Mecca, Makka, Makkah麥加, makka ,麥加

General Information, Note 一般信息時,請注意

Mecca is the most important city to Muslims, and they are required to face it when they Pray.麥加是最重要的城市對穆斯林,他們必須面對它當他們祈禱。 It is important because Muslims believe that the Patriarch Abraham personally built the Kaaba (cube-shaped building), using the Black Stone in its construction.它之所以重要是因為穆斯林認為牧亞伯拉罕親自締造了天房(立方體形建築) ,用黑色的石頭,它的建設。 Abraham's son Ishmael assisted in that construction, according to Islamic beliefs.亞伯拉罕的兒子伊斯梅爾協助進行施工,根據伊斯蘭信仰。 Because Abraham was willing to sacrifice his son because the Lord asked him to do so, clearly indicated that Abraham was the first truly Devout believer in the One God (Allah).因為亞伯拉罕是願意犧牲自己的兒子,因為上帝問他這樣做的話,清楚地表明,亞伯拉罕是第一個真正虔誠的信徒在一上帝(真主) 。 This makes Abraham the central human figure in Muslim beliefs, the first of the Patriarchs.這使得亞伯拉罕中央人的圖在回教信仰,首先該patriarchs 。 (This is the very same Abraham that Christians and Jews similarly revere as Patriarch.) The fact that Muslims face Mecca is really them facing the Kaaba, in honor to Abraham. (這是一個非常,同時亞伯拉罕說,基督徒和猶太人同樣尊崇為牧)事實穆斯林面對麥加,實在是他們所面臨的天房,在榮譽,以亞伯拉罕。


Mecca麥加

General Information 一般資料

{mek'-uh} ( mek' -嗯)

Mecca (Arabic: Makkah), the birthplace of Muhammad, is the holiest city of the Islamic faith.麥加(阿拉伯語:麥加)的發祥地穆罕默德,是最神聖的城市,伊斯蘭信仰。 Capital of the Hejaz province of Saudi Arabia, Mecca is located 72 km (45 mi) east of Jidda, its port on the Red Sea, and about 485 km (300 mi) south of Medina.資本的hejaz省沙特阿拉伯,麥加位於72公里( 45米)以東jidda ,其港口對紅海,和大約485公里( 300米) ,南部的麥迪那。 Mecca's population is 367,000 (1976 est.).麥加的人口是367000 ( 1976估值) 。 The city is located on the sandy, narrow valley of the Wadi Ibrahim and is surrounded by hills from 60 to 150 m (200 to 500 ft) high.城市坐落於沙地,狹窄河谷的瓦迪易卜拉欣和四周的山丘,從60至150米( 200到500英尺)高。 The 914-m-high (3,000-ft) Jabal Khandama is located nearby. 914米高的( 3000英尺)的發射khandama坐落在附近。

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Mecca is a holy city, and non-Muslims are not permitted to enter it.麥加是一個神聖的城市,非穆斯林不得進入。 But for Muslims the pilgrimage to Mecca, or the hajj, is one of the basic tenets of the religion.但對於穆斯林前往麥加朝聖,或朝聖,就是其中的基本原理的宗教。 Each year, over 1,000,000 people visit during the month of pilgrimage.每年有超過1000000人來訪,在一個月的活動如火如荼。 The core of Mecca, including the commercial district, surrounds the al-Haram or Great Mosque, which can hold 300,000 people.核心的麥加,包括商業中心區,是圍繞基地哈拉姆或大清真寺,可容納30萬人。 Inside the mosque, the Kaaba (a shrine enclosing a sacred Black Stone) and the well of Zamzam are located.清真寺內,天房(神社,其中附有一份神聖黑石)和井zamzam所在地。 They are the focus of the pilgrimage.他們是焦點,此次進香團。

The main economic activity in Mecca is the provision of services to pilgrims.主要經濟活動在麥加是提供服務的朝聖者。 Merchants in particular benefit from the trade of travelers, as huge fairs are held during the month of the pilgrimage.商人,尤其是受益於貿易的旅行者,因為龐大的交易會期間舉行了一個月的朝聖。 Because of the yearly influx of visitors, the city's transportation network is well developed.由於每年的旅客湧入,全市的交通運輸網絡,是發展完善。 Mecca is connected to Jidda and Riyadh by road, and the airport at Jidda serves Mecca.麥加是連接jidda和利雅得由路和機場jidda服務麥加。

