Melchites, Melkites melchites , melkites

General Information 一般資料

Melchites or Melkites (Syriac mlaka; Aramaic malik,"king") is a name given in the 5th century to the Christians of the patriarchates of Jerusalem, Alexandria, and Antioch who accepted the definition by the Council of Chalcedon (451) of the two natures of Christ, a position also accepted by the pope and the Byzantine emperor. melchites或melkites (敘利亞文mlaka ;阿拉姆語馬利克, "王" )是一個名稱,在公元5世紀,以基督徒的patriarchates耶路撒冷,亞歷山大,和安提人接受的定義,由理事會chalcedon ( 451 )的兩個天性基督的,而且這樣的地位,也接受教皇和拜占廷皇帝。 The name Melchites ("royalists," that is, followers of the emperor) was given to them by the Monophysites, who held that Christ has only one (divine) nature and who therefore rejected the position of the council (see Monophysitism).名稱melchites ( "保皇黨" ,也就是信徒的皇帝) ,是給予他們所monophysites ,他認為基督只有一個(神)的性質,因此他們拒絕了安理會的立場(見monophysitism ) 。

The Melchites adhered to the Eastern church after the schism with Rome in 1054, but in the following centuries some groups of Melchites shifted their allegiance back to Rome; they became known as the Melchite Catholic church, one of the Eastern Rite churches.該melchites堅持以東部教會後,分裂與羅馬1054年,但在以下幾百年某些群體的melchites轉移效忠回到羅馬,他們後來被稱為該melchite天主教教堂,其中東部成年禮教堂。 Rome recognized a Catholic Melchite patriarch in 1724.承認羅馬天主教melchite元老,在1724年。 There are about 270,000 Catholic Melchites in this patriarchal territory, which is centered in Damascus, Syria, and more than 200,000 outside it.有大約27萬天主教徒melchites在這個重男輕女的領土,這是圍繞在大馬士革,敘利亞,和超過20萬名以外。 Their priests are allowed to marry; services are conducted in Arabic or, with due authorization, in the vernacular of the country.他們的牧師可以結婚;服務進行阿拉伯語或,並適當授權,在白話文的國家。 The Melchites in the US number about 55,000.該melchites在美國的人數大約為55,000 。 They are under the jurisdiction of an exarchate province established in 1966 with its headquarters in Boston.他們管轄下的一個exarchate省, 1966年在香港成立,其總部設在波士頓。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件

Melchites melchites

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

(Melkites). ( melkites ) 。

ORIGIN AND NAME原產地及姓名

Melchites are the people of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt who remained faithful to the Council of Chalcedon (451) when the greater part turned Monophysite. melchites是人民的敘利亞,巴勒斯坦和埃及的人仍然忠實於會chalcedon ( 451 )時,大部份變成monophysite 。 The original meaning of the name therefore is an opposition to Monophysism.原來意義的名稱,因此是一個反對monophysism 。 The Nestorians had their communities in eastern Syria till the Emperor Zeno (474-491) closed their school at Edessa in 489, and drove them over the frontier into Persia.該nestorians了自己的社區,在東部敘利亞,直至皇帝芝諾( 474-491 )關閉其在校edessa在489 ,並迫使他們在邊疆到波斯。 The pople of western Syria, Palestine, and Egypt were either Melchites who accepted Chalcedon, or Monophysites (also called Jacobites in Syria and Palestine, Copts in Egypt) who rejected it, till the Monothelite heresy in the seventh century further complicated the situation.該pople西方的敘利亞,巴勒斯坦和埃及分別melchites接受chalcedon ,或monophysites (又稱jacobites在敘利亞和巴勒斯坦,科普特人,在埃及) ,他們拒絕了,直到monothelite異端在第七世紀的局勢進一步複雜化。 But Melchite remained the name for those who were faithful to the great Church, Catholic and Orthodox, till the Schism of Photius (867) and Cerularius (1054) again divided them.但melchite仍名字對於那些忠誠於偉大的教堂,天主教和東正教,直到裂的photius ( 867 ) ,並如拉留( 1054 )再次劃分。 From that time there have been two kinds of Melchites in these countries, the Catholic Melchites who kept the communion of Rome, and schismatical (Orthodox) Melchites who followed Constantinople and the great mass of eastern Christians into schism.自那時起已有2種melchites在這些國家中,天主教melchites窩藏共融的羅馬,並schismatical (東正教) melchites人隨後君士坦丁堡和大集體的東部基督徒到裂。 Although the name has been and still is occasionally used for both these groups, it is now commonly applied only to the Eastern-Rite Catholics.雖然名字一直並且仍然是偶而使用,為這兩個群體,這是現在常見的,只適用於東區-成年禮的天主教徒。 For the sake of clearness it is better to keep to this use; the name Orthodox is sufficient for the others, whereas among the many groups of Catholics, Latin and Eastern, of various rites, we need a special name for this group.為求澄清,這是為了更好地保持這種使用;名義正統,是足以讓其他人,而其中有很多團體的天主教徒,拉丁美洲和東歐,各種儀軌,我們需要一個特別的名字,為這一群體。 It would be, indeed, still more convenient if we could call all Byzantine-Rite Catholics "Melchite."它會,而事實上,還有更方便的,如果我們能夠呼籲所有拜占庭-成年禮的天主教徒" melchite " 。 But such a use of the word has never obtained.但是,這樣的使用這個詞從來沒有獲得。 One could not with any propriety call Ruthenians, the Eastern Catholics of southern Italy or Rumania, Melchites.一個不能與任何正當性呼籲ruthenians ,東部天主教徒的意大利南部或羅馬尼亞, melchites 。 One must therefore keep the name for those of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, all of whom speak Arabic.一,因此必須保持名義,為那些對敘利亞,巴勒斯坦和埃及,他們都講阿拉伯語。 We define a Melchite then as any Christian of these lands in communion with Rome, Constantinople, and the great Church of the Empire before the Photian schism, or as a Christian of the Byzantine Rite in communion with Rome since.我們定義一個melchite那麼任何基督教的這些土地,在與羅馬的共融,君士坦丁堡,偉大的教堂帝國之前photian裂,或作為一個基督教的拜占庭禮儀,在與羅馬的共融至今。 As the word implied opposition to the Monophysites originally, so it now marks the distinction between these people and all schismatics on the one hand, between them and Latins or Catholics of other rites (Maronites, Armenians, Syrians, etc.) on the other.作為一詞隱含反對以monophysites本來,所以現在商標之間的區別,這些人以及所有schismatics上,一方面,他們與拉丁人或天主教徒的其他儀軌(馬龍人,亞美尼亞人,敘利亞人,等等)的影響。 The name is easily explained philologically.這個名字是很容易解釋philologically 。 It is a Semitic (presumably Syriac) root with a Greek ending, meaning imperialist.這是一個反猶(假定敘利亞文)根與希臘結束,也就是帝國主義。 Melk is Syriac for king (Hebrew melek, Arab. malik). melk是敘利亞文為景(希伯來語melek ,阿拉伯。馬利克) 。 The word is used in all the Semitic languages for the Roman Emperor, like the Greek basileus.這個詞是用來在所有猶太人語文為羅馬皇帝,像希臘basileus 。 By adding the Greek ending -- ites we have the form melkites, equal to basilikos.加入希臘結束-信息技術帶動的,我們有表格m elkites,相當於b asilikos。 It should be noted that the third radical of the Semitic root is kaf: there is no guttural.應該指出的是,第三個激進的反猶根源是kaf :沒有guttural 。 Therefore the correct form of the word is Melkite, rather than the usual form Melchite.因此,正確的形式一詞是melkite ,而不是通常的形式melchite 。 The pure Syriac word is malkoyo (Arab. malakiyyu; vulgar, milkiyyu).純敘利亞文字是malkoyo ( arab. malakiyyu ;粗俗, milkiyyu ) 。

