Seljuk seljuk

General Information 一般資料

The Seljuks were a group of nomadic Turkish warrior leaders from Central Asia who established themselves in the Middle East during the 11th century as guardians of the declining Abbasid caliphate, and after 1055 founded the Great Seljuk sultanate, an empire centered in Baghdad and including Iran, Iraq, and Syria.該seljuks人一組游牧土耳其勇士領導人從中亞,他們建立了自己在中東地區,在11世紀,作為監護人的下降阿巴斯哈里發,並經過1055年成立了偉大的seljuk阿曼蘇丹國,是一個帝國的中心位置在巴格達和包括伊朗,伊拉克和敘利亞。 They helped to prevent the Fatimids of Egypt from making Shiite Islam dominant throughout the Middle East and, in the 12th century, blocked inland expansion by the Crusader states on the Syrian coast.它們有助於防止法蒂瑪王朝的埃及從伊斯蘭什葉派主導整個中東地區,並在12世紀,阻斷內陸擴展,由十字軍國對敘利亞海岸。 Their defeat of the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert (1071) opened the way for the Turkish occupation of Anatolia.他們失敗的byzantines在戰鬥中的曼濟科特( 1071 )開闢了道路,為土耳其佔領安納托利亞。

Seljuk power was at its zenith during the reigns of sultans Alp-Arslan (1063-72) and Malik Shah (1072-92), who with their vizier Nizam al-Mulk, revived Sunnite Islamic administrative and religious institutions. seljuk權力是在其頂點在統治蘇丹鹼性磷酸酶- arslan ( 1063至1072年)和馬利克沙阿( 1072年至1092年) ,他們將同他們vizier尼扎姆莫爾克,恢復遜尼派伊斯蘭行政和宗教機構。 They developed armies of slaves (Mamelukes) to replace the nomad warriors, as well as an elaborate bureaucratic hierarchy that provided the foundation for governmental administration in the Middle East until modern times.他們研製的,兩軍的奴隸( mamelukes ) ,以取代游牧主義戰士,以及一個複雜的官僚等級制度提供了基礎的政府行政部門,在中東,直至近代。 The Seljuks revived and reinvigorated the classical Islamic educational system, developing universities (madrasahs) to train bureaucrats and religious officials.該seljuks復甦和振興的古典伊斯蘭教育體系,發展大學(伊斯蘭學校) ,以培養官僚和宗教官員。

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After Malik Shah's death, a decline in the quality of dynastic leadership and division of their rule among military commanders and provincial regents (atabegs) weakened the power of the Great Seljuks.經過馬利克沙阿的死因,質量下降的朝代領導和分工其統治之間的軍事指揮官和省級科羅拉多大學( atabegs ) ,弱化了權力的偉大seljuks 。 The last of the line died in battle against the Khwarizm-Shahs in 1194.過去的路線死於戰爭對khwarizm - shahs在第1194 。

A branch of the Seljuks established their own state in Anatolia (the sultanate of Konya or Rum, survived until it was conquered by the Mongols in 1243.的一個分支,該seljuks建立了自己的狀態,在安納托利亞(阿曼蘇丹konya或朗姆酒,倖存下來,直到被征服蒙古人在1243年。

Stanford J. Shaw斯坦福大學蕭介

Bibliography: Boyle, JA, ed., Cambridge History of Iran, vol.參考書目:貝爾,司法機構政務長,教育署,劍橋的歷史,伊朗,第一卷。 5: The Saljuq and Mongol Periods (1968); Cahen, Claude, Pre-Ottoman Turkey, trans. 5 : saljuq和蒙古語時期( 1968年) ; cahen ,克勞德,會前奧斯曼土耳其,跨。 by J. Jones-Williams (1968); Grousset, Rene, Empire of the Steppes, trans.由J.瓊斯-威廉姆斯( 1968年) ;格魯塞雷尼,帝國的草原,橫貫。 by Naomi Walford (1970); Klausner, Carla L., The Seljuk Vezirate: A Study of Civil Administration, 1055-1194 (1973); Leiser, Gary, ed.由納奧米walford ( 1970年) ;克勞斯內爾,卡拉研究, seljuk vezirate :研究了民政管理, 1055年至1194年( 1973年) ; leiser ,加里,教育署。 and tr., A History of the Seljuks (1988); Setton, Kenneth, ed., History of the Crusades, vol.和TR ,歷史的seljuks ( 1988年) ; setton ,丁,版,歷史上的十字軍東征,第一卷。 1, 2d ed. 1 ,第2版。 (1969). ( 1969年) 。


