Five Pillars of Islam五大支柱伊斯蘭教

General Information 一般資料

During the ten years between his arrival in Medina and his death in AD 632, Muhammad laid the foundation for the ideal Islamic state.在十年間,他的到來在Medina和他的去世在公元632 ,穆罕默德奠定了基礎,為理想的伊斯蘭國家。 A core of committed Muslims was established, and a community life was ordered according to the requirements of the new religion.一個核心承諾的穆斯林成立時,和一個社區的生活被勒令必須按照這個新的宗教。 In addition to general moral injunctions, the requirements of the religion came to include a number of institutions that continue to characterize Islamic religious practice today.除了一般的道德禁令,要求宗教來包括一些機構繼續特點伊斯蘭宗教實踐的今天。 Foremost among these were the five pillars of Islam, the essential religious duties required of every adult Muslim who is mentally able. The five pillars are each described in some part of the Qur'an and were already practiced during Muhammad's lifetime.其中最主要的有五個支柱伊斯蘭教,主要宗教職責所需的所有成年的穆斯林,他們是弱智能。 五大支柱是彼此的描述在某些部分的古蘭經 ,並已在實踐中穆罕默德的一生。 They are the profession of faith (shahada), prayer (salat), almsgiving (zakat), fasting (sawm), and pilgrimage (hajj). Although some of these practices had precedents in Jewish, Christian, and other Middle Eastern religious traditions, taken together they distinguish Islamic religious practices from those of other religions. The five pillars are thus the most central rituals of Islam and constitute the core practices of the Islamic faith.他們是專業的信仰( shahada ) ,祈禱(禮拜) ,救濟(課) ,禁食(索姆) ,並朝聖(朝覲) 。儘管這些做法已有先例,在猶太教,基督教,和其他中東宗教傳統,兩者合計,他們區分伊斯蘭宗教習俗有別於其他宗教的五大支柱,因此最核心的禮儀伊斯蘭教構成核心的做法,信奉伊斯蘭教。

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The Profession of Faith職業信仰

The absolute focus of Islamic piety is Allah, the supreme, all knowing, all-powerful, and above all, all-merciful God.絕對焦點伊斯蘭教的虔誠,是安拉,最高權力機構,所有知,全功能強大,最重要的是,所有最慈悲的上帝。 The Arabic word Allah means "the God," and this God is understood to be the God who brought the world into being and sustains it to its end.在阿拉伯語阿拉意味著"上帝" ,而這個神是理解為上帝,他們帶來了世界正在形成和維持,它向它的盡頭。 By obeying God's commands, human beings express their recognition of and gratitude for the wisdom of creation, and live in harmony with the universe.服從上帝的命令,人表達自己的認同和感激的智慧創造,和睦相處,與宇宙。

The profession of faith, or witness to faith (shahada), is therefore the prerequisite for membership in the Muslim community.法律界的信仰,或見證信仰( shahada ) ,因此為前提的成員在穆斯林社區。 On several occasions during a typical day, and in the saying of daily prayers, a Muslim repeats the profession, "I bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is his prophet."在幾個場合中,一個典型的一天,而在說,每天祈禱,穆斯林重複專業, "我的見證,有沒有上帝,但安拉和穆罕默德是他的先知" 。 There are no formal restrictions on the times and places these words can be repeated.有沒有正規的限制,對時間和地點的話,可以反复。 To become a member of the Muslim community, a person has to profess and act upon this belief in the oneness of God and the prophethood of Muhammad.成為會員的穆斯林社區,一個人信奉和行為,基於這個信念,在唯有真主和prophethood的穆罕默德。 To be a true profession of faith that represents a relationship between the speaker and God, the verbal utterance must express genuine knowledge of its meaning as well as sincere belief.已經成為一個真正的職業信條,它代表的關係,議長和為神,口頭話語要表達的真正了解其含義,以及真誠的信仰。 A person's deeds can be subjected to scrutiny by other Muslims, but a person's utterance of the profession of faith is sufficient evidence of membership in the Muslim community and cannot be challenged by other members of this community.一個人的事蹟,可以不受審議其他穆斯林人,但一個人的話語的職業信仰是有足夠證據的成員在穆斯林社會,不能受到挑戰其他成員的社群。