II.二。 HISTORY BEFORE THE SCHISM歷史前裂

The decrees of the Fourth General Council (Chalcedon, 451) were unpopular in Syria and still more in Egypt.該法令的第四次總理事會( chalcedon , 451 )是不得人心的,在敘利亞,還有更多的在埃及。 Monophysism began as an exaggeration of the teaching of St. Cyril of Alexandria (d.444), the Egyptian national hero, against Nestorius. monophysism開始作為一個誇張的教學聖西里爾亞歷山大( d.444 ) ,埃及的民族英雄,對nestorius 。 In the Council of Chalcedon the Egyptians and their friends in Syria saw a betrayal of Cyril, a concession to Nestorianism.在安理會的chalcedon埃及人和朋友們在敘利亞看到一個背叛的西里爾,特許權,以景教。 Still more did national, anti-imperial feeling cause opposition to it.更沒有國家,反帝國主義的感覺事業反對。 The Emperor Marcian (450-457) made the Faith of Chalcedon the law of the empire.皇帝馬爾奇安( 450-457 )作出真誠的chalcedon法律的帝國。 Laws passed on 27 February and again on 13 March, 452, enforced the decrees of the council and threatened heavy penalties against dissenters.通過的法律,於2月27日再次於3月13日, 452 ,執行法令的理事會,並威脅重罰對付異議人士。 From that time Dyophysism was the religion of the court, identified with loyalty to the emperor.自那時起dyophysism是宗教法庭,鑑定為皇國盡忠。 In spite of the commpromising concessions of later emperors, the Faith of Chalcedon was always looked upon as the religion of the state, demanded and enforced on all subjects of Caesar.儘管對commpromising讓步,後來皇帝,信仰chalcedon總是期待後,作為國家的宗教,要求和實施所有科目的凱撒。 So the long-smouldering disloyalty of these two provinces broke out in the form of rebellion against Chalcedon.所以長期smouldering不忠,這兩個省份爆發出的形式反抗chalcedon 。 For centuries (till the Arab conquest) Monophysism was the symbol of national Egyptian and Syrian patriotism.幾個世紀以來(至阿拉伯征服) monophysism是象徵國家埃及和敘利亞的愛國精神。 The root of the matter was always political.歸根結柢的問題,一直是政治。 The people of Egypt and Syria, keeping their own languages and their consciousness of being separate races, had never been really amalgamated with the Empire, originally Latin, now fast becoming Greek.人民的埃及和敘利亞,讓他們自己的語言和他們的意識被單獨賽事,但從未得到真正的合併與帝國,原本是拉丁語,現在已迅速成為希臘語。 They had no chance of political independence, their hatred of Rome found a vent in this theological question.他們沒有機會的政治獨立,他們的仇恨羅馬找到了發洩在這神學問題。 The cry of the faith of Cyril, "one nature in Christ", no betrayal of Ephesus, meant really no submissoin to the foreign tyrant on the Bosphorus.該哭的信念西里爾, "一個性質,在基督裡" ,沒有背叛的伸出手,就意味著真的沒有submissoin向外國暴君對博斯普魯斯。 So the great majority of the population in these lands turned Monophysite, rose in continual rebellion against the creed of the Empire, committed savage atrocities against the Chalcedonian bishops and officials, and in return were fiercely persecuted.因此,對大多數人而言,在這些土地轉monophysite ,玫瑰,在不斷的叛亂對教義的帝國,犯下的野蠻暴行,對chalcedonian主教和官員,並在返回被猛烈的迫害。

The beginning of these troubles in Egypt was the deposition of the Monophysite Patriarch Dioscur, and the election by the government party of Proterius as his successor, immediately after the council.開始時,這些麻煩,在埃及是沉積的monophysite牧dioscur ,以及選舉,由政府黨的proterius作為他的繼任者後,立即會。 The people, especially the lower classes and the great crowd of Egyptian monks, refused to acknowledge Proterius, and began to make tumults and riots that 2000 soldiers sent from Constantinople could hardly put down.市民,特別是中下階級和偉大的人群埃及僧侶,拒不承認proterius ,並開始使tumults和騷亂, 2000年派出的士兵從君士坦丁堡難以放下。 When Dioscur died in 454 a certain Timothy, called the Cat or Weasel (ailouros), was ordained by the Monophysites as his successor.當dioscur死亡,在454名有一定提摩太後,被稱為貓或黃鼠狼( ailouros ) ,是受戒由monophysites作為他的繼任者。 In 457 Proterius was murdered; Timothy drove out the Chalcedonian clergy and so began the organized Coptic (Monophysite) Church of Egypt.在457 proterius被謀殺;蒂莫西趕走了chalcedonian神職人員等,開始了有組織的科普特( monophysite )教會的埃及。 In Syria and Palestine there was the same opposition to the council and the government.在敘利亞和巴勒斯坦有同樣反對向立法會及政府。 The people and monks drove out the Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch, Martyrius, and set up one Peter the Dyer (gnapheus, fullo), a Monophysite as his successor.人民群眾和僧侶驅逐了東正教宗主教的安提martyrius ,並成立了一個彼得大帝代爾( gnapheus , fullo ) , monophysite作為他的繼任者。 Juvenal of Jerusalem, once a friend of Dioscur, gave up his heresy at Chalcedon. juvenal耶路撒冷,一旦有一位朋友dioscur ,放棄了自己的邪說,在chalcedon 。 When he came back to his new patriarchate he found the whole country in rebellion against him.當他回來向他的新牧他發現整個國家在反抗他。 He too was driven out and a Monophysite monk Theodosius was set up in his place.他也被趕出,並monophysite和尚theodosius成立了自己的位置。 So began the Monophysite national churches of these provinces.所以開始monophysite國家教會的這些省份。 Their opposition to the court and rebellion lasted two centuries, till the Arab conquest (Syria, 637; Egypt, 641).他們反對法院和叛亂持續了兩百年,直到阿拉伯征服(敘利亞, 637 ;埃及, 641頁) 。 During this time the government, realizing the danger of the disaffection of the frontier provinces, alternated fierce persecution of the heretics with vain attempts to conciliate them by compromises (Zeno's Henotikon in 482, the Acacian Schism, 484-519, etc.) It should be realized that Egypt was much more consistently Monophysite than Syria or Palestine.在這段時間裡政府服務,為實現危險性,就是不滿的邊疆省份,輪崗激烈迫害的異端,與妄圖調解,他們的妥協(芝諾的henotikon在482 , acacian裂, 484-519等) ,它應實現說,埃及是更為一貫monophysite比敘利亞或巴勒斯坦人。 Egypt was much closer knit as one land than the other provinces, and so stood more uniformly on the side of the national party.埃及是密切得多編織作為一個土地比其他省份,因此,為更均勻地對一邊的國家黨。 (For all this see MONOPHYSISM.) (所有這一切,見monophysism ) 。

