神聖的訂單

一般資料

導言

聖令是幾個不同程度的受戒部委認可,由東正教,羅馬天主教和英國國教教會為東正教和羅馬天主教聖地訂單躋身七個聖禮,聖公會方面協調為"聖祭" ,或者是"普遍所謂從樓上掉了" 。

外向和可視性標誌的聖餐是強加之手,由一位主教,有時伴隨著傳遞一個物體或物體與秩序,如一個chalice和專利為一名牧師。

聖外來恩典所賦予的統籌,是強大的精神力量和權威,正確的,以各自的命令。

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原產地

像猶太人的猶太教堂,早期基督教教會組織的領導下,長者(希臘語presbyteroi ;見的行為, 14時23分) 。

在新約聖經的條款長老和主教都可以互換(見弟兄1:5-9 ) 。

雖然很少提及,執事們總是提到,在協會與主教們,他們的助手,他們分別為: (見philippians 1:1 ,一蒂莫西3:8-13 ) 。 早期教會可能已經認識到,只有這兩條命令,因為大部分新教徒爭辯。出現了一種三階也許可以認定,但是,在數字的提摩太和提多,收信人的信件,都肩負著自己的名字,曾權威的主教和執事。 過程中,建立了三倍,財政部很可能在不同地區,不同,但三種不同的命令-主教,長老,和執事-被承認的二世紀。

神職人員

個別基督教部長們還不能稱作祭司,直到3世紀時,這個詞首先應用於主教,因為他們的角色,作為慶祝的聖體聖事。

任期神父(拉丁語sacerdos ) ,隱含著祭祀部,以及聖體聖事被認為是作為犧牲品,因為它的神秘關係,以犧牲基督。

當長老被授權,以慶祝聖體聖事在4世紀,所以他們也被稱為祭司的今天,東正教,羅馬天主教和英國國教教會方面主教,司鐸和執事們視為神聖的命令,因為這兩個主教和長老功能牧師,羅馬天主教教會,直到梵蒂岡第二次會議,審議了司鐸(包括主教和長老) ,執事,和耶穌為3項命令。

