Biblical Theology Movement聖經神學運動

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The standard definition for the "biblical theology movement" has been provided by OT scholar Brevard S Childs.該標準定義為“聖經神學運動”提供了催產素學者布里瓦德語爾茲。 He perceptively describes the background, rise, flowering, and demise of the American aspect of the movement from the middle of the 1940s to the early part of the 1960s.他敏銳的背景介紹,崛起,開花,和光,美國方面的運動中,以20世紀40年代初的一部分, 20世紀60年代。 In a more general sense the biblical theology movement was made up of biblical scholars in North America and Europe who shared liberal, critical assumptions and methods in an attempt to do theology in relation to biblical studies.在一種更為普遍的聖經神學運動是由聖經學者在北美和歐洲誰共享自由,關鍵的假設和方法,企圖做神學與聖經的研究。 This new way of doing theology was most fundamentally concerned to do justice to the theological dimension of the Bible, which previous generations of liberal scholars had almost completely neglected.這種新的方式神學是最根本的有關不公平的神學方面的聖經,其中前幾代的自由派學者幾乎完全忽視。 Accordingly the movement reflected an interest of European neo - orthodox theologians of the 1920s and beyond.因此,運動反映了歐洲利益的新-正統神學的1 920年及以後。

Neo - orthodoxy and the biblical theology movement shared the common concern to understand the Bible as a fully human book to be investigated with the fully immanent historical - critical method and yet to see the Bible as a vehicle or witness of the divine Word. This meant a meshing of the modern naturalistic - evolutionary world view as developed by natural science, modern philosophy, and critical history with the biblical view of a God who gives meaning and coherence to this world in his personal acts in history.新-正統和聖經神學運動的共同關注,了解聖經作為一個完整的人本書進行調查的完全內在的歷史-關鍵的方法和尚未看到聖經作為一種工具或證人的聖言。這就意味著1嚙合的現代自然-進化的世界觀作為開發的自然科學,現代哲學,歷史和重要的聖經觀點,上帝給誰的意義和連貫性,這個世界在他的個人行為的歷史。

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It has been shown by James Barr and James D Smart that the biblical theology movement is not a uniquely American phenomenon (so Childs). In Great Britian and on the European continent the same tendencies inherent in the American aspect of the movement were present, although the setting in Europe was different.它已被證明詹姆斯巴爾和詹姆斯D智能的聖經神學運動不是一個獨特的美國現象(所謂爾茲) 。在英國和歐洲大陸相同的固有傾向在美國方面的行動在場,雖然設置在歐洲是不同的。 In any case, the biblical theology movement, international in scope, was broader than the scene in North America, and Barr claims it "can well be seen in the organized study programs of the international ecumenical movement."在任何情況下,聖經神學運動,國際範圍,更廣的舞台比在北美,和巴爾稱, “能很好地體現在有組織的研究計劃,國際基督教運動” 。 Even though there was no formal organization of the movement nationally or internationally, and although there existed varieties of emphases among its proponents, there were nevertheless overriding characteristics that were so typical of the movement that they gave a fairly well defined coherence.即使沒有正式組織的流動國內或國際的,雖然存在著品種的重點在其支持者,但是有壓倒一切的特點是這樣的典型的運動,他們給了相當明確的連貫性。

Characteristics特徵

Without attempting to be exhaustive, it will be useful to enumerate typical features that are common to the movement in America and Europe.如果試圖詳盡,將是有益的列舉典型特徵是共同的運動在北美和歐洲。 Among those that characterize both its relative coherence and its distinctiveness are the following:在這些特點都相對連貫性和其獨特如下:

Reaction to Liberalism反應自由主義

The biblical theology movement was a reaction against the study of the Bible in previous liberal theology where the source criticism of the historical - critical method atomized the biblical text into separate sources, frequently consisting of small isolated entities or fragments of documents.聖經神學運動是對的反應的研究聖經在以前的自由派神學的來源批評的歷史-關鍵的方法霧化聖經文字到單獨的來源,經常組成的小型孤立的實體或碎片的文件。 These reconstructed sources were placed in new sociological, political, and cultural contexts in the ancient world and interpreted from this newly reconstructed context. A part of this scholarly reconstruction by means of the presuppositions and procedures of the historical - critical method, which reached its total victory over conservative approaches in Europe by the end of the 1900s and in America by the middle of the 1930s, consisted of a redating and reordering of the biblical materials along the lines of naturalistic - evolutionary developmentalism.這些重建的來源被安置在新的社會,政治和文化背景中的古代世界和解釋這一新重建情況。這項工作的一部分學術的方式重建的前提和程序的歷史-關鍵的方法,達到其總戰勝保守的做法在歐洲結束的1900年和在美國的中上世紀30年代,包括一個redating和重新安排聖經材料大意自然-進化發展主義。