Seljuks seljuks

General Information 一般資料

Seljuks, Turkish dynasty prominent in the Middle East during the 11th and 12th centuries. seljuks ,土耳其王朝突出的是在中東,在11和12世紀。 Originally a clan belonging to the Oghuz, a Turkmen tribe of Central Asia, they were converted to Islam in the 10th century and established themselves in the Iranian province of Khorāsān in the early 11th century.本來是一個家族屬於該oghuz ,土庫曼族,中亞,他們改信伊斯蘭教,在10世紀確立了自己在伊朗省khorāsān我國早在11世紀。 In the period between 1040 and 1055, their chief, Togrul Beg, conquered most of Iran and Iraq and made himself protector of the caliph of Baghdād, spiritual leader of the Sunni (orthodox) Muslims.在日期間, 10時40分至10時55分,其行政,托魯爾乞討,征服了大部分的伊朗和伊拉克,使自己的保護人的哈里發的baghdād ,精神領袖的遜尼派(正統)的穆斯林。 Togrul was given the title sultan by the caliph and made war on the Shia Muslims, who rejected the caliph's authority.托魯爾是獲得冠軍萊蘇丹由哈里發,並取得了戰爭對什葉派穆斯林,他們拒絕了哈里發的權威。

Under Togrul's successors, Alp Arslan and Malik Shah, the empire of the Seljuks was further extended into Syria, Palestine, and Anatolia.根據托魯爾的接班人,鹼性磷酸酶arslan和馬利克沙阿,帝國的seljuks進一步擴展到敘利亞,巴勒斯坦和安納托利亞。 Alp Arslan's victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert (1071) alarmed the Christian world, and Seljuk aggressiveness was a major reason for launching the First Crusade (1095).鹼性磷酸酶arslan戰勝byzantines在戰鬥中的曼濟科特( 1071 )震驚基督教世界,並seljuk好鬥,是一個重要原因,發射第一個十字軍東征( 1095 ) 。 The main enemy of the Seljuks, however, was the Shia Fatimid dynasty of Egypt.主要敵人的seljuks然而,什葉派的法蒂瑪王朝的埃及。

Ruling from their capital at Eŗfahān (Isfahan) in Iran, the Seljuk sultans used the Persian language in their administration and were patrons of Persian literature.執政黨從他們的資本在eŗfahān (伊斯法罕) ,在利比亞,伊朗,蘇丹seljuk用波斯語語言,在其管理和食客的波斯文學。 They founded madrasahs (colleges) to train future administrators in accordance with Sunni doctrine.他們創辦伊斯蘭學校(學院) ,以培養未來的管理者按照遜尼派教義。 After the death of Malik Shah and his vizier, Nizam-al-Mulk, the empire was divided among Malik Shah's sons, and Seljuk power gradually declined.去世後,馬利克沙阿和他的vizier ,尼扎姆-莫爾克,帝國被分為馬利克沙阿的兒子,並seljuk權力逐漸式微。

A branch of the dynasty, the sultanate of Rūm with a capital at Konya, survived in Anatolia until subjugated by the Mongols in 1243.的一個分支,在清朝,阿曼蘇丹rūm與資本在konya ,存活在安納托利亞,直到被征服,由蒙古人在1243年。


Also, see:此外,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 可蘭經,可蘭經
Pillars of Faith 支柱的信仰
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-h adiths從第一冊的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-h adiths從第二冊的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-h adiths從第三冊的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-h adiths從書展1 0個基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短祈禱(在taqseer ) -h adiths從書展2 0鋁布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 朝聖(朝覲) -h adiths從書展2 6鋁布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 爭取事業的阿拉(傑哈德) -h adiths圖書5 2鋁布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari 同一性,獨特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths圖書9 3鋁布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義。
Early Islamic History Outline 早在伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 天房,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派,什葉派
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥迪
Sahih, al-Bukhari sahih ,鋁-布哈里
Sufism 蘇非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 阿布巴克爾
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭馬亞王朝
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) 法蒂瑪王朝(什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀教派(什葉派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆


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