小訂單

除上述三大常規,東正教教堂也承認未成年人的命令,如subdeacon讀者(讀者) ,具有從屬角色,在禮儀中。

羅馬天主教會取消訂單未成年人,在梵蒂岡第二屆大公會議。

性格

神聖的命令,如洗禮和確認,被認為有性格,那就是所賦予的權力,在統籌視為是永久性的。

它有可能成為潛在的,如果受戒的人不能擔任教會打算,但它並沒有失去。

在這方面,聖訂單以區別於以往的職能部門,如院長或archdeacon ,或榮譽稱號,如主教或主教。

管理局這樣的角色是傳達nonsacramentally並撤回時,持證人離開辦公室。

查爾斯頁價格

神聖的訂單

先進的信息

神聖的命令,通常是指以大訂單,該部在一個聖公會。

在聖公會和東正教教堂,這是主教,司鐸和執事。

在羅馬的教堂,那是主教和presbyterate算為一階,但三者之間的主教-牧師,執事,和耶穌。

未成年人的命令,通常不包括在"神聖的命令, "他們真的是指外行設置除了為特殊任務而不是神職人員,在適當的意義上來說的。

入場,進入神聖的命令,是由統籌,最重要的儀式正在鋪設上的手中。

正是這種區別,以大訂單,為未成年人的命令。

在原部長協調,始終是主教(雖然在某些例外情況似乎已經發生了,偶爾) ,但小訂單,有時也能夠傳達等。

不像羅馬天主教徒和東正教,英國聖公會不正式把統籌作為一個聖餐(雖然有些教徒做點其實持這種觀點) 。

官方處方限制聖禮條例由基督。

因為沒有確鑿的證據證明他是受命於顧,這是不妥當從樓上掉了。

它自然會預料到這樣的人不能接受的訂單教會之外,但是,尤其是在西方,這是通常認為的具有法律效力的consecrated主教傳達有效的訂單,即使他被邪說,或裂。

在這個原則的羅馬教會並不reordain那些它從正統。

升莫里斯


( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

小訂單

先進的信息

小訂單,這些訂單的部下面主要訂單數量在羅馬和東正教教堂。

在前者,耶穌通常來說算是輕微的治安,直到他們被正式列為重大治安1207 。

未成年人的命令,從那時起,是追隨者, exorcists ,讀者或講師,並doorkeepers或搬運工。

在東部教會的追隨者, exorcists , doorkeepers已經合併與subdiaconate ,但讀者和cantors依然存在。

職能的徒弟打被照明蠟燭,他們將在遊行時,準備了水和酒為聖餐,並普遍協助較高的訂單。

該exocist ,原本是關心鑄造出魔鬼。

後來他看後,慕道者。

讀者,或讀者,因為他的名字是指,從經文。

該doorkeeper ,還是波特,本來有責任排除閒雜人等。

如今實際上一無所有的職能,任何輕微的訂單生存。

他們多一點steppingstone以較高的訂單,都是授予在同一時間。

他們通常授予由主教(雖然其他場合可以這樣做) 。

有沒有鋪設就舉手表決,但一些象徵辦公室發表的,例如,一個燭台,為徒弟打,其中一個關鍵,為doorkeeper 。

升莫里斯


( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

主教

一般資料

一位主教(來自希臘字,意思是"監督員" , "警司" )的一員,最高排名的順序基督教部。

這個詞最初是應用於長老,或長老,地方教會在新約聖經。

由二維世紀辦公室主教已成為有別於並優於辦公室長輩。

神聖的訂單

天主教資訊

秩序,是適當的處置事物的平等和不平等的,由相互給予其適當的位置(聖8月, "德civ 。 dei , "十九,十三) 。

命令主要是指關係。

它是用來指定這其中的關係,是建所以通常指職級(聖( Thom , "補編" ,問:三十四, 37.2 ,專案4um ) 。

從這個意義上講,它是適用於教士和俗人(聖哲, " isaiam " , 19條,第18條;聖格雷戈。偉大的, "道義" ,三十二,二十) 。

意思是限制後,向領導層作為一個整體還是各個級別的教士。

戴爾都良和一些早期作家就曾使用這個詞,在這個意義上,但一般來說,同一個資格形容詞(戴爾都良, "德告誡脫胎換骨" ,第七章集體訴訟sacerdotalis ,集體訴訟ecclesiasticus聖格雷戈。旅行團, "維生素。 patr " ,第十,我和集體訴訟clericorum ) 。

秩序,是用來標誌不僅尤其是職級或一般狀況的神職人員,而且還向外行動,由他們所提出的,以該身份,因此主張統籌。

它也表明,有什麼區別俗人,由牧師或各職級的神職人員,並因此意味著強大的精神力量。

聖事的秩序是聖餐其中寬限期和強大的精神力量,為履行教會辦公室授予的。

基督創立教會作為一個超自然的社會,神的國度。

在這個社會中必須有權力的執政黨;也是原則,其中的成員都是實現自己的超自然的目的,即,超自然的真理,而這正是由信仰,超自然的寬限期,其中一名是正式提升到超自然秩序。

因此,除了權力的管轄範圍內,教會有權力的教學( magisterium )和權力授予的恩典(電力規程) 。

這種權力的命令是由我們的主,以他的門徒,他要繼續他的工作,並得到他的俗世的代表。

使徒保羅也收到了他們的權力來自基督說: "作為父親差遣了我,我也送你" (約翰20時21分) 。

基督擁有豐滿的權力憑藉其神職人員-他的辦公室作為救世主和調停者。

他值得的恩典,這名男子獲釋脫離罪的,其中Grace是應用於人類治療中所犧牲的聖體聖事,並立即由聖禮。

他給他的門徒的權力,提供犧牲(盧克22時19分) ,並免除聖禮(馬太28:18 ;約翰20時22分, 23 ) ;從而使它們神父。

這是事實,每一個基督徒收到sanctifying寬限期,即賦予他一個神父。

即使以色列根據舊省卻是上帝"司鐸王國" (出埃及記19:4-6 ) ,因此根據新的,所有基督徒的是"王道聖職" ( 1彼得2時09分) ,但現在卻因為那麼特殊和聖司鐸充實和完善普遍司祭(參見哥林多後3時03分, 6條;羅馬書15:16 ) 。

聖餐規程

從經文中,我們得知,使徒們任命的其他外部成年禮(強加手) ,授予外來恩典。

事實Grace是得益於立即向外部成年禮,表明基督必須就此受戒。

事實cheirontonein , cheirotonia ,這意味著選舉採用舉手方式,已經獲得了技術含義的,由作出徵收前,雙手中的第三個世紀,表明政府委任為各種命令是由外在的儀式。

我們讀到的執事們,如何傳道者"祈禱,雙手強加給他們" (使徒6時06分) 。

在第二添。來說,我和六聖保祿提醒提摩太說,他是一位主教所施加的聖保羅的手(參見一日蒂莫西4時04分) ,並提摩太是告誡任命長老由同一成年禮( 1蒂莫西5時22分;比照行為, 13時03分; 14時22分) 。

在克蘭姆, "磡" ,三, lxxii ,我們讀到的任命zachæus作為主教所施加的彼得的手。

這個詞是用來在其技術含義,克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞( " strom " ,六,十三, CVI的;比照"常量。 apost "第一,二,八, 36 ) 。

"一名神父奠定了手,但不阿拉維" ( cheirothetei歐cheirotonei ) " didasc 。 syr " ,四,三,第10 ,第11 ,第20節;科尼利厄斯, "專案fabianum " euseb , "歷史。 eccl " 。 ,六,四十三。

寬限期重視這一外部標誌,並賦予它。

"我警告你,那你挑起天主的恩典,這是祢,通過(直徑)施加的我的手" (提摩太後1時06分) 。

上下文清楚地表明,有問題,這裡的寬限期,使提摩太,以正確履行辦公室強加給他,為聖保祿繼續"上帝祂所沒有給我們的精神恐懼:但權力和愛心,以及清醒" 。

這個寬限期是永久性的,因為看來從話"你挑起的恩典,這是祢" ,我們得出同樣的結論,從I添,四, 14 ,而聖保羅說, "忽視不恩典說是你,這是給你所預言,隨著(梅塔)施加手中的神職人員" 。