Joined to this was the axiom that Israel borrowed extensively from the surrounding pagan cultures and religions and that Israelite and NT faith is best understood from the point of view of natural theology.加入到這是公理,以色列借來的廣泛周圍的異教文化和宗教,並以色列人和NT的信仰是最好理解的角度自然神學。 All of this meant a lack of concern regarding the theological interests of the Bible for church, community, and individual.所有這一切都意味著缺乏關注神學利益的聖經教堂,社區和個人。 This sterile liberal theology, devoid of meaning for church and life, remained incompatible to significant segments of Christianity, particularly American Protestantism, which had only reluctantly given in to the historical - critical method in the long and devastating fundamentalist - modernist controversy.這不育自由派神學,毫無意義的教堂和生活,仍然是不相容的重大階層的基督教,新教特別是美國,這不僅不情願地考慮到歷史-關鍵的方法,從長遠和毀滅性的原教旨主義-現代主義的爭論。 The biblical theology movement directed its efforts against the extremes of the historical - critical approach to the Bible, while itself remaining faithful to the historical - critical method, its presuppositions, and its procedures.聖經神學運動的指示其努力打擊極端的歷史-批評的態度聖經,而自己繼續忠實於歷史-關鍵的方法,其前提,它的程序。 The attempt of the movement was to move beyond the older liberal position within the liberal framework of the study of the Bible.嘗試的運動是要超越老自由派立場的自由框架的研究聖經。

Alliance with Neo - orthodoxy與新聯盟-正統

The biblical theology movement was fostered by the neo - orthodox reaction to theological liberalism that developed under the influence of Karl Barth and Emil Brunner in Europe and H Richard Niebuhr and Reinhold Niebuhr in America.聖經神學運動是培育新-正統神學的反應,發達國家自由主義的影響下,卡爾巴特和埃米爾布倫納在歐洲和H理查德尼布爾和萊因霍爾德尼布爾在美國。 The neo - orthodox reaction against Protestant liberalism's reduction of the Christian faith to universal human and religious truths and moral values became a powerful impetus for the biblical theology movement.新-正統的反應對新教自由主義的減少基督信仰普遍人權和宗教的真理和道德價值觀成為一個有力的推動聖經神學運動。

It must be noted, however, that neo - orthodoxy was not a return to older Protestant orthodoxy, which held that all Scripture was divinely inspired.必須指出的是,新-正統不是回到舊新教正統派,認為所有的經文是神聖的。 By and large the biblical theology movement joined the neo - orthodox view of revelation and inspiration. Revelation is essentially God revealing himself in Christ, and Scripture may become a witness to this revelation.通過和大型聖經神學運動加入新-正統觀點的啟示和靈感。啟示基本上是上帝透露自己在基督和聖經可能成為證明了這一點啟示。 The Bible is not the word of God but may become the word of God in its witness to Christ.聖經不是上帝的話,但也可能成為上帝的話,它見證基督。 Particularly useful to the movement was Brunner's view on revelation in which he attacked classical Protestant and American fundamentalists on the one hand and classical liberals on the other.特別有用的運動是布魯納的看法啟示他在古典襲擊和美國新教原教旨主義者,一方面與古典自由派的問題。 The biblical theology movement could join ranks with the neo - orthodox theology to wage a common battle against both liberalism in theology and fundamentalism among conservative segments in America.聖經神學運動可以加入隊伍的新-正統神學工資的共同鬥爭中都自由主義神學和原教旨主義的保守階層在美國。

