Agnosticism不可知論

General Information 一般信息

Agnosticism is the philosophical position that it is impossible to know about the nature or existence of God. The term was coined in 1869 by Thomas H Huxley from the Greek agnostos ("unknowable") to refer to his own conviction that knowledge is impossible on many matters covered by religious doctrines. 不可知論是哲學的立場,這是不可能了解的性質或上帝存在。一詞是在1869年創造的托馬斯達赫胥黎從希臘agnostos ( “不可知” )提及他自己的信念,知識是不可能的許多所涉事項的宗教教義。 Agnosticism is therefore concerned with questions of Epistemology, the examination of human knowledge; it considers valid only knowledge that comes from ordinary and immediate experience. Agnosticism is distinct from Atheism on the one hand and Skepticism on the other. Atheists reject belief in the existence of God.不可知論因此,有關問題的認識論,考試的人類知識;它認為只有有效的知識,來自於普通的和直接的經驗。 不可知論有別於無神論,一方面以及懷疑論的問題。無神論者拒絕相信存在上帝。 Skeptics hold the strong suspicion or probabilistic estimate that God does not exist.懷疑論者持有懷疑或概率的估計,上帝是不存在的。 Agnostics refuse to make such judgments.不可知論者拒絕作出這樣的判斷。

The agnostic position is as old as philosophy and can be traced to the pre Socratics and to the skeptics of ancient Greece.在不可知的立場是一樣古老哲學可以追溯到前蘇格拉底和持懷疑態度的古希臘。 In modern times, agnosticism became prevalent during the 18th and 19th centuries, mainly because of the growing mass of scientific data that seemed to contradict the biblical position and because of the disagreement of theologians and church authorities over the use of textual and historical criticism in the interpretation of the Bible. Many of the best known philosophers have been agnostics.近代以來,不可知論成為普遍在18世紀和19世紀,主要是因為越來越多大規模的科學數據,似乎違背了聖經的立場,由於分歧的神學家和教會當局使用的文字和歷史批評解釋聖經。許多最知名的哲學家已經不可知論者。 Among them are Auguste Comte, William James, Immanuel Kant, George Santayana, and Herbert Spencer.其中有奧古斯特孔德,威廉詹姆斯,康德,喬治桑塔亞那,和赫伯特斯賓塞。

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Bibliography 目錄
RA Armstrong, Agnosticism and Theism in the Nineteenth Century (1977); S Budd, Varieties of Unbelief: Atheists and Agnostics in English Society,1850 - 1960 (1977); EA Burtt, Types of Religious Philosophy (1951); J Collins, God in Modern Philosophy (1959); TH Huxley, "Agnosticism" and "Agnosticism and Christianity," in Collected Essays (1902); B Lightman, The Origins of Agnosticism (1987); G Mavrodes, Belief in God (1970); D Mills, Overcoming Religion (1980); B Russell, Why I Am Not a Christian (1957).類風濕性關節炎阿姆斯特朗,不可知論和有神論十九世紀( 1977年) ;語布,品種不信教:無神論者和不可知論者在英語學會,一八五〇年至60年( 1977年) ;電子藝界伯特,類型的宗教哲學( 1951年) ; J柯林斯,上帝在現代哲學( 1959年) ;跳赫胥黎, “不可知論”和“不可知論和基督教, ”在文集( 1902 ) ;乙5600的起源不可知論( 1987年) ; G Mavrodes ,信仰上帝( 1970年) ; D米爾斯,克服宗教( 1980年) ;乙拉塞爾,為什麼我不是一個基督徒( 1957年) 。


Agnosticism不可知論

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Agnosticism is a term generally used for the view that we do not know either in practice or in principle whether there is a God or not.不可知論是一個長期普遍採用的觀點,即我們不知道或者在實踐中,或在原則上是否有上帝與否。 Although etymologically the term is applicable to any kind of skepticism, TH Huxley coined the term to signify religious skepticism.雖然etymologically一詞適用於任何種類的質疑,跳赫胥黎創造的任期,以表明宗教持懷疑態度。 Huxley first used the word in 1869 at a meeting of what later became the Metaphysical Society.赫胥黎首次使用這個詞於1869年的一次會議上什麼後來成為形而上的社會。 There are conflicting accounts of how Huxley came to use the term.有矛盾是如何赫胥黎來使用的術語。 He said that he used the word as antithetical to the Gnostics of early church history.他說,他用這個詞作為對立的Gnostics早期教會的歷史。 Agnosticism is to be contrasted with atheism and pantheism, as well as theism and Christianity. The theist asserts God's existence, the atheist denies it, while the agnostic professes ignorance about it, the existence of God being an insoluble problem for him.不可知論是對比無神論和泛神論,以及有神論和基督教。 有神論者聲稱的上帝的存在,否認它的無神論者,而不可知聲稱不了解它的存在,上帝是一個無法解決的問題他。 RH Hutton remembers the origin of the term as related to the reference which Paul made to the inscription on the altar to the unknown God (Acts 17:23).相對濕度赫頓回憶起源的任期有關參考保羅所作的題詞祭壇上的向未知的神(使徒17:23 ) 。

Agnosticism is now used in a number of senses: (1) as the suspension of judgment on all ultimate issues, including God, free will, immortality; (2) to describe a secular attitude toward life, such as the belief that God is irrelevant to the life of modern man; (3) to express an emotionally charged anti Christian and anticlerical attitude; (4) as a term roughly synonymous with atheism.不可知論現在使用的一些感覺: ( 1 )作為判決暫停對所有最終的問題,包括上帝,自由意志,永生; ( 2 )來描述一個世俗的生活態度,如認為上帝是無關緊要生活的現代人; ( 3 )表示,一個情緒激動的反基督教和反聖職者的態度; ( 4 )作為一個長期大致與無神論的同義詞。

While Huxley has been credited with giving the term its present popularity, there were many historical antecedents.雖然赫胥黎已記入與長期給予其目前的受歡迎程度,有許多歷史的先例。 Socrates in Plato's Republic is praised by the oracle of Delphi as the wisest man in the world because he was aware of what he did know and what he did not know.蘇格拉底在柏拉圖的共和國是稱讚甲骨文德爾福作為明智的人在世界上,因為他知道他做過什麼,知道什麼,他不知道。 By far the most important and immediate precursors of modern agnosticism were David Hume and Immanuel Kant.迄今為止,最重要和最直接前體的現代不可知論是大衛休謨和康德。 In Hume's Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding he examines the notion of a "cause".在休謨的查詢關於人類理解他檢查的概念, “事業” 。 He argues that one cannot know the cause of anything a priori.他認為,人們可以不知道什麼原因,先驗。 The idea of a cause arises primarily from the constant conjunction of two objects or things.的想法產生的原因主要來自不斷結合的兩個物體或事物。 Moreover, Hume rejects the possibility of belief in miracles.此外,休謨拒絕的可能性,相信奇蹟。

Such a belief is based upon testimony.這種信念是根據證詞。 The testimony for a miracle is always counter balanced by the universal testimony to the regularity of the natural law.證詞的一個奇蹟始終是反平衡的普遍證明了規律的自然法則。 In Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion Hume thoroughly criticizes the argument from design.關於對話自然宗教休謨徹底批判的論點從設計。 Two of his most important points are that the order observable in the universe may be the result of a principle inherent in matter itself rather than external to it and imposed upon it, and that the argument can never establish the moral attributes of God because of the widespread presence of evil in the world.他的兩個最重要的一點是,為了觀測到宇宙中可能是由於一個原則固有的問題本身,而不是外部的,並強加給它,而且論據不能成立的道德屬性的上帝,因為廣泛存在的邪惡世界。

Kant was concerned with the limits of human knowledge.康德關注的是人類極限的知識。 He argues that we cannot have any knowledge of things that are not possible objects of experience.他認為,我們不能有任何知識的東西,是不可能的物體的經驗。 Since God is not a possible object of our experience, we have no knowledge of him based upon pure reason. There may be practical reasons for believing in God, but classical theistic proofs were in principle doomed to failure.自從上帝是不是有可能反對我們的經驗,我們沒有知識,他根據純粹的理由。可能有實際的理由相信上帝,但傳統的有神論的證據是在原則上注定要失敗的。

