Saladin薩拉丁

General Information 一般資料

Salah ad-din, Yusuf ibn Ayyub, known as Saladin in the West, bc1138, d.薩拉赫專案聲浪,優素福伊本ayyub ,被稱為薩拉丁在西方, bc1138 ,四 Mar. 4, 1193, a Muslim warrior and founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, was a staunch opponent of the Crusades. 1193年3月4日,穆斯林和武士的創始人之一,艾優卜王朝,是一個堅強的對手的十字軍東征。 Of Kurdish descent, Saladin was raised in northern Syria, where members of his family were prominent government and military leaders under the rule of the Zangid dynasty.庫爾德人血統,薩拉丁提出了在北部敘利亞,凡家庭成員被突出,政府和軍隊領導人的統治下,該zangid王朝。

In 1152 he joined the staff of his uncle Shirkuh and later accompanied (1169) Shirkuh, who headed a Zangid army, to Egypt, where he helped the Fatimid rulers resist the Crusaders.在1152年,他加入了工作人員的他的叔叔shirkuh後來伴隨著( 1169 ) shirkuh ,他曾率領zangid軍隊,以埃及,在那裡他幫助的法蒂瑪統治者抵禦十字軍。 Shirkuh was appointed (1169) Fatimid vizier but died two months later; Saladin, officially installed as Shirkuh's successor, effectively repulsed the Crusaders. shirkuh被任命為( 1169 )的法蒂瑪vizier但死於兩個月後;薩拉丁,正式安裝shirkuh的繼任者,有力地擊退了十字軍。 He solidified his power base in 1171 when he overthrew the Fatimid dynasty, returning Egypt to Islamic orthodoxy and becoming sole ruler there.他夯實了他的權力基礎,在1171年時,他推翻了的法蒂瑪王朝,回到埃及伊斯蘭極端正統,並成為唯一的統治者。

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At the death (1174) of Nur Al-Din, the Zangid ruler, Saladin set out to conquer the Zangid kingdom in Syria as a preliminary to the holy war (jihad) against the Crusaders.在死亡( 1174 )的努爾基地聲浪, zangid統治者,薩拉丁列出來征服zangid英國在敘利亞作為一個初步的,以聖戰(傑哈德)對十字軍。 Launching the jihad in 1187, Saladin was victorious at Hattin, recaptured Jerusalem, and drove the Crusaders back to the coast.發動聖戰,在1187年,薩拉丁是戰勝國在哈廷,收復耶路撒冷,並迫使十字軍回海岸。 These events prompted the Christians to mount the Third Crusade (1189-92), pitting Saladin against Richard I of England.這些事件促使基督徒發動第三次十字軍東征( 1189至1192年) ,孔蝕薩拉丁對理查德本人英格蘭。 The Crusaders succeeded only in capturing Acre, and the Peace of Ramleh (1192) left the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem with only a small strip of land along the Mediterranean coast.十字軍才獲致成功捕捉英畝的,而且和平的ramleh (第1192 )離開拉丁語英國耶路撒冷只有一小部分的狹長土地,沿著地中海海岸。

Saladin not only vanquished the Crusaders but also restored Egypt as the major power in the Middle East.薩拉丁不僅戰勝了十字軍,但也恢復了埃及視為自己的大國在中東。 Within Egypt he established a stable dynasty, encouraged education, and reformed the financial structure to support the armed Kurdish and Turkish cavalry.在埃及,他建立了一個穩定的時期,鼓勵教育,並改革金融體制以支持庫爾德武裝與土耳其騎兵。 Saladin also initiated a prolonged period of economic prosperity, population growth, and cultural revival.薩拉丁還發起了一場持久的經濟繁榮時期,人口增長和文化的復興。 After he died, however, the Turks -- especially the Mamelukes -- began to predominate.之後,他真的死了,不過,土耳其人-尤其是m amelukes-開始佔主導地位。

Michael W. Dols邁克爾小dols

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Ehrenkreutz, Andrew S., Saladin (1972); Gibb, HAR, The Life of Saladin: From the Works of 'Imad ad-Din and Baha 'ad-Din (1973) and Saladin: Studies in Islamic History (1974); Newby, PH, Saladin in His Time (1984). ehrenkreutz ,鄭家富美因薩拉丁( 1972年) ;吉布,採伐,生命的薩拉丁:從工程的'伊馬德廣告DIN和巴哈'專案聲浪( 1973 )和薩拉丁:研究在伊斯蘭歷史上( 1974年) ;新條文, pH值,薩拉丁在他的時候( 1984年) 。


Saladin薩拉丁

General Information 一般資料

Saladin (1138-1193) was a Muslim leader, who recaptured Jerusalem from the Crusaders.薩拉丁( 1138至1193年)是一個穆斯林領袖,收復耶路撒冷從十字軍。

