Marist Brothers聖母兄弟

General Information 一般資料

The Marist Brothers are a Roman Catholic religious institute for Christian education, from elementary school through high school.聖母兄弟會是一個羅馬天主教宗教研究所基督教教育,從小學,高中開始。 The school was founded in 1817 in Lavalla, France, by Marcellin Joseph Benedict Champagnat.學校創辦於1817年,在lavalla ,法國,由marcellin約瑟夫篤champagnat 。 In 1863 the Marist Brothers institute received the approbation of the Holy See (the territory over which the pope exercises ecclesiastical jurisdiction). 1863年聖母兄弟研究所獲得認同教廷(全港各處,其中教宗演習教會管轄) 。 In 1991 there were approximately 6,000 members, called brothers, of whom about 300 were in the United States.在1991年有大約6000名成員,所謂的兄弟,其中約300人在美國。 In addition to primary schools, the brothers conduct boarding schools and academies, industrial schools, and orphanages.除了小學,兩兄弟進行寄宿學校和學院,工業學校,孤兒院等。 The Marist Brothers are not clerics, but are devoted solely to educational work throughout the world.聖母兄弟,是不是神職人員,而是專門教育工作,在整個世界。

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Society of Mary (Marist Fathers)社會瑪利亞(聖母父親)

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

(Initials SM) (英文縮寫SM )的

A religious order of priests, so called on account of the special devotion they profess toward the Blessed Virgin.是一個宗教秩序的牧師,所謂對帳戶的特別奉獻,他們自稱對聖方。

I. FOUNDATION (1816-1836)一基金會( 1816年至1836年)

The first idea of a "Society of Mary" originated (1816) in Lyons, France, with a group of seminarians, who saw in the Restoration of 1815 an opportunity for religion, but the real founder was Jean-Claude-Marie Colin, the most retiring of the group.第一次提出的"社會瑪利亞的"本源( 1816 )在法國里昂舉行,與一群修道,他們看到在恢復1815年的一個機會,教,但真正的創始人是讓-克勞德-瑪麗科林,最卸任的組長。 He began, amid his pastoral cares, by drafting a tentative rule and founding at Cerdon, where he was pastor, the Sisters of the Holy Name of Mary; Marcellin Champagnat, another of the group, established at Lavalla the Little Brothers of Mary.他開始時,由於他的牧靈關懷,由起草暫定統治和建國在塞爾東,在那裡他是牧師,修女的聖名瑪利亞; marcellin champagnat ,另該集團成立於lavalla小兄弟的瑪麗。 On account of the cold attitude assumed by the ecclesiastical authorities in Lyons, the foundation of the missionary priests' branch could not be made till Cerdon, Colin's parish, passed from the jurisdiction of Lyons to that of Belley.考慮到冷戰的態度,假設由教會當局在里昂舉行,該基金會的宣教士祭司分行無法作出直到塞爾東,科林的教區,從通過司法管轄權萊昂斯說的belley 。 Bishop Devie of the newly restored See of Belley authorized (1823) Colin and a few companions to resign their parochial duties and form into a missionary band for the rural districts.主教devie的新恢復見的belley授權( 1823 )科林和幾個同伴辭職,其狹隘的職責,並形成為一個傳教士帶鄉郊地區。 Their zeal and success in that arduous work moved the bishop to entrust them also with the conduct of his seminary, thus enlarging the scope of their work.他們的熱情和成功在這艱苦的工作,提出主教委託他們還與進行他的修道院,從而擴大了他們的工作範圍。 However, the fact that Bishop Devie wanted a diocesan institute only, and that Fr.然而,事實主教devie想要一個教區研究所只,並神父。 Colin was averse to such a limitation, came near placing the nascent order in jeopardy when Pope Gregory XVI, in quest of missionaries for Oceanica, by Brief of 29 April, 1836, approved definitively the "Priests of the Society of Mary" or Marist Fathers, as a religious institute with simple vows and under a superior general.科林是避免受到這種限制,來到附近放置新生的秩序受到威脅時,羅馬教皇格雷戈里十六,在追求傳教士oceanica ,進行了簡短的1836年4月29日,批准確定的"祭司是社會的瑪麗"或聖母父親作為一個宗教研究所與簡單的誓言,並根據上級一般。 The Little Brothers of Mary and the Sisters of the Holy Name of Mary, commonly called Marist Brothers and Marist Sisters, were reserved for separate institutes.小兄弟的瑪利亞和修女的聖名瑪利亞,俗稱聖母兄弟和聖母修女,則預留給獨立學院。 Father Colin was elected superior general on 24 Sept., 1836, on which day occurred the first Marist profession, Blessed Pierre Chanel (qv), Venerable Colin, and Venerable Champagnat being among the professed.父親科林被選為優於一般於1836年9月24日,那一天發生的第一聖母界,有福皮埃爾夏奈爾(請參閱) ,歷代柯林,和歷代champagnat之一自稱。