The Five Daily Prayers每日五次禮拜

The second pillar of Islam is the religious duty to perform five prescribed daily prayers or salat. All adult Muslims are supposed to perform five prayers, preceded by ritual cleansing or purification of the body at different intervals of the day.第二個支柱,是伊斯蘭教的宗教義務演出五明每天祈禱禮拜,所有的成年穆斯林,是為了履行五個祈禱,並先舉行祭祀清洗或淨化身體,在不同時間間隔的一天。 The Qur'anic references also mention the acts of standing, bowing, and prostrating during prayers and facing a set direction, known as qibla. The Muslims were first required to face Jerusalem during prayer, but already during Muhammad's lifetime they were commanded to face the Kaaba, an ancient shrine in the city of Mecca.該qur'anic參考文獻也提到行為常委,低頭,並prostrating在祈禱,並面臨著既定的方向,被稱為朝拜。回教徒首先須面對在耶路撒冷祈禱,但已經在穆罕默德的一生,他們的指揮下,面對天房,那是一個古老神社在這個城市的麥加。 The Qur'an also refers to the recitation of parts of the Qur'an as a form of prayer.古蘭經也指以背誦的部分古蘭經作為一種形式的祈禱。 However, even with its numerous references, the Qur'an alone does not give exact instructions for this central ritual of prayer.不過,即使是與它多次提到,可蘭經,不足以給予確切的指示,中央的這一祭祀祈禱。

The most detailed descriptions of the rituals for prayer derive from the example set by the prophet Muhammad and are preserved in later Islamic traditions.最詳盡的描述,加上禮儀祈禱來自所樹立的榜樣,先知穆罕默德,並保存在後來的伊斯蘭傳統。 Some details of these rituals vary, however all Muslims agree that there are five required daily prayers to be performed at certain times of day: dawn (fajr or subh), noon (zuhr), midafternoon (asr), sunset (maghrib), and evening (isha). The dawn, noon, and sunset prayers do not start exactly at dawn, noon, and sunset; instead, they begin just after, to distinguish the Islamic ritual from earlier pagan practices of worshiping the sun when it rises or sets.一些細節,這些祭儀不盡相同,但所有穆斯林都同意,有5個需要每天祈禱 ,以履行在某些時候的一天:黎明(晨或subh ) ,中午(晌禮) ,下午(語音識別) ,日落(馬格里布) ,並今晚( isha ) 。黎明,中午,日落禱告不要開始,正是在黎明,中午,黃昏,而是剛剛開始後,要注意區分伊斯蘭禮儀,從先前的做法異教崇拜太陽時,上升或套。

A prayer is made up of a sequence of units called bowings (rak'as). During each of these units, the worshiper stands, bows, kneels, and prostrates while reciting verses from the Qur'an as well as other prayer formulas. With some variations among different Muslim sects, at noon, afternoon, and evening prayers, these units are repeated four times, while during the sunset prayer they are repeated three times, and at dawn only twice. The opening chapter of the Qur'an, al-Fatiha, is repeated in each unit in a prayer sequence.祈禱是彌補了一個序列的單位,所謂bowings ( rak'as ) ,在上述各單位, worshiper看台,鞠躬, kneels , prostrates而背誦詩詞,從古蘭經以及其他祈禱公式隨著有些差異在不同的穆斯林教派,中午,下午及傍晚的祈禱,這些單位反复4次,而在日落禱告,他們都重複3次,並在黎明只有兩次。開篇的古蘭經, 鋁- fatiha ,是反复在各單位在祈禱序列。 Each prayer concludes with the recitation of the profession of faith followed by the greeting "may the peace, mercy, and blessings of God be upon you."每次禱告結束與背誦的職業信仰,其次是迎來了"願和平,慈悲和祝福,上帝將降臨你" 。

Wherever Muslims live in substantial numbers throughout the world, the call to prayer, or adhan, is repeated five times a day by a muezzin (crier) from a mosque, the Muslim place of worship.而穆斯林居住在大量在世界各地,呼籲祈禱,或adhan ,反复5次,每天由一名muezzin ( crier ) ,從一所清真寺,穆斯林禮拜場所。 Muslims are encouraged to pray together in mosques, but group prayer is only a religious obligation for the noon prayer on Friday.穆斯林是鼓勵一起祈禱在清真寺,但集團禱告僅僅是一個宗教義務為中午祈禱週五。 Women, travelers, sick Muslims, and those attending to the sick are granted license not to attend the Friday congregational prayer, although they may attend if they wish.婦女,旅行者,患病穆斯林,並出席者向不適授予許可不參加週五祈禱堂,雖然他們可能參加,如果他們的願望。