這一案文表明,當聖保祿受戒提摩太後,眾長老,也奠定了自己的手後,他甚至像現在長老協助,在統籌奠定自己的手放在候選人。

聖保祿在這裡勸告提摩太教導和指揮,是一個例子。

忽視這將是一種忽視的恩典,是他。

此寬限期,因而使他的教導和指揮,以履行他的辦公室是正確的。

寬限期,然後是不是一個有魅力的禮物,但禮物的聖靈為正當履行公務。

聖事的秩序已被公認在教會等。

這是核簽所信仰處於一個特殊的神職人員(參見聖約翰chrys , "德sacerdotio " ;聖格雷戈的。 nyss , "地址中的洗禮。基督教" ) ,這需要一個專門的協調。

聖奧古斯丁,在談到洗禮和秩序,他說, "每一個都是聖餐,每次都給予一定consecration , … … 。如果雙方都是聖禮,沒有人懷疑,又是怎樣一個沒有喪失(從叛逃教堂)及其他損失" ?

( contra. epist 。 parmen 。第一,二, 28-30 ) 。

安理會的遄達說, "而中,見證著經文中,使徒傳統,並一致同意的父親,很清楚, Grace是賦予的神聖工作,其中,是由字及離港的跡象,沒有人應無疑秩序,是真真正正地和適當地之一七個聖禮的聖教會" ( sess.二十三,丙三,可3段) 。

訂貨數量

安理會的遄達( sess.二十三,可3 )確定了,除了神職人員,還有在教會其他命令,無論是主要和次要的。

雖然沒有被界定方面的訂單數量,它通常是由於七:牧師,執事,耶穌,追隨者, exorcists ,讀者, doorkeepers 。

神職人員,因此算作包括主教;如果是後者,頁數,分別有八人;若我們第一次剃度,這是在同一時間被視為一聲令下,我們有九年。

我們滿足不同的號碼在不同的教會,它似乎神秘原因的影響,他們在一定程度上( martène , "德antiq 。 eccl 。 rit 。 " ,我想,八, L時, 1 ;登青格, " rit 。東方" 。第一,二, 155 ) 。

" statuta ecclesiæ antiqua " ,列舉九個訂單,加上psalmists和點票主教和司鐸分開。

另列舉八項訂單,因此,如作者的"時點divin 。 offic " ,今年33歲,和聖dunstan的和jumièges pontificals ( martène ,第八章,第11條) ,後者不計主教,並加入康托。

無辜第三, "德骶供選部長" ,我,我,計數6個訂單,因為這樣做也是愛爾蘭門炮,而追隨者都是未知之數。

除了psalmista或康托,還有一些其他公務人員,似乎已被確認為控股訂單,如fossarii ( fossores )嚴重挖礦, hermeneutoe (口譯) , custodes martyrum等,有些人認為他們已真正令(桑色素, "委員會。德sacris eccl 。 ordin " ,第三,前11 , 7 ) ;但更可能因為他們只是把辦公室,普遍致力於教士(本篤十四, "德順, dioc " ,第八,第九,第7 ,第8 ) 。

在東部地區有相當多的各種傳統的訂單數量。

希臘教會承認,五人,主教,神父,執事,耶穌,並以饗讀者。

同樣數量的是,發現在聖約翰大馬士革( dial.矛盾manichæos ,三) ;在古希臘教會的追隨者, exorcists , doorkeepers大概只辦事處(參見登青格, " rit 。東方" ,我想, 116 ) 。

在拉丁美洲教會區分主要和次要的命令。

在東部subdiaconate被視為輕微秩序,它包括三個方面的其他輕微令(波特,驅魔,徒弟打) 。

在拉丁美洲教會神職人員, diaconate , subdiaconate是主要的,還是神聖的,訂單,即所謂的,因為他們有切身參考什麼是consecrated (聖( Thom , "補編" ,問:第三十七卷,甲三日) 。