Born in Tikrît, Iraq, Saladin, as he is known in the West, was a Kurd; his Arabic name is Salah ad-Din Yusuf. At the age of 14 he joined other members of his family (the Ayyubids) in the service of the Syrian ruler Nur ad-Din.出生於tikrît ,伊拉克,薩拉丁,因為他是眾所周知的,在西方,是一個庫爾德人,他的阿拉伯語名字是薩拉赫專案- Din的優素福在年滿14歲,他加入了其他家庭成員( ayyubids )在服務敘利亞統治者努爾專案聲浪。 Between 1164 and 1169 he distinguished himself in three expeditions sent by Nur ad-Din to aid the decadent Fatimid rulers of Egypt against attacks by the Christian Crusaders based in Palestine.與1164年和1169年,他尊敬自己,在三名探險隊派出由努爾專案- Din的救助頹廢的法蒂瑪王朝的統治者對埃及發動攻擊基督教十字軍總部設在巴勒斯坦。 In 1169 he was made commander in chief of the Syrian army and vizier of Egypt.在1169年,他取得了總指揮官的敘利亞軍隊和vizier的埃及。 Although nominally subject to the authority of the Fatimid caliph in Cairo, Saladin treated Egypt as an Ayyubid power base, relying mainly on his Kurdish family and supporters.雖然名義上是受監督的法蒂瑪王朝哈里發在開羅,薩拉丁把埃及作為艾優卜的權力基礎,主要依靠他的庫爾德家庭和支持者。 Having revitalized Egypt's economy and reorganized its land and naval forces, Saladin repelled the Crusaders and took the offensive against them.經振興埃及的經濟和改組,其土地和海軍力量,薩拉丁擊退了十字軍發動攻勢,對付他們。 In September 1171 he suppressed the dissident Fatimid regime, reuniting Egypt with the orthodox Abbasid caliphate, but his reluctance to cooperate with Nur ad-Din against the Crusaders brought himto the brink of war with his former master.在1171年9月,他壓制持不同政見者的法蒂瑪制度,統一埃及與東正教阿巴斯哈里發,但他不願合作與努爾專案- Din的打擊十字軍帶來himto戰爭的邊緣,與他的前主人。

After Nur ad-Din's death in 1174, Saladin expanded his power in Syria and northern Mesopotamia, mainly at the expense of his Muslim rivals.經過努爾專案丁的死在1174年,薩拉丁擴大其權力,在敘利亞和北部的美索不達米亞,主要是建立在犧牲他的穆斯林對手。 Following the submission of Damascus (1174), Halab (Aleppo) (1183), and Mosul (1186), numerous Muslim armies, allied under Saladin's command, were ready to move against the Crusaders.以下提交大馬士革( 1174 ) , halab (阿勒頗) ( 1183 ) ,和摩蘇爾( 1186 ) ,許多穆斯林軍隊,盟軍薩拉丁下的指揮,隨時準備對付十字軍。 In 1187 he invaded the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, defeated the Christians at Hittin in Galilee (July 4), and captured Jerusalem the following October.在1187年,他侵入了拉丁語英國在耶路撒冷,打敗了基督徒在hittin在加利利(七月四日) ,並抓獲耶路撒冷以下十月。 In 1189 the nations of western Europe launched the Third Crusade to win back the holy city.在1189個國家,西歐發動第三次十字軍東征,奪回聖城。

Despite Saladin's relentless military and diplomatic efforts a Christian land and naval blockade forced the surrender of the Palestinian stronghold of Acre (now 'Akko) in 1191, but the Crusaders failed to follow up this victory in their quest for Jerusalem.儘管薩拉丁的無情的軍事和外交努力,是一個基督教的土地和海上封鎖,迫使投降的巴勒斯坦據點英畝(現在變成了' akko ) ,在1191年,但十字軍未能跟進這一勝利,雙方在一系列問題上耶路撒冷。 In 1192 Saladin concluded an armistice agreement with King Richard I of England that allowed the Crusaders to reconstitute their kingdom along the Palestinian-Syrian coast but left Jerusalem in Muslim hands.在第1192薩拉丁締結了一項停戰協定與國王理查德,我認為,英格蘭允許十字軍重組,他們沿英國對巴勒斯坦和敘利亞沿岸,但離開耶路撒冷在穆斯林手中。 On March 4, 1193, Saladin died in Damascus after a brief illness.於1193年3月4日,薩拉丁死在大馬士革經過短暫的疾病。

Muslim historiography has immortalized Saladin as a paragon of princely virtue.穆斯林史學已永生薩拉丁作為一個典範princely美德。 He has held enduring fascination for Western writers, including modern novelists.他先後持久的魅力,為西方作家,包括現代小說家。

Andrew Stefan Ehrenkreutz鄭家富斯特凡ehrenkreutz


Also, see:此外,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 可蘭經,可蘭經
Pillars of Faith 支柱的信仰
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-h adiths從第一冊的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-h adiths從第二冊的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-h adiths從第三冊的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-h adiths從書展1 0個基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短祈禱(在taqseer ) -h adiths從書展2 0鋁布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 朝聖(朝覲) -h adiths從書展2 6鋁布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 爭取事業的阿拉(傑哈德) -h adiths圖書5 2鋁布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari 同一性,獨特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths圖書9 3鋁布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義。
Early Islamic History Outline 早在伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 天房,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派,什葉派
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥迪
Sahih, al-Bukhari sahih ,鋁-布哈里
Sufism 蘇非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 阿布巴克爾
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭馬亞王朝
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) 法蒂瑪王朝(什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀教派(什葉派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆


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