The Friday noon prayer is led by an imam, who is simply a prayer leader; this prayer differs from the usual noon prayers of the other days of the week. As a required part of the ritual at this congregational meeting, two sermons precede the prayer. On other days, Muslims can pray anywhere they wish, either individually or in groups.在週五中午祈禱是由一名阿訇,他們根本是一個祈禱領袖;這種禱告不同於慣常中午祈禱的其他一周的天數, 作為一個必要的部分儀式,在這堂次會議上,兩個布道先禱告就在其他日子,穆斯林可以在任何地方祈禱,他們希望,無論是單獨或集體行動。 They must observe the rituals of praying at certain times of day, facing in the direction of Mecca, observing the proper order of prayers, and preparing through symbolic purification.他們必須遵守禮儀的祈禱,在某些時候的一天,在面臨方向的麥加,遵守秩序的祈禱,並準備通過象徵性的淨化。

Depending on the situation, this last ritual of ablution requires either total washing of the body or a less elaborate ritual washing of the hands, mouth, face, and feet.根據情況,這個最後的儀式,洗盥要求要么總清洗身體或較少闡釋祭祀清洗手部,口部,臉部和腳。

In addition to the five required daily prayers, Muslims can perform non-obligatory prayers, some of which have fixed ritual formats and are performed before or after each of the five daily prayers.除了五個需要每天祈禱,穆斯林可以執行非強制性的禱告,其中有一些固定的禮儀形式和演出之前或之後每每日五次禮拜。 Others are performed at night, either individually or with other Muslims.別人都在夜間進行,不論是單獨或與其他穆斯林。 These additional formal and informal prayers give expression to the primary function of prayer in Islam, which is personal communication with God for the purpose of maintaining the abiding presence of the divine in the personal lives of Muslims.這些額外的正規和非正規的祈禱,體現其主要功能祈禱伊斯蘭教,這是人與人之間的溝通與神的,為了保持持久存在的神的,在個人生活的穆斯林。 The more formal aspects of prayer also serve to provide a disciplined rhythm that structures the day and fosters a sense of community and shared identity among Muslims.較正規方面的禱告,也提供一個有紀律的節奏結構的一天,並促進社區意識和共同的身份,其中穆斯林。

Almsgiving救濟

The third pillar of Islam is zakat, or almsgiving.第三個支柱是伊斯蘭教的是天課,或救濟。 A religious obligation, zakat is considered an expression of devotion to God.一項宗教義務,天課被認為是表達了獻身上帝。 It represents the attempt to provide for the poorer sectors of society, and it offers a means for a Muslim to purify his or her wealth and attain salvation.它代表了嘗試,以便為貧,社會各界,它提供了一種手段,為穆斯林,以淨化他或她的財富,達到和救贖。 The Qur'an, together with other Islamic traditions, strongly encourages charity and constantly reminds Muslims of their moral obligation to the poor, orphans, and widows; however, it distinguishes between general, voluntary charity (sadaqa) and zakat, the latter being an obligatory charge on the money or produce of Muslims.可蘭經,連同其他伊斯蘭傳統,大力鼓勵慈善機構和不斷提醒回教徒,他們道義上的責任,向窮人,孤兒和寡婦,但它區分了一般,自願慈善( sadaqa )和天課,而後者是一個強制收取金錢或出示的穆斯林。 While the meaning of terms has been open to different interpretations, the Qur'an regularly refers to zakat, identifying specific ways in which this tax can be spent. These specific uses include spending zakat on the poor and the needy, on those who collect and distribute zakat, on those whom Muslims hope to win over and convert to Islam, on travelers, on the ransom of captives, to relieve those who are burdened with debts, and on the cause of God.而術語含義已經可以作出不同的解釋,可蘭經,經常是指天課,查明具體辦法,使這項稅收可以用這些具體用途包括消費課對窮人和有需要的人,對那些收集和派發天課,對那些穆斯林希望拉攏並皈依伊斯蘭教,對旅客,就贖金的俘虜,以減輕那些背負債務,並於事業的上帝。

