Baptist 浸會 Radical Reformation; objected to Infant Baptism; demanded Church-State separation; John Smyth, English Separatist, 1609; Roger Williams, 1638, Providence RI激進改革;反對嬰兒洗禮;要求教會與國家分離;約翰史密斯,英語分裂, 1609年;羅傑威廉斯, 1638年,普羅維登斯裡 Congrega- tional; each local Church is autonomous congrega題目;每一個地方教會是自主 Scripture; Southern Baptists interpret the Bible literally經文;南浸信會解釋聖經字面上 Baptism, usually early teen years and afterward, by total immersion; Lord's Supper洗禮,通常是早期少女多年之後,由總浸泡;主的晚餐 Worship styles vary from very staid to evang- elistic; much Missionary activity崇拜風格不同,從很乏力,以埃旺- elistic ;得多傳教活動 Usually opposed to alcohol and tobacco; often a tendency toward a perfect- ionist ethical standard通常反對酗酒和吸煙;往往傾向完美- ionist道德水平 No Creed; the true Church is of believers only, who are all exactly equal, including Clergy沒有信仰;真正教會的信徒,他們都完全平等的,其中包括神職人員 Church and State separation, because no authority can stand between any believer and God.教會與國家分離的,因為沒有權威經得起任何信奉上帝。
Church 教堂
of Christ 基督
(Disciples) (弟子)
from evangelical Presbyterians in KY (1804) and PA (1809); troubled over Protestant factionalism and decline in religious fervor; organized in 1832從福音presbyterians在健揚( 1804年)和PA ( 1809 ) ;困擾超過新教宗派主義和下降的宗教熱情地組織在1832年 Congrega- tional congrega題目: Scriptures; where Scripture speaks, we speak, where Scripture is silent, we are silent經文;那裡著作說,我們講,那裡的經文是無聲的,我們是沉默 Adult Baptism; Lord's Supper (weekly)成人的洗禮;主的晚餐(周刊) tries to avoid any Rite not considered part of the first century Church; some Congreg- ations reject instru- mental music試圖避免任何成年禮沒有考慮到部分的第一世紀的教堂,有的congreg - ations拒絕文書心理音樂 Some tendency toward perfect- ionism; interest in social action programs一些傾向,完美ionism ;利益,在社會行動計劃 Simple New Testament Faith; avoids any elabor- ations that are not firmly based on Scripture簡單的新約聖經的信仰,避免使任何elabor - ations一些不牢固的基礎上的經文 Extremely tolerant in doctrinal and religious matters; very supportive of advanced education and scholas- ticism非常寬容,教義和宗教事務;非常支持,先進的教育和scholas - ticism
Episco- episco -
palian palian
Henry VIII separated the English Catholic Church from Rome, 1534, because of political reasons; Protestant Episcopal Church founded in US in 1789.亨利八世分隔,英語天主教教會從羅馬, 1534 ,是因為政治原因;新教聖公會創立於美國在1789年。 part of the Anglican Communion; Diocesan Bishops elected by Parish represent- atives部分英國聖公會;教區主教團選出,由教區代表發言 Scripture, as interpreted by Tradition, especially the 39 Articles (1563); tri-annual convention經文中,詮釋傳統,特別是39條( 1563 ) ;三週年公約 Infant Baptism; Eucharist; other Sacraments (taken as symbolic, but having real Spiritual effect)嬰兒的洗禮;聖體聖事,其他聖禮(作為象徵性的,而是具有實質精神效應) very formal, based on the Book of Common Prayer; Services range from austere and simple to extremely liturgical and structured很正式的基礎上,這本書的共同祈禱;服務範圍涵蓋了從緊縮而簡單的以極禮儀及結構 tolerant, even sometimes permissive; moderate involvement in social action programs寬容的,有時甚至是寬容;適度參與社會的行動綱領 Scripture; the Apostles, Nicene and Athan- asian Creeds; and the Book of Common Prayer; ranges from Anglo-Catholic to the low Church, with some Calvinist influences經文;使徒, nicene和athan -亞洲信條;與書本共同祈禱;不等,從盎格魯-天主教會向低教會,有的calvinist影響 Strongly ecumen- ical; holds talks with many branches of Christianity強烈ecumen -的iCal ;舉行會談多個學科的基督教