Thus, by the end of the nineteenth century there were a number of factors which contributed to the intellectual respectability of agnosticism.因此,到19世紀末有許多因素促成的智慧受人尊敬的不可知論。 The limits of human knowledge had been widely set at the limits of sense experience.人類極限的知識進行了廣泛的規定的限制意義的經驗。 Further, it was generally accepted that natural theology had failed, leading to a critical attitude toward standards of evidence and argument in religious matters. Religious beliefs could not meet the rigorous standards applied to scientific beliefs.此外,還普遍認為,自然神學失敗,導致了批判的態度對標準的證據和理由對宗教事務。宗教信仰不能滿足嚴格的標準適用於科學的信仰。 Moreover, the physical sciences seemed to be at odds with biblical history and cosmology.此外,物理科學似乎是不符合聖經的歷史和宇宙學。 Finally, questions were being raised about the divine government of the world.最後,問題被提到政府的神聖的世界。 John Stuart Mill, for instance, argued that the world was poorly made and arbitrarily managed.彌爾,例如,認為世界是不好的進展和武斷的管理。 The goodness of God was questioned since he was the creator of hell.善良的上帝是質疑,因為他是創作者的地獄。

In the present intellectual climate agnosticism has taken a somewhat different form in the English speaking world.在目前的智力氣候不可知論已經採取了一些不同的形式在講英語的世界。 Many logical positivists and analytic philosophers have argued that the problem with theism is not one of evidence or argument, but of meaning and logical coherence.許多邏輯實證主義和分析哲學家認為,有神論的問題不是一個證據或論據,但意義和邏輯的一致性。 If religious discourse is understood as quasi scientific statements about the nature of reality and a transcendent being, insoluble problems arise.如果宗教話語被理解為科學報表準的性質現實和超越目前無法解決的問題出現。 "God exists" and "God loves me" should be understood as meaningless about reality. “上帝存在”和“上帝愛我”應理解為對現實的意義。 That is, there is nothing in sense experience that will count for or against their truth.這就是說,有任何意義的經驗,將數或反對其真相。

Many who reject theism and Christianity prefer to characterize themselves as agnostics rather than atheists. The perceived advantages are twofold. 許多誰反對有神論和基督教特徵寧願自己不可知論者,而不是無神論者。優勢的知覺是雙重的。 First, agnosticism avoids the social stigma associated with atheism.首先,不可知論避免社會恥辱與無神論。 Socially, atheism is not as respectable as agnosticism.在社會方面,無神論是不是作為受人尊敬的不可知論。 Second, agnosticism at least appears to avoid the burden of proof.第二,不可知論,至少出現,以避免舉證責任。 To assert or deny anything requires a reason.斷言或否認任何事情需要一個理由。 The profession of ignorance, however, needs no reasons.專業的無知,然而,需要任何理由。

While there may be a certain intellectual respectability to embracing agnosticism, William James points out there is great practical danger.雖然可能有一定的尊嚴,以擁抱不可知論,威廉詹姆斯指出,有很大的實際危險。 James notes that there are some questions that are live, momentous, and forced.詹姆斯指出,有一些問題,是生活,重大,強迫。 One must believe or disbelieve, even if the evidence is ambiguous, or risk great loss.我們必須相信或懷疑,即使證據是含糊不清,或風險巨大的損失。 The question of God's existence is such a question for James.這個問題上帝的存在就是這樣一個問題,詹姆斯。 For Christians, however, the evidence for God's existence and the truth of Christianity is decisively decided in God's self revelation in the Bible and the incarnation of Jesus Christ.對於基督徒,但是,證據在上帝的存在和真理的基督教是果斷決定在上帝的自我啟示在聖經和化身耶穌基督。

PD Feinberg帕金森病范伯格
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
RA Armstrong, Agnosticism and Theism in the Nine - teenth Century; J Collins, God in Modern Philosophy; TH Huxley, "Agnosticism" and "Agnosticism and Christianity," in Collected Essays, V; J Pieper, Belief and Faith; R Flint, Agnosticism.類風濕性關節炎阿姆斯特朗,不可知論和有神論在9 -t eenth世紀; J柯林斯,上帝在現代哲學;跳赫胥黎, “不可知論”和“不可知論和基督教, ”在文集,第五; J皮珀,信仰和信念; R弗林特不可知論。


Agnosticism不可知論

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

A philosophical theory of the limitations of knowledge, professing doubt of or disbelief in some or all of the powers of knowing possessed by the human mind.哲學理論的局限性知識,信奉疑問或懷疑在某些或所有的權力知道所擁有的人的心靈。

I. EXPOSITION一,博覽會

(1) The word Agnostic (Greek a, privative + gnostikós "knowing") was coined by Professor Huxley in 1869 to describe the mental attitude of one who regarded as futile all attempts to know the reality corresponding to our ultimate scientific, philosophic, and religious ideas. ( 1 )字不可知(希臘一個, privative + gnostikós “明知” )是由赫胥黎教授於1869年描述的心理態度的一個誰被視為無用的一切企圖,知道相應的現實給我們最終的科學,哲學,以及宗教思想。 As first employed by Huxley, the new term suggested the contrast between his own unpretentious ignorance and the vain knowledge which the Gnostics of the second and third century claimed to possess.作為第一次採用赫胥黎,新的任期建議對比自己謙遜的無知和徒勞的知識的Gnostics第二和第三世紀聲稱擁有。 This antithesis served to discredit the conclusions of natural theology, or theistic reasoning, by classing them with the idle vapourings of Gnosticism.這對立面送達詆毀的結論自然神學,或有神論的推理,他們的分類與閒置vapourings的諾斯替主義。 The classification was unfair, the attempted antithesis overdrawn. It is rather the Gnostic and the Agnostic who are the real extremists; the former extending the bounds of knowledge, and the latter narrowing them, unduly. Natural theology, or theism, occupies the middle ground between these extremes, and should have been disassociated both from the Gnostic position, that the mind can know everything, and from the Agnostic position, that it can know nothing concerning the truths of religion.分類是不公平的,企圖對立面透支。相當的諾斯底和不可知誰是真正的極端主義分子;前擴大知識的範圍,後者縮小他們,不適當的。自然神學,或有神論,佔據了中間立場這些極端之間,應該已經脫離無論從諾斯底的立場,即心靈可以知道的一切,從不可知的立場,它可以什麼都不知道的關於真理的宗教。 (See GNOSTICISM.) (見諾斯替主義。 )

(2) Agnosticism, as a general term in philosophy, is frequently employed to express any conscious attitude of doubt, denial, or disbelief, towards some, or even all, of man's powers of knowing or objects of knowledge. ( 2 )不可知論,作為一般的哲學,往往是用來表示任何自覺的態度毫無疑問,否定或疑惑,對一些人來說,甚至所有的人的權力,明知或物體的知識。 The meaning of the term may accordingly vary, like that of the other word "Scepticism", which it has largely replaced, from partial to complete Agnosticism; it may be our knowledge of the world, of the self, or of God, that is questioned; or it may be the knowableness of all three, and the validity of any knowledge, whether of sense or intellect, science or philosophy, history, ethics, religion.一詞的含義,可相應地有所不同,如其他單詞“懷疑論” ,它在很大程度上取代,從部分完成不可知論,它可能是我們的知識世界,自我,或上帝,這是質疑;或它可能是knowableness所有三個,和有效性的任何知識,無論是意識,或智力,科學或哲學,歷史,倫理,宗教。 The variable element in the term is the group of objects, or propositions, to which it refers; the invariable element, the attitude of learned ignorance it always implies towards the possibility of acquiring knowledge.可變因素是長期的物體,或命題,它是指;不變的因素,態度的教訓無知它總是意味著實現的可能性,獲取知識。

