Ismailis伊斯瑪儀教派

General Information 一般資料

The Ismailis are members of a sect of Muslim Shiites who recognize Ismail as the seventh and last Imam until the return of his son at the end of time.該伊斯瑪儀教派的成員,一個教派的穆斯林什葉派人士承認伊斯梅爾作為第七和最後伊瑪目,直到回到他的兒子在去年底的時候。 They are also called Sabiyah, or Seveners. The sect originated after the death (765) of the sixth Shiite imam, Jafar ibn Muhammad.他們還呼籲sabiyah ,或seveners 。節起源於後,死亡( 765 )第六屆什葉派伊瑪目, jafar伊本穆罕默德。 Most Shiites accepted his younger son, Musa al-Kazim, as his successor; the Ismailis were those who supported his older, disinherited son, Ismail.大多數的什葉派接受了他的小兒子,香蕉基地卡齊,作為他的繼任者;伊斯瑪儀教派被那些支持他的年紀大了,喪失兒子,司馬義。 The sect attained its greatest influence under the Fatimids, who claimed descent through Ismail's son from Fatima, daughter of the Prophet Muhammad.該教派達到其最大的影響力下,法蒂瑪王朝,自稱出身通過伊斯梅爾的兒子,從法蒂瑪,女兒的先知穆罕默德。 This dynasty, established in Tunis in 908, ruled in Egypt from 969 to 1171.這個王朝,建立了在突尼斯908 ,裁定,在埃及從969 1171 。

Late in the 11th century a split occurred between the Mustalis, who recognized al-Mustali as the caliph-imam (concentrated in Egypt, Yemen, and India), and the Nizaris, named for Mustali's brother Nizar, with strongholds in Iran and Syria.遲在11世紀分裂之間發生mustalis ,他承認基地mustali作為哈里發-伊瑪目(主要集中在埃及,也門和印度) ,以及nizaris ,命名為mustali的弟弟尼扎爾,與據點,在伊朗和敘利亞。 The latter, who became known as the Assassins in Crusader stories, remained in power until the late 13th century.後者,他們後來被稱為刺客在十字軍東征的故事,依然在電力,直到13世紀晚期。 A subsection, under the Aga Khan, moved to India in 1840.一個分段,根據阿加汗,遷移到印度,在1840年。 In their interpretation of the Koran, the Ismailis distinguish between exoteric and esoteric knowledge, that is, between knowledge for the public and knowledge for the initiated.在他們的解釋可蘭經,伊斯瑪儀教派區分開放式和深奧的知識,這就是知識,為市民和知識,為啟動。 The same distinction finds organizational expression in the Ismaili hierarchy from the imam, who alone has perfect knowledge, by way of the dais (missionaries) to the believers at various levels of knowledge and insight.同樣的區分認定的組織,體現在伊斯瑪儀等級從伊瑪目,誰就有健全的知識,方法,是根據傣族(傳教士) ,向信徒們在各個層次的知識和洞察力。

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Bibliography: 參考書目:
Daftary, F., The Ismailis (1990); Lewis, Bernard, The Assassins (1967; repr. 1980) and The Origins of Ismailism (1940; repr. 1974); Ridley, A., The Assassins (1980). daftary ,樓,伊斯瑪儀教派( 1990年) ;劉易斯,伯納德,刺客( 1967年; repr 。 1980 )和起源ismailism ( 1940年; repr 。 1974年) ;利禮賢,甲,刺客( 1980 ) 。