II.二。 DEVELOPMENT (1836-1910)發展( 1836年至1910年)

From its definitive organization to the present date (1910) the Society of Mary, under four superiors general - JCM Colin (1836-54), J. Favre (1854-85), A. Martin (1885-1905), JC Raffin (1905-) - has developed along the various lines of its constitutions in and out of France.由,其最終的組織,以目前的日期( 1910年) ,社會的聖母瑪利亞,根據四個上司一般-j cm科林( 1 836至1 854年) ,威廉斯f avre( 1 854至1 885年) ,甲馬丁( 1 885年至1 905年) ,時三十分r affin( 1905年-) -已發展遍布各行其憲法和帶出法國。 In France it has done work in the mission field from many missionary residences established in various centres.在法國,它已做的工作,在任務方面,由許多傳教士住宅,設於各中心。 When educational liberty was restored to French Catholics, it also entered the field of secondary, or college education, its methods being embodied in Montfat's "Théorie et pratique de l'education chrétienne" (Paris, 1880), and moreover assumed the direction of a few diocesan seminaries together with professorships in Catholic institutes for higher education.當教育人身自由就恢復了法國天主教徒,但也進入了外地的中學,或具有大專以上學歷,其方法正體現在montfat的" théorie等實用德教育和基督教" (巴黎, 1880年) ,而且承擔了方向,一數教區修院連同教授在天主教學院接受高等教育。 The French houses have also supplied men for the various missions undertaken abroad by the Society of Mary.法國的房子也提供了官兵的各項任務,開展國內外受到社會的瑪麗。