Jehovah's 耶和華
Witnesses 證人
Founded in 1870 in PA by Charles Taze Russell; incorporated as Watchtower in 1884; named Jehovah's Witnesses in 1931成立於1870年,在壩由查爾斯taze羅素;納入瞭望塔於1884年;名叫耶和華見證會在1931年 Each Witness is considered a Minister; each congregation under a body of Elders; a worldwide governing body in NY每名證人被認為是一個部長;每一堂下的一個機構的長者;世界範圍理事機構在紐約 The Bible, a slightly different translation from other Bibles聖經略有不同,翻譯,由其他本聖經 Baptism by immersion; annual Lord's Meal ceremony洗禮所浸泡;年度主餐儀式 meetings are held in Kingdom Halls and members' homes for study and worship; Very aggressive and extensive door-to-door visits to non-members舉行會議,在英國會堂及成員的住所,為學習和崇拜;非常積極和廣泛的逐戶訪問,以非會員 high moral code; stress on marital fidelity and family values; against all tobacco and blood transfusions崇高的道德守則;脅迫對婚姻忠貞和家庭觀念;反對一切煙草和輸血 God, through Jesus, will soon destroy all wicked- ness; 144,000 faithful will rule in Heaven with Christ, over others on a Paradise Earth上帝通過耶穌,將盡快銷毀所有邪惡性; 144000忠實地將統治在天堂與基督,有超過別人對地球上的天堂 Absolute allegiance proclaimed only to God's Kingdom or Heavenly govern- ment by Christ; the Watch- tower is published in 115 languages絕對效忠宣布只向上帝的英國或天朝治- ment基督;觀賞塔,是發表在115語文
Mormons 摩門教
Latter 後者
Day 一天
Saints 聖人
Joseph Smith had a vision in NY in the 1820s; he reported receiving and translating copper and golden plates斯密約瑟有一個夢想,在紐約,在1820年代,他接到舉報,並翻譯銅和黃金板塊 Theocratic; first presidency (President and two counselors) and 12 apostles preside over worldwide Church; Local Congreg- ations headed by lay priesthood leaders神權;第一任主席(總統和兩名輔導員) ,以及十二個門徒主持世界各地教會;本地congreg - ations為首奠定神職人員領導人 Revelation to a living prophet (the Church President); the Book of Mormon, the Pearl of Great Price, the Bible, and other revelations of Joseph Smith and his successors啟示活先知(教會主席) ;該書的摩門經,無價的珍珠,聖經和其他啟示斯密約瑟和他的接班人 Baptism at age 8; laying on of hands (which confers the gift of the Holy Spirit); Lord's Supper; temple Rites; Baptism for the dead; Marriage for eternity; others洗禮,在8歲;鋪設上的手(其中賦予了聖靈的恩賜) ;主的晚餐;廟儀軌;洗禮,為死亡;婚姻永恆;他人 Simple Service and Prayers, Hymns, and Sermon; private temple ceremonies are sometimes more elaborate簡單的服務,並為他們祈禱,聖歌,並講道;私人廟會,有時更周密 Temper- ance; strict moral code; intense titheing; strong work ethic, with communal self-reliance; intense missionary activity; emphasis on family脾氣-之;嚴格的道德準則;激烈titheing ;強有力的工作倫理,與公用自力更生;激烈的傳教活動;側重於家庭 Jesus Christ is the Son of God, the Eternal Father; Jesus' atonement saves all humans; those who are obedient to God's laws may become gods and reign with Christ in Heaven耶穌是上帝的兒子,永恆之父;耶穌的贖罪節省了所有人類,那些聽話的,以上帝的法律可能成為神的統治與基督同在天上 Mormons believe that theirs is the true Church of Jesus Christ, restored by God through Joseph Smith摩門教相信,他們的教會是真實的,耶穌基督,恢復上帝通過斯密約瑟