Ismailis伊斯瑪儀教派

General Information 一般資料

Ismailis, sect of Shiite Muslims, most important from the 10th to the 12th century.伊斯瑪儀教派,教派的什葉派穆斯林,而最重要的,從第10至12世紀。 The Ismailis emerged from a dispute in 765 over the succession of Jafar al-Sadiq, whom Shiites acknowledged as the sixth imam, or spiritual successor to Muhammad.該伊斯瑪儀教派出現爭執,在765名以上的繼承jafar基地薩迪克,其中什葉派承認,作為第六伊瑪目,或者精神的繼承者穆罕默德。 The Ismailis recognized Ismail, the eldest son of Jafar, as his legitimate successor.該伊斯瑪儀教派公認的伊斯梅爾,身為長子的jafar ,作為他的合法接班人。 On Ismail's death they acknowledged his son Muhammad as the seventh and last imam, whose return on Judgment Day they await. The Ismailis are also known as Seveners, because they accept only 7 imams, rather than the 12 who are recognized by other Shiites.對伊斯梅爾的死他們承認,他的兒子穆罕默德作為第七和最後伊瑪目,其回報判斷一天,他們等待著。伊斯瑪儀教派成員也被稱為seveners ,因為他們只接受七伊瑪目,而不是12歲,是公認的,由其他什葉派。

Although Ismailis subscribe to basic orthodox Islamic doctrines, they also maintain esoteric teachings and corresponding interpretations of the Qur'an (Koran).雖然伊斯瑪儀教派訂閱基本正統回教教義,他們還保持深奧的教義和相應的詮釋古蘭經(古蘭經) 。 Developed in the 9th and 10th centuries under the influence of Gnosticism and Neoplatonism, these posit the creation of the universe by a process of emanation from God.發達國家在第9和第10個世紀的影響下,靈知和neoplatonism ,這些陽性宇宙的形成是由一個過程的射氣來自上帝。

In the late 9th century an Ismaili state was organized on communistic principles in Iraq by Hamdan Qarmat; his followers became known as Qarmatians.在晚9世紀是一個伊斯瑪儀州舉辦了一個關於共產原則,在伊拉克由哈姆丹卡爾馬特;他的追隨者被稱為卡爾馬特。 His state soon disintegrated, but some of his followers combined with other Ismaili groups to form the Fatimid dynasty of North Africa in the 10th century.他的狀態很快解體,但他的一些追隨者結合其他伊斯瑪儀團體組成的法蒂瑪王朝的北部非洲,在10世紀。 The Fatimids conquered Egypt in 969 and developed a strong and culturally brilliant state that flourished until the 12th century.該法蒂瑪王朝征服埃及,在969號,並制定了強有力的和文化燦爛的國家盛行,直至12世紀。 During the reign of the Fatimid dynasty the Ismailis gradually lost their original revolutionary fervor.在位期間的的法蒂瑪王朝的伊斯瑪儀教派逐漸失去了原有的革命熱情。 A splinter group of Ismailis, known to Westerners as Assassins, established a stronghold in the mountains of northern Iran in the 12th century and carried out terrorist acts of assassination against important religious and political leaders of Sunni Islam.的一個分支組織,伊斯瑪儀教派,眾所周知,西方人作為刺客,他們建立了一個重要據點,在山上的伊朗北部,在12世紀,並進行恐怖行為的暗殺對重要的宗教和政治領導人的遜尼派伊斯蘭教。

The two main branches of Ismailis today are the Bohras, with headquarters in Mumbai (formerly Bombay), India, and the Khojas, concentrated in Gujarât State, India.兩個主要分支伊斯瑪儀教派今天是bohras ,總部設在孟買(前身Bombay ) ,印度和khojas ,主要集中在gujarât國家,印度。 Another subsect, headed by the Aga Khan, has followers in Pakistan, India, Iran, Yemen, and East Africa.另一個小節,由主管阿加汗,有信徒,在巴基斯坦,印度,伊朗,也門,非洲和東部非洲。