Meanwhile against the nationalist party stood the minority on the side of the government and the council.同時對民族主義黨經受住了少數人對方的政府和議會。 These are the Melchites.這些都是melchites 。 Why they were so-called is obvious: they were the loyal Imperialists, the emperor's party.他們為何會被那些所謂是很明顯的:它們分別是忠於帝國皇帝的黨。 The name occurs first in a pure Greek form as basilikos.名字第一次出現在一個純粹的希臘形式basilikos 。 Evagrius says of Timothy Sakophakiolos (The Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria set up by the government when Timothy the Cat was driven out in 460) that some called him the Imperialist (on oi men ekaloun basilikon) (HE, II,11).伐格流斯說的蒂莫西sakophakiolos (東正教宗主教亞歷山德里亞由政府成立時,蒂莫西貓被趕出460 )表示,有些稱他為帝國主義(愛男人ekaloun basilikon ) (他的第一,二, 11 ) 。 These Melchites were naturally for the most part the government officials, in Egypt almost entirely so, while in Syria and Palestine a certain part of the native population was Melchite too.這些melchites自然對於大多數政府官員表示,在埃及幾乎完全如此,而在敘利亞和巴勒斯坦的某部分本土人口melchite太大。 Small in numbers, they were until the Arab conquest strong through the support of the government and the army.小號碼,他們直到阿拉伯征服強烈,通過政府的支持和軍隊。 The contrast between Monophysites and Melchites (Nationalists and Imperialists) was expressed in their language.對比monophysites和melchites (民族主義者和帝國主義)表示,在他們的語言。 The Monophysites spoke the national language of the country (Coptic in Egypt, Syriac in Syria and Palestine), Melchites for the most part were foreigners sent out from Constantinople who spoke Greek.該monophysites以本國語言的國家(科普特在埃及,敘利亞文,在敘利亞和巴勒斯坦) , melchites對於大多數人是外國人派出由君士坦丁堡,他們以希臘文。 For a long time the history of these countries is that of a continual feud between Melchites and Monophysites; sometimes the government is strong, the heretics are persecuted, the patriarchate is occupied by a Melchite; then again the people get the upper hand, drive out the Melchite bishops, set up Monophysites in their place and murder the Greeks.在相當長的時間,歷史上這些國家是一個不斷世仇之間melchites和monophysites ;有時候政府是強勢,以異端迫害,牧,是被佔領的一個melchite ;然後再在民之才佔了上風,趕該melchite主教,成立monophysites在自己的位置和謀殺希臘人。 By the time of the Arab conquest the two Churches exist as rivals with rival lines of bishops.經過一段時期的阿拉伯征服了兩座教堂存在視為競爭對手,與對手線的主教。 But the Monophysites are much the larger party, especially in Egypt, and form the national religion of the country.但monophysites得多較大的黨,特別是在埃及,並形成了民族宗教的國家。 The difference by new expresses itself to a great extent in liturgical language.差額由新表示,自己在很大程度上禮儀語言。 Both parties used the same liturgies (St. Mark in Egypt, St. James in Syria and Palestine), but while the Monophysites made a point of using the national language in church (Coptic and Syriac) the Melchites generally used Greek.雙方都使用了同樣的liturgies (聖馬克在埃及,聖雅各福群會在敘利亞和巴勒斯坦) ,但是,雖然monophysites作出了一點使用本國語言,在教堂(科普特文和敘利亞文) melchites普遍採用希臘文。 It seems, however, that this was less the case than has been thought; the Melchites, too, used the vulgar tongue to a considerable extent (Charon, Le Rite byzantin, 26-29).但他們似乎都認為這是少的情況比一直思考; melchites ,也用粗俗的舌頭到相當程度(上述特性,樂成年禮了拜占庭, 26-29 ) 。

When the Arabs came in the seventh century, the Monophysites, true to their anti-imperial policy, rather helped than hindered the invaders.當來到阿拉伯人在公元7世紀, monophysites ,真實,以自己的反帝國主義政策,而不是幫比阻礙了侵略者。 But they gained little by their treason; both churches received the usual terms granted to Christians; they became two sects of Rayas under the Moslem Khalifa, both were equally persecuted during the repeated outbursts of Moslem fanaticism, of which the reign of Al-Hakim in Egypt (996-1021) is the best known instance.但他們獲益甚微,他們叛逆,既收到了教會的一般職權給予基督徒,他們成了兩個教派的rayas根據回教法,均同樣迫害,在反复爆發的穆斯林狂熱,而在位的鋁-哈基姆在埃及( 996-1021 ) ,是最為人知的,例如。 In the tenth century part of Syria was conquered back by the empire (Antioch reconquered in 968-969, lost again to the Seljuk Turks in 1078-1081).在10世紀的一部分,敘利亞被征服回帝國(安提reconquered在968-969 ,失去了再次向seljuk土耳其人在1078年至1081年) 。 This caused for a time a revival of the Melchites and an increase of enthusiasm for Constantinople and everything Greek among them.這造成了今後一個時期復甦的melchites建設和提高的積極性,為君士坦丁堡,一切希臘語當中。 Under the Moslems the characteristic notes of both churches became, if possible, stronger.根據穆斯林的特徵註釋都成了教會,如果可能的話,更有力。 The Monophysites (Copts and Jacobites) sank into isolated local sects.該monophysites (科普特和jacobites )陷入孤立當地教派。 On the other hand, the Melchite minorities clung all the more to their union with the great church that reigned free and dominant in the empire.在另一方面, melchite少數醉心時候都更以他們的聯盟與偉大的教會統治的自由和優勢,在帝國。 This expressed itself chiefly in loyalty to Constantinople.這體現了本身主要是在效忠君士坦丁堡。 Rome and the West were far off; the immediate object of their devotion was the emperor's court and the emperor's patriarch.羅馬和西方為期不遠;眼前的對象,他們的奉獻是皇帝的法院和皇帝的元老。 The Melchite patriarchs under Moslem rule became insignificant people, while the power of the Patriarach of Constantinople grew steadily.該melchite patriarchs根據穆斯林的統治,成為無足輕重的人,而權力的patriarach的君士坦丁堡穩步增長。 So, looking always to the capital for guidance, they gradually accepted the position of being his dependents, almost suffragans.因此,尋找,始終以資本為指導,他們漸漸接受的立場,他的家屬,幾乎suffragans 。 When the Bishop of Constantinople assumed the title of "Ecumenical Patriarch" it was not his Melchite brothers who protested.當主教,君士坦丁堡假定評為"普世牧首, "這不是他的melchite兄弟抗議。 This attitude explains their share in his schism.這種態度,說明了他們的份額在他的分裂。 The quarrels between Photius and Pope Nicholas I, between Michael Cerularius and Leo IX were not their affair; they hardly understood what was happening.爭吵之間photius和教皇尼古拉斯,我與邁克爾如拉留和Leo九大不是他們自己的事,他們很難理解正在發生什麼。 But naturally, almost inevitably, when the schism broke out, in spite of some protests [Peter III of Antioch (1053-1076?) protested vehemently against Cerularius's schism; see Fortescue, Orthodox Eastern Church, 189-192], the Melchites followed their leader, and when orders came from Constantinople to strike the pope's name from their diptychs they quietly obeyed.但自然,幾乎不可避免的是,當裂爆發後,儘管取得了一些抗議[彼得三世安提( 1053年至1076年? )抗議,強烈反對,如拉留的分裂;見Fortescue的,東正教, 189-192 ] , melchites其次是其領導人,而當訂單來自君士坦丁堡罷工教宗的名字從他們的diptychs他們默默地服從了。