(3) Agnosticism, as a term of modern philosophy, is used to describe those theories of the limitations of human knowledge which deny the constitutional ability of the mind to know reality and conclude with the recognition of an intrinsically Unknowable. ( 3 )不可知論,作為一項長期的現代理念,這是用來形容這些理論的局限性,人類的知識,否認憲法能力銘記知道現實和結束時承認一個內在的不可知。 The existence of "absolute reality" is usually affirmed while, at the same time, its knowableness is denied.存在“絕對的現實”通常是肯定的同時,在同一時間,其knowableness被拒絕。 Kant, Hamilton, Mansel, and Spencer make this affirmation an integral part of their philosophic systems.康德,哈密爾頓, Mansel ,並斯潘塞作出這一申明的一個組成部分,他們的哲學體系。 The Phenomenalists, however, deny the assertion outright, while the Positivists, Comte and Mill, suspend judgment concerning the existence of "something beyond phenomena".該Phenomenalists ,但拒絕徹底的斷言,而實證主義,孔德和軋機,暫停有關判決存在“一些超越現象” 。 (See POSITIVISM.) (見實證。 )

(4) Modern Agnosticism differs from its ancient prototype. ( 4 )現代不可知論不同於其古老的原型。 Its genesis is not due to a reactionary spirit of protest, and a collection of sceptical arguments, against "dogmatic systems" of philosophy in vogue, so much as to an adverse criticism of man's knowing-powers in answer to the fundamental question: What can we know?其成因是由於反動精神的抗議,並收集持懷疑態度的論點,反對“教條式系統”的哲學盛行,這麼多為不利的批評人的知道,權力在回答的基本問題:什麼可以我們知道嗎? Kant, who was the first to raise this question, in his memorable reply to Hume, answered it by a distinction between "knowable phenomena" and "unknowable things-in-themselves".康德,誰是第一個提出這個問題,在他難忘的答复休謨,回答它的區分“可知現象”和“不可知的東西在自己的” 。 Hamilton soon followed with his doctrine that "we know only the relations of things".隨後漢密爾頓與他的學說, “我們只知道關係的事情。 ” Modern Agnosticism is thus closely associated with Kant's distinction and Hamilton's principle of relativity.現代不可知論因此,密切聯繫康德的區別和漢密爾頓的原則,相關性。 It asserts our inability to know the reality corresponding to our ultimate scientific, philosophic, or religious ideas.它聲稱我們無法知道事實相應的我們最終的科學,哲學,或宗教思想。

(5) Agnosticism, with special reference to theology, is a name for any theory which denies that it is possible for man to acquire knowledge of God. ( 5 )不可知論,並特別提到神學,是一個名稱的任何理論,否認它有可能為人類獲取知識的上帝。 It may assume either a religious or an anti-religious form, according as it is confined to a criticism of rational knowledge or extended to a criticism of belief.它可能承擔任何宗教或反宗教的形式,根據它僅限於批評或者合理的知識擴展到批評的信仰。 De Bonald (1754-1840), in his theory that language is of divine origin, containing, preserving, and transmitting the primitive revelation of Good to man; De Lammenais (1782-1854), in his theory that individual reason is powerless, and social reason alone competent; Bonetty (1798-1879), in his advocacy of faith in God, the Scriptures, and the Church, afford instances of Catholic theologians attempting to combine belief in moral and religious truths with the denial that valid knowledge of the same is attainable by reason apart from revelation and tradition.德博納爾( 1754年至1840年) ,在他的理論,語言是神聖的起源,載,維護,並轉遞原啟示人為善;德Lammenais ( 1782年至1854年) ,在他的理論,個人原因是無能為力的,並社會原因,主管; Bonetty ( 1798年至1879年) ,在他的倡導對上帝的信仰,聖經和教會,負擔情況的天主教神學家試圖結合信仰道德和宗教的真理與否定的有效知識的同時是可以實現的原因除了揭露和傳統。 To these systems of Fideism and Traditionalism should be added the theory of Mansel (1820-71), which Spencer regarded as a confession of Agnosticism, that the very inability of reason to know the being and attributes of God proves that revelation is necessary to supplement the mind's shortcomings.這些制度的信仰主義和傳統應補充的理論Mansel ( 1820至1871年) ,其中斯賓塞視為供認不可知論,這非常無力的理由知道正在和屬性證明上帝的啟示是必要的補充心靈的缺點。 This attitude of criticising knowledge, but not faith, was also a feature of Sir William Hamilton's philosophy.這種態度的批評知識,但沒有信心,這也是一個特點威廉爵士漢密爾頓的哲學。 (See FIDEISM and TRADITIONALISM.) (見信仰主義和傳統。 )

(6) The extreme view that knowledge of God is impossible, even with the aid of revelation, is the latest form of religious Agnosticism. ( 6 )極端的觀點,即上帝的知識是不可能的,即使有援助的啟示,是最新形式的宗教不可知論。 The new theory regards religion and science as two distinct and separate accounts of experience, and seeks to combine an agnostic intellect with a believing heart.新理論認為宗教和科學是兩個不同的和單獨帳戶的經驗,並力求把一個不可知的智慧與相信的心。 It has been aptly called "mental book-keeping by double entry".它已被恰當地稱為“心理簿記雙進入” 。 Ritschl, reviving Kant's separatist distinction of theoretical from practical reason, proclaims that the idea of God contains not so much as a grain of reasoned knowledge; it is merely "an attractive ideal", having moral and religious, but no objective, scientific, value for the believer who accepts it. Ritschl ,恢復康德的分裂主義理論的區別從實際理由,宣布的想法,上帝包含與其說作為糧食的理性知識,它僅僅是“有吸引力的理想” ,在道德和宗教,但沒有客觀,科學,價值為信徒誰接受它。 Harnack locates the essence of Christianity in a filial relation felt towards an unknowable God the Father. Sabatier considers the words God, Father, as symbols which register the feelings of the human heart towards the Great Unknowable of the intellect.哈納克座落的本質基督教在孝道的關係感到邁向不可知的聖父。薩巴蒂爾認為上帝的話,爸爸,作為符號註冊的感情,對人體心臟大不可知的智慧。

(7) Recent Agnosticism is also to a great extent anti-religious, criticizing adversely not only the knowledge we have of God, but the grounds of belief in Him as well. ( 7 )最近的不可知論也是在很大的程度反宗教的,批評的不利不僅是知識,我們的上帝,但理由相信他。 A combination of Agnosticism with Atheism, rather than with sentimental irrational belief, is the course adopted by many.結合不可知論與無神論,而不是感情用事不合理的信念,當然是通過了很多。 The idea of God is eliminated both from the systematic and personal view which is taken of the world and of life.的想法,上帝是消除來自系統和個人認為這是考慮到世界和生活。 The attitude of "solemnly suspended judgment" shades off first into indifference towards religion, as an inscrutable affair at best, and next into disbelief.的態度“莊嚴判決暫停”色調將先對宗教漠不關心,作為一個高深莫測的事最好,明年到難以置信。 The Agnostic does not always merely abstain from either affirming or denying the existence of God, but crosses over to the old position of theoretic Atheism and, on the plea of insufficient evidence, ceases even to believe that God exists.在不可知並不僅僅或者棄權的肯定或否定上帝存在,但跨越的舊理論的地位和無神論,在認罪的證據不足,甚至不再相信上帝存在。 While, therefore, not to be identified with Atheism, Agnosticism is often found in combination with it.因此,雖然不能確定與無神論,不可知論往往是在與它相結合。 (See ATHEISM.) (見無神論。 )

II.二。 TOTAL AGNOSTICISM SELF-REFUTING總不可知論自我駁斥

Total or complete Agnosticism--see (2)--is self-refuting.共計或完整的不可知論-見( 2 ) -是自我駁。 The fact of its ever having existed, even in the formula of Arcesilaos, "I know nothing, not even that I know nothing", is questioned.事實上,它曾經存在,即使是在公式Arcesilaos , “我什麼都不知道,甚至沒有,我什麼都不知道” ,是質疑。 It is impossible to construct theoretically a self-consistent scheme of total nescience, doubt, unbelief.這是不可能的建設理論上的自我一致的計劃總nescience ,毫無疑問,不信教。 The mind which undertook to prove its own utter incompetence would have to assume, while so doing, that it was competent to perform the allotted task.心靈的承諾,證明自己完全不稱職將不得不承擔,而這樣做,這是能力勝任所分配的任務。 Besides, it would be Impossible to apply such a theory practically; and a theory wholly subversive of reason, contradictory to conscience, and inapplicable to conduct is a philosophy of unreason out of place in a world of law.此外,就不可能適用於這樣的理論實踐和理論完全顛覆的原因,矛盾的良知,不適用的行為是一種哲學的非理性了發生在世界各地的法律。 It is the systems of partial Agnosticism, therefore, which merit examination.這是該系統的部分不可知論,因此,值得研究。 These do not aim at constructing a complete philosophy of the Unknowable, but at excluding special kinds of truth, notably religious, from the domain of knowledge They are buildings designedly left unfinished.這些的目的並不是要建設一個完整的哲學的不可知,但不計特殊類型的真相,特別是宗教,從域的知識,他們是故意留下的建築物完成。

