Hegira, Hijra, Hejira, Hijrah 伊斯蘭教紀元

General Information 一般資料

Hegira (from the Arabic hijra, which means breaking off relations, abandoning one's tribe, or migrating) refers to the departure of the Prophet Muhammad from Mecca in AD 622. His criticism of the polytheism of the Meccan religion had angered the merchants of Mecca, who were reaping large profits from pilgrims. Forced into exile, Muhammad went to Yathrib (later renamed Medina) and became its ruler. hegira (從阿拉伯語希吉拉,這意味著斷絕關係,放棄自己的部落,或是移轉) ,是指以離境的先知穆罕默德從麥加公元622 。 他批評的多神教的meccan宗教激怒了,商家的麥加人,從中賺取巨額利潤,由朝聖者。被迫流亡海外,穆罕默德前往yathrib (後改稱麥地那) ,並成為統治者。 The caliph Umar I (d. 664) proclaimed the start of the Muslim era (dated AH, annus hegirae) from the first day (July 16, 622, by the Julian calendar) of the lunar year in which the hegira occurred.在哈里發奧馬爾(四664 )宣布開始的穆斯林時代(完啊,年hegirae )從第一天( 7月16日, 622 ,由朱利安日曆)的農曆年,其中hegira發生。 The term is also applied to any Muslim emigration.該術語也適用於任何穆斯林移民。


Hegira hegira

General Information 一般資料

Hegira or Hejira (Arabic hijrah,"flight"), specifically, flight in AD622 of Muhammad from Mecca to Yathrib (now Medina), both in what is now Saudi Arabia; by extension, the term is applied to any similar flight or emigration. hegira或hejira (阿拉伯語hijrah , "飛行" ) ,具體來說,在飛行ad622的穆罕默德從麥加到yathrib (現麥地那) ,無論是在現在的沙烏地阿拉伯,通過擴建,該術語適用於任何類似的飛行或移民。 Caliph Umar I selected the year of the Hegira as the first year of the Muslim era.哈里發奧馬爾i獲選為今年的hegira作為第一年的穆斯林時代。 Hence, AD622 became 1 AH (anno hegirae) in the Muslim calendar, which Umar systematized in 639.因此, ad622成為一啊(標註hegirae )在穆斯林日曆,其中烏馬爾系統化,在639 。

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Hegira hegira

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Muhammad's position in Mecca was becoming more and more unsupportable (due to his insistence on one god rather than the many that the Meccans worshipped).穆罕默德的地位,在麥加正在變得越來越unsupportable (因他堅持一個真主,而不是很多認為meccans崇拜) 。 He sought to establish himself in Taif without success.他要求,以建立自己在塔伊夫未獲成功。

Muhammad met a group of people from the oases of Yathrib (or Medina, as it later came to be known), who realized that Muhammad might help them with their domestic political problems.穆罕默德會見了一群人,從綠洲yathrib (或麥迪,因為它後來被稱為) ,他們意識到,穆罕默德可能有助於他們與自己的國內政治問題。 They absorbed Islam from Muhammad and returned to Medina to preach the new religion.他們吸收了伊斯蘭教由穆罕默德回到麥地宣揚新的宗教。 In 622, a larger group of Medinese pledged their support and agreed to grant him protection.在622大集團medinese會全力支持,並答應給予他的保護。

Muhammad urged his Meccan supporters to emigrate to Medina, while he himself became the last to leave the town.穆罕默德敦促他的支持者meccan移民麥迪那,而他本人則成為最後一批撤離的城市。 The migration (or Hijra) of the Prophet was later taken as the starting point of Muslim chronology.移民(或希吉拉)的先知,後來作為一切工作的出發點穆斯林年表。 (According to tradition, the Hijra took place in September 622; however, the Muslim era starts at the beginning of the Arab year in which the Hijra took place, ie 16 July 622.) (按照傳統,希吉拉9月發生的622 ,然而,穆斯林時代始於年初的阿拉伯一年,其中希吉拉事件發生後,即7月16日, 622 ) 。

Medina at the time of Muhammad's arrival was inhabited by eight large clans of Arabs and three major clans of Jews.麥迪在的時候,穆罕默德的到來居住著8個大氏族的阿拉伯人和三大氏族的猶太人。 For years there had been feuding between the clans, culminating in a great battle in 618, in which many were slaughtered.多年來一直爭執之間的部族,最終出現了一場漂亮的戰鬥,在618 ,其中不少被殺害。 With the aim of creating political stability, Muhammad established a community of people (umma) made up of his followers from Mecca and the people of Medina.其目的是製造政治穩定,穆罕默德建立了一個社區的人(烏瑪)彌補了他的信徒從麥加和人民的麥迪那。 All important problems were to be laid before him and God.所有重要問題,提交立法會省覽,他和上帝。 All the new arrangements are contained in a document called the Constitution of Medina, and as [author Michael] Cook puts it, "[one of the major interests] of the parties of the document is the waging of war."所有新的安排是載於一份文件中的所謂憲法的麥迪那,並作為[作者邁克爾]庫克的說法, "其中一個主要利益]有關各方的文件,是發動戰爭" 。

Ibn Warraq伊本warraq


Also, see:此外,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 可蘭經,可蘭經
Pillars of Faith 支柱的信仰
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-h adiths從第一冊的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-h adiths從第二冊的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-h adiths從第三冊的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-h adiths從書展1 0個基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短祈禱(在taqseer ) -h adiths從書展2 0鋁布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 朝聖(朝覲) -h adiths從書展2 6鋁布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 爭取事業的阿拉(傑哈德) -h adiths圖書5 2鋁布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari 同一性,獨特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths圖書9 3鋁布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義。
Early Islamic History Outline 早在伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 天房,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派,什葉派
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥迪
Sahih, al-Bukhari sahih ,鋁-布哈里
Sufism 蘇非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 阿布巴克爾
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭馬亞王朝
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) 法蒂瑪王朝(什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀教派(什葉派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆


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