III.三。 FROM THE SCHISM TO THE BEGINNING OF THE UNION從分裂到年初聯盟

So all the Melchites in Syria, Palestine and Egypt broke with Rome and went into schism at the command of Constantinople.所以所有melchites在敘利亞,巴勒斯坦和埃及,打破羅馬,並進入裂,在指揮的君士坦丁堡。 Here, too, they justified their name of Imperialist.在這方面,也足以支持其名下的帝國主義。 From this time to almost our own day there is little to chronicle of their history.從這個時候,幾乎我們自己的一天很少有跡象紀事的歷史時期。 They existed as a "nation" (millet) under the Khalifa; when the Turks took Constantinople (1453) they made the patriarch of that city head of this "nation" (Rum millet, ie, the Orthodox Church) for civil affairs.他們的存在,作為一個"國家" (小米)根據哈利法;當土耳其人了君士坦丁堡( 1453 ) ,他們取得了牧該城頭的這個"國家" (朗姆酒穀子,即東正教)為民政部。 Other bishops, or even patriarchs, could only approach the government through him.其他主教,甚至長者,可唯一途徑,政府通過他的。 This further increased his authority and influence over all the Orthodox in the Turkish Empire.這進一步增強了他的權力和影響力,所有的東正教,在土耳其帝國。 During the dark ages that follow, the Ecumenical Patriarch continually strove (and generally managed) to assert ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the Melchites (Ort. Eastern Ch., 240, 285-289, 310, etc.).在黑暗時代,隨之而來的,普世牧首不斷伴隨著(和一般管理) ,以斷言教會管轄權的外國melchites ( ort.東區章, 240 , 285-289 , 310 ,等等) 。 Meanwhile the three patriarchs (of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem), finding little to do among their diminished flocks, for long periods came to live at Constantinople, idle ornaments of the Phanar.另外三個patriarchs (亞歷山大,安提及耶路撒冷) ,找到與己關係不大,他們之間縮水成群,長時期來住在君士坦丁堡,閒置首飾的phanar 。 The lists of these patriarchs will be found in Le Quien (loc. cit. Below).名單,這些patriarchs會被發現,在樂quien ( loc.引文下文) 。 Gradually all the people of Egypt, Syria, and Palestine since the Arab conquest forgot their original languages and spoke only Arabic, as they do still.逐步全體人民,埃及,敘利亞和巴勒斯坦,因為阿拉伯征服忘了自己原來的語言,並作了發言,只有阿拉伯語,因為它們仍有不。 This further affected their liturgies.這進一步影響了他們的liturgies 。 Little by little Arabic began to be used in church.一點點阿拉伯語開始被用作教堂。 Since the seventeenth century at the latest, the native Orthodox of these countries use Arabic for all services, though the great number of Greeks among them keep their own language.自從十七世紀,在最新的,本土正統這些國家使用阿拉伯語的所有服務,雖然有大量的希臘人當中保持自己的語言。

But already a much more important change in the liturgy of the Melchites had taken place.但已經是一個更為重要的變化,在禮儀中的melchites發生過。 We have seen that the most characteristic note of these communities was their dependence on Constantinople.我們已經看到了最有特色注意到,這些社區是他們依賴於君士坦丁堡。 That was the difference between them and their old rivals the Monophysites, long after the quarrel about the nature of Christ had practically been forgotten.這是區別他們和他們的老對手了monophysites ,會後不久吵架約的性質,基督已經幾乎被人遺忘。 The Monophysites, isolated from the rest of Christendom, kept the old rites of Alexandria and Antioch-Jerusalem pure.該monophysites ,孤立於其他基督教,保持舊禮俗的亞歷山大和安提-耶路撒冷的純潔。 They still use these rites in the old languages (Coptic and Syriac).他們還利用這些禮儀在舊語文(科普特文和敘利亞文) 。 The Melchites on the other hand submitted to Byzantine influence in their liturgies.該melchites在另一方面提交給拜占庭的影響,在其liturgies 。 The Byzantine litanies (Synaptai), the service of the Ptoskomide and other elements were introduced into the Greek Alexandrine Rite before the twelfth or thirteenth centuries; so also in Syria and Palestine the Melchites admitted a number of Byzantine elements into their services (Charon, op. Cit., 9-25).拜占庭litanies ( synaptai )表示,有關服務的ptoskomide及其他犯罪分子被引入到希臘亞歷山大成年禮之前第十二或十三世紀,所以也是在敘利亞和巴勒斯坦melchites承認若干拜占庭內容納入服務(上述特性,作品引文中, 9月25日) 。 Then in the thirteenth century came the final change.然後,在13世紀來到最後的改變。 The Melchites gave up their old rites altogether and adopted that of Constantinople.該melchites放棄舊禮俗,並先後通過了君士坦丁堡。 Theodore IV (Balsamon) of Antioch (1185-1214?) marks the date of this change.西奧多四( balsamon )安提( 1185年至1214年? )商標的日期這種轉變。 The crusaders held Antioch in his name, so he retired to Constantinople and lived there under the shadow of the Ecumenical Patriarch.十字軍舉行安提在他的名字,所以他已退休,以君士坦丁堡和住在這裡的陰影下,普世牧首。 While he was there he adopted the Byzantine Rite.雖然他在那裡,他通過了拜占庭成年禮。 In 1203, Mark II of Alexandria (1195-c.1210) wrote to Theodore asking various questions about the liturgy.在1203 ,馬克二亞歷山大( 1195 - c.1210 )致函西奧多詢問各種問題,有關禮儀。 Theodore in his answer insists onn; both churches received the usual terms granted to Christians; they became two sects of Rayas under the Moslem Khalifa, both were equally persecuted during the repeated outbursts of Moslem fanaticism, of which the reign of Al-Hakim in Egypt (996-1021) is the best known instance.西奧多在他的答复,堅持onn ;都收到了教會的一般職權給予基督徒,他們成了兩個教派的rayas根據回教法,均同樣迫害,在反复爆發的穆斯林狂熱,而在位的鋁-哈基姆在埃及( 996-1021 ) ,是最為人知的,例如。 In the tenth century part of Syria was conquered back by the empire (Antioch reconquered in 968-969, lost again to the Seljuk Turks in 1078-1081).在10世紀的一部分,敘利亞被征服回帝國(安提reconquered在968-969 ,失去了再次向seljuk土耳其人在1078年至1081年) 。 This caused for a time a revival of the Melchites and an increase of enthusiasm for Constantinople and everything Greek among them.這造成了今後一個時期復甦的melchites建設和提高的積極性,為君士坦丁堡,一切希臘語當中。 Under the Moslems the characteristic notes of both churches became, if possible, stronger.根據穆斯林的特徵註釋都成了教會,如果可能的話,更有力。 The Monophysites (Copts and Jacobites) sank into isolated local sects.該monophysites (科普特和jacobites )陷入孤立當地教派。 On the other hand, the Melchite minorities clung all the more to their union with the great church that reigned free and dominant in the empire.在另一方面, melchite少數醉心時候都更以他們的聯盟與偉大的教會統治的自由和優勢,在帝國。 This expressed itself chiefly in loyalty to Constantinople Rome and the West were far off; the immediate object of their devotion was the emperor's court an the use of Constantinople as the only right one, for all the Orthodox, and Mark undertook to adopt it (PG, CXXXVIII, 935 sq.) When Thheodosius IV of Antioch (1295-1276) was able to set up his throne again in his own city he imposed the Byzantine Rite on all his clergy.這體現了本身主要是在效忠君士坦丁堡羅馬和西方為期不遠;眼前的對象,他們的奉獻是皇帝的法庭使用君士坦丁堡作為唯一正確的,為所有正統,並標誌著承諾,要採取它公司( PG , cxxxviii , 935平方)當thheodosius四安提( 1295至1276年) ,可以設置他的寶座,又在他自己的城市,他無法拜占庭成年禮對他的所有神職人員。 At Jerusalem the old liturgy disappeared at about the same time.在耶路撒冷舊禮儀中消失,在大約同一時間。 (Charon, op. Cit., 11-12, 21, 23). (上述特性,前引書, 11-12 , 21 , 23 ) 。