III.三。 KANT'S DISTINCTION BETWEEN APPEARANCE AND REALITY EXAMINED康德區分外觀和現實審查

Kant's idea of "a world of things apart from the world we know" furnished the starting-point of the modern movement towards constructing a philosophy of the Unknowable.康德的想法, “一個世界的事情除了我們所知道的世界”提供了出發點的現代走向建設一個哲學的不可知。 With the laudable intention of silencing the sceptic Hume, he showed that the latter's analysis of human experience into particular sense-impressions was faulty and incomplete, inasmuch as it failed to recognize the universal and necessary elements present in human thought.隨著值得稱讚的打算沉默休謨的懷疑,他表明,後者的分析,人類經驗特別是感官印象是錯誤的和不完整的,因為它沒有認識到普遍和必要的元素存在於人的思想。 Kant accordingly proceeded to construct a theory of knowledge which should emphasize the features of human thought neglected by Hume.康德進行相應的建設的理論知識,應強調的特點人類思想忽視了休謨。 He assumed that universality, necessity, causality, space, and time were merely the mind's constitutional way of looking at things, and in no sense derived from experience.他認為,普遍性,必要性,因果關係,空間,時間僅僅是心靈的憲政方式來看待事物,在沒有任何意義的經驗所得。 The result was that he had to admit the mind's incapacity for knowing the reality of the world, the soul, or God, and was forced to take refuge against Hume's scepticism in the categorical imperative "Thou shalt" of the "moral reason".其結果是,他不得不承認頭腦無行為能力的認識世界的現實,靈魂,或上帝,被迫採取避難對休謨的懷疑主義在絕對必要“你應該”的“道義上的理由” 。 He had made "pure reason" powerless by his transfer of causality and necessity from the objects of thought to the thinking subject.他提出了“純粹理性” ,他無能為力轉讓的因果關係和必要性的對象從思想的思想主題。

To discredit this idea of a "reality" inaccessibly hidden behind "appearances", it is sufficient to point out the gratuitous assumptions on which it is based. Kant's radical mistake was, to prejudge, instead of investigating, the conditions under which the acquisition of knowledge becomes possible.詆毀這一想法的“現實”背後隱藏inaccessibly “露面” ,這是足以指出,無端的假設它是基於。康德的根本錯誤是,預先判斷,而不是調查,在何種條件下購置知識成為可能。 No proof was offered of the arbitrary assumption that the categories are wholly subjective; proof is not even possible.沒有證據證明提供的任意假設,即類是完全主觀的;證明甚至沒有可能的。 "The fact that a category lives subjectively in the act of knowing is no proof that the category does not at the same time truly express the nature of the reality known", [Seth, "Two Lectures on Theism" (New York, 1897) p. “事實上,一類生命中的主觀行為,明知是沒有證據證明的類別不同時表示,真正的性質眾所周知的現實” , [塞思, “兩個講座有神論” (紐約, 1897 )頁 19.] The harmony of the mind's function with the objects it perceives and the relations it discovers shows that the ability of the mind to reach reality is involved in our very acts of perception. 19 。 ]和諧心靈的功能與它認為物體的關係和發現表明,該能力將達到銘記現實是參與我們的行為的看法。 Yet Kant, substituting theory for fact, would disqualify the mind for its task of knowing the actual world we live in, and invent a hinterland of things-in-themselves never known as they are, but only as they appear to be.然而,康德,代理論的事實,將取消頭腦的任務,了解實際我們居住的世界,並發明一種腹地的東西在自己從來不知道他們,但只因為它們似乎是。 This use of a purely speculative principle to criticize the actual contents of human experience, is unjustifiable.這種使用一個純粹的投機性原則,批評的實際內容的人類經驗,是沒有道理的。 Knowledge is a living process to be concretely investigated, not a mechanical affair for abstract reason to play with by introducing artificial severances of thought from object, and of reality from appearance.知識是生活進程的具體調查,而不是機械內政,抽象的原因發揮引進人工severances的思想從物件,從現實的外觀。 Once knowledge is regarded as a synthetic act of a self-active subject, the gap artificially created between subject and object, reality and appearance, closes of itself.一旦知識被視為是一種合成的行為的自我積極的主題,人為的差距之間建立主體與客體,現實和外觀,關閉的本身。 (See KANT, PHILOSOPHY OF.) (見康德哲學。 )

IV.四。 HAMILTON'S DOCTRINE OF RELATIVITY EXAMINED漢密爾頓的相對論理論研究

Sir William Hamilton contributed the philosophical principle on which modern Agnosticism rests, in his doctrine that "all knowledge is relative".威廉爵士漢密爾頓貢獻的哲學原理現代不可知論在於,在他的學說, “所有的知識是相對的。 ” To know is to condition; to know the Unconditioned (Absolute, or Infinite) is therefore, impossible, our best efforts resulting in "mere negations of thought".要知道是條件;知道無條件(絕對或無限) ,因此,不可能的,我們盡了最大努力造成“僅僅是否定的思想。 ” This doctrine of relativity contains two serious equivocations which, when pointed out, reveal the basic difference between the philosophies of Agnosticism and of Theism.這一理論相對論包含兩個嚴重的含糊,當指出的那樣,揭示的基本差異哲學的不可知論和有神論。 The first is in the word "relativity".首先是在用“相對論” 。 The statement that knowledge is "relative" may mean simply that to know anything, whether the world or God, we must know it as manifesting itself to us under the laws and relations of our own consciousness; apart from which relations of self-manifestation it would be for us an isolated, unknowable blank.聲明認為知識是“親屬”可能意味著簡單地知道什麼,無論是世界或上帝,我們必須知道它作為體現我們的法律關係和我們自己的意識;除了這些關係的自我表現它將是我們一個孤立的,不可知的空白。 Thus understood, the doctrine of relativity states the actual human method of knowing the world, the soul, the self, God, grace and the supernatural.因此,理解,相對論學說的國家的實際人體的方法知道的世界上,靈魂,自我,上帝,寬限期和超自然的。 Who would hold that we know God, naturally, in any other way than through the manifestations He makes of Himself in mind and nature?誰將舉行,我們知道上帝,自然,以任何其他方式而不是通過他的表現使自己的思想和性質?

But Hamilton understood the principle of relativity to mean that "we know only the relations of things"; only the Relative, never the Absolute.但是漢密爾頓的原則的理解相對論的意思, “我們只知道關係的事情” ,只有相對,沒有絕對。 A negative conclusion, fixing a limit to what we can know, was thus drawn from a principle which of itself merely affirms the method, but settles nothing as to the limits, of our knowledge.否定的結論,確定限制我們可以知道,因此,從這一原則本身只是確認方法,但沒有為平息的限制,我們的知識。 This arbitrary interpretation of a method as a limitation is the centre of the Agnostic position against Theism.這種任意解釋的方法作為限制的中心不可知的立場,反對有神論。 An ideally perfect possible knowledge is contrasted with the unperfect yet none the less true, knowledge which we actually possess.一個理想完美的知識是可能的對比與unperfect還沒有真正的少,知識,我們實際擁有。 By thus assuming "ideal comprehension" as a standard by which to criticize "real apprehension", the Agnostic invalidates, apparently, the little that we do know, as at present constituted, by the more we might know if our mental constitution were other than it is.因此,假定的“理想的理解”作為一個標準來批判“真正的恐懼” ,無效的不可知,顯然,小,我們知道,目前的組成,由以上我們可以知道,如果我們的精神憲法以外的其他它是。 The Theist, however, recognizing that the limits of human knowledge are to be determined by fact, not by speculation, refuses to prejudge the issue, and proceeds to investigate what we can legitimately know of God through His effects or manifestations.在有神論者,但是,認識到人類極限的知識是確定的事實,而不是投機,拒絕預先判斷問題,並著手進行調查,我們可以合理地知道上帝通過他的影響或表現形式。