Even before Muhammad's birth (570), the city was an important commercial and religious center (the Black Stone was sacred in early Arabic religions).甚至之前穆罕默德誕辰100週年( 570 ) ,城市是一個重要商業和宗教中心(黑石頭是神聖的,在早期阿拉伯文宗教) 。 Muhammad began to preach in the city c.613 but was forced to flee to Medina in 622 (the Hegira).穆罕默德開始傳教,在市c.613但被迫逃往麥迪在622 ( hegira ) 。 In 630 he returned with 10,000 men to conquer the city and establish it as the center of the Islamic world.在630他返回10000男人征服城市,並確立它為中心的整個伊斯蘭世界。 The city was ruled by the Carmathians from 930 until 1269, when the Egyptian Mamelukes gained control.該城被裁定由carmathians從930到1269 ,當埃及mamelukes控制了。

The Ottoman Turks ruled from 1517 until 1916, when the Hejaz region became independent, with Mecca as its capital.奧斯曼土耳其人統治,從1517份,直到1916年,當hejaz地區成為獨立的,與麥加作為其首都。 Mecca fell to Ibn Saud in 1924, and in 1932 Hejaz became a province of Saudi Arabia.麥加下降到伊本沙特在1924年,並在1932年hejaz成為一個省,沙特阿拉伯。 In November 1979 a group of 200 Muslim zealots seized Mecca's Great Mosque; they were driven out by Saudi troops after 10 days, and many were executed.在1979年11月的一組200名穆斯林狂熱分子繳獲麥加的大清真寺,他們被趕出沙特部隊後, 10天來,許多人被處決。 In 1987, Iranian pilgrims staged violent demonstrations in the city.在1987年,伊朗朝覲者舉行了暴力示威活動在城市裡。

Ira Sheskin愛爾蘭共和軍sheskin

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Gaury, Gerald de, Rulers of Mecca (1951; repr. 1982); 1982); Hirashima, HY, The Road to Holy Mecca (1972); Hitti, Philip K., History of the Arabs, 10th ed.戈里,杰拉爾德德,統治者的麥加( 1951年; repr 。 1982 ) ; 1982年) ;平島,路政署署長,路聖地麥加( 1972年) ;希提,弘因茨歷史上的阿拉伯人,第十版。 (1970); Steward, D., Mecca (1980). ( 1970年) ;斯圖爾德,博士,麥加( 1980 ) 。


Mecca麥加

General Information 一般資料

Mecca, also Makkah (ancient Macoraba), is a city in western Saudi Arabia, located in Al Hijâz (Hejaz) Province, near Jiddah.麥加,也麥加(古代macoraba ) ,是一個城市在沙特西部,坐落在Al hijâz ( hejaz )省,近吉達。 Mecca is the birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, founder of Islam, and the most sacred of the Muslim holy cities.麥加的誕生地,是先知穆罕默德的創始人伊斯蘭教,最神聖的穆斯林聖地城市。 According to Islamic tradition, Muslims around the world must face Mecca during their daily prayers.按照伊斯蘭教的傳統,世界各地的穆斯林必須面對麥加朝聖期間,他們每天祈禱。 Every year, during the last month of the Islamic calendar, more than 1 million Muslims make a pilgrimage, or hajj, to Mecca.每一年,在過去一個月的伊斯蘭日曆,有100多萬穆斯林朝聖,或朝覲麥加朝聖。 The city's location on several trade routes has made it commercially important since ancient times.城市的位置上幾個貿易路線,作出了符合商業利益重要,因為遠古時代。 Mecca was a religious center before the time of Muhammad, and several holy sites within the sacred precincts of the great mosque, called al-Haram, had religious significance in pre-Islamic times.麥加是一個宗教中心前的時候,穆罕默德,和幾個聖地內部的神聖區的大清真寺,稱為al聖地,有宗教意義的前伊斯蘭時代。

The Kaaba (or Caaba), a windowless cube-shaped building in the courtyard of the mosque, is believed to have been built by the Hebrew patriarch Abraham.該天房(或caaba ) ,一個沒有窗子的立方體形建築,在院落的清真寺,被認為是已建成由希伯來語牧亞伯拉罕。 In the southeastern corner of the Kaaba is the Black Stone, supposedly given to Abraham by the angel Gabriel.在東南一隅的天房是黑色石料,理應給予亞伯拉罕由天使加布里埃爾。 Also within the precincts of the mosque is the sacred well, called the Zamzam (Zemzem), which was reputedly used by Hagar, mother of Abraham's son Ishmael.還與區的清真寺是神聖的,被稱為zamzam ( zemzem ) ,這是據說是用hagar ,母親的亞伯拉罕的兒子伊斯梅爾。 The city is first mentioned by the Alexandrian geographer Ptolemy, who in the 2nd century AD called it Macoraba.該市是第一次提到了亞歷山大的地理學家托勒密,他在二世紀的廣告,稱它macoraba 。