分層訂單嚴格,所以所謂的是神聖的起源( conc. trid , sess 。二十三,可6段) 。

我們已經看到,我們的主提起的一個部,在人,他的門徒,他們收到了豐滿的權威和權力。

其中首次舉行這種演習使徒權力任命其他人的幫助和接替他們。

使徒們並不局限於自己的勞動力,以任何特定的教會,但是,隨著神的指揮,使弟子的所有男子,他們分別是傳教士的第一代。

其他人也都提到,在神聖的經文作為行使巡迴部,如那些在更廣泛的意義上的所謂使徒(羅馬書16時07分) ,或先知,教師和傳道士(以弗所4點11分) 。

並排這個流動財政部編列的經費用於普通ministrations通過任命地方部長,給誰的職責,該部通過時,完全流動部長消失(見執事) 。

此外執事等人被委任為內政部,他們是所謂的presbyteroi和episkopoi 。

有沒有記錄它們的機構,但名稱發生隨便說說的。

雖然有些人已經解釋過,任命了72弟子在路加10 ,因為該協會的presbyterate ,人們普遍認為,他們只是一個臨時任命。

我們發現眾長老在母親教會在耶路撒冷接受這些禮品的弟兄安提。

他們似乎相結合,緊密結合使徒,使徒和長老發出了命令,其中釋放gentile轉換從負擔的鑲嵌法(使徒行15:23 ) 。

在聖雅各福群會( 5:14-15 ) ,他們似乎是作為表演禮儀行動,並從聖彼得大教堂,我們得知他們是牧羊人的羊群( 1彼得5時02分) 。

主教們舉行一項權威地位( philippians一日1蒂莫西3:2 ;弟兄1時07分) ,並已被任命為牧羊人由聖靈(使徒20時28分) 。

該部均是當地出現的,由行為14時23分,當我們讀到保羅和巴納巴斯任命長老在各教會,他們在創立自己的第一次傳教之旅。

這也表明,由一個事實,即他們不得不牧羊人的羊群,那是他們獲委任,而長老有牧羊人的羊群,這是他們之間出現( 1彼得5時02分) 。

提的是留在克里特表示,他可能任命長老在每一個城市(字eolin ,山雀,一,五;比照chrys , "專案山雀, homil "第一,二,一) 。

我們不能說,從差異名目的差異官方地位,但由於該名稱在一定程度上可以互換(使徒行20:17 28 ;弟兄1:6-7 ) 。

新約聖經並沒有清楚表明區分長老和主教,我們必須深入研究其證據,在考慮到稍後的時間。

年底對在公元二世紀有一個普遍的和不容置疑的傳統,即主教和他們的上級機關日期從使徒時代(見層次的早期教會) 。

它投擲了大量光後對新約聖經的證據,而我們卻發覺原來似乎明顯,在時間的伊格可追溯到通過畜牧書信的聖保羅,大家最初的歷史母親教會在耶路撒冷,聖詹姆斯,兄弟的主,似乎是佔領陣地的主教(使徒12時17分; 15時13分; 21時18分;加拉太2時09分) ;提摩太和提多擁有完全的主教的權力,並獲得前所未有的,因此確認傳統(參見1:5弟兄1蒂莫西5時19分和22 ) 。

毫無疑問,有許多默默無聞,在新約聖經,但是,這是比重由很多原因。

該紀念碑的傳統,從來沒有給我們在教會生活中的一切豐滿的,我們不能指望這豐滿,就以內部組織的教會存在的使徒時代,從粗粗地提到,在偶然的著作新約聖經。

立場主教一定會少了很多突出的,比在稍後的時間。

最高權威的使徒,大量的charismatically天才的人,但事實上,各教堂被裁定由宗座代表誰行使主教管理局根據使徒方向,將防止這種情況特別突出。

該聯盟之間的主教和長老被關閉,並將地名仍可以互換後不久區分長老和主教被普遍承認的,例如,在iren , "副hæres " ,四, 26 , 2 。

因此,它似乎已經在新約全書,我們發現,隱晦地,毫無疑問,該部出現如此明顯。

其中的命令是聖事?

大家都同意,有一個神聖的秩序,即全部所賦予的權力,由聖餐載於最高法院命令,而其他人只包含部分(聖托馬斯, " supplem " ,問:三十七,答:我,專案2um ) 。

聖字的神職人員從來沒有被剝奪任何人承認聖事的秩序,而且,雖然沒有明確地界定,它緊隨其後,從報表安理會的遄達。

因此( sess.二十三,可2 ) , "如果任何一個仰表示,除了神職人員,有沒有在天主教教會其他命令,無論是主要和次要的,其中由於受某些步驟,預先作出神職人員,讓他被詛咒" 。

在第四章中的同屆會議後,宣布了聖秩序imprints一個人物" ,既不能被effaced也不帶走;教廷主教與理由譴責意見的人士斷言,牧師的新約全書只有臨時用電" 。

神職人員,因此從樓上掉了。

至於主教理事會遄規定:主教屬於這個神聖的設置層次,即他們是優於牧師,並認為他們有權力的確認和ordaining是適當向他們( sess.二十三,四,三,可第六條,第七條) 。

優越性主教是非常核簽在傳統中,我們已經看到上述認為兩者之間的區別神父和主教是宗徒的起源。

大部分的老年人scholastics則認為,主教是不是從樓上掉了,這輿論認定,能夠捍衛者,即使現在(例如, billot , "德sacramentis " ,第二章) ,雖然大部分的神學家舉行,這是肯定的,就是主教的做法是從樓上掉了。

對於聖事的性質的其他命令見執事;輕微的命令;耶穌。

此事,並形成

在質詢的問題和形式,這聖餐,我們必須區分三個更高的訂單和subdiaconate和小規模的訂單。

教會有提起後,也決定了他們的事,並表。

對於前者,所收到的意見,主張強加的手,也是唯一的事情。

這一點已毫無疑問,用於從一開始給它,完全和直接,授予的恩典,是屬於聖保羅和許多父親和議會。

拉丁美洲教會用它專為九年或十年幾百年,與希臘教會在這一天,沒有其他事情。

許多學術上的神學家都認為,傳統的手段是唯一的問題,即使是嚴格的等級命令,但這一立場早已被各國普遍放棄了。

其他scholastics舉行這兩個強加的雙手和傳統儀器構成此事的聖餐;這種看法仍認定維護者。

上訴提出該法令的尤金第四至亞美尼亞人,但教宗以"整合及配件問題,並表,其中,他希望亞美尼亞放入強加手中,因為長期使用,其中,他們可能因此符合使用該拉丁教會的合一,更堅定地堅持下去,由均勻禮記" (本篤十四, "德順。 dioc " ,八,十, 8 ) 。