The second serious equivocation is in the terms "Absolute", "Infinite", "Unconditioned".第二個嚴重的是含糊的條款“絕對” , “無限” , “無條件” 。 The Agnostic has in mind, when he uses these terms, that vague general idea of being which our mind reaches by emptying concrete reality of all its particular contents.在不可知的心裡,當他利用這些條件,即模糊總體思路是,我們所銘記達到混凝土胃排空現實,尤其是其所有內容。 The result of this emptying process is the Indefinite of abstract, as compared with the Definite of concrete, thought.這樣做的結果排空過程是不定的抽象,而具體的定性,思想。 It is this Indefinite which the Agnostic exhibits as the utterly Unrelated, Unconditioned. But this is not the Absolute in question.正是這種不定的不可知的展品完全無關,無條件。但這不是絕對的問題。 Our inability to know such an Absolute, being simply our inability to define the indefinite, to condition the unconditioned, is an irrelevant truism.我們無法知道,這樣一個絕對的,只是目前我們不能無限期地界定,以條件是無條件,是一個不相干的真理。 The absolute in question with Theists is the real, not the logical; the Infinite in question is the actual Infinite of realized perfection, not the Indefinite of thought.絕對有問題與有神論者是真正的,而不是邏輯;無限的問題是無限的實際完美的實現,而不是無限期的思路。 The All-perfect is the idea of God, not the All-imperfect, two polar opposites frequently mistaken for each other by Pantheists and Materialists from the days of the Ionians to our own. The Agnostic, therefore, displaces the whole Theistic problem when he substitutes a logical Absolute, defined as "that which excludes all relations outer and inner", for the real.全完美的想法是上帝,而不是全不完善,兩個對立的兩極常常誤認為是對方的Pantheists和唯物論從天的Ionians我們自己。不可知的,因此,取代了整個神的問題時,他合乎邏輯的替代品絕對的,界定為“是排除一切關係內,外”的現實。 Examination of our experience shows that the only relation which the Absolute essentially excludes is the relation of real dependence upon anything else.檢驗我們的經驗表明,只有其中的關係基本上排除了絕對的關係是真正的依賴別的。 We have no right in reason to define it as the non-related.我們沒有權利的理由來定義它作為非相關。 In fact, it manifests itself as the causal, sustaining ground of all relations.事實上,它體現的因果關係,保持地面的所有關係。 Whether our knowledge of this real Absolute, or God, deserves to be characterized as wholly negative, is consequently a distinct problem (see VI).無論我們的知識,這種真正的絕對或上帝,應該被定性為全負,因此是一個獨特的問題(見六) 。

V. SPENCER'S DOCTRINE OF THE UNKNOWABLE EXAMINED五,斯潘塞氏理論的不可知的審查

According to Herbert Spencer, the doctrine that all knowledge is relative cannot be intelligibly stated Without postulating the existence of the Absolute.根據斯賓塞的理論,所有的知識是相對的不能明了說沒有假定的存在絕對的。 The momentum of thought inevitably carries us beyond conditioned existence (definite consciousness) to unconditioned existence (indefinite consciousness).這一勢頭的思想不可避免地開展超出我們的條件存在(明確的意識) ,以無條件的存在(無限期意識) 。 The existence of Absolute Reality must therefore be affirmed.存在絕對現實因此,必須予以肯定。 Spencer thus made a distinct advance upon the philosophy of Comte and Mill, which maintained a non-committal attitude on the question of any absolute existence.斯潘塞因此作出了獨特的推動哲學孔德和軋機,這保持了非初級態度的問題上存在任何絕對的。 Hamilton and Mansel admitted the existence of the Infinite on faith, denying only man's ability to form a positive conception of it.漢密爾頓和Mansel承認存在著無限的信仰,不僅剝奪人的能力,形成一個積極的概念,它。 Mansel's test for a valid conception of anything is an exhaustive grasp of its positive contents--a test so ideal as to invalidate knowledge of the finite and infinite alike. Mansel的測試有效的概念,什麼是一個詳盡的掌握其積極的內容-一個理想的測試,以便為無效知識的有限和無限的一樣。 Spencer's test is "inability to conceive the opposite".斯賓塞的試驗是“無法想像的相反。 ” But since he understood "to conceive" as meaning "to construct a mental image", the consequence was that the highest conceptions of science and religion--matter, space, time, the Infinite--failed to correspond to his assumed standard, and were declared to be "mere symbols of the real, not actual cognitions of it at all".但是,由於他的理解“想像”的意思是“建設一個精神形象” ,其後果是最高的概念,科學與宗教-此事,空間,時間,無限-未能符合他的假定的標準,被宣布為“純粹的象徵,真正的,而不是實際的認識它在所有” 。 He was thus led to seek the basis and reconciliation of science, philosophy, and religion in the common recognition of Unknowable Reality as the object of man's constant pursuit and worship.因此,他領導的爭取與和解的基礎上對科學,哲學,宗教的共同認識到不可知現實為對象的人的不斷追求和崇拜。 The non-existence of the Absolute is unthinkable; all efforts to know positively what the Absolute is result in contradictions.不存在絕對是不可想像的;一切努力,積極地知道什麼是絕對矛盾的結果。

Spencer's adverse criticism of all knowledge and belief, as affording no insight into the ultimate nature of reality, rests on glaring assumptions.斯賓塞的不利批評的所有知識和信仰,因為沒有給予深入的最終性質的現實,在於突出的假設。 The assumption that every idea is "symbolic" which cannot be vividly realized in thought is arbitrary as to be decisive against his entire system; it is a pre-judgment, not a valid canon of inductive criticism, which he constantly employs.假定每一個想法是“象徵性”的,不能被生動地實現思想是武斷,是決定性的對他的整個系統,它是一種預先判斷,而不是一個有效的佳能誘導的批評,他不斷地採用。 From the fact that we can form no conception of infinity, as we picture an object or recall a scene, it does not follow that we have no apprehension of the Infinite.從事實上,我們可以形成任何概念的無窮,因為我們了解一個對象或記得一個場景,但這並不意味著我們沒有逮捕無限。 We constantly apprehend things of which we can distinctly frame no mental image.我們不斷逮捕的事情,我們可以明顯的框架沒有精神的形象。 Spencer merely contrasts our picturesque with our unpicturable forms of thought, using the former to criticize the latter adversely.斯賓塞僅僅如畫的對比我們與我們的unpicturable形式的思想,利用前者批評後者不利影響。 The contradictions which he discovers are all reducible to this contrast of definite with indefinite thoughts and disappear when we have in mind a real Infinite of perfection, not a logical Absolute.的矛盾,他發現都還原此相反的明確無限期的想法和消失時,我們想到一個真正的無限完美的,而不是一個絕對合乎邏輯的。 Spencer's attempt to stop finally at the mere affirmation that the Absolute exists he himself proved to be impossible.斯賓塞的企圖最終停止在僅僅肯定絕對存在他本人被證明是不可能的。 He frequently describes the Unknowable as the "Power manifesting itself in phenomena".他經常介紹了不可知的“國中表現出來的現象。 ” This physical description is a surrender of his own position and a virtual acceptance of the principle of Theism, that the Absolute is known through, not apart from, its manifestations.這說明體育是一個交出自己的立場,並接受一個虛擬的原則,有神論,這絕對是已知的通過,而不是之外,其表現形式。 If the Absolute can be known as physical power, surely it can be known as Intelligent Personal Power, by taking not the lowest, but the highest, manifestations of power known to us as the basis for a less inadequate conception.如果絕對可以被稱為人身權,當然它可以被稱為智能個人權力,採取不是最低的,但最高權力的表現我們知道為基礎,那麼不足的概念。 Blank existence is no final stopping-place for human thought.空白的存在是沒有最終停止位為人類思想。 The only rational course is to conceive God under the highest manifestations of Himself and to remember while so doing that we are describing, not defining, His abysmal nature.唯一合理的當然是想像上帝之下的最高表現自己,要記住,而這樣做的,我們所描述的,而不是界定,他糟糕的性質。 It is not a question of degrading God to our level, but of not conceiving Him below that level as unconscious energy.這不是一個問題,有辱人格的上帝給我們的水平,但沒有他設想以下的水平無意識能源。 Spencer's further attempt to empty religion and science of their respective rational contents, so as to leave only a blank abstraction or symbol for the final object of both, is a gross confusion, again, of the indefinite of thought with the infinite of reality.斯賓塞的進一步企圖空宗教和科學各自的合理的內容,以便僅僅留下一個空白抽象的或符號的最後兩個對象,是一種嚴重的混亂,再次無限期的思想與無限的現實。 A religion wholly cut off from belief, worship, and conduct never existed.一個宗教完全切斷了信仰,崇拜,並進行根本不存在。 Religion must know its object to some extent or be mere irrational emotion.宗教必須知道其目的在一定程度上或僅僅是不合理的情緒。 All religion recognizes mystery; truth and reality imperfectly known, not wholly unknowable.承認所有宗教神秘;真相與現實完美眾所周知,沒有完全不可知的。 The distinction of "knowable phenomena from unknowable reality behind phenomena" breaks down at every turn; and Spencer well illustrates how easy it is to mistake simplified thoughts for the original simplicities of things.這種區別的“可知不可知的現象,從現象背後的現實”打破了動輒;和斯賓塞以及說明是多麼容易的錯誤思想簡化為原來的simplicities的事情。 His category of the Unknowable is a convenient receptacle for anything one may choose to put into it, because no rational statement concerning its contents is possible.他類別的不可知是一個方便的盛器任何人可以選擇投入,因為沒有合理的聲明的內容是可能的。 In fact, Spencer calmly affirms the identity of the two "unknowables" of Religion and Science, without appearing to realize that neither in reason nor according to his own principles is there any foundation for this most dogmatic of statements.事實上,斯賓塞冷靜確認身份的兩個“ unknowables ”宗教和科學,沒有出現認識到,沒有理由,也沒有在按照自己的原則是沒有任何基礎,這個最教條式的發言。