Lutheran 路德 Martin Luther first attempted to reform the Catholic Church around 1517, but the Pope was displeased; objection to the Catholic doctrine of Salvation by Works and to the Indulgences; break became complete in 1519馬丁路德第一次試圖改革天主教教會靠近1517 ,但教宗是不悅;反對將天主教教義的救恩,由工程和向indulgences ;突破,成為完整的1519 varies from congrega- tional to episcopal; in US, regional Synods and Congreg- ational polities is common不同congrega題目,以推崇,在美國,地區主教會議,並congreg -部分國家政體是常見 Scripture along; The Book of Concord (1580), is considered a correct exposition of Scripture; it also contains the three Creeds of Christianity經文沿;該書的康科德( 1580 ) ,被認為是一個正確的論斷,經文中,它同時也包含了三種教義的基督教 Infant Baptism; Lord's Supper, with Christ's true body and blood present in, with and under the bread and the wine嬰兒的洗禮;主的晚餐,與基督的真身體和血,目前在,並根據麵包和酒 relatively simple, formal liturgy with an emphasis on the Sermon比較簡單的,正式的禮儀中一個側重於說教 generally conserv- ative in personal and social ethics; doctrine of Two Kingdoms (worldly and holy) supports conserv- atism in secular affairs一般conserv定在個人和社會道德;教義的兩個王國(世俗和神聖的)支持conserv - atism在世俗事務 Salvation is by Grace alone, through Faith; which is a core of most Protestant beliefs救恩是由單獨的恩典,透過信仰,這是一個核心的最新教信仰 there are some divisions among ethnic lines; but the primary divisions are between fundamen- talists and liberals也有一些分部各民族之間的線路,但主要是師之間fundamen - talists和自由派
Methodist 循道衛理 John Wesley began the momement in 1738, within the Church of England; In US first in Baltimore 1784.約翰韋斯利開始momement在1738年,英國教會在美國首次在巴爾的摩可以追溯到1784年。 Conference and super- intendant system會議與超intendant系統 Scripture, as interpreted by tradition, reason and experience經文中,詮釋傳統的,理性的和經驗 Baptism of infants or adults; Lord's Supper (both com- manded); other Rites include Marriage, Ordination; Solemn- ization of personal commit- ments洗禮的嬰兒或成年人;主的晚餐(均組件manded ) ,其他儀軌包括婚姻,排序;莊嚴化的個人承諾自1912年 worship styles vary widely, by Church and geography崇拜風格差別甚大,由教會和地理 originally pietist and perfect- ionist; always strong interest in social actions本來虔信和完善- ionist ;一向興趣濃厚,在社會行動 no distinctive theol- ogical devel- opment; the 25 Articles (abridged from the Church of England's 39 Articles) are not binding沒有鮮明的theol - ogical開發2007-4-5 14:39:51 ; 25條(節選從英國教會的39篇) ,是不具有約束力 The United Methodist Church was formed in 1968 by the combining of the Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church聯合衛理公會成立於1968年,由相結合的循道衛理教會和福音事工促進會,美國教會弟兄
Orthodox 東正教 Began to disagree with the Catholic Church around 500 AD, primarily over the Filioque Clause the Catholic Church added to the Nicene Creed; break became complete in 1054開始不同意天主教會大約有500專案,主要是超過了filioque第天主教教會加入尼西亞;突破,成為完整的1054年 Synods of Bishops in autonomous Churches elect a Patriarch, Archbishop or Metropolitan, as the head of the Church主教會議的主教們在自主教會選出一名主教,大主教或都市圈,作為教會的頭 Scripture, Tradition and the first Seven Ecumenical Councils; Bishops in Council have authority in doctrine and policy經文中,在傳統與首7合一議會;主教在安理會擁有權威,在理論和政策 Generally Seven Sacraments; infant Baptism and anointing; Eucharist, Ordination, Penance; Marriage; anointing