We have then for the liturgies of the Melchites these periods: first the old national rites in Greek, but also in the languages of the country, especially in Syria and Palestine, gradually Byzantinized till the thirteenth century.我們有那麼為liturgies的melchites這些時期:第一舊的民族禮儀,在希臘語,而且也表現在語言的國家,尤其是在敘利亞和巴勒斯坦,逐步byzantinized到13世紀。 Then the Byzantine Rite alone in Greek in Egypt, in Greek and Syriac in Syria and Palestine, with gradually increasing use of Arabic to the sixteenth or seventeenth century.然後拜占庭成年禮,僅在希臘,埃及,希臘文和敘利亞文,在敘利亞和巴勒斯坦,與逐漸越來越多地使用阿拉伯語向第十六次或第十七世紀。 Lastly the same rite in Arabic only by the natives, in Greek by the foreign (Greek) patriarchs and bishops.最後,同時成年禮在阿拉伯語只有當地人,在希臘語由外國(希臘)大主教和主教。

The last development we notice is the steady increase of this foreign (Greek) element in all the higher places of the clergy.最近的發展,我們可以看到,是穩定增長,這外國(希臘)組成部分,在所有高等學位的神職人員。 As the Phanar at Constantinople grew more and more powerful over the Melchites, so did it more and more, inruthless defiance of the feeling of the people, send them Greek patriarchs, metropolitans, and archmandrites from its own body.作為phanar在君士坦丁堡的增長和更強大的多melchites勢,所以它越來越多, inruthless無視人民的感情,把他們希臘語長者,大都市,並archmandrites從自己的身體。 For centuries the lower married clergy and simple monks have been natives, speaking Arabic and using Arabic in the liturgy, while all the prelates have been Greeks, who often do not even know the language of the country.數百年來低下已婚神職人員和簡單的僧人已土人,講阿拉伯語,並用阿拉伯語在禮儀中,而所有的主教已希臘人,他們往往不知道該國的語言。 At last, in our own time, the native Orthodox have rebelled against this state of things.最後,在我們自己的時間,本土正統有反抗這個國家的事情。 At Antioch they have now succeeded in the recognition of their native Patriarch, Gregory IV (Hadad) after a schism with Constantinople.在安提約,目前已成功地在承認他們的本土元老,格雷戈里四(哈達德)後,裂與君士坦丁堡。 The troubles caused by the same movement at Jerusalem are still fresh in everyone's mind.排除故障所造成的,同時運動在耶路撒冷猶在耳,每個人的心。 It is certain that as soon as the present Greek patriarchs of Jerusalem (Damianos V) and Alexandria (Photios) die, there will be a determined effort to appoint natives as their successors.但可以肯定的是,一旦目前的希臘語patriarchs耶路撒冷( damianos V )和亞歷山大( photios )死了,有一個堅定的努力,委任當地人作為其接班人。 But these quarrels affect the modern Orthodox of these lands who do not come within the limit of this article inasmuch as they are no longer Melchites.但這些謾罵的影響,現代的正統這些土地的人不屬於極限的這篇文章,因為它們已不再melchites 。

IV.四。 EASTERN-RITE CATHOLICS東區-成年禮天主教徒

We have said that in modern times since the foundation of Byzantine Catholic churches in Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, only these Uniates should be called Melchites.我們已經說過,在近代以來,基金會的拜占庭天主教教會在敘利亞,巴勒斯坦和埃及,只有這些uniates應稱為melchites 。 Why the old name is now reserved for them it is impossible to say.為什麼原來的名字,現在為他們保留的,這是我們無法預知。 It is, however, a fact that it is so.但它是一個事實,它是如此。 One still occasionally in a western book finds all Christians of the Byzantine Rite in these countries called Melchites, with a further distinction between Catholic and Orthodox Melchites; but the present writer's experience is that this is never the case among themselves.一仍偶爾在一個西方的圖書認定所有基督徒的拜占庭成年禮,在這些國家所謂melchites ,以進一步區分天主教和東正教melchites ;但目前筆者的經驗是,這是從來沒有的情況在它們之間。 The man in union with the great Eastern Church in those parts never now calls himself or allows himself to be called a Melchite.該名男子在聯盟範圍內,大東方教會在這些零件從來沒有現在自稱或允許自己被稱為melchite 。 He is simply "Orthodox" in Greek or any Western language, Rumi in Arabic.他是一種"正統" ,在希臘語或任何西方語言,魯米在阿拉伯語。 Everyone there understands by Melchite a Uniate.人人都有理解melchite一烏克蘭東方禮。 It is true that even for them the word is not very commonly used.這是事實,即使他們的字不是很常用。 They are more likely to speak of themselves as rumi kathuliki or in French Grecs catholiques; but the name Melchite, if used at all, always means to Eastern people these Catholics.他們更可能說自己是魯米kathuliki或法語grecs天主教,但名稱melchite ,如果引用,總是意味著東歐人,這些天主教徒。 It is convenient for us too to have a definite name for them less entirely wrong than "Greek Catholic" for they are Greeks in no sense at all.這是方便,我們也有一個明確的名義為他們較少完全錯誤比"希臘天主教" ,因為他們是希臘人在毫無意義可言。 A question that has often been raised is whether there is any continuity of these Byzantine Catholics since before the great schism, whether there are any communities that have never lost communion with Rome.一個問題經常被提出的是,有沒有延續性,這些拜占庭天主教徒,因為以前大裂,有沒有社區從來沒有失去與羅馬的共融。 There are such communities certainly in the south of Italy, Sicily, and Corsica.有這樣的社區,但肯定會在意大利南部,西西里島和科西嘉島。 In the case of the Melchite lands there are none.在案件的melchite地有首屈一指的。 It is true that there have been approaches to reunion continually since the eleventh century, individual bishops have made their submission at various times, the short-lived unions of Lyons (1274) and Florence (1439) included the Orthodox of these countries too.這是事實有辦法團聚不斷自11世紀,個別主教已提交的在不同時期,短命工會萊昂斯( 1274 )和佛羅倫薩( 1428 ) ,包括東正教在這些國家出現。 But there is no continuous line; when the union of Florence was broken all the Byzantine Christians in the East fell away.但沒有連續線;當聯盟的佛羅倫斯是打破了所有拜占庭基督徒,在東方下跌消失。 The present Melchite Church dates from the eighteenth century.目前melchite教會追溯到十八世紀。