Outside of France, the first field of labour offered the Marists (1836) was the Vicariate Apostolic of Western Oceanica, comprising New Zealand, the Friendly Islands, the Navigator Islands, the Gilbert and Marshall Islands, Fiji, New Caledonia, New Guinea, the Solomon and Caroline Islands.外面的法國,第一個領域的勞動人口提供了marists ( 1836年)是代牧區宗座西方oceanica ,包括新西蘭,友好群島,航海家群島,吉爾伯特和馬紹爾群島,斐濟,新喀裡多尼亞,新幾內亞,所羅門和加羅林群島等。 Under the secular bishop, Dr. Pompallier, who took up his residence in New Zealand, the Marists successively occupied Wallis (1837), soon converted by Fr.根據世俗主教,博士pompallier ,誰接手他居住在新西蘭, marists先後被佔領的瓦利斯群島( 1837 ) ,即將改建神父。 Bataillon; Futuna (1837), the place of Blessed Pierre Chanel's martyrdom; Tonga (1842), turned by Fr. bataillon ;圖納( 1837 ) ,地點有福皮埃爾夏奈爾的殉道;湯加( 1842年) ,把由神父。 Chevron into a model Christian community; New Caledonia (1843), where Bishop Douarre, Pompallier's coadjutor, met untold difficulties and Brother Blaise was massacred; and, in spite of much Protestant opposition, Fiji (1844) and Samoa (1845).雪佛龍成模型基督教社區,新喀裡多尼亞( 1843 ) ,在那裡主教douarre , pompallier的教區助理下午在人民大會堂會見了深重的困難和弟弟布萊斯被屠殺; ,儘管許多新教反對,斐濟( 1844年)和薩摩亞( 1845年) 。 The immense area of the vicariate, together with the presence at its head of a secular bishop, soon necessitated the creation of smaller districts under Marist bishops: Central Oceanica under Bishop Bataillon (1842), Melanesia and Micronesia under Bishop Epalle (1844), New Caledonia under Bishop Douarre (1847), Wellington (New Zealand) under Bishop Viard (1848), Bishop Pompallier retaining Auckland; the Navigator Islands (1851), long administered by the Vicar Apostolic of Central Oceanica; the Prefecture of Fiji (1863), etc. Of these, Melanesia and Micronesia had to be abandoned after the massacre of Bishop Epalle at Isabella Island and the sudden death of his successor, Bishop Colomb, the Solomon Islands alone reverting to the Marists in 1898.巨大的面積佔代牧區,連同在場時,其頭部的一個世俗的主教,有必要盡快建立規模較小的地區,根據聖母主教:中央oceanica下主教bataillon ( 1842年) ,美拉尼西亞和密克羅尼西亞下主教埃帕勒( 1844年) ,新喀裡多尼亞主教douarre ( 1847 ) ,威靈頓(紐西蘭)根據主教viard ( 1848年) ,主教pompallier保留奧克蘭;領航員群島( 1851年) ,長期由副主教使徒中央oceanica ;縣內的斐濟( 1863年) ,等等這些,美拉尼西亞和密克羅尼西亞不得不放棄屠殺之後主教埃帕勒在伊莎貝拉島和猝死的他的繼任者,主教哥倫布,索羅門群島,僅恢復到marists於1898年。 Those various missions have progressed steadily under the Marist Fathers who, beside their religious work, have largely contributed to make known the languages, fauna, and flora of the South Sea Islands (see Hervier, "Les missions Maristes en Océanie", Paris, 1902), and helped in their colonization (de Salinis, "Marins et Missionnaires", Paris, sd).這些不同的任務進展穩妥,根據聖母父親,他們旁邊的宗教工作,有極大的貢獻,使已知的語言,動物,植物的南海群島(見hervier , "就業輔導組任務maristes恩océanie " ,巴黎, 1902 ) ,並幫助其殖民化(德salinis , " marins等傳教會" ,巴黎,職務) 。 The growth of New Zealand has been such as to call for a regular hierarchy, and the Marists were concentrated (1887) in the Archdiocese of Wellington and the Diocese of Christchurch, still governed by members of the order.生長新西蘭一直等,以呼籲建立一個經常性的等級,並marists集中( 1887年)在教區的惠靈頓和教區的克賴斯特徹奇,仍然受到大家的秩序。

In the British Isles, the Marist foundations began as early as 1850 at the request of Cardinal Wiseman, but have not grown beyond three colleges and five parishes.在英倫三島,聖母基金會開始了,早在1850年時,應請求國的樞機智者,但並未超出3個學院和5個教區。 In the United States, the Society of Mary has taken a firmer hold.在美國,社會的瑪麗已經採取了更加堅實的擱置。 From Louisiana, whither Archbishop Odin called them (1863) to take charge of a French parish and college, the Marists have passed into eleven states and even branched off into Mexico, and, although continuing to minister to a number of French speaking communities, they have not limited their action there, but gradually taken up, both in parishes and colleges, American work, their training houses being almost entirely recruited in this country and being located in Washington.來自路易斯安那州,著大主教奧丁呼籲他們( 1863年) ,負責承擔的一位法國教區和學院, marists過去了,到11個國家,甚至分支,進入墨西哥,而且,雖然繼續部長向一些講法語社區,但他們沒有限制了他們的行動,但逐漸採取行動,不論是在各教區和學院,美國工作,他們的訓練被房子幾乎完全招募在這個國家和設在華盛頓。

III.三。 PRESENT STATE (1910)目前狀態( 1910 )