Fazlur Rahman fazlur拉赫曼


Isma'iliyyah isma'iliyyah

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Doctrines教義

Like other Shi'ite traditions, Isma'iliyyah accepts the spiritual authority of the Imam.像其他什葉派穆斯林傳統, isma'iliyyah接受精神權威的伊瑪目。 However, unlike the mainstream Twelver Shi'as (also known as Imamiyyah), the Isma'ilis regard Muhammad's [sixth Imam] son Isma'il as the seventh Imam and continue the line of Imams through Isma'il and Muhammad's descendants.不過,跟主流twelver什葉派穆斯林(也稱為imamiyyah ) , isma'ilis關於穆罕默德的[第六伊瑪目]兒子isma'il作為第七伊瑪目,並繼續路線阿訇通過isma'il和穆罕默德的後代。 For this reason Isma'iliyyah are known as Sevener Shi'ites.為此isma'iliyyah被稱為塞韋內爾什葉派。 (The Twelver Shi'ites regard Isma'il's younger brother, al Must'alias, as the seventh Imam and the line of Imams to continue from him.) ( twelver什葉派方面isma'il的弟弟,鋁must'alias ,作為第七伊瑪目和路線的伊瑪目,以繼續他的) 。

Isma'ili doctrine considers history to be divided into seven periods. isma'ili主義認為,歷史分為七個時期。 Each period begins with a prophet who is then followed by six infallible Imams. 每一期開始與先知誰是隨之而來的,由6個犯錯的伊瑪目。 The first six prophets were Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad. Each Imam was accompanied by an interpreter who taught the secret meaning of the Imam's teaching to a small circle of initiates. The previous six interpreters were Seth, Shem, Isaac, Aaron, Simon Peter and Ali . 首6個先知亞當,諾亞,亞伯拉罕,摩西,耶穌和穆罕默德,每個伊瑪目,是由一位譯員也教秘密的含義伊瑪目對他的教誨,以一小圈的啟動。 前六個月口譯塞思庫, SHEM後,艾薩克,阿倫,西門彼得和Ali The six Shi'a Imams (from al-Hasan to Isma'il) have followed Muhammad and his interpreter Ali.六名什葉派伊瑪目(由Al -哈桑向isma'il )都跟隨穆罕默德和他的口譯員阿里。 The seventh Imam, Muhammad, did not die but went into hiding, and will appear as the Mahdi, inaugurating an era in which the old traditions, including Islam, will become obsolete.第七伊瑪目,穆罕默德,沒有死,但進入藏匿,並會出庭,以馬赫迪,由此開創了一個時代,在這個時代的舊傳統,其中伊斯蘭教,將變得不合時宜。

The Isma'ilis believe that Islamic law (the Shari'ah) should be repealed. 該isma'ilis認為伊斯蘭法(伊斯蘭教) ,應予廢除。 They reject the Qur'an and all forms of prayers in the main Sunni Islamic tradition. 他們拒絕古蘭經和一切形式的祈禱,在主要的遜尼派伊斯蘭傳統。 They interpret Islamic teachings spiritually, which frees them from adhering to these laws and obligations such as prayer, fasting, and hajj. 他們解釋回教教義精神,它使人們擺脫了他們遵守這些法律和承擔的義務,如祈禱,齋戒,朝覲。

History歷史

The origins of the Isma'ilis can be traced to the second half of the 8th century when a dispute occurred over who should succeed the sixth Imam Jaf'ar al-Sadiq (d.765).起源的isma'ilis可以追溯到下半年第八世紀時,發生糾紛,誰一旦得逞第六伊瑪目jaf'ar基地薩迪克( d.765 ) 。 The Imamate was originally intended to go to al-Sadiq's eldest son, Isma'il .該imamate原本打算去基地薩迪克的長子, isma'il 。 However, Isma'il died five years before his father and it was therefore decided that the Imamate should go to Isma'il's younger brother, al-Must'alis.不過, isma'il死於五年前他的父親,因此它決定該imamate應該去isma'il的弟弟,鋁- must'alis 。 Various factions opposed the decision to give the Imamate to al-Must'alis.各個派別的反對,決定給予imamate基地must'alis 。 Some claimed that Isma'i l did not die but was in hiding and would return; others said that the Imamate should go to Isma'il's son, Muhammad.一些聲稱isma'i升沒有死,但被藏匿,並會返回,其他人表示,該imamate應該去isma'il的兒子穆罕默德。 Those factions that claimed that Muhammad was still alive soon died out, but the supporters of Muhammad continued and formed the moveme nt that later came to be known as Isma'iliyyah.這些派別聲稱穆罕默德還活著很快消失了,但支持者的穆罕默德續,並形成了moveme新台幣,即後來被稱為isma'iliyyah 。