From the time of Muhammad, Mecca was besieged on various occasions.從時間的穆罕默德,麥加被圍困,在不同的場合。 It was taken by the Egyptians in the 13th century.它是由埃及人在十三世紀。 In the 16th century control passed to Turkey.在16世紀控制傳遞給土耳其。 From 1517 the sharifs, or descendants of Muhammad through Hasan, son of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali, governed Mecca for the Turks.從1517份該sharifs ,或其後裔,穆罕默德通過哈桑的兒子,穆罕默德的女婿阿里的管治麥加為土耳其人。 The latter were driven from the city in 1916 by Grand Sharif Husein ibn Ali, later first king of Al Hijâz.後者被趕出城, 1916年由大謝里夫侯賽因伊本阿里後第一景鋁hijâz 。 In 1924 the city was occupied by Abdul Aziz ibn Saud, then sultan of Najd (Nejd), who made Mecca the religious capital of Saudi Arabia.早在1924年該城被佔領的阿卜杜勒阿齊茲伊本沙特的話,文萊蘇丹和najd ( nejd ) ,他們取得了麥加的宗教首都沙特阿拉伯。 Population (1994 estimate) 1,500,000.人口( 1994年估計) 15000001 。


Mecca麥加

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

Mecca, the capital of Arabia and the sacred city of the Mohammedans, is situated in the district of Hijaz about 21°30' N. latitude and 40°20' E. longitude, some seventy miles east of the Red Sea.麥加,首都的地阿拉伯和神聖的城市Mohammedan人,是坐落在該區的hijaz約21 ° 30 '北緯12月31日和40 ° 20 '體育經度,一些70英里東部的紅海。 It lies in a sandy valley surrounded by rocky hills from two hundred to five hundred feet in height, barren and destitute of vegetation.它位於一片沙地山谷中,周圍岩石山丘,由200至500英尺在身高,荒蕪和貧窮的植被。

The birthplace of Mohammed and the seat of the famous Kaaba, it was celebrated even in pre-Islamic times as the chief sanctuary of the Arabs, and visited by numerous pilgrims and devotees.誕生地穆罕默德和所在地著名的天房,它的慶祝活動,甚至在會前伊斯蘭時代作為行政避難所的阿拉伯人,並參觀了由眾多香客和信徒。 The city presents an aspect more pleasing than that of the ordinary Eastern town, with comparatively wide streets and stone houses, usually of three stories, and well aired and lighted.市政府提出的一個方面,更令人欣慰的,比的普通東部城鎮,比較寬闊的街道和石板屋,通常是三個故事,以及播放和燈光。 The inhabitants, numbering about 60,000, are with few exceptions Arabians whose chief employment consists in lodging the pilgrims and serving the temple, although no inconsiderable amount of trade is carried on with the Bedouins of the surrounding desert.居民,人數約60000 ,是少數例外阿拉伯人物,其主要的就業構成中住宿香客和服務於廟,雖然沒有不可小視的貿易金額,是進行與貝都因人的周圍沙漠。 Mecca, the seat of government during the reign of the first five Khalifs, is now governed by a Sharif, chosen by the people from the Sayyids or the descendants of Mohammed, but under the immediate authority of the Sultan of Turkey (Hughes, "Dictionary of Islam", qv).麥加,政府所在地在位期間的第一個五年khalifs ,現正由一個謝里夫,人民的選擇,從sayyids或其後裔穆罕默德,但根據眼前的權威萊蘇丹土耳其(休斯, "字典伊斯蘭教" ,請參閱) 。 Mecca is annually visited by some 80,000 pilgrims from all over the Mohammedan world.麥加是每年都訪問過約八萬名朝聖者來自全國各地的穆罕默德世界。 On their way the pilgrims pass through Medina, the second sacred town of Arabia, and on approaching Mecca they undress, laying aside even their headgear, and put on aprons and a piece of cloth over the left shoulder.他們沿路香客通過麥迪,第二神聖鎮阿拉伯,並於臨近麥加,他們脫下衣服,擱置甚至他們的頭飾,穿上圍裙及一塊布超過左肩。 Then they perform the circuit of the Kaaba, kiss the Black Stone, hear the sermon on Mount Arafât, pelt Satan with stones in the valley of Mina, and conclude their pilgrimage with a great sacrificial feast.那他們也會表現出賽道的天房,親吻黑石,聽到說教,對摩arafât ,毛皮撒旦用石頭在山谷中的米納,並締結香與一個偉大的祭祀盛宴。 In a year or two Mecca will be reached by the Hijaz Railway already completed as far as Medina (about eight hundred and fifty miles from Damascus).在一年或兩年的麥加,將達到由hijaz鐵路已經完成,據麥迪那(約850英里從大馬士革) 。 From Medina to Mecca the distance is two hundred and eighty miles, and from Mecca to Damascus about one thousand one hundred and ten miles.由Medina麥加朝聖的距離是280英里,從麥加到大馬士革約1110英里。 The railway passes through the old caravan route, Damascus, Mezarib, Maan, Medawara, Tebuk, Madain Saleh, El-Ula, Medina, and Mecca.鐵路穿過的舊商隊路線,大馬士革, mezarib , maan , medawara , tebuk , madain薩利赫,埃及ula ,麥迪,和麥加朝聖。 The early history of Mecca is shrouded in obscurity, although Mohammedan writers have preserved an abundance of legendary lore according to which the city dates back to Abraham who is said to have there worshipped the true God.早期歷史的麥加是籠罩在朦朧,雖然穆罕默德作家已保存了豐富的傳奇色彩的傳說,根據該城可追溯到亞伯拉罕的人,據說有崇拜的真神。 It is also stated that after the death of Abraham, the inhabitants of Mecca, owing to the evil influence of the heathen Amalekites, fell into idolatry and paganism, and the Kaaba itself became surrounded with their idols.它也表示,去世後,亞伯拉罕,居民的麥加,由於其惡劣影響的異教徒amalekites ,精神恍惚,偶像崇拜與paganism ,與天房本身成為包圍他們的偶像。 Hundreds of these idols were destroyed by Mohammed on his entrance into the city at the head of a Moslem army in the eighth year of the Hejira, or AD 629.數以百計的這些偶像被摧毀,由穆罕默德對他的進入這些城市在頭部的一個穆斯林軍隊在第八個年頭的hejira ,或專案629 。 During the century before Mohammed, we find the tribe of Quraish in undisputed possession of the city and the acknowledged guardians of the Kaaba.在本世紀之前,穆罕默德時,我們發現部落quraish在沒有爭議的藏市和公認的監護人的天房。 The leading events in Mecca at that period, such as the Abyssinian expedition against Yemen and the utter defeat of Arabia's army at the hand of the Meccans, have been already discussed in the article CHRISTIANITY IN ARABIA.領導活動在麥加,在此期間,如阿比西尼亞探險隊對也門和徹底打敗阿拉伯軍隊在手的meccans ,已討論過在文章中,基督教在阿拉伯。