Already in the seventeenth century tentative efforts at reunion were made by some of the Orthodox bishops of Syria.已經在17世紀暫定努力在留尼汪作了一些東正教主教的敘利亞。 A certain Euthymius, Metropolitan of Tyre and Sidon, then the Antiochene Patriarchs Athanasius IV (1700-1728) and the famous Cyril of Berrhoea (d. 1724, the rival of Cyril Lukaris of Constantinople, who for a time was rival Patriarch of Antioch) approached the Holy See and hoped to receive the pallium.某euthymius ,大都市的提爾和西頓,然後安提阿學派patriarchs athanasius四( 1700年至1728年)和著名的西里爾的berrhoea (四1724年,對手西里爾lukaris的君士坦丁堡,人,一時間被對手牧安提)走近羅馬教廷,並希望得到羊毛披肩。 But the professions of faith which they submitted were considered insuffiecient at Rome.但專業的信仰,他們提交了被認為是insuffiecient在羅馬。 The latinizing tendency of Syria was so well known that in 1722 a synod was held at Constantinople which drew up and sent to the Antiochene bishops a warning letter with a list of Latin heresies (in Assemani, "Bibl. Orient.", III, 639).該latinizing趨勢敘利亞是如此眾所周知,在1722年1主教舉行了君士坦丁堡其中,制定和發送到安提阿學派主教警告信,一份清單拉丁語異端邪說( assemani , " bibl 。東方" ,三, 639 ) 。 However, in 1724 Seraphim Tanas, who had studied at the Roman Propaganda, was elected Patriarch of Antioch by the latinizing party.然而,在1724塞拉芬tanas ,曾就讀於羅馬宣傳,被選為元老安提由latinizing黨。 He at once made his submission to Rome and sent a Catholic profession of faith.他立刻作出了他提交給羅馬,並派出一名天主教界的信仰。 He took the name Cyril (Cyril VI, 1274-1759); with him begins the line of Melchite patriarchs in the new sense (Uniates).他的名字西里爾(西里爾六, 1274年至1759年) ,與他開始線melchite patriarchs在新的意義上( uniates ) 。 In 1728 the schismatics elected Sylvester, a Greek monk from Athos.在1728年該schismatics西爾維斯特選出一名希臘僧侶從阿托斯。 He was recognized by the Phanar and the other Orthodox churches; through him the Orthodox line continues.他被公認是由phanar和其他東正教教堂;通過他的正統路線繼續進行。 Cyril VI suffered considerable persecution from the Orthodox, and for a time had to flee to the Lebanon.西里爾六,遭受相當大的迫害,從正統的,和今後一個時期不得不逃到了黎巴嫩。 He received the pallium from Benedict XIV in 1744.他收到的羊毛披肩,從本篤十四,在1744年。 In 1760, wearied by the continual struggle against the Orthodox majority, he resigned his office.在1760年,疲乏的,由不斷的鬥爭東正教多數,他辭去了他的辦公室。 Ignatius Jauhar was appointed to succeed him, but the appointment was rejected at Rome and Clement XIII appointed Maximus Hakim, Metropolitan of Baalbek, as patriarch (Maximus II, 1760-1761).伊格jauhar被任命接替他的意思,但任命被否決,在羅馬和克萊門特第十三任命鮃哈基姆,大都市的巴勒貝克,作為元老(鮃二, 1760年至1761年) 。 Athanasius Dahan of Beruit succeeded by regular election and confirmation after Maximus's death and became Theodosius VI (1761-1788). athanasius達昂的beruit接替定期選舉,並確認後鮃的死亡,並成為theodosius六( 1761年至1788年) 。 But in 1764 Ignatius Jauhar succeeded in being re-elected patriarch.但在1764年伊格jauhar成功地再次當選主教。 The pope excommunicated him, and persuaded the Turkish authorities to drive him out.教宗驅逐他,並說服土耳其當局,以推動他扔了出去。 In 1773 Clement XIV united the few scattered Melchites of Alexandria and Jerusalem to the jurisdiction of the Melchite patriarch of Antioch.在1773年第十四屆克萊門特美國少數零星melchites亞歷山大和耶路撒冷,向管轄的melchite牧安提。 When Theodosius VI died, Ignatius Jauhar was again elected, this time lawfully, and took thename Athanasius V (1788-1794).當theodosius六死了,伊格jauhar又當選,這一次合法的,而且採取thename athanasius五( 1788年至1794年) 。 Then followed Cyril VII (Siage, 1794-1796), Agapius III (Matar, formerly Metropolitan of Tyre and Sidon, patriarch 1796-1812).隨後西里爾七( siage , 1794年至1796年) , agapius三( matar ,前身是大都市的提爾和西頓,牧1796年至1812年) 。 During this time there was a movement of Josephinism and Jansenism in the sense of the synod of Pistoia (1786) among the Melchites, led by Germanus Adam, Metropolitan of Baalbek.在這段時間內有一個流動的josephinism和jansenism在某種意義上主教的皮斯托亞( 1786年)之間melchites率領germanus亞當,大都市的巴勒貝克。 This movement for a time invaded nearly all the Melchite Church.這一運動,一時間入侵幾乎所有melchite教堂。 In 1806 they held a synod at Qarqafe which approved many of the Pistoian decrees. 1806年,他們舉行了主教在qarqafe核准,其中很多的pistoian政令暢通。 The acts of the synod were published without authority from Rome in Arabic in 1810; in 1835 they were censured at Rome.行為主教會議發表了未經授權,由羅馬阿拉伯語, 1810年,在1835年他們被責難於羅馬。 Pius VII had already condemned a catechism and other works written by Germanus of Baalbek.比約七,已譴責理講授和其他著作由germanus的巴勒貝克。 Among his errors was the Orthodox theory that consecration is not effected by the words of institution in the liturgy.他的錯誤是正統理論認為consecration是不影響的話,機構在禮儀中。 Eventually the patriarch (Agapius) and the other Melchite bishops were persuaded to renounce these ideas.最終牧( agapius )和其他melchite主教被說服放棄這些想法。 In 1812 another synod established a seminary at Ain-Traz for the Melchite "nation."在1812年另一項主教會議建立了一個修道院,在艾因- traz為melchite "民族" 。 The next patriarchs were Ignatius IV (Sarruf, Feb.-Nov., 1812, murdered), Athanasius VI (Matar, 1813), Macarius IV (Tawil, 1813-1815), Ignatius V (Qattan, 1816-1833).未來patriarchs被伊格四(薩魯夫, 2至11月, 1812 ,殺害) , athanasius六( matar , 1813 ) ,米加利阿斯四(二年後才知道, 1813年至1815年) ,伊格五( qattan , 1816年至1833年) 。 He was followed by the famous Maximus III (Mazlum, 1833-1855).在他之後是由著名鮃三( mazlum , 1833年至1855年) 。 His former name was michael.他的原名叫邁克爾。 He had been infected with the ideas of Germanus of Baalbek, and had been elected Metropolitan of Aleppo, but his election had not been confirmed at Rome.他已被感染的思想germanus的巴勒貝克,並已選出的大城市阿勒頗,但他的當選並沒有被證實,在羅馬。 Then he renounced these ideas and became titular Metropolitan of Myra, and procurator of his patriarch at Rome.然後他放棄了這些想法,並成為名義上的大都市myra ,檢察他的主教在羅馬。 During this time he founded the Melchite church at Marseilles (St. Nicholas), and took steps at the courts of Vienna and Paris to protect the Melchites from their Orthodox rivals.在此期間,先後創辦melchite教會在馬賽(聖尼古拉斯) ,並採取措施,在法院的維也納和巴黎,以保護melchites從他們的正統的競爭對手。

