the Discalced Carmelites, doctor of mystic theology, b.方正(與聖德肋撒)的discalced carmelites ,醫生的神秘神學,乙 at Hontoveros, Old Castile, 24 June, 1542; d.在hontoveros ,舊卡斯蒂利亞, 1542年6月24日;四 at Ubeda, Andalusia, 14 Dec., 1591.在ubeda ,安達盧西亞, 1591年12月14日。 John de Yepes, youngest child of Gonzalo de Yepes and Catherine Alvarez, poor silk weavers of Toledo, knew from his earliest years the hardships of life.約翰德yepes ,最小的孩子的貢薩德yepes和凱瑟琳阿爾瓦雷斯,窮人絲綢面料生產的托萊多,知道從他的最早幾年的艱辛生活。 The father, originally of a good family but disinherited on account of his marriage below his rank, died in the prime of his youth; the widow, assisted by her eldest son, was scarcely able to provide the bare necessities.父親本來就是一個好的家庭,但喪失就到他的婚姻低於他的職級,死於壯年的他的青年;遺孀,協助她的長子,是很少能夠提供裸必需品。 John was sent to the poor school at Medina del Campo, whither the family had gone to live, and proved an attentive and diligent pupil; but when apprenticed to an artisan, he seemed incapable of learning anything.約翰被送到貧困學校在麥迪恢復坎普,著家人曾到現場,並證明是一個細心和勤奮的學生,但是當學徒成為工匠,他似乎無法學習什麼。 Thereupon the governor of the hospital of Medina took him into his service, and for seven years John divided his time between waiting on the poorest of the poor, and frequenting a school established by the Jesuits.於是總督醫院的麥迪那帶他到他的服務,並為七年約翰分歧的時候,他與等候在窮人中的窮人,並經常在一所學校設立了由耶穌會士。 Already at that early age he treated his body with the utmost rigour; twice he was saved from certain death by the intervention of the Blessed Virgin.已經在去年初,他的年齡對待他的身體以最大的嚴謹作風;兩次,他被免於某些死刑的干預聖方。 Anxious about his future life, he was told in prayer that he was to serve God in an order the ancient perfection of which he was to help bring back again.急,他今後的生活中,有人告訴他在祈禱,他是為了上帝命令古老完美的,他是幫助帶回來了。 The Carmelites having founded a house at Medina, he there received the habit on 24 February, 1563, and took the name of John of St. Matthias.該carmelites成立後,一間屋內麥迪,他有收到的習慣,對1563年2月24日,並採取了姓名的約翰聖薩默爾。 After profession he obtained leave from his superiors to follow to the letter the original Carmelite rule without the mitigations granted by various popes.經過專業的,他得到了休假,從他的上級遵循該信原來carmelite規則沒有減輕授予各種教皇。 He was sent to Salamanca for the higher studies, and was ordained priest in 1567; at his first Mass he received the assurance that he should preserve his baptismal innocence.他隨即被送往薩拉曼卡為高等研究,並於祝聖司鐸在1567年,在他的第一家大規模,他獲得保證,他要維護他的洗禮是清白的。 But, shrinking from the responsibilities of the priesthood, he determined to join the Carthusians.不過,從萎縮的責任,成為神職人員,他決心要加入carthusians 。

