Umayyads倭馬亞王朝

General Information 一般資料

The Umayyads were an Islamic dynasty established by the caliph Muawiyah I (Mu'awiya) in 661.在倭馬亞王朝被一個伊斯蘭王朝建立了由哈里發穆阿維耶我(穆阿維耶) 661 。 An earlier caliph, Uthman (r. 644-56), had been a member of the powerful Umayyad clan, but he was murdered and replaced by Ali.較早哈里發, uthman (傳譯644-56 ) ,已成員之一,強大的伍麥葉家族,但他是被人謀殺,取而代之的阿里。 When Muawiyah, previously governor of Syria, seized the caliphate, he made the succession hereditary and thus inaugurated dynastic rule.當穆阿維耶,以前總督的敘利亞,搶走哈里發,他提出繼承世襲,因此上台朝代統治。 From their capital at Damascus, the Umayyad caliphs ruled a vast empire, extending from Europe to India, until 750.從他們的首都大馬士革,伍麥葉caliphs統治一個龐大帝國,擴大從歐洲轉移到印度,直到750人。 Thereafter the line continued in Spain until 1031.此後線繼續在西班牙,直到1031年。

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In place of the theocratic government of the early caliphs, Muawiyah created a more autocratic and secular regime, which sought to maintain the privileges of the Arabs and the fruits of their conquests.在地方的神權政府的早期caliphs ,穆阿維耶創造一個更加專制和世俗政權,也力求保持特權的阿拉伯人和他們努力的成果征服。 Islam was reserved as a privilege of the Arabs and was not forced upon the conquered peoples, whose society was preserved and strongly influenced the government, art, and economy of the dynasty.回教是預留作為一種特權的阿拉伯人,並沒有強加於被征服的人民,他們的社會被保留,並強烈地影響了政府,藝術和經濟的王朝。 In government, Muawiyah adopted the bureaucratic structure of the former Byzantine state as well as hereditary succession.在政府,穆阿維耶通過的官僚架構前拜占庭國家以及世襲繼承。 In art and architecture a similar adaptation was made; the most important innovation was the mosque.在藝術和建築類似改編製作的;最重要的創新是該清真寺。

A policy of continuous expansion, reaching its maximum extent under al-Walid I (r. 705-15), brought northwest Africa, Spain, western India, and portions of Central Asia into the Islamic empire and added greatly to Umayyad wealth.一項政策的不斷擴展,達到最大程度下瓦利德我(傳譯705-15 ) ,但也帶來非洲西北部,西班牙,印度西部和部分中亞地區成為伊斯蘭帝國和補充,大大伍麥葉財富。 This expansion was the result of an efficient Syrian army and a powerful navy.這種擴張是導致一個有效率的敘利亞軍隊和一支強大的海軍。 The Umayyad period was characterized by Arabization--the spread and intermarriage of Arabs with native peoples and the adoption of Arabic as the common language within the empire.在伍麥葉時期的特點是阿拉伯-傳播和通婚的阿拉伯人與本土人民,並通過阿拉伯語作為國家通用語言文字與帝國。 The dynasty collapsed because of internal tribal and geographical rivalries and a return to the principles of Islam as the foundation of the state.王朝崩潰,是因為內部的部落和地域之爭,並恢復以伊斯蘭原則為基礎的國家。 It was overthrown by the Abbasids, who massacred most members of the family.它被推翻,由abbasids ,誰屠殺了大部分家庭中的成員。 The Umayyad dynasty survived only in Spain, where Abd Al-Rahman I founded (756) the Umayyad emirate (later caliphate) of Cordoba.在伍麥葉王朝存活,只有在西班牙,那裡阿卜杜勒拉赫曼i成立( 756 )伍麥葉酋長國(後來哈里發)的科爾多瓦。

Michael W. Dols邁克爾小dols

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Shaban, MA, The Abbasid Revolution (1970) and Islamic History AD 600-750 (1971). shaban ,馬,阿巴斯革命( 1970年)和伊斯蘭歷史上公元600-750 ( 1971 ) 。