Greek Versus Hebrew Thought希臘與希伯來思想

The biblical theology movement constantly opposed the influence of modern philosophy and its constructs as modes to understand biblical thought.聖經神學運動一貫反對的影響,現代哲學和模式構建的理解聖經思想。 It also tended strongly to reject an understanding of the Bible on the basis of Greek thought and its categories.這也往往強烈反對了解聖經的基礎上,希臘思想及其類別。 In its rejection of the domineering effect of modern philosophy it shared once again a concern of neo - orthodoxy.在其反對盛氣凌人的影響現代哲學它同意再次成為關注的新-正統。 The attempt was to understand the Bible outside certain modern or ancient philosophical norms and patterns of thought.企圖是了解聖經以外的某些現代或古代哲學的規範和模式的思考。 It was argued that the Bible must be understood "in its own categories" (James Muilenburg) and the scholar must put himself "within the world of the Bible" (BW Anderson).有人認為,聖經必須理解“在其自己的類別” (詹姆斯Muilenburg )和學者必須把自己放在“在世界的聖經” (體重安德森) 。

The contrast between Greek and Hebrew thought (T Boman and others) became rather important.之間的對比希臘和希伯來思想( Ť Boman等)變得相當的重要。 Although the NT was written in Greek, the Hebrew mentality was common to both testaments.雖然新台幣寫於希臘文,希伯來文的心態是共同的見證。 The idea of the Hebrew mentality led to significant studies of words in both testaments.這個想法的希伯來文的心態導致大量研究的話都見證。 The outlines of the Hebraic thought patterns were reflected in the words of the Hebrew language, and this Hebraic thought content was also communicated through the vehicle of language (Greek) of the NT.該大綱的希伯來思維模式反映在的話,希伯來語,這希伯來思想內容還通報車輛通過語言(希臘文)新台幣。

The Bible Within Its Culture聖經在其文化

Another characteristic of the biblical theology movement was an emphasis on the distinctiveness of the Bible in its environment.另一個特點是聖經神學運動的重點放在顯著聖經中的環境。 GE Wright's book The OT Against Its Environment (1950) is typical, reflecting in part the concern of the Albright school.葛賴特的新書催產素對環境( 1950年)是典型的,反映了部分關注的奧爾布賴特學校。 The consensus emerged that when there is borrowing or even syncretism, or when there are plain similarities, the differences between the literature of Israel and that of the surrounding nations are far more remarkable than its points of contact.的共識,當有借貸或什至融合時,或當有平原相似之處,之間的差異文學以色列和周邊國家都更為顯著比它的接觸點。 The movement claimed that the most significant things in Israel were not the things it held in common with its neighbors but the things where it differed from them.運動聲稱,最重要的事情在以色列沒有的東西它在共同舉行的與鄰國的事情,但它不同於他們。 When the Bible was compared with other contemporary cultures and religions, its uniqueness became apparent.當聖經是相對於其他當代文化和宗教,它的獨特性變得明顯。 Further, this distinctiveness is not a matter of faith but a matter of scientific historical study.此外,這個特色不是一個信仰問題,而是一個問題的科學的歷史研究。 The uniqueness of the biblical faith was determined by historical study and subject to its norms.獨特的聖經信仰是確定的歷史研究和受其規範。

Biblical Unity聖經統一

A concomitant aspect of the distinctiveness of the Bible is its unity, particularly the unity of both testaments.伴隨方面的獨特性聖經是團結,尤其是團結的見證。 "The attempt to deal with both testaments in a unified way came as a protest against the tendency of increased specialization which had characterized American and British scholarship in the preceding generation" (Childs, p. 36). “試圖同時處理見證在一個統一的方式來作為抗議的傾向,提高專業化特點有美國和英國的獎學金在前面的一代” (爾茲,第36頁) 。 The biblical theology movement rejected allegory, typology, and Christology as modes of unity between the testaments.聖經神學運動拒絕寓言,類型,和基督的模式之間的團結見證。 The unity of the Bible was unity in diversity, such as "unity of Divine revelation given in the context of history and through the medium of human personality" (HH Rowley), unity of purpose, covenant relation, and divine revelation (Muilenburg), or simply a "higher unity" (RC Dentan) or a "kerygmatic unity" (JS Glenn).統一的聖經是多樣化中的統一,如“統一的神聖啟示中給出的歷史背景,並通過媒介人的個性” (時時羅利) ,統一的目的,契約關係,和神聖的啟示( Muilenburg )或只是一個“更高的團結” (鋼筋混凝土Dentan )或“ kerygmatic團結” (江蘇格林) 。 There were others who suggested a fundamental unity in history.另一些誰提出了基本統一的歷史。