The Qur'an provides less-detailed information about the kinds of things that are subject to the zakat tax or the precise share of income or property that should be paid as zakat.古蘭經規定欠詳細資料,對這樣的東西,是會受到該課稅或確切收入中所佔的份額或財產應支付天課。 These determinations are provided in the traditions of the prophet Muhammad and have been the subject of elaborate discussions among Muslim legal experts, or jurists.這些決定是在傳統的先知穆罕默德,並一直受到詳細討論回教法律專家,或法學家。 For example, one-fortieth (2.5 percent) of the assets accumulated during the year (including gold, silver, and money) is payable at the end of the year, while one-tenth of the harvest of the land or date trees is payable at harvest time.舉例來說,一個40 ( 2.5 % )的資產積累在這一年(包括黃金,白銀和金錢)的利息是在今年年底之前,而其中的十分之一收穫的土地或樹木的日期支付在收穫時間。 Cattle, camels, and other domestic animals are subject to a more complex taxation system that depends on the animals in question, their age, the numbers involved, and whether they are freely grazing.牛,駱駝,並與國內其他動物都受到一個更複雜的稅制,就看動物問題,他們的年齡,所涉及的人數,以及他們是否是自由放牧。 Traditional zakat laws do not cover trade, but commercial taxes have been imposed by various Muslim governments throughout history.傳統課法律並不涵蓋貿易,但商業稅收已施加各種穆斯林政府,在整個歷史。

Fasting禁食

The fourth pillar of Islam is sawm, or fasting.第四個支柱的伊斯蘭教是索姆,或禁食。 Clear Qur'anic references to fasting account for the early introduction of this ritual practice.明確qur'anic參考,以禁食帳戶,爭取早日推出這項儀式的做法。 The Qur'an prescribes fasting during the month of Ramadan, the 9th month of the 12-month Islamic lunar year. The month of Ramadan is sacred because the first revelation of the Qur'an is said to have occurred during this month. By tradition the month starts with the sighting of the new moon by at least two Muslims.古蘭經明禁食齋月期間,九三個月的12個月的伊斯蘭農曆一年一個月的齋月是神聖的,因為第一次的啟示古蘭經據說發生在這個月期間,通過傳統本月起被發現有新發現的這顆衛星是由至少兩名穆斯林。 For the entire month, Muslims must fast from daybreak to sunset by refraining from eating, drinking, and sexual intercourse.為了整整一個月,回教徒必須快速從拂曉至日落,不要吃,喝,並進行性交。 Menstruating women, travelers, and sick people are exempted from fasting but have to make up the days they miss at a later date. menstruating婦女,旅行者,和患病的人,可獲豁免禁食,但為了彌補天,他們懷念在稍後的日期。

According to various traditional interpretations, the fast introduces physical and spiritual discipline, serves to remind the rich of the misfortunes of the poor, and fosters, through this rigorous act of worship, a sense of solidarity and mutual care among Muslims of all social backgrounds. Thus Muslims usually engage in further acts of worship beyond the ordinary during Ramadan, such as voluntary night prayer, reading sections from the Qur'an, and paying voluntary charity to the poor.根據各項傳統的詮釋,風頭介紹了身體和精神上的紀律,可以提醒豐富的貧苦大眾雪上加霜,並促進,通過這種嚴格的行為崇拜,團結的意識和互相照顧穆斯林社會各方面的背景。 因此,穆斯林通常從事進一步的行為崇拜超出了普通齋月期間,如自願晝夜禱告,閱讀部分,從古蘭經,並繳交志願慈善機構向貧困者。 Muslims may even choose to wake before daybreak to eat a meal that will sustain them until sunset.穆斯林可能選擇後,拂曉前,吃一頓飯會持續,直到日落。 After the fasting ends, the holiday of breaking the fast, 'id al-fitr, begins, lasting for three days.後禁食結束後,假期的突破速度快, '開齋節開始的,歷時3天。 At any time of year fasting is also required as a compensation for various offenses and violations of the law.在一年中任何時間禁食,也需要作為賠償各種犯罪和各種違法行為。 Many Muslims also perform voluntary fasts at various times of the year as acts of devotion and spiritual discipline.許多穆斯林也履行自願齋戒在不同時期的一年,作為行為的獻身精神和紀律。 However, such additional fasting is not required by Islamic law.但是,這種額外的禁食是沒有此規定,伊斯蘭法。