Umayyads倭馬亞王朝

General Information 一般資料

Umayyad, also Omayyad, first great Arab Muslim dynasty of caliphs (religious and secular leaders) founded by Muawiyah I in 661 and lasting until 750.伍麥葉,也omayyad ,首先是偉大的阿拉伯穆斯林王朝caliphs (宗教和世俗領袖)創辦穆阿維耶I在661和持久的,直到750人。 Uthman ibn Affan, a member of the prominent Umayyad family of Mecca, had been elected to the caliphate in 644 to succeed Umar I, but his weakness and nepotism resulted in rebellion and he was murdered in 656. uthman伊本阿番的一員,突出伍麥葉家族的麥加,已經當選為哈里發,在644成功烏馬爾我,但他的弱點和裙帶關係,導致叛亂,他是被人謀殺在656 。 Uthman was succeeded by Ali, son-in-law of the prophet Muhammad and chief of the legitimist party, which believed that only a member of Muhammad's family could rightfully hold the caliphate. uthman繼任阿里女婿的先知穆罕默德和行政的legitimist黨,也認為只有一名成員穆罕默德的家人可以理所當然地舉行哈里發。 However, Muawiyah I, governor of Syria and first Umayyad caliph, revolted against Ali and, supported by Amr, the conqueror of Egypt, gained the advantage.不過,穆阿維耶我,省長敘利亞和第一伍麥葉哈里發,反抗,對阿里和支持的AMR ,征服者的埃及,贏得了優勢。 Hailed as caliph at Jerusalem in 660, Muawiyah I was in complete control soon after the assassination of Ali the following year.被譽為哈里發在耶路撒冷的660 ,穆阿維耶我是在完全控制後不久,暗殺或下一年。 Under Muawiyah I the capital was changed from Medina to Damascus.根據穆阿維耶我的資本,改為由Medina大馬士革。 Muawiyah I developed an administrative system modeled after the Byzantine Empire and before his death in 680 had secured the throne for his son, thus putting the state on a dynastic basis.穆阿維耶我開發一個行政系統為藍本後,拜占庭帝國和死者去世前,在680名有擔保寶座,為自己的兒子,從而把國家對朝代的基礎。 Conquest was begun again with an offensive on all fronts.征服開始再次進攻,對各方面的發展。 Under Muawiyah I and his Umayyad successors, Muslim control of the Mediterranean region was completed.穆阿維耶下,我和他的伍麥葉接班人,穆斯林控制了整個地中海地區的工作已經完成。 The Arabs, led by a fierce North African Berber army commanded by Tariq, crossed from North Africa and eventually conquered Spain; in the east they met no effective opposition until they had passed the borders of India.阿拉伯人率領激烈的北非柏柏爾軍隊指揮的塔里克,越過了從北非,並最終戰勝了西班牙,在東方,他們見了沒有一個有效的反對黨,直到他們已通過邊界的印度。 They were stopped in the west by the Franks under Charles Martel and by the Byzantine Empire, which repulsed an attack on Constantinople early in the 8th century.他們被截停在西方由弗蘭克斯根據查爾斯martel和拜占庭帝國,它擊退了攻擊君士坦丁堡早在8世紀。