真正的立黨之本,後者認為這是權力的教會就以聖餐。

基督,有論,建立了聖體,以便通過制定,在教會應該有一個外部的儀式,這將它自己的性質標誌,並授予司鐸的權力和相應的寬限期。

作為基督沒有阿拉維他的門徒所施加的手中,看來他留給教會的力量,確定由哪一個成年禮的權力和恩典,應賦予。

教會的決心的,尤其是成年禮,將滿足一個條件要求,以使該神學院應該生效。

教會決定了簡單的強加之手,為東亞和補充,在這個過程中的時間,傳統的文書,為西-改變它的語言符號作為根據的情況下發生,或所需時間。

形式問題的聖餐自然取決於這一點的這件事。

如果傳統的文書是否可作為全部或部分的事,換句話說,其中伴隨著它會採取措施的形式。

如果簡單強加雙手被視為唯一的事,換言之,這屬於它的是形式。

形式伴隨著強加手中包含改為" accipe spiritum密室" ,即在統籌的神父,不過,被發現與第二強加的手,在接近年底的群眾,但這些話都沒有出現在舊禮儀,也沒有在希臘語euchology 。

因此,形式是不包含在上面這些話,但在較長的祈禱陪同前施加的雙手,大致相同,從一開始的。

我們的一切都表示,關於此事,並形成屬投機性質,在實踐中,無論已訂明由教會所必須遵循的,和教會在這方面,正如在其他聖禮,堅持有所遺漏,應該予以提供。

效力聖

首因效應的聖餐是增加了sanctifying恩典。

這個問題,就是聖事的恩典,使受援國的合適和神聖部長在履行他的辦公室。

由於職務的上帝的部長是多方面和繁重的,而且是完美的,符合裁決上帝的眷顧,賦予一個特別的恩典對他的部長們。

豁免的聖禮規定的寬限期,並合法地履行神聖辦事處預示著一個特殊程度的精神,精益求精。

外部聖簽署或權力的命令,可以被接受以及可能存在的,沒有這個恩典。

Grace是需要為值得,而不是有效的,權力的行使,這是立即和不可分割的聯繫與司鐸性格。

主要作用的聖餐,是我們黨的性質,一種精神和不可磨滅的印記留下深刻印象後,靈魂,其中受贈人,是區別於其他人,被指定為部長的基督,並deputed和授權履行某些辦事處的神崇拜(總結,三,問: lxiii ,甲2 ) 。

聖事的性質,以便區別受戒,從俗人。

它使受援國在diaconate ,如電力部長正式,在神職人員中,電源提供的犧牲和免除聖禮,在主教的權力,阿拉維的新司鐸,並確定忠貞不渝。

安理會的遄達界定存在著一種品格( sess.七,可以9段) 。

它的存在是表現出特別是一個事實,即統籌喜歡的洗禮,如果有效,但絕不能重演。

雖然有爭論與條件方面的有效性,並顧,和不同看法,分別舉行不同的時間,在談到他們" ,它一直是承認一個有效的統籌不能重演。 reordinations不假設的否定該inamissible性格的秩序-它們預先假定一個前壁排序是無效的。不可能有任何疑問的錯誤作了關於無效的首次排序,但這個錯誤的,事實上葉學說的i niterability的統籌不放過" (薩爾泰"就業輔導組réordinations " , 392 ) 。

部長

普通部長聖事是主教,誰就有這個權力,在憑藉其統籌。

聖經歸咎於權力使徒和他們的繼任者(使徒6時06分; 16時22分, 1蒂莫西5時22分;提摩太後1時06分;弟兄1:5 ) ,以及父親和議會賦予的權力,向主教專。

結論。

NIC的。

我可以的。

4 , apost 。

常量。

第八, 28條"主教奠定手, ordains 。 。 。 presbyter了手,但不阿拉維的" 。

安理會舉行亞歷山大( 340 )宣布,該命令所賦予的caluthus , presbyter ,無效( athanas. , " apol 。矛盾arianos " ,第二章) 。

為定制的,據說已存在於教會亞歷山大見埃及。

也不能反對時,從所提出的事實chorepiscopi已知有祝聖司鐸,因為不可能毫無疑問,一些chorepiscopi人主教令(伊爾曼"之研究所明鏡chorbischöfe的IM東方" ,慕尼黑, 1903年;黑弗勒-勒克萊爾" conciles " ,第二章, 1197年至1237年) 。