Revelation in History在歷史的啟示

One of the major tenets of the biblical theology movement was the concept of divine revelation in history. "It provided the key to unlock the Bible for a modern generation and at the same time to understand it theologically" (Childs,). The emphasis on revelation in history was used to attack both the conservative position, which holds that the Bible contains eternal truths and serves as a deposit of right doctrine, and the liberal position, which claims that the Bible contains a process of evolving religious discovery or simply progressive revelation.一個重大的原則聖經神學運動的概念,神聖的歷史啟示。 “它提供了鑰匙聖經現代發電和在同一時間去了解它神學” (蔡) 。強調在歷史上的啟示是用來攻擊的保守立場,認為聖經包含永恆的真理,並作為存款的權利學說,和自由的立場,即聲稱,聖經包含一個不斷發展的過程中發現的宗教或乾脆進步的啟示。 The emphasis on revelation stressed the divine self - disclosure and shifted the content away from propositional revelation and doctrine to the neo - orthodox concept of encounter without propositional content.強調啟示強調神聖的自我-信息披露和轉移的內容脫離命題的啟示和學說的新-正統的概念,遇到不命題的內容。

The corresponding emphasis on history meant that the revelational encounter in history provided the bridge of the gap between past and present in that Israel's history became the church's history and subsequently our modern history.相應的重點放在歷史上,這意味著revelational中遇到的歷史提供了橋樑之間的差距過去和現在在以色列的歷史,成為教會的歷史和後來我們現代的歷史。 In the church's liturgy the believer and the community of faith participate in the same redemptive event by means of recital.在教會的禮儀的信徒和社會的信念一樣,參與拯救活動的方式演奏。

Decline and Evaluation衰落和評價

The biblical theology movement flourished for about a generation, from c.聖經神學運動的蓬勃發展為一代,從角 1945 to 1965. 1945年至1965年。 Childs sees its demise as a major force in American theology in the early 1960s. He is supported by Barr.蔡爾茲認為,它消亡的一支重要力量神學在美國在60年代初。他是支持巴爾。 Against this position it is held that "biblical theology is not a movement or a brand of theology but simply an enlargement of the dimensions of biblical science" (Smart, 11) which is continuing to function on an international scale.對這一立場是認為“聖經神學不是一個運動或一個品牌的神學,而只是擴大層面的聖經科學” (智能, 11日)這是繼續發揮作用具有國際規模。 Childs appears to have overstated the case in claiming the death of the American biblical theology movement in 1963, but has been correct in his description of the characteristics of the movement as a coherent force within twentieth century liberal theology.蔡爾茲似乎誇大了案件中聲稱死亡的美國聖經神學運動於1963年,但一直在他的正確描述的特徵行動作為一個連貫的部隊在20世紀自由主義神學。 By 1969 such a prominent member of the movement as GE Wright appears to have moved from his earlier position supporting a God who acts in history.到1969年這樣一個重要成員的流動通用電氣賴特似乎已經從他先前的立場支持一個上帝誰在歷史的行為。

There is no easy way of evaluating and assessing the biblical theology movement because it is part of a trend in modern liberal theology and in part an overlapping with the neo - orthodox movement in our century.有沒有簡便的方法評價和評估聖經神學運動,因為它是一種趨勢,現代自由神學和部分重疊的新-正統運動在本世紀。 The following features may serve as major points of issue that are called for in an assessment of the movement:以下功能可充當主要點的問題,需要在評估運動:

The Problem of Hermeneutics這個問題的解釋

The issue of the adequacy of biblical interpretation within the framework of the historical - critical method remained unresolved.的問題是否有足夠的聖經解釋的框架內進行的歷史-關鍵的方法仍然沒有得到解決。 The theologians of the biblical theology movement remained with both feet planted in the historical - critical method.在神學的聖經神學運動仍然雙腳種植的歷史-關鍵的方法。 They affirmed the modern world view with its secular understanding of the spatiotemporal world process, ie, the world of history and of nature.他們肯定了現代世界的看法與世俗的理解過程中的時空世界,即世界上的歷史和性質。