However, before taking any further step he made the acquaintance of St. Teresa, who had come to Medina to found a convent of nuns, and who persuaded him to remain in the Carmelite Order and to assist her in the establishment of a monastery of friars carrying out the primitive rule.不過,在採取任何進一步的步驟,他結識了聖德肋撒,已經來麥迪,以發現一名女修道院的修女們,誰勸他留在carmelite秩序,並協助她在建立一個修道院的方濟各會士開展原始性統治。 He accompanied her to Valladolid in order to gain practi cal experience of the manner of life led by the reformed nuns.他伴隨著她的巴利亞多利德,以獲得實用,華航的經驗,該地的生活所主導改革的修女。 A small house having been offered, St. John resolved to try at once the new form of life, although St. Teresa did not think anyone, however great his spirituality, could bear the discomforts of that hovel.小房子已提供,聖約翰決心嘗試一旦新的生命形式,雖然聖德肋撒不認為任何人,但是他的偉大的靈性,可以承受不適該hovel 。 He was joined by two companions, an ex-prior and a lay brother, with whom he inaugurated the reform among friars, 28 Nov., 1568.他加入了由兩位同伴,當然事先和業外人士的弟弟,和誰在一起,他開啟了對改革的方濟各會士, 1568年11月28日。 St. Teresa has left a classical dscription of the sort of life led by these first Discalced Carmelites, in chaps.聖德肋撒留下了古典dscription的那種生活為首的這首discalced carmelites ,龜裂。 xiii and xiv of her "Book of Foundations".十三和十四和她的"圖書基金會" 。 John of the Cross, as he now called himself, became the first master of novices, and laid the foundation of the spiritual edifice which soon was to assume majestic proportions.約翰的十字架上,因為他現在自稱,成為第一個碩士生手和奠定的基礎,精神文明的大廈,這是盡快承擔起雄偉壯觀的比重。 He filled various posts in different places until St. Teresa called him to Avila as director and confessor to the convent of the Incarnation, of which she had been appointed prioress.他擔任過中各種職位,在不同的地方,直到聖德肋撒打電話給他阿維拉作為主任和懺悔給修道院的化身,而她已被任命為prioress 。 He remained there, with a few interruptions, for over five years.他在那裡停留了,很少有中斷,超過五年。 Meanwhile, the reform spread rapidly, and, partly through the confusion caused by contradictory orders issued by the general and the general chapter on one hand, and the Apostolic nuncio on the other, and partly through human passion which sometimes ran high, its existence became seriously endangered.與此同時,改革迅速蔓延,而且,部分是透過混亂所造成的矛盾,其簽發的命令一般和一般章,一方面與教廷大使對其他的,而部分則通過人的熱情,有時冉高,它的存在已成為嚴重危害。

St. John was ordered by his provincial to return to the house of his profession (Medina), and, on his refusing to do so, owing to the fact that he held his office not from the order but from the Apostolic delegate, he was taken prisoner in the night of 3 December, 1577, and carried off to Toledo, where he suffered for more than nine months close imprisonment in a narrow, stifling cell, together with such additional punishment as might have been called for in the case of one guilty of the most serious crimes.聖約翰被勒令其省級返回到眾議院他的職業(麥地那) ,並在他拒絕這樣做,原因是他認為他的辦公室不從令,不過從使徒代表,他被被俘的夜晚1577年12月3日,並進行了起飛,以托萊多,在那裡他遭受了9個月以上有期徒刑密切,在一個狹窄的,令人窒息的細胞,再加上這種額外的懲罰,因為有可能被要求在案件之一犯有最嚴重罪行。 In the midst of his sufferings he was visited with heavenly consolations, and some of his exquisite poetry dates from that period.在複雜多變的,他的痛苦,他訪問了合乎天理慰藉,和他的一些精美詩詞日期從這一時期。 He made good his escape in a miraculous manner, August, 1578.他實現了他逃生奇蹟的方式, 8月, 1578 。 During the next years he was chiefly occupied with the foundation and government of monasteries at Baeza, Granada, Cordova, Segovia, and elsewhere, but took no prominent part in the negotiations which led to the establishment of a separate government for the Discalced Carmelites.在接下來的幾年,他主要從事基礎和政府的寺廟在baeza ,格拉納達,科爾多瓦,塞哥維亞,和其他地方,但沒有採取任何突出的部分,在談判中,而導致建立一個獨立的政府,為discalced carmelites 。 After the death of St. Teresa (4 Oct.,1582), when the two parties of the Moderates under Jerome Gratian, and the Zelanti under Nicholas Doria struggled for the upper hand, St. John supported the former and shared his fate.去世後,聖德肋撒( 1582年10月4日) ,當雙方的溫和派下杰羅姆gratian和zelanti下,尼古拉斯的Doria掙扎佔了上風,聖約翰支持前和分擔他的命運。 For some time he filled the post of vicar provincial of Andalusia, but when Doria changed the government of the order, concentrating all power in the hands of a permanent committee, St. John resisted and, supporting the nuns in their endeavour to secure the papal approbation of their constitutions, drew upon himself the displeasure of the superior, who deprived him of his offices and relegated him to one of the poorest monasteries, where he fell seriously ill.有一段時間,他出任副主教省安達盧西亞,但是當的Doria改變了政府的一聲令下,集中所有控制權交給一個常設委員會,聖約翰抵制,並支持修女在其致力爭取教皇認同其憲法,法律,它借鑒了自己的不悅優,誰剝奪了他,他的辦公室和降級,他最差的國家之一寺廟,在那裡他下跌了重病。 One of his opponents went so far as to go from monastery to monastery gathering materials in order to bring grave charges against him, hoping for his expulsion from the order which he had helped to found.他的一個對手,竟然以去,從寺院到寺院蒐集材料,以使嚴重對他的指控,希望開除他的命令,他已幫助發現。