of the sick一般七個聖禮;嬰兒洗禮和anointing ;聖體聖事,排序,懺悔;婚姻; anointing的患病 Very elaborate liturgy, usually in the local language; extremely traditional; the liturgy is the essence of the Orthodox Church; extensive veneration of icons非常複雜,禮儀中,通常是在當地語言;極其傳統;禮儀的本質是東正教教堂;廣泛敬仰的圖標 most are tolerant, less so regarding Russian Orthodox; little interest in social action; divorce and remarriage are sometimes permitted; Bishops are celibate; Priests do not need to be最寬容的,那麼對於俄羅斯東正教;興趣不大,在社會行動;離婚和再婚,有時准許;主教都是celibate ;祭司,並不需要受 Emphasis on Christ's Resur- rection, rather than the Crucifixion; the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father only強調基督的resur - rection ,而不是在十字架上;聖靈收益來自父親只 The Orthodox Church in America was originally under the Patriarch of Moscow; granted autonomy in 1970; Greek Orthodox do not recognize this autonomy東正教在美國本來是根據元老的莫斯科;給予自主權,在1970年希臘東正教不承認這種自主權
Pente- pente -
costal 肋骨
Disappointed with loss of religious fervor in Methodist Churches; began in Topeka, KS 1901 and Los Angeles 1906失望與損失的宗教熱情,在循道衛理教會;開始在托皮卡,有KS 1901年洛杉磯1906年 Originally a movement and not a formal organization; now has a variety of organized forms and also continues as a Movement原本是一個運動,而不是一個正式的組織,現在有各種組織形式的,也仍然是作為一個運動 Scripture, and the leadership of individual Charismatic leaders, and the teachings of the Holy Spirit經文中,領導的個人魅力的領袖,並遺訓聖靈 Spirit Baptism, specifically as demon- strated by Speaking in Tongues, or by Healing ability, or sometimes by Exorcism ability; adult Baptism; Lord's Supper精神的洗禮,特別是惡魔- strated發言,在舌頭,或癒合能力,或有時由驅魔能力;成人洗禮;主的晚餐 rather loosely-structured Service, with rousing hymns and Sermons, culminating in Spirit Baptism; Members regularly interrupt the Service by outbursts of Tongues而不是鬆散的結構式服務,鼓勁的聖歌和說教,最終出現了精神的洗禮;成員經常中斷服務爆發舌頭 usually, emphasis on perfect- ionism; varying degrees of tolerance, sometimes none一般情況下,重點放在完善- ionism ;不同程度的容忍,有時無 simple tradit- ional beliefs, usually Protestant, with emphasis on the immediate Presence of God in the Holy Spirit傳統的簡單- ional信念,通常是新教徒,並側重於即時在場的上帝聖靈 Pente- costals were once confined to lower-class holy-rollers types of Churches; it now has established middle-class congreg- ations; aspects of Pentecos- talism have appeared in mainline Churches pente - costals一度被局限在較低級的聖地-羅拉類型的教堂,它現在已經建立了中產階層congreg - ations ;方面pentecos - talism也出現在主教堂
Presby- presby -
terian 泰利安
came out of 16-cent Calvinist reformation; differed with Lutherans over Sacraments and Church government; John Knox started Scottish Presbyterian Church around 1560出來的16美分calvinist改造;分歧lutherans超過聖禮和教會的政府;約翰諾克斯開始蘇格蘭長老教會約1560 Very structured represent- ational system of Ministers and lay persons (Presbyters) in local, regional and national Synods很有條理代表-部分國家體系的部長和非法律專業人士(長老) ,在地方,區域和全國主教會議 Scripture經文 Infant Baptism; Lord's Supper, where the bread and wine symbolize Christ's Spiritual Presence嬰兒的洗禮;主的晚餐,那裡的麵包和酒象徵基督的精神風貌 very simple and sober Service, with the Sermon central in it很簡單,和清醒的服務,與講道,在中環,它 