The Society of Mary is now divided into six provinces: 2 in France, 1 in the British Isles, 1 in the United States 1 in New Zealand, and 1 in Oceanica.社會佑現分為6個省: 2 ,在法國, 1個在英倫三島, 1個在美國, 1在新西蘭, 1人在oceanica 。 The French provinces (Lyons and Paris) counted at the time of the Association Act (1901) 9 institutes for the training of aspirants or of young religious, 15 missionary residences with chapels, 9 colleges for secondary education, and three diocesan seminaries, with a total of 340 priests, 100 novices, and 34 lay-brothers.法國各省(里昂和巴黎)計數的時候,該協會法( 1901 ) 9學院,為培養有志或宗教界青年, 15傳教官邸與教堂, 9高校為中學教育,和三個教區修院,以共有340個祭司, 100生手, 34個停工兄弟。 The Association Act of 1901, by dissolving religious communities and confiscating their property, told heavily on these establishments: the training-houses had to be transferred to foreign parts (Belgium, Italy, and Spain); the diocesan seminaries were taken from the religious; the residences were confiscated and their inmates compelled either to go into exile or to live separately in rented quarters; the colleges alone survived in part by becoming diocesan establishments.該協會1901年法中,解散宗教團體,並沒收他們的財產,告訴倚重這些場所:培訓-房子已被移交給外國零件(比利時,意大利和西班牙) ;教區修院被帶到來自宗教界;該公寓被沒收,他們強迫犯人要么進入流亡或分開住在出租宿舍;學院單獨存活,部分成為拔萃場所。 To the French provinces are attached in Germany, an apostolic seminary for the German Missions in Oceanica, and, in Italy and Spain, various chaplaincies and houses of retreat for the aged or the exiled fathers.以法語省份附設在德國,一個使徒修道院,為德國代表團在oceanica ,並在意大利和西班牙,各chaplaincies和房子的務虛會,為老人或流亡在外的父親。 The Anglo-Irish province, erected in 1889, comprises 5 parishes (3 in London, 1 in Devonshire, and 1 in Yorkshire) and three colleges (1 in Dublin, 1 in Dundalk, and 1 in Middlesborough) with 46 priests, 8 novices, and 6 lay-brothers.盎格魯-愛爾蘭省,建於1889年,有5堂( 3在倫敦, 1 devonshire , 1人在約克郡) ,以及三個學院( 1在都柏林, 1 dundalk , 1人在middlesborough ) , 46牧師, 8生手和6個停工兄弟。

The New Zealand province, erected in 1889, comprises, in the Archdiocese of Wellington and the Diocese of Christchurch, 1 novitiate-scholasticate, 1 second novitiate, 1 college, 20 parishes among the whites, 6 missions among the Maoris and one missionary band, with 1 archbishop, 1 bishop, 70 priests, 17 novices, 15 lay-brothers, ministering to a Catholic population of about 30,000.新西蘭省,建於1889年,包括中,在教區的惠靈頓和教區的基督城, 1 novitiate - scholasticate ,一秒novitiate , 1個學院, 20個教區中的白人, 6個特派團之間的毛利族和一名傳教士樂隊, 1大主教, 1主教, 70牧師, 17個生手, 15停工兄弟,服事,以天主教人口約30000 。 The Province of Oceanica, erected in 1898, comprises, besides a procurator house at Sydney and three missions in Australia, five vicariates (Central Oceanica with 15 stations; the Navigator Islands or Samoa with 15 stations; New Caledonia with 36 stations; Fiji with 17 stations; New Hebrides with 22 stations) and two prefectures (the Southern Solomon Islands with 8 stations and the Northern Solomon Islands with 5 stations).省oceanica ,建於1898年組成,除檢察長府在悉尼和三項使命,在澳大利亞, 5 vicariates (中央oceanica與15個車站;領航員群島和薩摩亞,與15個車站;新喀裡多尼亞36個車站;斐濟17監測站;新赫布里底與22站)和兩個縣(南所羅門群島8個車站和北所羅門群島與5站) 。 It counts: 5 vicars Apostolic, 2 prefects Apostolic, 200 priests, 25 lay-brothers (all Marists), assisted by 115 Little Brothers of Mary, 566 native catechists, and a large number of sisters, both European and native, of the Third Order Regular of Mary and of Our Lady of the Missions, founded by the Marists.它計數: 5 vicars使徒,省長2使徒, 200名司鐸, 25停工兄弟(均marists ) ,由115個小兄弟的瑪麗, 5660本土講授,以及大量的姐妹,無論是歐洲和本土的第三為了定期瑪利亞和聖母的各項任務,成立由marists 。 The Catholic population is about 41,885.天主教人口約41885 。 The province of the United States, erected in 1889, comprises two training houses in Washington, District of Columbia, 4 colleges (Jefferson College, Louisiana; All Hallows' College, Utah; St. Mary's College, Maine; Marist College, Georgia), 18 parishes in various states, and missions in West Virginia and Idaho.該省的美國,豎立於1889年,設有兩個培訓房子在華盛頓哥倫比亞區, 4學院(杰弗遜大學,路易斯安那州;所有hallows學院,猶他州;聖瑪麗學院,緬因;聖母大學,格魯吉亞) , 18歲的教區在各個國家和使命,在西弗吉尼亞州和愛達荷州。 Its membership consists of 1 archbishop, 105 priests, 75 novices, and 5 lay-brothers.委員會的成員包括1大主教,已有105個牧師, 75個生手, 5裁員兄弟。 There are about 600 boys in the colleges and 70,000 Catholics in the parishes and missions.有大約600名男孩在高校和70000個天主教徒,在各教區和使命。 From this province has been detached (1905) the Vice-province of Mexico which counts 26 priests working in 1 college with 350 pupils and 6 parishes with a large number of parishioners, French, American, German, and Mexican.從這個省已超脫( 1905 )副省墨西哥罪狀,其中26祭司工作,在一高校350名學生和6教區與大批教友,法國,美國,德國,墨西哥。