Pilgrimage to Mecca麥加朝覲

The fifth pillar requires that Muslims who have the physical and financial ability should perform the pilgrimage, or hajj, to Mecca at least once in a lifetime.第五個支柱,要求穆斯林人的人身及財務能力,還應當履行朝覲,或朝覲麥加朝聖至少在一生中只有一次。 The ritual of pilgrimage was practiced by Arabs before the rise of Islam and continues from the early days of Islam. The hajj is distinct from other pilgrimages. It must take place during the 12th lunar month of the year, known as Dhu al-Hijja, and it involves a set and detailed sequence of rituals that are practiced over the span of several days.祭祀朝拜的聖地,是練的阿拉伯人興起之前伊斯蘭教,並繼續從成立之初就伊斯蘭教。 朝聖,是有別於其他朝聖,它必須發生在12日正月的一年,被稱為dhu基地hijja ,它涉及了一套詳盡的序列禮儀都實行一年跨度數天。 All of the pilgrimage rituals take place in the city of Mecca and its surroundings, and the primary focus of these rituals is a cubical structure called the Kaaba.所有的朝覲儀式發生在城市的麥加及其周圍地區,當前首要的焦點,這些禮儀是一個立體結構被稱為天房。

According to Islamic tradition, the Kaaba, also referred to as the House of God, was built at God's command by the prophet Ibrahim (Abraham of the Hebrew and Christian Bibles) and his son Ismail (Ishmael).按照伊斯蘭教的傳統文化中,天房,也被稱為上帝的家,是建在神的指揮,由先知易卜拉欣(亞伯拉罕的希伯來和基督教的聖經, )和他的兒子伊斯梅爾(伊斯梅爾) 。

The Qur'an provides detailed descriptions of various parts of the ritual, and it portrays many of these rituals as reenactments of the activities undertaken by Ibrahim and Ismail in the course of building the Kaaba.古蘭經規定,詳細說明各部分的儀式,它描繪了許多這些禮儀作為reenactments的活動,所易卜拉欣和伊斯梅爾在建設過程中天房。 Set into one corner of the Kaaba is the sacred Black Stone, which according to one Islamic tradition was given to Ibrahim by the angel Gabriel.集到一個角落裡的天房,是神聖的黑石頭,其中之一,據伊斯蘭傳統給予了易卜拉欣由天使加布里埃爾。 According to another Islamic tradition this stone was first set in place by Adam.據另一位伊斯蘭傳統,此石最初訂到位亞當。

Once pilgrims arrive in Mecca, ritual purification is performed.一旦朝聖者抵達麥加,禮儀淨化演出。 Many men shave their heads, and most men and women put on seamless white sheets.許多男人剃其頭,而大部分男性和女性放在無縫的白色床單。 This simple and common dress symbolizes the equality of all Muslims before God, a status further reinforced by the prohibition of jewelry, perfumes, sexual intercourse, and hunting.這個簡單的和共同的服飾,象徵平等的所有穆斯林的上帝面前,一個地位進一步強化禁止珠寶,香水,性交,和狩獵。 After this ritual purification, Muslims circle the Kaaba seven times, run between al-Safa and al-Marwa, two hills overlooking the Kaaba, seven times, and perform several prayers and invocations.經過這次儀式純化,穆斯林圈選天房7次之多,來往基地聯合會和基地馬爾瓦,兩座山俯瞰天房, 7次會議,並履行幾個祈禱和調用。 This ritual is a reenactment of the search by Hagar for water to give her son Ismail.這個儀式是一個重演的搜索hagar水,讓她的兒子伊斯梅爾。

After these opening rituals, the hajj proper commences on the seventh day and continues for the next three days.經過上述開幕儀式,朝聖妥善於第七天,並繼續為未來3天。 Again, it starts with the performance of ritual purification followed by a prayer at the Kaaba mosque.再次,它一開始的表現祭祀純化後,有一個禱告,在天房的清真寺。 The pilgrims then assemble at Mina, a hill outside Mecca, where they spend the night.這些朝聖者聚集在米納山上麥加外,他們在那裡過夜。 The next morning they go to the nearby plain of Arafat, where they stand from noon to sunset and perform a series of prayers and rituals.第二天早上,他們到附近的平原阿拉法特,他們的立場,從中午到日落,並履行了一系列的祈禱和禮儀。 The pilgrims then head to Muzdalifa, a location halfway between Arafat and Mina, to spend the night.這些朝聖者的頭腦去muzdalifa ,地點中途之間阿拉法特和米娜,在那裡過夜。 The next morning, the pilgrims head back to Mina, on the way stopping at stone pillars symbolizing Satan, at which they throw seven pebbles.第二天早晨,香客頭部返回米納,並就未來路停在石柱,象徵著撒旦,在他們投擲七卵石。