traditionally, a tendency toward strictness, with firm Church- and self- discipline; otherwise reasonably tolerant傳統上,其傾向從嚴治黨,以堅定的教會和廉潔自律意識,否則就有理由寬容 emphasis on the sover- eignty and justice of God; no longer dogmatic; Belgic Confession (1561); Heidelberg Catechism (1563); Canons of Dort (1619)側重於sover - eignty和正義的上帝;不再教條化; belgic自白( 1561 ) ;海德堡問答( 1563 ) ;大砲的dort ( 1619 ) originally, predest- ination was a central belief (where God had pre- ordained Salvation for certain Elect); this is no longer a central element in most Presby- terian Churches本來, predest -轉歸是一個中央信念(如上帝已預先注定得救某些選出) ,這已經不再是一個核心要素最presby -泰利安教堂
Reformed 改革
Church 教堂
traditionally said to have formed from the work of Zwingli in Zurich and Calvin in Geneva;傳統上說已經形成了從工作的zwingli在蘇黎世和卡爾文在日內瓦舉行; usually Presbyterian in structure通常長老會在結構 Scripture經文 Infant Baptism; Lord's Supper, where the bread and wine symbolize Christ's Spiritual Presence嬰兒的洗禮;主的晚餐,那裡的麵包和酒象徵基督的精神風貌 . strongly in favor of education of Church members;極力主張教育的教會成員; Belgic Confession (1561); Heidelberg Catechism (1563); Canons of Dort (1619) belgic自白( 1561 ) ;海德堡問答( 1563 ) ;大砲的dort ( 1619 )
Roman 羅馬
Catholic 天主教
traditionally founded by Jesus, with Peter named first leader; difficult first centuries, until Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity 312; then became the official religion of the Roman Empire傳統上創辦的耶穌,與彼得命名的第一位領導人;困難首先幾百年,直到皇帝君士坦丁皈依基督教的312名;遂成為官方宗教的羅馬帝國 Supreme power in one Pope, elected by College of Cardinals; Councils of Bishops advise him on matters of doctrine and policy最高權力,在一個教皇,選出由學院的紅衣主教;議會主教向他提供意見,對事情的理論和政策 The Pope (on matters of Faith and morals), and Tradition (expressed in Church Councils and in part contained in Scripture教宗(事宜的信仰和道德的) ,與傳統的(表現在教會議會及部分載於經文 Mass; Seven Sacraments, Baptism, Reconcil- iation, Eucharist, Confirm- ation, Marriage, Ordination, and Unction or the anointing of the sick質量;七個聖禮,洗禮, reconcil - iation ,聖體聖事,證實- ,用,婚姻,工作,並unction或anointing的患病 Rather elaborate and very ritual, centered on the Mass; Rosary recitations; Novenas; etc相當詳細和非常的儀式中,圍繞群眾;念珠朗讀; novenas ;等 traditionally extremely strict, but becoming more tolerant in practice; divorce and remarriage not accepted; annulments sometimes granted; celibate clergy, except in Eastern Rite Churches傳統上極為嚴格,但變得更寬容,在實踐中;離婚和再婚不接受;廢止有時理所當然; celibate神職人員,除了在東部教會禮儀 highly elaborated, Salvation by merit (Good Works) gained through Grace; extremely dogmatic; special veneration of the Virgin Mary; veneration of many Saints高度闡述的,由救國優異(好工程) ,通過獲得的寬限期;極為教條化;特別敬仰的聖母瑪利亞;敬仰的許多聖徒 extremely slow to ever change, except after Vatican II; Mass is now in local languages and no longer in Latin; increasing interest in social action, tolerance and ecumenism極其緩慢的,以人改變的,除非梵蒂岡第二;大規模正處在當地語言,並不再在拉丁語;越來越大的興趣,在社會行動,寬容和基督信仰合一
United 美國
Church 教堂
of Christ 基督