Effective missionary activity spread Isma'iliyyah beyond Iraq into North Africa.有效的傳教活動蔓延isma'iliyyah超越伊拉克到北非。 In 909 the sect set up the Fatimid dynasty in Egypt, where it flourished until 1171 when the Fatimid caliphate was overthrown and the sect lost its official support.在909教派成立的法蒂瑪王朝,在埃及,在那裡蓬勃發展,直到1171年時,法蒂瑪王朝哈里發被推翻,該教派失去了官方支持。

Shortly before its defeat in Egypt, Isma'iliyyah split into two groups called Nizaris and Musta'lis.不久之前,它的失敗在埃及, isma'iliyyah分成兩組所謂nizaris和musta'lis 。 The schism occurred as a result of a second dispute over who should inherit the Imamate.該裂發生是由於第二個爭議,應由誰繼承imamate 。 Following the death of the Fatimid Caliph al-Mustansir in 1094, the first of these sects emerged in support of the claims of al-Mustansir's elder son, Nizar, to succeed his father as the future Imam.死亡後,該法蒂瑪王朝哈里發基地穆斯坦綏爾在1094 ,這些問題首先出現教派支持索賠基地穆斯坦綏爾的大兒子,尼扎爾,接替他的父親成為未來的伊瑪目。 The assassination of Nizar and his family led his supporters to flee Egypt and to organize themselves in various regions of Iran and Syria.暗殺尼扎爾和他的家人帶領他的支持者逃往埃及和組織起來,在各地區的伊朗和敘利亞。 Their stronghold was the fortress of Alamut in the Ehurz mountains of northern Iran.他們的據點是堡壘alamut在ehurz山脈北部的伊朗。 From here the sect spread out until it was strong enough to establish an Isma'ili-Nizari state which survived for 150 years.從這裡,第一節攤開,直至它強大,足以建立一個isma'ili - nizari狀態,其中存活了150年。 Its downfall occurred in 1256 as a result of the expansion of the Mongol empire into Iran and Syria.它的垮台發生在1256年,由於擴大了蒙古帝國到伊朗和敘利亞。

After the fall of Alamut the history of the Nizaris in Syria is largely one of subjugation and persecution at the hands of the Baybars, the Ottomans and the Nusayris.淪陷後, alamut歷史上的nizaris在敘利亞很大程度上是一個征服和迫害在手中的baybars ,土耳其人。奧斯曼帝國和nusayris 。 The Nizaris in Iran also suffered persecution, and from the 14th century onwards many emigrated to India.該nizaris在伊朗,還遭受迫害,並從14世紀起,許多移居到印度。 These came to be known as Khoja (from the Persian word khwaja, meaning master).這些後來被稱為khoja (從波斯語詞khwaja ,意思是師父) 。 These have made considerable concessions to their Indian context and attach little importance to traditional Islamic ritual and practice.這些都取得了相當大的讓步,以自己的印度背景和輕視傳統的伊斯蘭禮儀和慣例。 They follow the leadership of the Agha Khan.他們按照領導的阿加汗。 In the 19th century some Khojas emigrated to East Africa, where Khoja communities remain today.早在19世紀一些khojas移居到東非,在那裡khoja社區留到今天。