Hitherto the Turkish government had not recognized the Uniates as a separate millet; so all their communications with the State, the berat given to their bishops and so on, had to be made through the Orthodox.迄今,土耳其政府沒有承認uniates作為一個單獨的小米,所以其所有通訊與國家,培拉特給他們的主教等等,都必須經由正統。 They were still officially, in the eyes of the law, members of the rum millet, that is of the Orthodox community under the Patriarch of Constantinople.他們仍然是正式,在法律面前,大家的朗姆酒穀子,這是對正統社會下的主教,君士坦丁堡。 This naturally gave the Orthodox endless opportunities of annoying them, which were not lost.這當然引起了正統的無窮機會的煩人,不被丟失。 In 1831 Mazlum went back to Syria, in 1833 after the death of Ignatius V he was elected patriarch, and was confirmed at Rome fter many dificulties in 1836. 1831年mazlum回到敘利亞,在1833年去世後,伊格v他被選為主教,並證實了在羅馬fter許多困難,在1836年。 His reign was full of disputes.他的統治是充滿爭議。 In 1835 he leld a national synod at Ain-Traz, which laid down twenty-five canons for the regulation of the affairs of the Melchite Church; the synod was approved at Rome and is published in the Collectio Lacensis (II, 579-592). 1835年,他leld全國主教會議在艾因- traz ,確立了25門炮,為規管事務的melchite教會主教被批准在羅馬,並發表在collectio lacensis (二579-592 ) 。 During his reign at last the Melchites obtained recognition as a separate millet from the Porte.在他統治期間最後melchites獲得承認作為一個單獨的穀子從門。 Maximus III obtained from Rome for himself and his successors the additional titles of Alexandria and Jerusalem, which sees his predecessors had administered since Theodosius VI.鮃獲得第三,從羅馬為他自己和他的繼任者額外職稱亞歷山大和耶路撒冷,而他看到前人所經管的,因為theodosius六。 In 1849 he held a synod at Jerusalem in which he renewed many of the errors of Germanus Adam. 1849年,他舉行了主教在耶路撒冷,而他續約的許多錯誤germanus亞當。 Thus he got into new difficulties with Rome as well as with his people.因此他找到了新的困難與羅馬以及與他的人民。 But these difficulties were gradually composed and the old patriarch died in peace in 1855.但這些困難並逐步組成和舊元老去世和平是在1855年。 He is the most famous of the line of Melchite patriarchs.他是最有名的路線melchite patriarchs 。 He was succeded by Clement I (Bahus, 1856-1864), Gregory II (Yussef, 1865-1879), Peter IV (Jeraïjiri, 1897-1902), and Cyril VIII (Jeha, the reigning patriarch, who was elected 27 June, 1903, confirmed at once by telegram from Rome, enthroned in the patriarchal church at Damascus, 8 August, 1903).他succeded由克萊門特( bahus , 1856年至1864年) ,格雷戈里(第二yussef , 1865年至1879年) ,彼得四( jeraïjiri , 1897年至1902年) ,並西里爾八(的吉哈,執政的元老,他當選為6月27日, 1903年,在記者招待會上一次電報,從羅馬, enthroned在宗法教會在大馬士革, 1903年8月8日) 。

V. CONSTITUTION OF THE MELCHITE CHURCH五,憲法的melchite教堂

The head of the Melchite church, under the supreme authority of the pope, is the patriarch.總部設在melchite教會,根據最高人民法院的權威教宗,是元老。 His title is "Patriarch of Antioch, Alexandria, Jerusalem, and all the East."他的標題是"元老安提,亞歷山大,耶路撒冷和所有東" 。 "Antioch and all the East" is the old title used by all patriarchs of Antioch. "安提及所有東"的是舊名稱使用的所有patriarchs安提。 It is less arrogant than it sounds; the "East" means the original Roman Prefecture of the East (Praefectura Orentis) which corresponded exactly to the patriarchate before the rise of Constantinople (Fortescue, Orth. Eastern Church, 21).它是那麼傲慢,比它聽起來; "東"是指原羅馬縣的東部( praefectura orentis )對應於完全一致,因此該宗主教公署前的崛起君士坦丁堡( Fortescue的, Ortho的。東區教堂, 21 ) 。 Alexandria and Jerusalem were added to the title under Maximus III.亞歷山大和耶路撒冷被納入該標題下鮃三。 It should be noted that these come after Antioch, although normally Alexandria has precedence over it.應該指出的是,這些來後,安提,雖然通常亞歷山大已凌駕於它。 This is because the patriarch is fundamentally of Antioch only; he traces his succession through Cyril VI to the old line of antioch.這是因為元老基本上是安提只有他的痕跡,他的繼承通過西里爾六,以舊線安提。 He is in some sort only the administrator of Alexandria and Jerusalem until the number of Melchites in Egypt and Palestine shall justify the erection of separate patriarchates for them.他是在某種只有管理員亞歷山大和耶路撒冷,直到有多少melchites在埃及和巴勒斯坦應有理由豎立單獨patriarchates給他們。 Meanwhile he rules equally over his nation in the three provinces.同時,他的規則同樣超過他的國家在這三個省份。 There is also a grander title used in Polychronia and for special solemn occasions in which he is acclaimed as "father of Fathers, Shepherd of Shepherds, High Priest of High Priests and Thirteenth Apostle."還有一個宏偉的標題中使用polychronia和特殊的莊嚴場合,而他就是被譽為"父親的父親,牧羊人,牧羊人,高神父高司鐸和第十三使徒" 。 The patriarch is elected by the bishops, and is nearly always chosen from their number.牧首,是由民選產生的主教,並幾乎總是選擇從自己的號碼。 The election is submitted to the Congregation for Eastern Rites joined to Propaganda; if it is canonical the patriarch-elect sends a profession of faith and a petition for confirmation and for the pallium of the pope.選舉是提交給會眾,為東方禮儀加入宣傳;如果是典型牧當選人傳達了一個專業的信仰和請願的確認和為大腦皮層的教宗。 He must also take an oath of obedience to the pope.他還必須採取宣誓服從教宗。 If the election is invalid, nomination devolves on the pope.如果選舉無效,提名devolves對教宗。 The patriarch may not resign without the pope's consent.老人家可能不會辭職,如果沒有教皇的同意。 He must make his visit ad limina, personally or by deputy, every ten years.他必須使他的訪問專案limina ,親自或通過代理,每一個十年。 The patriarch has ordinary jurisdiction over all his church.老人家有普通管轄權,他的所有教堂。 He confirms the election of and consecrates all bishops; he can translate or depose them, according to the canons.他證實了選舉和consecrates所有主教,他可以翻譯或廢黜他們,根據我的大砲。 He founds parishes and (with consent of Rome) dioceses, and has considerable rights of the nature of dispensation from fasting and so on.他創立的教區和(與徵得羅馬)教區,並擁有相當的權利的性質,省卻從禁食等。 The patriarch resides at the house next to the patriarchal church at Damascus (near the Eastern Gate).老人家居住在房子旁邊的宗法教會在大馬士革(靠近東門) 。 He has also residences at Alexandria and Jerusalem, where he spends at least some weeks each year; he is often at the seminary at Ain-Traz, not far from Beirut, in the Lebanon.他還官邸在亞歷山大港和耶路撒冷,在那裡他花費至少幾個星期以後每年他常常在神學院在艾因- traz ,不遠處的貝魯特,在黎巴嫩。