VI.六。 THE POWER TO KNOW有權知道

The primary fact disclosed in our sense-knowledge is that an external object exists, not that a sensation has been experienced.主要事實披露在我們的意識,知識是一個外部對象存在,而不是轟動了經驗。 What we directly perceive is the presence of the object, not the mental process.我們直接認為是存在的對象,而不是精神的過程。 This vital union of subject and object in the very act of knowledge implies that things and minds are harmoniously related to each other in a system of reality.這一重要工會的主體和客體的行為本身意味著知識和思想的東西是和諧與對方系統的現實。 The real is involved in our acts of perception, and any theory which neglects to take this basic fact into account disregards the data of direct experience.真正的參與我們的行為的看法,任何理論,忽視採取這一基本事實不顧到的數據直接經驗。 Throughout the whole process of our knowing, the mind has reality, fundamentally at least, for its object.在整個過程中我們知道,頭腦有現實,從根本上至少為對象。 The second fact of our knowledge is that things are known according to the nature of the knower.第二個事實,我們的知識是已知的東西根據的性質能知。 We can know the real object, but the extent of this knowledge will depend on the number and degree of manifestations, as on the actual conditions of our mental and bodily powers.我們可以知道真正的對象,但這種程度將取決於知識的數量和程度的表現,對實際情況的心理和身體的權力。 Whatever be the results reached by psychologists or by physicists in their study of the genesis of knowledge or the nature of reality, there can be no doubt of the testimony of consciousness to the existence of a reality "not ourselves".無論是取得的成果心理學家或物理學家的研究起源的知識或性質的現實,但毫無疑問的證詞的意識所存在的一個現實“不是我們自己。 ” Knowledge is, therefore, proportioned to the manifestations of the object and to the nature and conditions of the knowing subject.知識,因此,比例為表現的對象和性質和條件的認識問題。 Our power to know God is no exception to this general law, the non-observance of which is the weakness of Agnosticism, as the observance of it is the strength of Theism.我們的權力,知道上帝也不例外,這個一般規律,不遵守這是弱點,不可知論,因為遵守它是有神論的力量。 The pivotal assumption in agnostic systems generally is that we can know the existence of a thing and still remain in complete ignorance of its nature.最關鍵的假設,不可知的系統通常是,我們可以知道存在的事情,仍然完整的無知,其性質。 The process of our knowing is contrasted with the object supposedly known.這個過程我們知道是對比的對象理應知道。 The result of this contrast is to make knowledge appear not as reporting, but as transforming, reality; and to make the object appear as qualitatively different from the knowledge we have of it, not, therefore, intrinsically unknowable.這樣做的結果對比,使知識似乎沒有匯報,而是轉化,現實; ,使物體出現質的不同的知識,我們的,而不是因此,本質上不可知的。 This assumption begs the whole question.這一假設引出的整個問題。 No valid reason exists for regarding the physical stimulus of sensation as "reality pure and simple", or as the ultimate object of knowledge. To conceive of knowledge as altering its object is to make it meaningless, and to contradict the testimony of consciousness.沒有任何站得住腳的理由就存在的物理刺激的感覺是“現實的純粹和簡單” ,或為最終目的的知識。想像的知識,改變其目的是使意義,矛盾的證詞意識。 We cannot, therefore, know the existence of a thing and remain in complete ignorance of its nature.我們不能因此,了解存在的事情,留在完整的無知,其性質。

The problem of God's knowableness raises four more or less distinct questions: existence, nature, possibility of knowledge, possibility of definition.這個問題上帝的knowableness提出了四個或多或少不同的問題:存在,性質,知識的可能性,可能性的定義。 In treating these, the Agnostic separates the first two, which he should combine, and combines the last two, which he should separate.在處理這些的不可知分開的頭兩年,他應該團結起來,並結合過去兩年,他應該分開。 The first two questions, while distinct, are inseparable in treatment, because we have no direct insight into the nature of anything and must be content to study the nature of God through the indirect manifestations He makes of Himself its creatures.前兩個問題,而不同的,是不可分割的待遇,因為我們沒有直接的洞察自然的事情,必須加以研究內容的性質,上帝通過間接的表現使他對自己的動物。 The Agnostic, by treating the question of God's nature apart from the question of God's existence, cuts himself off from the only possible natural means of knowing, and then turns about to convert his fault of method into a philosophy of the Unknowable.的不可知,處理問題的上帝的性質以外的問題,上帝的存在,削減自己從唯一可能的手段,自然知道,然後把要轉換自己的過錯的方法到一種哲學的不可知。 It is only by studying the Absolute and the manifestations together that we can round out and fill in the concept of the former by means of the latter.只有通過學習和絕對的表現在一起,我們可以輪和填寫的概念,前者指後者。 The idea of God cannot be analyzed wholly apart from the evidences, or "proofs".這個想法上帝不能完全分析,除了證據,或“證明” 。 Deduction needs the companion process of induction to succeed in this instance.扣除需要同伴過程中誘導成功在這個例子中。 Spencer overlooked this fact, which St. Thomas admirably observed in his classic treatment of the problem.斯賓塞忽視這一事實,這令人欽佩聖托馬斯在他的經典待遇的問題。