沒有人,但一名主教,可以給任何訂單,現在沒有一個代表團,由教宗,但一個簡單的神父可能因此授權賦予輕微訂單和subdiaconate 。

人們普遍否認祭司可以授予司鐸的命令,並進行歷史記錄,當然,記錄,沒有任何實例行使這種超常部。

該diaconate不能由一個簡單的神父,根據大多數人的神學家。

這是有時會質疑,因為無辜第八據說已授予特權在修道院中的方丈都很( 1489 ) ,但道地的特許權,是很大的疑問。

為合法統籌主教必須是一個天主教徒,在與聖座共融,不受責難,並應遵守法律,為統籌。

他不能合法阿拉維任何除他自己的科目,未經批准(見下文) 。

主題

每個男性的洗禮,才能有效地得到協調。

雖然在以前,有幾個半職級文職婦女在教會(見deaconesses ) ,他們並不承認,以訂單妥善所謂,也沒有強大的精神力量。

第一個條件,合法的工作是一項神聖的天職;所理解的行動,上帝,讓他挑選一些能夠做他的特別部長會議,賦予他們的精神,心理,道德和身體素質需要裝修履行自己的為了和感召力,與他們真誠願望,進入教會國家為神的榮耀和自身的成聖。

這一現實,神聖的呼籲是體現在一般由神聖的生命權,信仰,知識相對應的適當行使的,以哪一個是提出的,沒有生理缺陷,其年齡必須根據炮(見不平順) 。

有時這一要求體現在平凡的方式(使徒1:15 ; 13時02分) ,不過,一般來講, "來電" ,是按規律辦事的教會成立於舉例提到使徒。

雖然教士和俗人有一個聲音在這次選舉中的候選人,最終的和明確的決心,在於主教。

選舉的候選人,由教士和俗人是,在性質上也證明了健身,這位主教曾親自確定候選人的資格。

公開調查舉行了關於他們的信仰和思想品德和選民的意見。

只有這樣,因為親自向選舉聚集,即成員對同一教會,被挑選的。

A specified age was required, and, though there was some diversity in different places, in general, for deacons the age was twenty-five or thirty, for priests thirty or thirty-five, for bishops thirty-five or forty or even fifty ( Apost. Const., II, i).

Nor was physical age deemed sufficient, but there were prescribed specified periods of time, during which the ordained should remain in a particular degree. The different degrees were considered not merely as steps preparatory to the priesthood, but as real church offices. In the beginning no such periods, called interstices, were appointed, though the tendency to orderly promotion is attested already in the pastoral Epistles (1 Timothy 3:3, 16). The first rules were apparently made in the fourth century. They seem to have been enforced by Siricius (385) and somewhat modified by Zosimus (418), who decreed that the office of reader or exorcist should last till the candidate was twenty, or for five years in case of those baptized as adults; four years were to be spent as acolyte or subdeacon, five years as deacon.

This was modified by Pope Gelasius (492), according to whom a layman who had been a monk might be ordained priest after one year, thus allowing three months to elapse between each ordination, and a layman who had not been a monk might be ordained priest after eighteen months.

At present the minor orders are generally conferred together on one day.

The bishops, who are the ministers of the sacrament ex officio, must inquire about the birth, person, age, title, faith, and moral character of the candidate. They must examine whether he is born of Catholic parents, and is spiritually, intellectually, morally, and physically fit for the exercise of the ministry. The age required by the canons is for subdeacons twenty-one, for deacons twenty-two, and for priests twenty-four years completed. The pope may dispense from any irregularity and the bishops generally receive some power of dispensation also with regard to age, not usually for subdeacons and deacons, but for priests. Bishops can generally dispense for one year, whilst the pope gives dispensation for over a year; a dispensation for more than eighteen months is but very rarely granted. For admission to minor orders, the testimony from the parish priest or from the master of the school where the candidate was educated--generally, therefore, the superior of the seminary--is required. For major orders further inquiries must be made. The names of the candidate must be published in the place of his birth and of his domicile and the result of such inquiries are to be forwarded to the bishop. No bishop may ordain those not belonging to his diocese by reason of birth, domicile, benefice, or familiaritas, without dimissorial letters from the candidate's bishop.

Testimonial letters are also required from all the bishops in whose dioceses the candidate has resided for over six months, after the age of seven. Transgression of this rule is punished by suspension latæ sententiæ against the ordaining bishop. In recent years several decisions insist on the strict interpretation of these rules. Subdeacons and deacons should pass one full year in these orders and they may then proceed to receive the priesthood. This is laid down by the Council of Trent (Sess. XXIII, c.xi.), which did not prescribe the time for minor orders. The bishop generally has the power to dispense from these interstices, but it is absolutely forbidden, unless a special indult be obtained, to receive two major orders or the minor orders and the subdiaconate in one day.

For the subdiaconate and the higher orders there is, moreover, required a title, ie, the right to receive maintenance from a determined source. Again, the candidate must observe the interstices, or times required to elapse between the reception of various orders; he must also have received confirmation and the lower orders preceding the one to which he is raised. This last requirement does not affect the validity of the order conferred, as every order gives a distinct and independent power. One exception is made by the majority of theologians and canonists, who are of opinion that episcopal consecration requires the previous reception of priest's orders for its validity. Others, however, maintain that episcopal power includes full priestly power, which is thus conferred by episcopal consecration. They appeal to history and bring forward cases of bishops who were consecrated without having previously received priest's orders, and though most of the cases are somewhat doubtful and can be explained on other grounds, it seems impossible to reject them all. It is further to be remembered that scholastic theologians mostly required the previous reception of priest's orders for valid episcopal consecration, because they did not consider episcopacy an order, a view which is now generally abandoned.