While the movement was critical of its forefathers in the liberal tradition of theology on a number of points as noted above, in a major sense the members of the biblical theology movement continued the liberal tradition.雖然運動是至關重要的祖先在傳統的自由主義神學的若干要點如上所述,在一個重大意義成員的聖經神學運動繼續自由的傳統。 The secular - scientific (and liberal) understanding of the origin and development of the world along the evolutionary Darwinian model was accepted as axiomatic, and the liberal understanding of the movement of history along general historicist lines was not radically questioned.世俗-科學(自由)的理解的起源和發展的世界沿著達爾文的進化模式被接受為不言自明的,和自由的理解運動的歷史以及歷史主義線一般不從根本上提出質疑。 Onto the contemporary scientific understanding of the movement of history along general historicist lines was not radically questioned.進入當代科學的認識運動的歷史以及歷史主義線一般不從根本上提出質疑。 Onto the contemporary scientific understanding of both nature and history theologians of the biblical theology movement attempted to graft the biblical understanding of God as Creator and Lord who is dynamically active in the process of history (GE Wright).進入當代科學的認識自然和歷史神學的聖經神學運動試圖移植聖經的理解上帝的創造和上帝誰是動態的積極的歷史進程(葛賴特) 。

This meshing of a "secular" or "atheistic" (A Schlatter) historical - critical method and a naturalistic - evolutionary world view with the God of the Bible who gives meaning and coherence to this world in his personal acts in history was "at best only an uneasy dualism" (Gilkey, 91).這嚙合的“世俗”或“無神論” (阿施拉特)的歷史-關鍵的方法和自然-進化的世界觀與上帝的聖經誰賦予的意義和連貫性,這個世界在他的個人行為在歷史上是“最好的只有不安的兩重性“ ( Gilkey , 91 ) 。 Childs notes incisively that "the historical - critical method is an inadequate method of studying the Bible as the Scriptures of the church," setting up "an iron curtain between the past and the present" (Chils, 141 - 42).蔡爾茲指出精闢地說: “歷史-關鍵的方法是不夠的方法研究聖經的聖經教會” ,建立“鐵幕之間的過去與現在” ( C hils, 1 41- 42 )。

The Issue of "What It Meant" and "What It Means." The biblical theology movement attempted to put aside the dichotomy between the past and the present, the historical - critical and theological study of the Bible, or the descriptive and the normative approach to the Bible. “問題意味著什麼”和“這意味著什麼。 ”聖經神學運動試圖擱置分歧的過去和現在,歷史-關鍵和神學研究聖經,或者描述和規範辦法聖經。 The interest in the theological dimension of the Bible was of major concern.利息在神學方面的聖經是關注的主要問題。 Nevertheless, the distinction of "what it meant" as that which is descriptive, objective, and scientific as compared to "what it means" as that which is theological and normative (see K Stendahl) put a wedge between what the movement attempted to overcome.然而,區分“意味著什麼”因為這是描述性的,客觀的,科學的比較, “這是什麼意思”因為這是神學和規範(見K斯湯達爾)提出離間什麼運動試圖克服。 While Stendahl's distinction of "what it meant" and "what it means" remains highly debated (see Hasel, OT Theology, 35 - 75), it struck a blow at the heart of the movement.雖然斯湯達爾的區別“意味著什麼”和“意味著什麼”仍然高度辯論(見Hasel ,催產素神學, 35 -7 5歲) ,這一個打擊的心臟運動。

The Problem of the Bible問題的聖經

Among the unresolved problems of the biblical theology movement is that of the Bible as a "fully human book and yet as the vehicle for the Divine Word" (Childs, 51).在尚未解決的問題聖經神學運動是聖經作為一個“完整的人本書,但作為車輛的聖言” (蔡, 51歲) 。 No consensus ever emerged whether the element of revelation claimed for the Bible lay in the text, behind the text, in text and event, or in some other mode.沒有達成共識以往任何時候都出現的元素是否啟示索賠奠定聖經中的文字,後面的文字,在文字和事件,或在其他一些模式。 Likewise, the modes of unity within the testaments and between the testaments as expounded by such leaders as GE Wright, HH Rowley, O Cullmann, RC Dentan, FV Filson, and others (see Hasel, NT Theology, 140 - 203) did not lead to a consensus.同樣,統一模式的見證和之間的見證所闡述的這些領導人通用電氣賴特,時時羅利,氧Cullmann ,鋼筋混凝土Dentan和FV菲爾森,和其他(見Hasel ,新台幣神學, 140 -2 03)並沒有導致能夠達成共識。