The question of knowing God is not the same as the question of defining Him.的問題,知道上帝是不一樣的問題界定他。 The two do not stand or fail together.這兩個不站立或一起失敗。 By identifying the two, the Agnostic confounds "inability to define" with "total inability to know", which are distinct problems to be treated separately, since knowledge may fall short of definition and be knowledge still.確定了兩個,不可知困惑“無法確定”與“總不能知道” ,這是不同的問題分開處理,因為知識可能達不到的定義和知識仍然。 Spencer furnishes the typical instance.斯賓塞提供了典型實例。 He admits that inquiry into the nature of things leads inevitably to the concept of Absolute Existence, and here his confusion of knowing with defining compels him to stop.他承認,調查的性質的東西不可避免地導致的概念,絕對的存在,在這裡,他認識的混亂與界定迫使他停止。 He cannot discover in the isolated concept of the Absolute the three conditions of relation, likeness, and difference, necessary for defining it.他不能發現的孤立的概念,絕對的三個條件的關係,肖像,和差異,必要的界定。 He rightly claims that no direct resemblance, no agreement in the possession of the same identical qualities, is possible between the Absolute and the world of created things.他正確地聲稱,沒有直接的相似性,沒有任何協議擁有相同的相同的素質,是可能的和絕對的世界創造的東西。 The Absolute cannot be defined or classified, in the sense of being brought into relations of specific or generic agreement with any objects we know or any concepts we frame.絕對不能界定或分類,在意識帶進關係的具體或一般協議的任何物體,我們知道或任何概念,我們時限。 This was no discovery of Spencer's.這是沒有發現斯賓塞的。 The Eastern Fathers of the Church, in their so-called "negative theology", refuted the pretentious knowledge of the Gnostics on this very principle, that the Absolute transcends all our schemes of classification.東部父親的教會,在其所謂的“消極神學” ,駁斥了自命不凡的知識Gnostics在這一非常原則,即絕對超越了所有我們的計劃分類。 But Spencer was wrong in neglecting to take into account the considerable amount of positive, though not strictly definable, knowledge contained in the affirmations which he makes in common with the Theist, that God exists.但是,斯賓塞是錯誤的忽視,考慮到相當多的積極的,但沒有嚴格定義,知識中所載的肯定使他在共同與有神論者,即上帝存在。 The Absolute, studied in the light of its manifestations, not in the darkness of isolations, discloses itself to our experience as Originating Source.絕對,研究,根據其表現,而不是在黑暗中的孤立,披露自己的經驗作為起源來源。 Between the Manifestations and the Source there exists, therefore, some relationship.之間的表現與來源存在,因此,一些關係。 It is not a direct resemblance, in the very nature of the case.它不是一個直接的相似性,在根本性質的案件。 But there is another kind of resemblance which is wholly indirect, the resemblance of two proportions, or Analogy.但有另一種相似性是完全間接的,在相似的兩個比例,或類比。 The relation of God to His absolute nature must be, proportionally at least, the same as that of creatures to theirs.在上帝的關係,他絕對性質必須是按比例,至少一樣的動物,以他們的。 However infinite the distance and difference between the two, this relation of proportional similarity exists between them, and is sufficient to make some knowledge of the former possible through the latter, because both are proportionally alike, while infinitely diverse in being and attributes.然而無限的距離和兩者之間的差額,這個比例關係之間存在著相似性,並足以使一些知識前可能通過後者,因為兩者都是同樣比例,而無限多樣的福利和屬性。 The Originating Source must precontain, in an infinitely surpassing way, the perfections dimly reflected in the mirror of Nature.原始資料來源必須precontain ,在一個無限超越方式,完善依稀反映在鏡子自然。 Of this, the principle of causality, objectively understood, is ample warrant.為此,原則上的因果關係,客觀的理解,充分的保證。 Spencer's three conditions for knowledge--namely: relation, likeness, and difference--are thus verified in another way, with proportional truth for their basis.斯賓塞的三個條件的知識-即:關係,肖像,並區別-驗證,因此以另一種方式,同比例真理的基礎。 The conclusions of natural theology cannot, therefore, be excluded from the domain of the knowable, but only from that of the definable.得出的結論自然神學,因此不能被排除在網域的可知,但只有從這一定義的。 (See ANALOGY.) (見比喻。 )

The process of knowing God thus becomes a process of correcting our human concepts.的過程中知道上帝從而成為一個過程的糾正我們人類的概念。 The correction consists in raising to infinite, unlimited significance the objective perfections discernible in men and things.這次調整包括提高到無限的,無限的意義,目的在完善辨別男女的事情。 This is accomplished in turn by denying the limiting modes and imperfect features distinctive of created reality, in order to replace these by the thought of the All-perfect, in the plenitude of whose Being one undivided reality corresponds to our numerous, distinct, partial concepts.這是反過來剝奪,限制方式和不完善的特點創造獨特的現實,以取代這些的思想全完善,在豐富其作為一個不可分割的現實對應於我們無數的,獨特的,局部的概念。 In the light of this applied corrective we are enabled to attribute to God the perfections manifested in intelligence, will, power, personality, without making the objective content of our idea of God merely the human magnified, or a bundle of negations.鑑於這種情況適用於糾正,我們能夠向上帝屬性的完善體現在智力,意志,能力,人格,沒有決策的客觀內容的想法,上帝只是人類放大,或捆綁的否定。 The extreme of Anthropomorphism, or of defining God in terms of man magnified, is thus avoided, and the opposite extreme of Agnosticism discounted.這種極端的擬人化,或上帝的界定方面的人為放大,因此可以避免的,和相反的極端的不可知論打折扣。 Necessity compels us to think God under the relative, dependent features of our experience.必然性迫使我們認為上帝根據相對的,依賴的特點我們的經驗。 But no necessity of thought compels us to make the accidental features of our knowledge the very essence of His being.但是,沒有必要的思想迫使我們作出意外的功能,知識的本質他的福祉。 The function of denial, which the Agnostic overlooks, is a corrective, not purely negative, function; and our idea of God, inadequate and solely proportional as it is, is nevertheless positive, true, and valid according to the laws which govern all our knowing.該功能的否定,而不可知俯瞰,是一個糾正,而不是純粹消極的,功能;和我們的想法,上帝,不足比例僅僅因為它是,仍然是積極的,真實,並根據有效的法律規範我們的所有知道。

VII.七。 THE WILL TO BELIEVE該會認為

The Catholic conception of faith is a firm assent, on account of the authority of God to revealed truths.天主教概念的信仰是堅定的同意,就到了權威的上帝發現的真理。 It presupposes the philosophical truth that a personal God exists who can neither deceive nor be deceived, and the historical truth of the fact of revelation.它的前提是哲學的真理,即個人上帝存在誰可以既不欺騙,也不是欺騙,和歷史真相的事實啟示。 The two sources of knowledge--reason and revelation--complete each other.這兩個知識來源-原因及啟示-完整的對方。 Faith begins where science ends.信仰開始在科學的目的。 Revelation adds a new world of truth to the sum of human knowledge.啟示增加了一個新的世界真理的總和人類的知識。 This new world of truth is a world of mystery, but not of contradiction.這個新的世界的真理是一個神秘的世界,而不是矛盾的。 The fact that none of the truths which we believe on God's authority contradicts the laws of human thought or the certainties of natural knowledge shows that the world of faith is a world of higher reason.事實上,沒有一個真理,我們認為對上帝的權力相抵觸的法律或人類思想的確定性的自然知識表明,世界的信仰是世界較高的原因。 Faith is consequently an intellectual assent; a kind of superadded knowledge distinct from, yet continuous with, the knowledge derived from experience.因此,誠信是一個智力同意;一種superadded有別於知識,但持續的,知識來源於經驗。

In contrast with this conception of faith and reason as distinct is the widespread view which urges their absolute separation.與此相反這個概念的信仰與理性作為不同的是普遍的看法,敦促他們絕對分離。 The word knowledge is restricted to the results of the exact sciences; the word belief is extended to all that cannot be thus exactly ascertained.這個詞的知識僅限於結果的準確科學;這個詞的信念是擴大到所有不能因此完全確定。 The passive attitude of the man of science, who suspends judgment until the evidence forces his assent, is assumed towards religious truth.被動的態度,科學的人,誰中止判決的證據之前,他的部隊同意,現假定對宗教的真理。 The result is that the "will to believe" takes on enormous significance in contrast with the "power to know", and faith sinks to the level of blind belief cut off from all continuity with knowledge.結果是, “會認為”需要的具有重大意義相反的“有權知道” ,並匯信仰的水平,盲目的信仰切斷所有與知識的連續性。