Obligations

For obligations attached to holy Orders see BREVIARY; CELIBACY OF THE CLERGY.

Ceremonies of Ordination

From the beginning the diaconate, priesthood, and episcopate were conferred with special rites and ceremonies. Though in the course of time there was considerable development and diversity in different parts of the Church, the imposition of hands and prayer were always and universally employed and date from Apostolic times (Acts 6:6; 13:3; 1 Timothy 4:14 ; 2 Timothy 1:6).

In the early Roman Church these sacred orders were conferred amid a great concourse of clergy and people at a solemn station. The candidates, who had been previously presented to the people, were summoned by name at the beginning of the solemn Mass. They were placed in a conspicuous position, and anyone objecting to a candidate was called upon to state his objections without fear. Silence was regarded as approval. Shortly before the Gospel, after the candidates were presented to the pope, the entire congregation was invited to prayer. All prostrating, the litanies were recited, the pope then imposed his hands upon the head of each candidate and recited the Collect with a prayer of consecration corresponding to the order conferred. The Gallican Rite was somewhat more elaborate. Besides the ceremonies used in the Roman Church, the people approving the candidates by acclamation, the hands of the deacon and the head and hands of priests and bishops were anointed with the sign of the Cross. After the seventh century the tradition of the instruments of office was added, alb and stole to the deacon, stole and planeta to the priest, ring and staff to the bishop. In the Eastern Church, after the presentation of the candidate to the congregation and their shout of approval, "He is worthy", the bishop imposed his hands upon the candidate and said the consecrating prayer.

We now give a short description of the ordination rite for priests as found in the present Roman Pontifical. All the candidates should present themselves in the church with tonsure and in clerical dress, carrying the vestments of the order to which they are to be raised, and lighted candles. They are all summoned by name, each candidate answering "Adsum". When a general ordination takes place the tonsure is given after the Introit or Kyrie, the minor orders after the Gloria, subdiaconate after the Collect, the diaconate after the Epistle, priesthood after Alleluia and Tract. After the Tract of the Mass the archdeacon summons all who are to receive the priesthood. The candidates, vested in amice, alb, girdle, stole, and maniple, with folded chasuble on left arm and a candle in their right hand, go forward and kneel around the bishop. The latter inquires of the archdeacon, who is here the representative of the Church as it were, whether the candidates are worthy to be admitted to the priesthood. The archdeacon answers in the affirmative and his testimony represents the testimony of fitness given in ancient times by the clergy and people. The bishop, then charging the congregation and insisting upon the reasons why "the Fathers decreed that the people also should be consulted", asks that, if anyone has anything to say to the prejudice of the candidates, he should come forward and state it.

The bishop then instructs and admonishes the candidates as to the duties of their new office. He kneels down in front of the altar; the ordinandi lay themselves prostrate on the carpet, and the Litany of the Saints is chanted or recited. On the conclusion of the Litany, all arise, the candidates come forward, and kneel in pairs before the bishop while he lays both hands on the head of each candidate in silence. The same is done by all priests who are present. Whilst bishop and priests keep their right hands extended, the former alone recites a prayer, inviting all to pray to God for a blessing on the candidates. After this follows the Collect and then the bishop says the Preface, towards the end of which occurs the prayer, "Grant, we beseech Thee etc." The bishop then with appropriate formulæ crosses the stole over the breast of each one and vests him with the chasuble. This is arranged to hang down in front but is folded behind. Though there is no mention of the stole in many of the most ancient Pontificals, there can be no doubt of its antiquity. The vesting with the chasuble is also very ancient and found already in Mabillon "Ord. VIII and IX." Afterwards the bishop recites a prayer calling down God's blessing on the newly-ordained. He then intones the "Veni Creator", and whilst it is being sung by the choir he anoints the hands of each with the oil of catechumens.

In England the head also was anointed in ancient times. The anointing of the hands, which in ancient times was done with chrism, or oil and chrism, was not used by the Roman Church, said Nicholas I (AD 864), though it is generally found in all ancient ordinals. It probably became a general practice in the ninth century and seems to have been derived from the British Church (Haddan and Stubbs, "Councils and Eccl. Documents", I, 141). The bishop then hands to each the chalice, containing wine and water, with a paten and a host upon it.

ite, with its corresponding formula, which as Hugo of St. Victor says ("Sacr.", III, xii), signifies the power which has already been received, is not found in the oldest rituals and probably dates back not earlier than the ninth or tenth century. When the bishop has finished the Offertory of the Mass, he seats himself before the middle of the altar and each of those ordained make an offering to him of a lighted candle. The newly-ordained priests then repeat the Mass with him, all saying the words of consecration simultaneously. Before the Communion the bishop gives the kiss of peace to one of the newly-ordained. After the Communion the priests again approach the bishop and say the Apostle's Creed. The bishop laying his hands upon each says: "Receive ye the Holy Ghost, whose sins you shall forgive they are forgiven them; and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained." This imposition of hands was introduced in the thirteenth century. The chasuble is then folded, the newly-ordained make a promise of obedience and having received the kiss of peace, return to their place.