As his illness increased he was removed to the monastery of Ubeda, where he at first was treated very unkindly, his constant prayer, "to suffer and to be despised", being thus literally fulfilled almost to the end of his life.由於他的病情增加了,他被革職,以修道院ubeda ,在那裡他在第一次治療,很unkindly ,他不斷地祈禱, "受苦,並予以鄙視" ,因此,從字面上來看,幾乎完成了去年底他的生命。 But at last even his adversaries came to acknowledge his sanctity, and his funeral was the occasion of a great outburst of enthusiasm.但最後連他的對手來承認他的神聖性,他的葬禮是為紀念偉大的突出的積極性。 The body, still incorrupt, as has been ascertained within the last few years, was removed to Segovia, only a small portion remaining at Ubeda; there was some litigation about its possession.身體仍然廉,已確定在過去幾年中,被拆除,以塞哥維亞中,只有一小部分留在ubeda ;有一些訴訟,就其擁有的。 A strange phenomenon, for which no satisfactory explanation has been given, has frequently been observed in connexion with the relics of St. John of the Cross: Francis de Yepes, the brother of the saint, and after him many other persons have noticed the appearance in his relics of images of Christ on the Cross, the Blessed Virgin, St. Elias, St. Francis Xavier, or other saints, according to the devotion of the beholder.這樣一個奇怪的現象,這方面還沒有令人滿意的解釋,已考慮,常常被人們觀察到在Connexion公司與文物的聖約翰的十字架:弗朗西斯德yepes ,弟弟的聖人,和他的其他許多人已經注意到外表在他的遺物的形象,基督在十字架上,小聖,聖埃利亞斯,聖芳濟,或其他聖人,根據該奉獻的旁觀者。 The beatification took place on 25 Jan., 1675, the translation of his body on 21 May of the same year, and the canonization on 27 Dec., 1726.該宣福發生於1675年1月25日,翻譯他的屍體於5月21日的同一年,並冊封於1726年12月27日。

He left the following works, which for the first time appeared at Barcelona in 1619.他離開了下列建設工程,為第一次出現在巴塞羅那在1619年。

"The Ascent of Mount Carmel", an explanation of some verses beginning: "In a dark night with anxious love inflamed". "上升的摩佳美" ,解釋一些小詩開始: "在一個黑夜與渴望愛情紅腫" 。 This work was to have comprised four books, but breaks off in the middle of the third.這項工作是有包括四書,但中斷在中東的第三位。

"The Dark Night of the Soul", another explanation of the same verses, breaking off in the second book. "黑夜的靈魂" ,另一種解釋的同時小詩,中斷,在第二本書。 Both these works were written soon after his escape from prison, and, though incomplete, supplement each other, forming a full treatise on mystic theology.這兩項工程分別書面不久後,他從監獄逃脫,而且,雖然不完整,相互補充,形成一個充滿傷寒論神秘神學。

An explanation of the "Spiritual Canticle", (a paraphrase of the Canticle of Canticles) beginning "Where hast Thou hidden Thyself?"一個解釋的"精神canticle " , (一意譯的canticle的canticles )開始" ,而祢隱藏你自己" ? composed part during his imprisonment, and completed and commented upon some years later at the request of Venerable Anne of Jesus.組成部分,在他被監禁,並完成並評論了一些年後,在要求老安妮耶穌。

An explanation of a poem beginning: "O Living Flame of Love", written about 1584 at the bidding of Dona Ana de Penalosa.解釋了一首詩開始: "啊,住火焰的愛" ,寫於1584年申辦的多納安娜德佩納洛薩。