The final ritual is the slaughter of an animal (sheep, goat, cow, or camel).最後的儀式是屠宰的動物(綿羊,山羊,牛或駱駝) 。 This is a symbolic reenactment of God's command to Ibrahim to sacrifice his son Ismail, which Ibrahim and Ismail duly accepted and were about to execute when God allowed Ibrahim to slaughter a ram in place of his son. (In the Hebrew and Christian Bibles, Abraham is called to sacrifice his son Isaac rather than Ishmael.) Most of the meat of the slaughtered animals is to be distributed to poor Muslims.這是一個象徵性重演上帝的命令易卜拉欣以犧牲他的兒子伊斯梅爾,易卜拉欣和伊斯梅爾正式接納和即將執行時,上帝不允許易卜拉欣出欄一隻公羊代替他的兒子。 (在希伯來和基督教的聖經,亞伯拉罕就是所謂的犧牲,他的兒子以撒,而不是伊斯梅爾) 。大部分的肉的屠宰動物的是,將分發給窮人的穆斯林。 The ritual sacrifice ends the hajj and starts the festival of the sacrifice, 'id al-adha. The festivals of breaking fast ( 'id al-fitr ) at the end of Ramadan and 'id al-adha are the two major Islamic festivals celebrated by Muslims all over the world.祭祀犧牲完朝覲,並啟動節日的犧牲, '古爾邦節。節慶突破快速(開齋節 ) ,在齋月結束和'古爾邦節是兩大伊斯蘭節日慶祝穆斯林遍布世界各地。

During the pilgrimage most Muslims visit Medina, where the tomb of the Prophet is located, before returning to their homes. If the pilgrimage rituals are performed at any time of the year other than the designated time for hajj, the ritual is called umra. Although umra is considered a virtuous act, it does not absolve the person from the obligation of hajj.在朝覲的穆斯林大部分訪問麥迪,如果墓的先知坐落,然後返回自己的家園, 如果朝聖儀式演出,在一年中的任何時間以外的指定時間,為朝覲,祭祀,是所謂umra雖然 umra被認為是一種良性行為,但它並不免除該人的義務朝覲。 Most pilgrims perform one or more umras before or after the hajj proper.大多數朝聖者表演一個或一個以上umras之前或之後朝覲正確的。

Many Muslims pilgrims also travel to Jerusalem, which is the third sacred city for Islam. Muslims believe Muhammad was carried to Jerusalem in a vision. 許多穆斯林朝聖者還前往耶路撒冷,這是第三個神聖市為伊斯蘭教。穆斯林認為穆罕默德進行了耶路撒冷的一個夢想。 The Dome of the Rock houses the stone from which Muhammad is believed to have ascended to heaven and Allah in a night journey. 圓頂岩石房子石頭從哪個穆罕默德據信已升天,並在阿拉夜之旅。 Some Muslims perform pilgrimages to the Dome of the Rock and to other shrines where revered religious figures are buried.一些穆斯林履行朝聖的圓頂岩石和其他聖地的地方尊崇的宗教人物被埋葬。 Some of these shrines are important primarily to the local populations, whereas others draw Muslims from distant regions.部分這些神社都是重要的,主要是當地居民,而另一些借鑒穆斯林從很遠的地區。 There are no standard prescribed rituals for these pilgrimages nor are they treated as obligatory acts of worship.有沒有標準明禮儀,為這些朝聖,也不是當作義不容辭的行為的崇拜。


Also, see:此外,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 可蘭經,可蘭經
Pillars of Faith 支柱的信仰
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-h adiths從第一冊的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-h adiths從第二冊的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-h adiths從第三冊的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-h adiths從書展1 0個基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短祈禱(在taqseer ) -h adiths從書展2 0鋁布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 朝聖(朝覲) -h adiths從書展2 6鋁布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 爭取事業的阿拉(傑哈德) -h adiths圖書5 2鋁布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari 同一性,獨特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths圖書9 3鋁布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義。
Early Islamic History Outline 早在伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 天房,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派,什葉派
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥迪
Sahih, al-Bukhari sahih ,鋁-布哈里
Sufism 蘇非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 阿布巴克爾
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭馬亞王朝
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) 法蒂瑪王朝(什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀教派(什葉派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆


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