Fatimids法蒂瑪王朝

General Information 一般資料

The Fatimids were an Islamic dynasty that reigned in North Africa and later in Egypt from 909 until 1171. The Fatimid Caliphate was the political pinnacle of the Ismailis, a group of Shiites who expected the appearance of a messiah descended from the marriage of Ali, the fourth caliph, and Fatima, the daughter of the Prophet Muhammad.該法蒂瑪王朝被一個伊斯蘭王朝統治在北非和後來在埃及,從909到1171 。 該法蒂瑪王朝哈里發是當時全國的政治巔峰的伊斯瑪儀教派,一群什葉派人士預計出現一個救世主的後裔,從婚姻的阿里,第四哈里發,法蒂瑪,女兒的先知穆罕默德。

The Fatimids initially established a North African empire centered in Tunisia, from which they planned to move eastward and supplant the Abbasids.該法蒂瑪王朝,初步建立了北非帝國的中心位置在突尼斯,從他們打算提出東移,並取代了abbasids 。 Consequently, they conquered Egypt in 969 and created Cairo as their capital.因此,他們征服了埃及在969和創造開羅為首都。 They then extended their influence to Syria, Palestine, and Arabia. They reached the zenith of their power in the reign of al-Mustansir (1036-94). The dynasty enjoyed generally peaceful relations with the Byzantines and cooperated with the Turkish rulers of Syria against the Crusades.然後,他們擴展他們的影響力,敘利亞,巴勒斯坦和阿拉伯的, 他們達到了頂點,他們的權力在統治基地穆斯坦綏爾( 1036至1094年) 。王朝享有普遍的和平關係與byzantines與合作,土耳其統治者敘利亞針對十字軍東征。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件
From the mid-12th century, the Fatimid kingdom began to crumble internally; the caliphs lost most of their power, and the viziers, at the head of a highly centralized government, assumed much of the executive and military leadership.從中期12世紀,英國的法蒂瑪開始徹底瓦解內部; caliphs失去了他們的大部分權力,並viziers ,在頭部有一個高度中央集權的政府,承擔了大量的行政和軍事領導人。 Therefore, Saladin found it easy to end Fatimid rule in 1171.因此,薩拉丁發現它很容易結束的法蒂瑪規則第1171 。 Despite the religious unorthodoxy of the dynasty, most of its subjects remained orthodox Muslims.儘管宗教unorthodoxy的王朝,它的大部分科目仍是正統的穆斯林。 In this period Egypt enjoyed extraordinary economic and cultural vitality.在此期間,埃及享有非凡的經濟和文化的活力。

Michael W. Dols邁克爾小dols

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Lewis, Bernard, The Origin of Isma'ilism (1975); O'Leary, De Lacy, A Short History of the Fatimid Kaliphate (1923).劉易斯,伯納德,起源isma'ilism ( 1975年) ; o'leary ,德威廉萊西斯,歷史較短的法蒂瑪王朝kaliphate ( 1923 ) 。


Fatimids法蒂瑪王朝

General Information 一般資料

The Fatimids were a Muslim dynasty claiming the caliphate, successors of Muhammad through descent from Fatima, Muhammad's daughter.該法蒂瑪王朝被一個穆斯林王朝自稱哈里發,繼承人穆罕默德通過後裔,從法蒂瑪說,穆罕默德的女兒。

In the 10th century, Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi, head of a sect of Syrian Shiites, traveled to northwest Africa to head a movement started among the Berbers, a non-Arabic North African tribe.在10世紀, Ubayd的阿拉馬赫迪,頭一節,敘利亞的什葉派,赴西北非洲掌管一個運動開始之間的柏柏爾人,一個非阿拉伯語北非部落。 Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi was proclaimed the Muslim messiah, Mahdi, and by 909 had secured control of a substantial portion of North Africa. Ubayd的阿拉馬赫迪被宣布為穆斯林彌賽亞,馬赫迪和909有擔保控制的相當一部分北非。 He pushed eastward as far as Egypt and consolidated the empire under his son al-Qa'im and grandson al-Mansur.他被推向東據埃及和鞏固了帝國在他的兒子鋁卡伊姆和孫子基地的Mansur 。 Egypt was conquered in 969.埃及被征服,在969 。

In 972 al-Mansur's son Moizz was recognized as caliph in Egypt and made the new city of Cairo his capital.在972基地的Mansur的兒子moizz被承認為哈里發在埃及,並提出新的城市開羅,他的資本。 Morocco, Tripoli, and Sicily then became Muslim provinces, developing into semiautonomous dynasties of their own.摩洛哥,的黎波里,和西西里島,然後成為穆斯林省份,發展成為來參加朝代的自己。 In the 11th century Sicily fell to the Normans, and in the following century Roger II of Sicily completed the conquest of Morocco.在11世紀西西里下降到諾曼,並在以下幾個世紀羅傑二西西里完成征服摩洛哥。 Al-Hakim, the third Fatimid caliph, supported the university in Cairo and founded the fatimid library.鋁-哈基姆,第三次的法蒂瑪哈里發,支持大學在開羅和創立的法蒂瑪圖書館。 He persecuted Christians, destroyed the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, and in 1020 claimed personal divinity.他迫害基督徒,摧毀了聖墓教堂在耶路撒冷,並在1020年聲稱,個人的神性。

At its height, the Fatimid dynasty was recognized throughout much of Arabia, but it declined and was eventually crushed by the rising forces of Normans, Turks, and Venetians.在全盛時期,在法提瑪王朝被公認的許多阿拉伯,但它拒絕,並最終壓倒了上升的力量的諾曼人,土耳其人,和威尼斯。 After 1129 the Fatimid caliphs were merely puppets in the hands of the army and powerful viziers (Muslim government officials).之後, 1129名有關的法蒂瑪caliphs只不過是傀儡,在軍隊手中強大viziers (穆斯林政府官員) 。 Adid, last of the Fatimids, died in 1171. adid ,最後的法蒂瑪王朝,在死亡的第1171 。 Upon his death, the vizier Saladin won the title of Sultan by recognizing the Abbasid caliph of Baghdâd.當他去世後, vizier薩拉丁奪得世界大賽冠軍的萊蘇丹承認阿巴斯哈里發的baghdâd 。


Editor's Note:編者的話:

The name Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi is sometimes presented as abdullah Al Mahdi.名稱Ubayd的阿拉馬赫迪有時是作為阿卜杜拉馬赫迪。 Different Muslim scholars use either spelling.不同的穆斯林學者可選擇使用拼寫。 At the time of this man, written records and equipment were still rare, and names were generally transmitted orally.在當時,這名男子的書面記錄和設備仍在罕見,而名字一般是口頭的。 These two spellings have essentially the same oral sound, and they represent the same man.這兩種拼法都基本上是一樣的口腔健康,他們所代表同屬一人。


Also, see:此外,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 可蘭經,可蘭經
Pillars of Faith 支柱的信仰
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-h adiths從第一冊的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-h adiths從第二冊的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-h adiths從第三冊的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-h adiths從書展1 0個基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短祈禱(在taqseer ) -h adiths從書展2 0鋁布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 朝聖(朝覲) -h adiths從書展2 6鋁布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 爭取事業的阿拉(傑哈德) -h adiths圖書5 2鋁布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari 同一性,獨特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths圖書9 3鋁布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義。
Early Islamic History Outline 早在伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 天房,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派,什葉派
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥迪
Sahih, al-Bukhari sahih ,鋁-布哈里
Sufism 蘇非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 阿布巴克爾
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭馬亞王朝
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) 法蒂瑪王朝(什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀教派(什葉派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在