The second branch, the Musta'lis, distinguished themselves from the Nizaris through their support of al-Mustansir's younger son, al-Musta'li.第二科, musta'lis ,尊敬自己,從nizaris通過其支持的基地穆斯坦綏爾的小兒子,鋁- musta'li 。 Al-Must'ali and his descendants continued in Egypt until the fall of the Fatimid dynasty in 1171.基地must'ali和他的子孫繼續在埃及,直到秋天的的法蒂瑪王朝的第1171 。 Following the end of the Fatimid dynasty the leadership of the movement was transferred to Yemen.繼去年底該法蒂瑪王朝時期的領導不結盟運動被轉移到也門。 In Yemen the movement split again, with some remaining in Yemen and others emigrating to India.在也門運動分裂再有,有的留在也門和其他國家移民到印度。 Those who went to India are known as Bohras.那些遠赴印度,是著名的bohras 。 Today Musta'lian Isma'ilis are mainly to be found in the Indian province of Gujarat.今天musta'lian isma'ilis主要是被發現在印度的古吉拉特邦。 There are also communities in Arabia, the Persian Gulf, East Africa, and Burma.也有一些社區在地阿拉伯,波斯灣,東非以及緬甸。

Symbols符號

The Isma'ilis do not have a distinctive symbol system.該isma'ilis沒有一個鮮明的符號體系。

Adherents黨羽

There are several hundred thousand Musta'lian Isma'ilis in the world today (Momen 1985, 56).有幾十萬musta'lian isma'ilis在當今世界經濟( momen 1985年, 56 ) 。 There are some 20 million Khojas, of whom 2 million live in Pakistan (Halm 1991, 191).有大約2000萬khojas名,其中有200萬生活在巴基斯坦( halm 1991年, 191頁) 。

Headquarters / Main Centre總部/主要中心

Historically the headquarters of the Nizaris has been the fortress of Alamut in the Elburz mountains of northern Iran.在歷史上,總部的nizaris一直堡壘alamut在厄爾布爾士山脈的伊朗北部。 Today there are Nizari communities in Pakistan, North-west India and the Chinese province of Sin-Kiang.今天,世界上還有nizari社區在巴基斯坦西北印度和中國省單-浙江。 The Khojas are mainly to be found in Gujarat and the Punjab.該khojas主要是要發現在古吉拉特邦和旁遮普邦。 There are also Khoja communities in East and South Africa, Ceylon and Burma.也有khoja社區在東部和南部非洲,錫蘭和緬甸。

Bülent Þenay bülent þenay
Overview of World Religions Project總觀世界宗教工程


Editor's Note:編者的話:

In this article above, the author made an obvious mis-statement (specifically in the second paragraph) regarding the name of the seventh Imam.在這篇文章中,作者從一個明顯的錯誤聲明(特別是在第二段)關於名稱的第七伊瑪目。 He mis-stated Muhammad, where the correct name should obviously be Ismail, his elder son.他的錯誤陳述穆罕默德,而正確的名稱應明顯地是伊斯梅爾,他的大兒子。 Other than that, the article appears accurate and informative.除此之外,這篇文章似乎是準確和翔實。


Also, see:此外,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 可蘭經,可蘭經
Pillars of Faith 支柱的信仰
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-h adiths從第一冊的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-h adiths從第二冊的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-h adiths從第三冊的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-h adiths從書展1 0個基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短祈禱(在taqseer ) -h adiths從書展2 0鋁布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 朝聖(朝覲) -h adiths從書展2 6鋁布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 爭取事業的阿拉(傑哈德) -h adiths圖書5 2鋁布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari 同一性,獨特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths圖書9 3鋁布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義。
Early Islamic History Outline 早在伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 天房,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派,什葉派
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥迪
Sahih, al-Bukhari sahih ,鋁-布哈里
Sufism 蘇非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 阿布巴克爾
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭馬亞王朝
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) 法蒂瑪王朝(什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀教派(什葉派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


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The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在