The Concept of Revelation in History的概念在歷史的啟示

The issue of history as the locus of divine revelation turned out to be ill - defined and drew heavy attack from several scholars (among them L Gilkey, W King, and J Barr).這個問題的歷史軌跡神聖的啟示原來是虐待-界定,並提請重型攻擊從幾個學者(其中L G ilkey, W國王,和J巴爾) 。 Among the ambiguities of the concept of revelation in history are those related to the nature of the revelatory events, the sense of history, the relation between revelation and history as well as history and interpretation.在含糊不清的概念,在歷史上的啟示是那些有關的性質啟示事件,歷史感的關係的啟示和歷史,以及歷史和解釋。 Over against these ambiguities from the perspective of the modern historical - critical school of thought, conservative scholars have tended to base their case on the formal statements in Scripture about Scripture itself. In the last analysis history cannot be the authenticating factor of revelation, but the biblical revelation itself is self - authenticating.在對這些含糊不清的角度現代歷史-學校的重要思想,保守的學者們往往根據案件的正式聲明中對聖經經文本身。歸根結蒂歷史不能被驗證的啟示因素,但聖經啟示本身就是自我-驗證。

The concept of revelation in history as an alternative to propositional revelation on the one hand or general revelation on the other did not prove successful.的概念在歷史上的啟示作為替代命題的啟示一方面或一般性的啟示其他沒有證明是成功的。 The more recent attempt to replace revelation in history with the view that the OT is "story rather than history" (Barr) does not overcome the ambiguities of history but merely replaces them with those connected with story. Biblical revelation carries within itself its own validation by enabling the recipient of revelation to grasp the content of revelation and to be grasped by the truth of revelation.最近企圖取代的歷史啟示與認為,催產素是“故事,而不是歷史” (巴爾)不克服含糊不清的歷史,而只是取代了他們那些與故事。聖經啟示帶著自己本身審定使受援國的啟示掌握的內容,揭露和應把握的真理的啟示。 Due to the fact that biblical revelation is self - authenticating, there can be no external proofs that stand as judges over the revelation of the Bible.由於聖經的啟示是不言而喻-驗證,就不可能有外部證據證明作為法官的啟示聖經。

In short, the biblical theology movement was a major attempt for a full generation in the twentieth century to correct liberal theology from within itself.總之,聖經神學運動是一項重大嘗試了整整一代在20世紀,以正確的自由派神學從內部本身。 It did not succeed because it ultimately remained a captive of the basic modes, thought patterns, presuppositions, and methods of liberal theology itself.它沒有成功,因為它最終仍然是一個被俘的基本方式,思維模式,前提,方法和自由派神學本身。 It provided, therefore, an additional impetus to more recent attempts that show the basic method of liberalism, ie, the historical - critical method, as bankrupt (W Wink) or announce its end (G Maier) and seek for new methods of the study of the Bible and its theology whether it be a theological - historical method (GF Hasel) or structuralism (D Patte).它規定,因此,進一步推動更近的企圖,顯示的基本方法的自由主義,即歷史-關鍵的方法,如破產(寬溫克)或宣布結束( G麥爾)和尋求新方法的研究聖經及神學無論是神學-歷史方法(石墨H asel)或結構主義(丁P atte) 。

GF Hasel石墨Hasel
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
DL Baker, Two Testaments: One Bible; J Barr, IDB Supplement; BS Childs, Biblical Theology in Crisis; L Gilkey, Naming the Whirlwind and "Cosmology, Ontology, and the Travail of Biblical Language," Jr. 41; GF Hasel, NT Theology: Basic Issues in the Current Debate and OT Theology: Basic Issues in the Current Debate; G Maier, The End of the Historical - Critical Method; JD Smart, The Past, Present, and Future of Biblical Theology; D Patte, What Is Structuralism?消旋貝克,兩聖經:一是聖經; J巴爾,美洲開發銀行補編;學士學位爾茲,聖經神學危機; L Gilkey ,命名旋風和“宇宙論,本體論,以及勞動的聖經語言, ”小41 ;石墨Hasel ,新台幣神學:基本問題在目前的辯論和催產素神學:基本問題在目前的辯論; G麥爾,結束的歷史-批判方法;第納爾智能,過去,現在與未來的聖經神學; D P atte,什麼是結構主義? K Stendahl, IDB, I; W Wink, The Bible in Human Transformation: Toward a New Paradigm for Bible Study. K斯湯達爾,美洲開發銀行,我; W眨眼,聖經在人類改造:走向新範式的聖經學習。


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