IV.四。 RULE法治

According to their constitutions, approved by papal Decree of 8 March, 1873, the Marists profess, besides the three simple and perpetual vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, common to all similar institutes, a spirit of special devotion to Mary, absolute loyalty to the Holy See, reverence for the hierarchy, and the love of the hidden life, conformably to their motto: Ignoti et quasi occulti in hoc mundo (see G. Goyau, "Le rôle de l'humilité dans la fondation d'un Ordre", Paris, 1910).根據其憲法,法律,批准了由教皇頒布的1873年3月8日, marists聲言,除了3個簡單的和永久的誓言貧窮,貞潔,服從,共同向所有類似的研究機構,一個精神的特殊奉獻給聖母瑪利亞,絕對忠誠向羅馬教廷,崇敬等級,以及愛的隱性生活, conformably他們的座右銘: ignoti等準奧庫爾蒂在特設世界報(見g. goyau , "樂rôle德l' humilité dans香格里拉基金會-聯合國公共秩序" ,巴黎, 1910年) 。 The work of the order includes missions, both domestic and foreign; colleges for the education of youth, and, in a less degree, seminaries for the training of clerics.工作的議事程序,包括代表團成員,來自國內和國外的;學院,為教育青年,並在較低的程度,神學院,為培養神職人員。 Its members are either priests or lay-brothers.其成員都是牧師或停工的兄弟。 The candidates for the priesthood are prepared, once their classical course is over, by one year of novitiate, two years of philosophy, four years of theology, additional opportunities being given to those especially gifted.候選人神職人員準備,一旦他們的經典課程結束後,通過一年的novitiate ,兩年的哲學,四年的神學,更多的機會,正考慮將那些特別有天分的兒童。 After ten years of profession and after the age of thirty-five, the priests are allowed to take the vow of stability, which renders them eligible for the chapters and the high offices of the society.經過10年的專業和以後的年齡35 ,司鐸獲准參加宣誓的穩定性,這使他們有資格章和高級職務的社會。 The lay-brothers after a long probation take the same vows as the priests, and devote themselves to the care of temporalities.該停工的兄弟經過漫長的試用期採取同樣的誓言,作為牧師,並投身護理temporalities 。 Its government is in the hands of general officers and of chapters.其政府是在政府手中,一般人員和章節。 The general officers, whose official residence is in Rome, are the superior general, his four assistants, the general procurator, the procurator apud Sanctam Sedem, all elected by the chapter general - the first for life, the others till the following chapter.總務人員,其官邸是在羅馬,是優於一般,他的4名助手,一般檢察長,檢察apud sanctam七種,全部由民選產生的第一章一般-第一生命,他人到以下的篇章。 The provincial and local superiors are appointed by the superior general and his counsel.省級和地方上級任命的,由上級幹事和他的律師。 The general chapters, wherein all the provinces are represented in proportion to their membership, meet regularly every seven years, and, besides electing the general officers, issue statutes for the good of the whole order.一般章節,其中,所有的省份都有代表比例,以自己的成員,定期召開會議,每7年,而且,除選出總幹事,發行章程,為良好的整體秩序。 Provincial chapters are convened every three years for the purpose of electing representatives to the chapters general, auditing the finances, and ensuring the discipline of each province.省分會召開會議,每3年為選舉代表的章節一般,以審計財政,並確保紀律,每一個省。 As the general statutes take effect only after due approbation by the Holy See, so the provincial statutes are in vigour only when and as approved by the superior council.作為總章程生效後,才因讚許,由羅馬教廷,所以省級法規,在魄力,只有當,並經上級局。 By Apostolic Brief of 8 Sept., 1850, a Third Order of Mary for persons living in the world was canonically established and has a large membership wherever the Marists are found.由宗座簡短的1850年9月8日,第三次為了瑪利亞的人生活在世界上是canonically成立,並已大批會員到哪裡marists被發現。

