Mamelukes mamelukes

General Information 一般資料

The Mamelukes, a military, landholding aristocracy, long figured prominently in Middle Eastern history.該mamelukes ,軍事,土地貴族,長期佔有突出地位,在中東地區的歷史。 They were originally recruited from non-Arab slaves imported to serve various traditional Muslim rulers as soldiers and officials.它們原本招募來自非阿拉伯奴隸進口,以便能為多個傳統的穆斯林統治者作為軍人和官員。 Typically, the erstwhile slaves assumed power themselves in time and continued to replenish their ranks by importing more military slaves.通常情況下,昔日奴隸的上台本身在時間,並繼續充實自己的隊伍,進口更多的軍事奴隸。 Between the 13th and 19th centuries Mameluke regimes appeared throughout the Muslim world, including India, Iraq, and most notably Egypt.之間的第13次和19世紀馬穆魯克政權似乎整個穆斯林世界,其中包括印度,伊拉克,以及最顯著的埃及。 Until 1382 the dominant Mamelukes were mostly of Turkish ethnic origin; after that date, the majority was generally of Circassian origin.直到第1382主導mamelukes大多土耳其血統後說,到目前為止,絕大部分是一般的切爾卡西亞原產地。

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The Egyptian Mamelukes emerged to prominence in 1250 when they overthrew the Ayyubid dynasty and inaugurated a line of more than 50 independent sultans.埃及mamelukes出現,以突出,在1250名的時候,他們推翻了艾優卜王朝開創了線的50多個獨立的蘇丹人。 These sultans presided over an unruly but culturally brilliant era until the Ottoman conquest of 1517.這些蘇丹們主持了一個粗野,但在文化上的輝煌時代,直到奧斯曼帝國征服1517份。 From their capital in Cairo they ruled parts of Syria, Arabia, Libya, and Sudan.從他們的首都在開羅他們排除部分敘利亞,阿拉伯,利比亞和蘇丹等。 An awesome cavalry force when united, the Mamelukes checked the Mongol invasions of Syria, defeated the Crusaders, and suppressed the Assassins.旖旎的騎兵部隊時,美國, mamelukes地遏制了蒙古人入侵敘利亞,打敗了十字軍,並鎮壓了殺手。 When no outside threats loomed, however, they divided into quarreling factions that seldom cooperated.當沒有外來面臨的威脅,然而,他們分成爭吵派系甚少合作。 Most of the sultans had short reigns ending in violence.大部分的蘇丹曾短暫統治結束暴力活動。

Ottoman rule did not hurt the Mamelukes as a class.奧斯曼統治沒有傷害mamelukes作為一類。 They continued to share effectively in the rule and wealth of Egypt.他們繼續分享有效地在規則和財富的埃及。 On the eve of the French invasion in 1798, Egypt's 20,000 Mamelukes enjoyed virtual independence.對即將到來的法國入侵,在1798年,埃及的20000 mamelukes所享有的虛擬獨立。 Muhammad Ali, who consolidated his own control over Egypt following the French occupation, finally destroyed the Mamelukes in 1811 when he systematically massacred the culturally stagnant old ruling caste.拳王阿里,他們鞏固了自己的控制權後,埃及,法國佔領,終於摧毀了mamelukes在1811年的時候,他有系統地屠殺了文化停滯的舊執政黨種姓。

Robert G. Landen羅伯特g. landen

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Glubb, John, Soldiers of Fortune: The Story of the Mamluks (1973); Muir, William, The Mameluke, or Slave Dynasty of Egypt, 1260-1517 (1896; repr. 1973); Ziadeh, Nicola A., Urban Life in Syria Under the Early Mamluks (1953). glubb ,約翰後,戰士們的財富:故事的mamluks ( 1973年) ;國防部長威廉,馬穆魯克,或奴隸王朝的埃及, 1260年至1517年( 1896年; repr 。 1973年) ; ziadeh ,尼古拉甲,城市生活敘利亞下月初mamluks ( 1953 ) 。


Mamelukes mamelukes

General Information 一般資料

Mamelukes, purchased slaves converted to Islam who advanced themselves to high military posts in Egypt. mamelukes ,購買奴隸皈依伊斯蘭教,他們的先進自行高級軍事職位,在埃及。 From this class sprang two ruling dynasties, the Bahri (1250-1382), made up of Turks and Mongols, and the Burji (1382-1517), made up of Circassians; both were named for places where the troops who seized power had been quartered.從這個階級興起兩個統治王朝,巴赫瑞( 1250至1382年)取得的土耳其人和蒙古人,以及burji ( 1382至1517年)取得的circassians ;兩個分別命名為地方部隊奪取政權已駐紮。 The founding of the Bahri dynasty in 1250 began a succession that brought territorial gains and great prosperity to Egypt.成立了巴赫瑞王朝,在1250名開始陸續帶來領土收益和偉大的繁榮埃及。

After 1341 the power of the Bahri sultan passed gradually to troop commanders, and by 1381 the first Burji ruler was able to take over the throne.經過第1341電力的巴赫瑞萊蘇丹通過逐步向部隊指揮官,由1381年的第一個burji統治者能夠接管王位。 His rule and that of his successors was troubled by palace revolts, civil wars, and foreign conquests, culminating in the defeat of Egypt in 1517 by Selim I, sultan of Ottoman Turkey.他的統治和他的繼任者是困擾故宮起義,內戰和外國的征服,終於在戰勝埃及在1517份由塞利姆我,文萊蘇丹和奧斯曼土耳其。 Egypt was then subject to the authority of a Turkish representative, the pasha, but actual power remained in the hands of Mameluke beys, or governors of districts or minor provinces.埃及當時受到權威的一個土耳其代表,帕沙,但實際權力仍掌握在馬穆魯克beys ,或省長的地區或輕微的省份。 When Napoleon Bonaparte, seeking to expand French power in the Mediterranean, invaded Egypt, he defeated the Mamelukes in the Battle of the Pyramids on July 21, 1798.當拿破崙,謀求擴大法國電力在地中海,侵入埃及之後,他打敗了mamelukes在戰鬥中的金字塔,對1798年7月21日。 After the French evacuated Egypt, the Mamelukes struggled with the Turks for power but were completely routed; the massacres at Cairo in 1805 and 1811 destroyed the power of the Mamelukes.之後,法國撤出埃及, mamelukes掙扎與土耳其人爭權而被完全單線;屠殺在開羅舉行的1805年和1811年摧毀了權力的mamelukes 。 The survivors fled to Nubia.倖存者逃到了努比亞。


Also, see:此外,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 可蘭經,可蘭經
Pillars of Faith 支柱的信仰
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-h adiths從第一冊的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-h adiths從第二冊的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-h adiths從第三冊的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-h adiths從書展1 0個基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短祈禱(在taqseer ) -h adiths從書展2 0鋁布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 朝聖(朝覲) -h adiths從書展2 6鋁布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 爭取事業的阿拉(傑哈德) -h adiths圖書5 2鋁布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari 同一性,獨特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths圖書9 3鋁布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義。
Early Islamic History Outline 早在伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 天房,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派,什葉派
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥迪
Sahih, al-Bukhari sahih ,鋁-布哈里
Sufism 蘇非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 阿布巴克爾
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭馬亞王朝
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) 法蒂瑪王朝(什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀教派(什葉派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆


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