Under the Umayyad dynasty, political and social ascendancy remained in the hands of a few Arab families from Mecca and Medina.根據伍麥葉王朝,政治和社會向上提升仍留在少數人手中的阿拉伯家庭,從麥加和麥地。 This caused the Muslim population, which had grown enormously as the empire expanded, to become increasingly discontented, especially since the Umayyads had found it necessary to increase their income from taxation.這引起了穆斯林人口,其中增加了很大的,因為帝國擴大,成為越來越多的不滿,尤其是自倭馬亞王朝已發現有必要,以增加他們的收入來自稅收。 Lands were now taxed without regard to religion, and Muslims were exempt only from personal taxes.土地被徵稅,現在沒有關於宗教和穆斯林都不能免除只從個人所得稅。 Opposition centered in Persia where there was continued opposition to Syrian domination and where the legitimists allied themselves with the Abbasids, who claimed descent from Abbas, the uncle of the prophet Muhammad.反對派的中心位置在波斯那裡繼續反對向敘利亞統治,而legitimists專職自己與abbasids一名自稱出身的,由阿巴斯,叔叔的先知穆罕默德。 The Abbasids overthrew the Umayyads in 750, killed the caliph, Marwan II, and gained the caliphate for themselves.該abbasids推翻了倭馬亞王朝在750人,打死了哈里發,馬爾萬,第二,並獲得了哈里發的人。 Members of the Umayyad family were located and slain, except for Abd-ar-Rahman I, who escaped to Córdoba, Spain, in 756 to rule as an independent emir.委員對伍麥葉家人被尋獲遇害,除了abd -氬-拉赫曼,我的人出逃到科爾多瓦,西班牙,在756至統治作為一個獨立的埃米爾。 The Abbasids moved the capital of the empire eastward to a new city, Baghdâd, which they founded on the Tigris River.該abbasids提出資本帝國向東推進到一個新的城市, baghdâd ,他們成立於底格里斯河。


Umayyad Dynasty伍麥葉王朝

General Information 一般資料

The Umayyad Dynasty ( ummawiyy ) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Makkah clan.在伍麥葉王朝( ummawiyy )是第一個王朝的caliphs的先知穆罕默德的人並不密切相關,穆罕默德本人,但他們的同一麥加家族。 The first dynasty reigned from 661 to 750.第一王朝的統治,由661至750人。

Muawiyah had been the governor of Syria under the 3rd and 4th caliphs, Uthman ibn Affan and Ali Ben Abu Talib.穆阿維耶已總督敘利亞根據第三次和第四次caliphs , uthman伊本阿番和Ali賁阿布利布。 He fought and killed Ali in Egypt in 661 and declared himself caliph of Islam.他打和殺害阿里在埃及661 ,並聲稱自己哈里發的伊斯蘭教。 He founded the dynasty and set the capitol to Damascus.他創立了清朝,建立國會山到大馬士革。

The Umayyads were overthrown in the east by the Abbasid Dynasty.在倭馬亞王朝被推翻後,在東方,由阿巴斯王朝。 An Umayyad prince, Abd-ar-rahman I, took over the Muslim territory in Spain and founded a new Umayyad dynasty there.一個伍麥葉王子, abd -氬-拉赫曼,我接手的穆斯林領土,在西班牙創立了一個新的伍麥葉王朝。

Umayyad Caliphs (661-750) 伍麥葉caliphs ( 661-750 )

Umayyad Emirs of Cordoba (Spanish Umayyad Caliphs 929-1031) 伍麥葉埃米爾的科爾多瓦 (西班牙語伍麥葉caliphs 929-1031 )

Umayyad Caliphs of Cordoba 伍麥葉caliphs的科爾多瓦


Also, see:此外,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 可蘭經,可蘭經
Pillars of Faith 支柱的信仰
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-h adiths從第一冊的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-h adiths從第二冊的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-h adiths從第三冊的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-h adiths從書展1 0個基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短祈禱(在taqseer ) -h adiths從書展2 0鋁布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 朝聖(朝覲) -h adiths從書展2 6鋁布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 爭取事業的阿拉(傑哈德) -h adiths圖書5 2鋁布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari 同一性,獨特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths圖書9 3鋁布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義。
Early Islamic History Outline 早在伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 天房,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派,什葉派
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥迪
Sahih, al-Bukhari sahih ,鋁-布哈里
Sufism 蘇非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 阿布巴克爾
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭馬亞王朝
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) 法蒂瑪王朝(什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀教派(什葉派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆


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