Some instructions and precautions on matters spiritual.一些指示和防範等事項的精神。

Some twenty letters, chiefly to his penitents.約20個字母,主要是他的penitents 。 Unfortunately the bulk of his correspondence, including numerous letters to and from St. Teresa, was destroyed, partly by himself, partly during the persecutions to which he fell a victim.可惜大部分他的書信,其中包括許多信件和從聖德肋撒,被摧毀,部分由自己的,這部分是在迫害,而他倒地受害者。

"Poems", of which twenty-six have been hitherto published, viz., twenty in the older editions, and recently six more, discovered partly at the National Library at Madrid, and partly at the convent of Carmelite nuns at Pamplona. "詩言志" ,其中2006年已出版迄今,即,第二十二在較舊版本相比,並於最近六個月以上,發現部分在國家圖書館在馬德里的,而部分則在修道院的修女carmelite在潘普洛納。

"A Collection of Spiritual Maxims" (in some editions to the number of one hundred, and in others three hundred and sixty-five) can scarcely count as an independent work, as they are culled from his writings.文獻"的精神格言: " (在某些版本中,以人數100 ,而在另365 )幾乎無法計數作為一個獨立的工作,因為他們是宰殺,從他的著作。

It has been recorded that during his studies St. John particularly relished psychology; this is amply borne out by his writings.它已被記錄,在他的研究聖約翰尤其主義心理學,這充分證明了他的著作。 He was not what one would term a scholar, but he was intimately acquainted with the "Summa" of St. Thomas Aquinas, as almost every page of his works proves.他不是什麼人會來說是一名學者,但他關係密切熟悉的"總結"的聖托馬斯阿奎那,幾乎每一頁上的他的作品證明。 Holy Scripture he seems to have known by heart, yet he evidently obtained his knowledge more by meditation than in the lecture room.神聖的經文,他似乎已經知道由心,但他顯然獲得了更多的知識,由打坐比在演講室。 But there is no vestige of influence on him of the mystical teaching of the Fathers, the Areopagite, Augustine, Gregory, Bernard, Bonaventure, etc., Hugh of St. Victor, or the German Dominican school.但沒有痕跡的影響力,他的神秘教學的父親, areopagite ,奧古斯丁,格雷戈里,伯納德,文德等,休聖維克多,或德語多米尼加學校。 The few quotations from patristic works are easily traced to the Breviary or the "Summa".少數報價教父的作品是很容易追查到breviary或者說是"總結" 。 In the absence of any conscious or unconscious influence of earlier mystical schools, his own system, like that of St. Teresa, whose influence is obvious throughout, might be termed empirical mysticism.在沒有任何有意識或無意識的影響,先前的神秘學校,他自己的制度,這樣的聖德肋撒,其影響是顯而易見的全國各地,可稱為實證神秘主義。 They both start from their own experience, St. Teresa avowedly so, while St. John, who hardly ever speaks of himself, "invents nothing" (to quote Cardinal Wiseman), "borrows nothing from others, but gives us clearly the results of his own experience in himself and others. He presents you with a portrait, not with a fancy picture. He represents the ideal of one who has passed, as he had done, through the career of the spiritual life, through its struggles and its victories".他們都從自己的經歷中,聖德肋撒狂熱因此,儘管聖約翰,他們幾乎都談到了自己, "發明什麼" , (引用樞機懷斯曼) , "借用任何他人的,但給了我們明確的結果他自己的經驗,在自己與他人,他介紹了你的肖像,而不是看上的圖片,他代表著理想的人已經過去了,像他那樣,通過職業生涯的精神生活,通過其鬥爭及其勝利" 。