Time and Place

During the first centuries ordination took place whenever demanded by the needs of the Church. The Roman pontiffs generally ordained in December (Amalarius, "De offic.", II, i). Pope Gelasius (494) decreed that the ordination of priests and deacons should be held at fixed times and days, viz., on the fasts of the fourth, seventh, and tenth months, also on the fasts of the beginning and midweek (Passion Sunday ) of Lent and on (holy) Saturday about sunset (Epist. ad ep. Luc., xi).

This but confirmed what Leo the Great laid down, for he seems to speak of ordination on Ember Saturdays as an Apostolic tradition (Serm. 2, de jejun. Pentec.) The ordination may take place either after sunset on the Saturday or early on Sunday morning.

The ordination to major orders took place before the Gospel.

Minor orders might be given at any day or hour. They were generally given after holy communion. At present minor orders may be given on Sundays and days of obligation (suppressed included) in the morning. For the sacred orders, a privilege to ordain on other days than those appointed by the canons, provided the ordination takes place on Sunday or day of obligation (suppressed days included), is very commonly given. Though it was always the rule that ordinations should take place in public, in time of persecution they were sometimes held in private buildings. The place of ordinations is the church. Minor orders may be conferred in any place, but it is understood that they are given in the church. The Pontifical directs that ordinations to sacred orders must be held publicly in the cathedral church in presence of the cathedral chapter, or if they be held in some other place, the clergy should be present and the principle church, as far as possible, must be made use of (cf. Conc. Trid., Sess. XXIII, c. vii).

(See SUBDEACON, DEACONS, HIERARCHY, MINOR ORDERS, ALIMENTATION).

Publication information Written by Hubert Ahaus. Transcribed by Robert B. Olson. Offered to Almighty God for the priests and brothers of the Legionaries of Christ and all the men ordained into the Priesthood of Our Lord Jesus Christ. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI. Published 1911. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York

Bibliography

The subject of ORDER is treated in its various aspects in the general works on Dogmatic Theology (Church and Sacraments). BILLOT; PESCH, De Sacr., pars II (Freiburg, 1909); TANQUEREY; HURTER; WILHELM AND SCANNELL, A Manual of Catholic Theology, II (London, 1908), 494-509; EINIG; TEPL; TOURNELY; SASSE; PALMIERI , De Romano Pontifice; PETAVIUS, De Ecclesia; HIBRARCH in Dogm., III; DE AUGUSTINIS, HALTZCLAU in Wirceburgenses.

In Moral Theology and Canon Law, LEHMKUHL; NOLDIN, De Sacr. (Innsbruck, 1906); AERTNYS; GENICOT; BALLERINI-PALMIERI; LAURENTIUS; DEVOTI; CRAISSON; LOMBARDI; EINIG in Kirchenlex., sv Ordo; FUNK in KRAUS, Real-Encyklopädie, sv Ordo; HATCH in Dictionary of Christian antiquities, sv Orders , Holy.

Special: HALLIER, De Sacris Electionibus et Ordinationibus (Paris, 1636), and in MIGNE, Theol. Cursus, XXIV; MORIN, Comment. historico-dogmaticus de sacris ecclesioe ordinationibus (Paris, 1655); MARTENE, De Antiquis Ecclesioe Ritibus (Venice, 1733); BENEDICT XIV, De Synod. Diocoesana (Louvain, 1763); WITASSE, De Sacramento Ordinis (Paris, 1717); DENZINGER, Ritus Orientalium (Würzburg, 1863); GASPARRI, Tractatus Canonicus de Sacra Ordinatione (Paris, 1894); BRUDERS, Die Verfassung der Kirche (Mainz, 1904), 365; WORDSWORTH, The Ministry of Grace (London, 1901); IDEM, Ordination Problems (London, 1909); WHITHAM, Holy Orders in Oxford Library of Practical Theology (London, 1903); MOBERLEY, Ministerial Priesthood (London, 1897); SANDAY, Conception of Priesthood (London, 1898); IDEM, Priesthood and Sacrifice, a Report (London, 1900); HARNACK, tr.

OWEN, Sources of the Apostolic Canons (London, 1895); SEMERIA, Dogma, Gerarchia e Culto (Rome, 1902); DUCHESNE, Christian Worship (London, 1903); SALTET, Les Réordinations (Paris, 1907); MERTENS, Hierarchie in de eerste seuwen des Christendoms (Amsterdam, 1908); GORE, Orders and Unity (London, 1909).

For St. Jerome's opinions see SANDERS, Etudes sur St. Jérome (Brussels, 1903), and the bibliography on Hierarchy, ibid., pp. 335-44).


Also, see:
Major Orders
Monasticism
Nuns
Convent
Friars
Ministry

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