formed by ecumenical union of Congrega- tionalists, Evangelicals and Reformed in 1957; represents both Calvinist and Lutheran traditions形成了由基督教聯盟的congrega - tionalists ,新教徒和改革在1957年;既是calvinist和路德傳統 Congrega- tional; a general Synod, represent- ative of all congreg- ations, sets general policy congrega題目;一般主教,代表定的所有congreg - ations ,集一般政策 Scripture經文 Infant Baptism; Lord's Supper嬰兒的洗禮;主的晚餐 Usually very simple Services with an emphasis on the Sermon通常是很簡單的服務,並著重就講道 tolerant; moderate social action efforts寬容;溫和的社會行動的努力 standard Protestant; Statement of Faith (1959) is not binding標準是新教徒聲明的信仰( 1959 ) ,是不具有約束力 the two main Churches that joined in 1957 were already combin- ations of Churches from many parts of Protestant Denomin- ations兩個主要的教堂,參加了在1957年已經組合- ations教堂由許多部分新教denomin - ations
Indep- endent indep - endent Arise from nearly all Denom- inations; either a new combin- ation of two existing Churches' beliefs; or some new and unique approach to Christianity; can sometimes lead to formation of cults引起幾乎所有denom - inations ;要么一個新的組合- ,用現有的兩個教會的信仰;或一些新的和獨特的方法,以基督教;有時也可能導致形成的邪教 Independent獨立 Scripture alone唯獨聖經 Baptism; Lord's Supper, the two Sacraments mentioned in the Bible洗禮;主的晚餐,兩個聖禮中提到的聖經 Quite variable; music and even bands often participate in the Service; many have very unique present- ations of the Service不少變數;音樂乃至樂隊經常參加服務的,很多都非常獨特,現在的ations的服務 Generally good; often influenced by the personal attitudes of its Minister總體上是好的;往往受個人的態度,其部長 generally there is a Statement of Faith, which expresses the exact beliefs and doctrines of that specific Church一般來說,是一份聲明中的信仰,它體現了確切的信仰和教義的具體教堂 Extremely variable, generally dependent on the attitude and personality of the Minister; almost no limits seem to exist, and some such Churches are commonly seen as cults極變,一般依賴於態度與個性的部長職務,幾乎沒有任何限制,似乎存在,而一些諸如教會普遍被視為邪教
Denomi- denomi -
national 全國
Generally form as Independent Churches, bothered by the divis- iveness of many Churches; attempt to Teach only core Christian beliefs in order to attract and welcome people from all forms of Christ- ianity一般形式為獨立教會,煩,由divis - iveness的許多教堂;企圖教導只有核心的基督教信仰,為了吸引並歡迎市民免受一切形式的基督- ianity Independent, usually with attempts to structure as based on Scriptures from the Bible獨立的,通常與企圖結構作為基於聖經,從聖經 Scripture alone唯獨聖經 Baptism; Lord's Supper; as being the only Sacraments actually mentioned in the Bible; other Sacraments are all respected, and observed as desired by individuals洗禮;主的晚餐;作為唯一聖禮其實剛才在聖經其他聖禮都尊重,遵守的期望相比個人 Quite variable; often like the Service of Indepen- dent Churches above.不少變數,很多都是一樣的服務,獨立-凹痕教堂以上。 What Would Jesus Do?什麼耶穌會做什麼呢? (WWJD) ( wwjd ) generally there is a Statement of Faith, which expresses the exact beliefs and doctrines of that specific Church; What Would Jesus Do?一般來說,是一份聲明中的信仰,它體現了確切的信仰和教義的具體教會;會有什麼耶穌做什麼? (WWJD) ( wwjd ) Non- Denomin- ational Churches rarely have Crosses or Crucifixes displayed anywhere, partly because some possible attendees might have attitudes against icons.非denomin -部分國家教會很少有十字架或十字架顯示在任何地方,這部分是因為一些可能的與會者可能有態度對圖標。 A rather simple and central present- ation of the Bible's Christ- ianity一個比較簡單和中央當前,用聖經中的基督- ianity