Publication information Written by Gabriel Oussani.出版信息寫加布里埃爾oussani 。 Transcribed by WGKofron.轉錄由wgkofron 。 With thanks to Fr.與感謝神父。 John Hilkert and St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.約翰hilkert和聖瑪利亞教堂舉行,美國俄亥俄州阿克倫城天主教百科全書,體積十, 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. nihil obstat , 1911年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

See the bibliography appended to the articles ARABIA, MOHAMMED AND MOHAMMEDANISM; BURKHARDT, Travels in Arabia (London, 1830); BURTON, Personal narrative of a Pilgrimage to El Medina and Mecca (London, 1857); HURGRONJE, SNOUCK, Mecca, mit Bilder Atlas, II (The Hague, 1888); IDEM, Het Mekkanische Feest (Leyden, 1888).見參考書目附在文章,阿拉伯穆罕默德和mohammedanism ; burkhardt ,旅社,在阿拉伯(倫敦, 1830年) ;伯頓,個人敘事的朝聖前往EL麥迪那和麥加(倫敦, 1857年) ; hurgronje , snouck ,麥加,麻省理工學院bilder阿特拉斯,二(海牙, 1888年) ;同上, het mekkanische feest (萊登, 1888 ) 。


Also, see:此外,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 可蘭經,可蘭經
Pillars of Faith 支柱的信仰
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-h adiths從第一冊的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-h adiths從第二冊的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-h adiths從第三冊的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-h adiths從書展1 0個基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短祈禱(在taqseer ) -h adiths從書展2 0鋁布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 朝聖(朝覲) -h adiths從書展2 6鋁布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 爭取事業的阿拉(傑哈德) -h adiths圖書5 2鋁布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari 同一性,獨特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths圖書9 3鋁布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義。
Early Islamic History Outline 早在伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 天房,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派,什葉派
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥迪
Sahih, al-Bukhari sahih ,鋁-布哈里
Sufism 蘇非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 阿布巴克爾
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭馬亞王朝
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) 法蒂瑪王朝(什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀教派(什葉派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆


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