Publication information Written by JF Sollier.出版信息書面由JF sollier 。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯j.波特。 Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.專為無玷聖心之聖母瑪利亞天主教百科全書,體積九。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. nihil obstat , 1910年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

Constitutiones SM (Lyons, 1873); Statuta Capitulorum Generalium SM (Lyons, 1907); Esprit de la Société de Marie (Paris, 1905); Life of Venerable Fr. constitutiones釤(里昂, 1873年) ; statuta capitulorum generalium釤(里昂, 1907年) ;團隊精神香格里拉協會德瑪麗(巴黎, 1905年) ;生活中的老神父。 Colin (St. Louis, 1909); La Société de Marie in Recrutement Sacerdotal (Paris, 1906-7); Chroniques et annales de la Société de Marie (Luçon, 1903-; Roulers, 1908-); BAUNARD, Un siècle de l'Eglise de France (Paris, 1902), 49.科林(聖路易斯, 1909年) ;香格里拉協會德瑪麗在recrutement sacerdotal (巴黎, 1906-7 ) ; chroniques等年鑑德香格里拉協會德瑪麗( luçon , 1903 -;魯萊斯, 1 908年- );博納爾,聯合國世紀德升' eglise的法國(巴黎, 1902年) , 49 。 For the Missions: AUBRY, Missions of the Society of Mary in Annals of the Propagation of the Faith (Baltimore, 1905); HERVIER, Les Missions Maristes en Océanie (Paris, 1902); MAYET, Mgr Douarre .為任務: Aubry先生,使命,社會的瑪麗在史冊繁殖的信仰(巴爾的摩, 1905年) ; hervier ,就業輔導組任務maristes恩océanie (巴黎, 1902年) ; mayet主教douarre 。 . . en Nouvelle-Calédonie (Lyons, 1884); MANGERET, Mgr Bataillon (Lyons, 1884); MONFAT, Mgr.恩新喀裡多尼亞(里昂, 1884年) ;芒熱雷主教bataillon (里昂, 1884年) ; monfat主教。 Elloy . elloy 。 . . en Océanie centrale (Lyons, 1890); IDEM, Les Samoa (Lyons, 1891); IDEM, Dix ans en Mélanésie (Lyons, 1891); IDEM, Les Tonga (Lyons, 1893).恩océanie中部(里昂, 1890年) ;同上,就業輔導組薩摩亞(里昂, 1891年) ;同上,迪克斯答恩mélanésie (里昂, 1891年) ;同上,就業輔導組湯加(里昂, 1893年) 。 See also Lettres des Missionnaires SM and Annales des Missions SM (Lyons).也見lettres萬傳教SM及年鑑萬使命釤(里昂) 。 For English speaking countries: MANGERET, Les origines de la foi Catholique en Nouvelle-Zélande (Lyons, 1892); La Société de Marie en Amérique (Montreal, 1907); MACCAFFREY, History of the Catholic Church in the Nineteenth Century (2 vols., Dublin, 1909), passim; Tablet (London) and Tablet (New Zealand), passim.對於以英語為母語的國家:芒熱雷,就業輔導組origines德香格里拉公佈於天主教恩nouvelle - zélande (里昂, 1892年) ;香格里拉協會德瑪麗恩amérique (蒙特利爾, 1907年) ; maccaffrey ,歷史的天主教教會在十九世紀( 2卷。 ,都柏林, 1909年) ,各處;片劑(倫敦)和片劑(新西蘭) ,各處。


Also, see:此外,見:
Religious Orders 宗教命令
Franciscans
Jesuits 耶穌會士
Benedictines benedictines
Trappists trappists
Cistercians cistercians
Dominicans 多米尼加
Carmelites carmelites
Discalced Carmelites discalced carmelites
Augustinians 奧古斯丁會士
Christian Brothers 基督教兄弟

Monasticism 修道
Nuns 修女
Friars 方濟各會士
Convent 修道院
Ministry 財政部
Major Orders 大訂單
Holy Orders 神聖的訂單


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