It is true that the will, the conscience, the heart, and divine grace co-operate in the production of the act of faith, but it is no less true that reason plays an essential part.的確,意志,良心,心臟,和神聖的恩典合作,在生產行為的信仰,但它是不確實的原因起著不可或缺的一部分。 Faith is an act of intellect and will; when duly analyzed, it discloses intellectual, moral, and sentimental elements.信仰是一種智慧和意願;正式分析時,它揭示智力,道德和情感因素。 We are living beings, not pure reasoning machines, and our whole nature cooperates vitally in the acceptance of the divine word.我們正生活,而不是純粹的推理機,和我們整個合作性質極其在接受聖言。 "Man is a being who thinks all his experience and perforce must think his religious experience."--Sterrett, "The Freedom of Authority" (New York, 1905) p. “人是一個被所有誰認為他的經驗和必然要考慮他的宗教經驗。 ” -S terrett, “自由的權力機構” (紐約, 1 905年) ,第 56.--Where reason does not enter at all, we have but caprice or enthusiasm. 56 .--凡理由不進入,我們必須而且反复無常或熱情。 Faith is not a persuasion to be duly explained by reference to subconscious will-attitudes alone, nor is distrust of reason one of its marks.信仰不是一個說服解釋予以適當參照潛意識將態度就有的,也不是不信任的原因之一,其標誌。

It is also true that the attitude of the believer, as compared with that of the scientific observer, is strongly personal, and interested in the object of belief.這也是事實的態度相信,相比之下,在科學觀察員,是強烈的個人,以及感興趣的對象的信仰。 But this contrast of personal with impersonal attitudes affords no justification for regarding belief as wholly blind.但這種反差的個人與客觀的態度給予任何理由對信仰完全失明。 It is unfair to generalize these two attitudes into mutually exclusive philosophies.這是不公平的概括這兩種態度成相互排斥的哲學。 The moral ideal of conscience is different from the cold, impartial ideal of physical science. Truths which nourish the moral life of the soul, and shape conduct, cannot wait for acceptance, like purely scientific truths, until theoretical reason studies the problem thoroughly.理想的道德良知不同於冷戰,公正的理想的物理科學。真理而滋養的道德生活的靈魂,和形狀的行為,不能等待接受一樣,純科學的真理,直到理論理性的問題研究透徹。 They present distinct motives for the conscience to appreciate actively, not for the speculative reason to contemplate passively. Conscience appreciates the moral value of testimonies, commands their acceptance, and bids the intellect to "ponder them with assent".他們本不同的動機,良心欣賞積極,而不是投機的理由設想被動。良心讚賞的道德價值的證詞,命令他們接受和出價的智慧,以“思考與贊同。 ”

It is wrong, therefore, to liken the function of conscience to that of speculative reason, to apply to the solution of moral and religious questions the methods of the exact sciences, to give to the latter the monopoly of all certitude, and to declare the region beyond scientific knowledge a region of nescience and blind belief.這是錯誤的,因此,比喻的功能良知的投機理由,適用於解決道德和宗教問題的方法科學準確,使後者的壟斷,所有肯定,並宣布地區超越科學知識的一個地區nescience和盲目的信仰。 On the assumption that the knowledge and the definable are synonymous terms, the "first principles of thought" are transferred from the category of knowledge to that of belief, but the transfer is arbitrary.假定的知識和定義是同義詞, “第一原則的思考”被轉移的一類知識的信仰,但轉讓是任意的。 It is too much to suppose that we know only what we can explain. The mistake is in making a general philosophy out of a particular method of scientific explanation.這是太多假設,我們只知道我們所能解釋。的錯誤是在做一般性哲學中的特定方法的科學解釋。 This criticism applies to all systematic attempts to divide the mind into opposite hemispheres of intellect and will, to divorce faith completely from knowledge.這種批評適用於所有系統地試圖分裂牢記到對面半球的智慧和意願,離婚完全從信仰的知識。 Consciousness is one and continuous.意識是一個不斷。 Our distinctions should never amount to separations, nor should the "pragmatic" method now in vogue be raised to the dignity of a universal philosophy.我們絕不應該區別金額離職,也不應“務實”的方法現在流行提高到尊嚴的一個普遍理念。 "The soul with its powers does not form an integral whole divided, or divisible, into non-communicating compartments of intellect and will; it is a potential inter-penetrative whole". “靈魂與它的權力並不構成一個不可分割的整體分歧,或分割,非溝通艙室的智慧和意願;它是一種潛在的相互滲透的整體。 ” (Baillie, "Revue de Philos.", April, 1904, p. 468.) In the solidary interaction of all man's powers the contributions furnished by will and conscience increase and vivify the meagre knowledge of God We are able to acquire by reasoning. (貝利, “哲學雜誌。 ” , 4月, 1904年,頁468 。 )在團結互動的所有男人的權力,所提供的捐款將和良知的增加和vivify的微薄知識的上帝,我們能夠獲得的推理。

VIII.八。 AGNOSTICISM AND THE DOCTRINE OF THE CHURCH不可知論和理論的教堂

The Agnostic denial of the ability of human reason to know God is directly opposed to Catholic Faith.被剝奪的不可知的能力的人有理由知道上帝是直接反對天主教信仰。 The Council of the Vatican solemnly declares that "God, the beginning and end of all, can, by the natural light of human reason, be known with certainty from the works of creation" (Const. De Fide, II, De Rev.) The intention of the Council was to reassert the historic claim of Christianity to be reasonable, and to condemn Traditionalism together with all views which denied to reason the power to know God with certainty.安理會梵蒂岡鄭重宣布: “上帝,開始和結束時都可以通過自然光線的人力原因,被稱為肯定的作品的創作” ( Const.德善意,二,德牧師)打算在安理會重申了歷史性的基督教索賠是合理的,並譴責傳統連同所有意見,拒絕理由的權力,上帝知道肯定。 Religion would be deprived of all foundation in reason, the motives of credibility would become worthless, conduct would be severed from creed, and faith be blind, if the power of knowing God with rational certainty were called in question.宗教將被剝奪了所有的基礎原因,動機的信譽將成為毫無價值的,將進行切斷從信仰,信念是盲目的,如果明知的權力與理性的上帝肯定被稱為問題。 The declaration of the Council was based primarily on scripture, not on any of the historic systems of philosophy.聲明理事會主要是基於聖經,而不是對任何系統的歷史哲學。 The Council simply defined the possibility of man's knowing God with certainty by reason apart from revelation.安理會簡單界定的可能性,人的認識與把握上帝的原因除了啟示。 The possibility of knowing God was not affirmed of any historical individual in particular; the statement was limited to the power of human reason, not extended to the exercise of that power in any given instance of time or person.可能知道上帝沒有任何肯定的歷史特別是個人的聲明僅限於人類的力量,因此,沒有擴展到行使這一權力在任何特定時間的實例或個人。 The definition thus took on the feature of the objective statement: Man can certainly know God by the "physical" power of reason when the latter is rightly developed, even though revelation be "morally" necessary for mankind in the bulk, when the difficulties of reaching a prompt, certain, and correct knowledge of God are taken into account.因此,定義了特徵的客觀陳述:人當然可以知道上帝的“物理”權力的理由時,後者是正確的發達國家,即使啟示是“道德”所必需的人類大部分,當困難達到迅速,某些,正確的知識,上帝的因素考慮在內。 What conditions were necessary for this right development of reason, how much positive education was required to equip the mind for this task of knowing God and some of His attributes with certainty, the Council did not profess to determine.哪些條件是必要的這一正確的發展的理由,有多少正面教育,必須考慮到裝備完成這個任務知道上帝和他的一些屬性和確定性,安理會沒有信奉確定。 Neither did it undertake to decide whether the function of reason in this case is to derive the idea of God wholly from reflection on the data furnished by sense, or merely to bring out into explicit form, by means of such data, an idea already instinctive and innate.它也沒有進行,以決定是否功能的理由在這種情況下,是獲得上帝的想法完全從思考所提供的數據意義上說,還是僅僅把到明確的形式,通過這些數據,一個想法已經本能和天生的。 The former view, that of Aristotle had the preference; but the latter view, that of Plato, was not condemned.前者認為,亞里士多德的偏愛;但後者認為,柏拉圖,沒有譴責。 God's indirect manifestations of Himself in the mirror of nature, in the created world of things and persons, were simply declared to be true sources of knowledge distinct from revelation.上帝的間接表現自己的一面鏡子,性質,在建立世界上的事情和人,只是宣布為真正的知識來源不同的啟示。

Publication information Written by Edmund T. Shanahan.出版信息撰稿埃德蒙噸夏納罕。 Transcribed by Rick McCarty. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.轉錄由里克麥卡蒂。天主教百科全書,體積一發布1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat , 1907年三月一日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


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