The bishops are chosen according to the bull Reversurus, 12 July, 1867.主教是選擇按照牛市reversurus , 1867年7月12日。 LAll the other bishops in synod with the patriarch choose three names, of which the pope selects one. Lall及其他主教主教與主教選擇了三個名字,其中,教宗選擇之一。 All bishops must be celibate, but they are by no means necessarily monks.所有主教必須celibate ,但他們不會因此而受到一定是和尚。 Priests who are notmonks may keep wives married before ordination, but as in all uniate churches celibacy is very common, and the married clergy are looked upon rather askance.牧師是notmonks可以保留妻子結婚前顧,但在所有烏克蘭東方禮教會獨身是很普遍的,和已婚的神職人員都看,而不是是非。 There are seminaries at Ain-Traz, Jerusalem (the College of St. Ann under Cardinal Lavigerie's White Fathers), Beirut, etc. Many students go to the Jesuits at Beirut, the Greek College at Rome, or St. Sulpice at Paris.有修道院,在艾因- traz ,耶路撒冷(學院聖安下樞機拉維熱裡的白人父親) ,貝魯特等,很多學生到了耶穌會士在貝魯特,希臘學院在羅馬,或聖Sulpice )在巴黎舉行。 The monks follow the Rule of St. Basil.僧眾遵循法治的聖羅勒。 They are divided into two great congregations, that of St. John the Baptist at Shuweir in the Lebanon and that of St. Saviour, near Sidon.它們分為兩個偉大的畢業典禮,即施洗者聖約翰在shuweir在黎巴嫩,並表示,聖救世主,近西頓。 Both have numerous daughter-houses.雙方有眾多的媳婦房子。 The Shuweirites have a further distinction, ie between those of Allepo and the Baladites.該shuweirites有進一步的區分,即那些之間的allepo和baladites 。 There are also convents of Basilian nuns.也有修道院的basilian尼姑。

Practically all Melchites are natives of the country, Arabs in tongue.幾乎所有的Melchites是土生土長的國家,阿拉伯人的舌頭。 Their rite is that of Constantinople, almost always celebrated in Arabic with a few versicles and exclamations (proschomen sophia orthoi, etc.) in Greek.其儀式是君士坦丁堡,幾乎總是慶祝阿拉伯文少數versicles和讚歎( proschomen蒿orthoi等) ,在希臘。 But on certain solemn occasions the liturgy is celebrated entirely in Greek. The sees of the patriarchate are: the patriarchate itself, to which is joined Damascus, administered by a vicar; then two metropolitan dioceses, Tyre and Aleppo; two archdioceses, Bosra with Hauran, and Horus with Hama; seven bishoprics, Sidon, Beirut (with Jebail), Tripolis, Acre, Furzil (with Zahle), and the Beqaa, Paneas, and Baalbek.但是,在某些莊嚴的場合,禮儀慶祝完全是在希臘。該看到的東正教是:東正教本身,這是加入大馬士革,由一個管理副主教,然後兩個大都市教區,提爾和阿勒頗;兩個archdioceses , Bosra與Hauran和荷魯斯與哈馬; 7 bishoprics ,西頓,貝魯特(與Jebail ) ,特里波利斯,阿克里, Furzil (與扎赫勒)和貝卡, Paneas ,以及巴爾貝克。 The patriarchates of Jerusalem and Alexandria are administered for the patriarch by vicars.該牧首轄區耶路撒冷和亞歷山大的管理為家長的vicars 。 The total number of Melchites is estimated at 130,000 (Silbernagl) or 114,080 (Werner).總數Melchites估計為130000 ( Silbernagl )或一十一萬四千〇八十零(德國) 。

Publication information Written by Adrian Fortescue.出版信息撰稿阿德里安斯丘。 Transcribed by John Looby. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.轉錄約翰Looby 。天主教百科全書,卷十, 1911年發布。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography目錄

For the origin and history see any history of the Monophysite heresy.對於起源和歷史看不到任何歷史的Monophysite異端。 NEALE, History of the Holy Eastern Church (London, 1848-1850), IV and V: The Patriaarchate of Alexandria supplementary volume: The Patriarchate of Antioch, ed.尼爾,歷史的東羅馬教會(倫敦, 1848至1850年) ,第四和第五:在Patriaarchate亞歷山大補充量:所遭遇的安提阿,編輯。 Williams (London, 1873); Charon, Histoire des Patriarcats Melkites (Rome, in course of publication), a most valuable work; RABBATH, Documents inedits pour servir a l'histoire du christianisme en Orient (3 vols., Paris, 1907); Le Quien, Oriens Christianus (Paris, 1740), II, 385-512 (Alexandrine Patriarchs), 699-730 (Antioch), III, 137-527).威廉姆斯(倫敦, 1873年) ;戎,史Patriarcats Melkites (羅馬,在出版過程中) ,是最有價值的工作; RABBATH ,文件inedits爭取servir一近歷史基督教恩公司東方( 3卷。 ,巴黎, 1907年) ;樂Quien , Oriens Christianus (巴黎, 1740 ) ,二, 385-512 (亞歷山大始祖) , 699-730 (安) ,三, 137-527 ) 。

For the present constitution: SILBERNAGL, Verfassung u.對於現行憲法: SILBERNAGL ,美國憲法 gegenwartiger Bestand samtlicher Kirchen des Orients (Ratisbon, 1904), 334-341; WERNER, Orbis Terrarum Catholicus (Freiburg, 1890), 151-155.; Echos d'Orient (Paris, since 1897), articles by Charon and others; Kohler, Die Katholischen Kirchen des Morgenlands (Darmstadt, 1896), 124-1128; Charon, Le Rite byzantin dans les Patriarcats Melkites (extrait de chrysostomika) du Chant dans l'Eglise Grecque (Paris, 1906) gegenwartiger Bestand samtlicher興之方向( Ratisbon , 1904年) , 334-341 ;維爾納,奧比斯Terrarum Catholicus (弗賴堡, 1890 ) , 151-155段。 ;迴聲德東方(巴黎, 1897年以來) ,文章戎等;科勒模具Katholischen興之Morgenlands (達姆施塔特, 1896年) , 124-1128 ;戎,樂日铽拜占庭中的萊Patriarcats Melkites ( extrait德chrysostomika )杜詠教堂中的近Grecque (巴黎, 1906年)


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在