His axiom is that the soul must empty itself of self in order to be filled with God, that it must be purified of the last traces of earthly dross before it is fit to become united with God.他的格言是靈魂,必須空本身的自我,以充滿神,它必須淨化的最後痕跡,俗世的糟粕,才適合成為與神。 In the application of this simple maxim he shows the most uncompromising logic.在應用這個簡單的格言,他表明,最不妥協的邏輯。 Supposing the soul with which he deals to be habitually in the state of grace and pushing forward to better things, he overtakes it on the very road leading it, in its opinion to God, and lays open before its eyes a number of sores of which it was altogether ignorant, viz.假設靈魂,使他的交易將慣常在該國的恩典,並推進到更好的東西,他超越它非常通往它,在它看來上帝,並規定開放之前,其眼睛若干瘡,其中這是完全無知,即 what he terms the spiritual capital sins.他所稱的精神資本的罪孽。 Not until these are removed (a most formidable task) is it fit to be admitted to what he calls the "Dark Night", which consists in the passive purgation, where God by heavy trials, particularly interior ones, perfects and completes what the soul had begun of its own accord.直到這些都是去除(最艱鉅的任務) ,它是適合接納他所謂的"黑夜" ,其中包括在被動通便,如果上帝沉重的審判,尤其是內陸,健全和完善了什麼靈魂開始了它自己的協議。 It is now passive, but not inert, for by submitting to the Divine operation it co-operates in the measure of its power.現在應該是被動的,但並非惰性,一經遞交,以神聖的操作,合作經營,在這項措施的權力。 Here lies one of the essential differences between St. John's mysticism and a false quietism.這兒是一個最本質區別聖約翰的神秘主義和虛假quietism 。 The perfect purgation of the soul in the present life leaves it free to act with wonderful energy: in fact it might almost be said to obtain a share in God's omnipotence, as is shown in the marvelous deeds of so many saints.完美通便的靈魂,在目前的生活中留下它可以自由法與美妙能源:事實上,它幾乎可以說是獲得分享上帝的全能,為的是表現在精彩的事蹟,使許多聖徒。 As the soul emerges from the Dark Night it enters into the full noonlight described in the "Spiritual Canticle" and the "Living Flame of Love".作為靈魂出現,從黑夜,它也進入了全面noonlight描述的"精神canticle "和"生活火焰的愛" 。 St. John leads it to the highest heights, in fact to the point where it becomes a "partaker of the Divine Nature".聖約翰線索,它以最高的高峰,其實給點那裡卻成了" partaker的神聖性" 。 It is here that the necessity of the previous cleansing is clearly perceived the pain of the mortification of all the senses and the powers and faculties of the soul being amply repaid by the glory which is now being revealed in it.正是在這裡,有必要對先前的清洗,顯然是覺察到疼痛的mortification的所有感官和權力及院系的靈魂,正足以償還的榮耀,這是現在正在顯示它的僱員。

St. John has often been represented as a grim character; nothing could be more untrue.聖約翰經常被人代表的是一個嚴峻的性格;無關,可以更不真實的。 He was indeed austere in the extreme with himself, and, to some extent, also with others, but both from his writings and from the depositions of those who knew him, we see in him a man overflowing with charity and kindness, a poetical mind deeply influenced by all that is beautiful and attractive.他確實是在艱苦的極端與自己,並在一定程度上,還與他人合作,但無論從他的著作,並從證言的人認識他,我們看到他的一名男子充溢與慈善和善良,詩意記深刻的影響,所有這些都是美麗和吸引力。

Publication information Written by Benedict Zimmerman.出版信息寫本篤齊默爾曼。 Transcribed by Marie Jutras.轉錄瑪麗jutras 。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.天主教百科全書,音量八。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. nihil obstat , 1910年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

The best life of St. John of the Cross was written by JEROME DE SAN JOSÉ (Madrid, 1641), but, not being approved by the superiors, it was not incorporated in the chronicles of the order, and the author lost his position of annalist on account of it.最好的生活聖約翰的十字架上寫的杰羅姆德聖何塞(馬德里, 1641年) ,但沒有被批准,由上級,這是不納入了地方志的一聲令下,與作者失去了他的立場編年史者對賬戶的。


Also, see:此外,見:
Mysticism 神秘主義
Religious Orders 宗教命令
Franciscans
Benedictines benedictines
Jesuits 耶穌會士
Cistercians cistercians
Trappists trappists
Christian Brothers 基督教兄弟
Dominicans 多米尼加
Augustinians 奧古斯丁會士
Marist Brothers 聖母兄弟

Monasticism 修道
Nuns 修女
Friars 方濟各會士
Convent 修道院
Ministry 財政部
Major Orders 大訂單
Holy Orders 神聖的訂單


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